WorldWideScience
1

Melatonin and nocturnal migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many species of diurnal birds migrate nocturnally. Here, a series of studies of the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) on the relationship between nocturnal restlessness and melatonin, a hormone that in birds modulates day-night rhythms, are reviewed. Migratory populations from Sweden and Kenya were compared with resident populations from Cape Verde. In blackcaps of migratory populations, night levels of melatonin were lower during the migratory period, when birds showed nocturnal activity, than before and after this period, when birds did not show nocturnal activity. On the contrary, the occurrence of periodic or irregular phases of nocturnal activity in some nonmigratory birds from Cape Verde was not accompanied by a reduction in melatonin levels. In a second series of experiments, it was studied whether melatonin levels change when nocturnally active blackcaps are experimentally transferred from a migratory to a nonmigratory state. A long migratory flight and a refueling stopover were simulated by depriving birds of food for 2 days, subsequently readministering food. The experiments were done in autumn with birds collected in Sweden, and repeated in spring with birds collected in Kenya. In autumn, there was a suppression of nocturnal activity and an increase in melatonin in the night following food reintroduction. In spring, the effects were qualitatively similar, but their extent depended on the amount of body fat reserves. Taken together, the studies demonstrate the existence of a functional relationship between melatonin and nocturnal restlessness and of seasonal differences in the response of the migratory program to food availability. PMID:16055859

Fusani, Leonida; Gwinner, Eberhard

2005-06-01

2

Transcranial bright light exposure via ear canals does not suppress nocturnal melatonin in healthy adults--a single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether transcranial bright light (TBL) affects nocturnal melatonin and cortisol secretion in sham-controlled crossover trial. Young healthy adults were exposed in random order to 24 minutes of TBL or sham exposure via ear canals at 01:10?h. Saliva and urine samples were collected hourly between 21?h-03?h and 06?h-09?h. There were no significant differences in melatonin or cortisol concentrations between TBL and sham exposures at any sampling point indicating that TBL via ear canals does not suppress nocturnal melatonin secretion. Thus, non-visual effects of TBL are mediated via a pathway not involving melatonin suppression. PMID:24828616

Jurvelin, Heidi; Takala, Timo; Heberg, Lilli; Nissilä, Juuso; Rüger, Melanie; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Saarela, Seppo; Vakkuri, Olli

2014-08-01

3

Plasma Melatonin Circadian Rhythms: Low in Pregnant, Elevated in Postpartum, Depressed Women, and Phase-Advanced in Pregnant Women with Personal or Family Histories of Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To test the hypothesis that disturbances in plasma melatonin distinguish pregnant and postpartum patients with major depression (DP) from matched healthy comparison (HC) women. Method In 25 pregnant (15 HC, 10 DP) and 24 postpartum (11 HC, 13 DP) women, we measured plasma melatonin every 30 minutes from 18:00 -11:00 hours (h) in dim (< 30 lux) light. The values were log-transformed and calculations made for baseline and synthesis onset and offset times, duration, peak concentration and area under the curve (AUC). Groups were compared by analyses of covariance using age, weeks pregnant or postpartum, breastfeeding status and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. Results Morning melatonin levels were significantly lower in pregnant DP from 02:00 – 11:00 h, but were significantly higher in postpartum DP across time intervals, relative to matched HC women. Pregnant (but not postpartum) women with a personal or family history of depression, regardless of current diagnosis, had significantly earlier melatonin synthesis and baseline offsets than those without such a history. In pregnant HC, but not in DP, melatonin levels increased during the course of pregnancy. No such relationship existed for postpartum HC or DP. Conclusions Plasma nocturnal melatonin concentrations, especially in the morning hours, were lower in depressed pregnant, but elevated in depressed postpartum women, compared with HC women. Melatonin timing measures were advanced in pregnant women with a personal or family history of depression. These findings implicate disturbances in the regulation of the melatonin generating system in pregnancy and postpartum depression. PMID:18829869

Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Lopez, Ana M.; Martinez, Luis F.; Nowakowski, Sara; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Hauger, Richard L.; Kripke, Daniel F.

2010-01-01

4

Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats and the findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

5

Rapid-onset/offset, variably scheduled 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure reduces nocturnal serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments with rodents indicate that power-frequency electric field (EF) or magnetic field (MF) exposure can suppress the normal nocturnal increase in melatonin concentration in pineal gland and blood. In a separate set of three experiments conducted with nonhuman primates, the authors did not observe melatonin suppression as a result of 6 weeks of day-time exposure to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF) with regularly schedule ``slow`` E/MF onsets/offsets. The study described here used a different exposure paradigm in which two baboons were exposed to E/MF with ``rapid`` E/MF onsets/offsets accompanied by EF transients not found with slowly ramped E/MF onset/offset; profound reductions in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration were observed in this experiment. If replicated in a more extensive experiment, the observation of melatonin suppression only in the presence of E/MF transients would suggest that very specific exposure parameters determine the effects of 60 Hz E/MF on melatonin.

Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Biosciences and Bioengineering; Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Cellular and Structural Biology

1995-12-31

6

Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

OpenAIRE

Ehud Grossman1,4, Moshe Laudon2, Nava Zisapel2,31Department of Internal Medicine D and Hypertension Unit, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel and 3Department of Neurobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Patients with nocturnal hypertension are at higher risk for cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarct...

Grossman E; Laudon M; Zisapel N

2011-01-01

7

Melatonin effects on luteinizing hormone in postmenopausal women: a pilot clinical trial NCT00288262  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Melatonin's effects on human reproductive endocrinology are uncertain. It is thought that the same hypothalamic pulse generator may both trigger the pulsatile release of GnRH and LH and also cause hot flashes. Thus, if melatonin suppressed this pulse generator in postmenopausal women, it might moderate hot...

Kline Lawrence E; Kripke Daniel F; Shadan Farhad F; Dawson Arthur; Steven, Poceta J.; Elliott Jeffrey A

2006-01-01

8

Time and reproductive phase-dependent effects of exogenous melatonin on the pineal gland and ovary of a nocturnal bird, the Indian spotted owlet, Athene brama.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a tropical nocturnal bird, the Indian spotted owlet, Athene brama, the intraperitonial injection of an identical amount (20 mg/100 g b. wt/day) of exogenous melatonin (MEL) for 15 consecutive days increased the pineal weight and plasma MEL level in sexually active birds while it decreased them in inactive birds more potently when injected in the evening (18.30-19.30 h) rather than the morning (0500-0600 h). On the other hand, more efficiently than the morning hour treatment, the evening hour MEL injection decreased the ovary weight and plasma estradiol and progesterone levels both in sexually active and inactive birds, but more potently in active than inactive birds. Thus, the exogenous MEL showed the time and reproductive phase dependent effects on the pineal gland and the ovary of this nocturnal bird. PMID:11291546

Guchhait, P; Haldar, C

2000-01-01

9

URINARY MELATONIN IN DEPRESSION  

OpenAIRE

This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal...

Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi; Srinivasan, V.

1983-01-01

10

Melatonin effects on luteinizing hormone in postmenopausal women: a pilot clinical trial NCT00288262  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH. Melatonin's effects on human reproductive endocrinology are uncertain. It is thought that the same hypothalamic pulse generator may both trigger the pulsatile release of GnRH and LH and also cause hot flashes. Thus, if melatonin suppressed this pulse generator in postmenopausal women, it might moderate hot flashes. This clinical trial tested the hypothesis that melatonin could suppress LH and relieve hot flashes. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women troubled by hot flashes underwent one week of baseline observation followed by 4 weeks of a randomized controlled trial of melatonin or matched placebo. The three randomized treatments were melatonin 0.5 mg 2.5–3 hours before bedtime, melatonin 0.5 mg upon morning awakening, or placebo capsules. Twelve of the women were admitted to the GCRC at baseline and at the end of randomized treatment for 24-hour sampling of blood for LH. Morning urine samples were collected twice weekly to measure LH excretion. Subjective responses measured throughout baseline and treatment included sleep and hot flash logs, the CESD and QIDS depression self-ratings, and the SAFTEE physical symptom inventory. Results Urinary LH tended to increase from baseline to the end of treatment. Contrasts among the 3 randomized groups were statistically marginal, but there was relative suppression combining the groups given melatonin as contrasted to the placebo group (p Conclusion The data are consistent with the hypothesis that melatonin suppresses LH in postmenopausal women. An effect related to the duration of nocturnal melatonin elevation is suggested. Effects of melatonin on reproductive endocrinology should be studied further in younger women and in men. Larger studies of melatonin effects on postmenopausal symptoms would be worthwhile.

Kline Lawrence E

2006-05-01

11

Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals ...

Bravo, R.; Matito, S.; Cubero, J.; Paredes, S. D.; Franco, L.; Rivero, M.; Rodri?guez, A. B.; Barriga, C.

2012-01-01

12

Melatonin in animal models  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a hormone synthesized and secreted during the night by the pineal gland. Its production is mainly driven by the Orcadian clock, which, in mammals, is situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. The melatonin production and release displays characteristic daily (nocturnal) and seasonal patterns (changes in duration proportional to the length of the night) of secretion. These rhythms in circulating melatonin are strong synchronizers for the expression of numerous p...

Pe?vet, Paul

2003-01-01

13

Morning and nocturnal serum melatonin rhythm levels in patients with major depressive disorder: an analytical cross-sectional study / Medir los niveles del ritmo de melatonina día-noche entre los pacientes con trastorno depresivo mayor: un estudio analítico transversal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish CONTEXTO Y OBJETIVO: La glándula pineal actúa precisamente regulando los ritmos biológicos de melatonina de hemostasia cerebral, como un órgano adaptativo. La modificación del ritmo de melatonina puede ser el motivo probable del trastorno depresivo. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de medir l [...] os niveles de melatonina entre los pacientes con trastorno depresivo mayor y los sanos. DISEÑO Y ESPACIO: Estudio analítico transversal-la unidad medicina laboral de empresa de Zob Ahan de Isfahán-Irán. MÉTODO: Los niveles de melatonina en suero día-noche se midó entre dos grupos (pacientes y sanos) utilizando el método de ELISA (Ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas). Todos los datos se hizo utilizando el análisis de la varianza. RESULTADOS: El nivel de melatonina en suero día-noche era distinto entre los deprimidos y los saludables (P Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The pineal gland is an adaptive organ that precisely regulates the biological rhythms of melatonin brain hemostasis. Variation in the regulation of melatonin rhythms is a likely cause of depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in pa [...] tients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and normal control subjects. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the industrial medical unit of the Iron Smelting Company of Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: The morning and nocturnal serum melatonin levels of patients and controls were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. All data were assessed using variance analysis. RESULTS: The morning and nocturnal serum melatonin levels of depressed and healthy subjects differed (P

Shahnaz, Khaleghipour; Mohsen, Masjedi; Hassan, Ahade; Meersalahodin, Enayate; Gholamreza, Pasha; Farah, Nadery; Gholamhossein, Ahmadzade.

14

Effects of naphthalene, beta-naphthoflavone and benzo(a)pyrene on the diurnal and nocturnal indoleamine metabolism and melatonin content in the pineal organ of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have deleterious effects on neuroendocrine systems in teleost fish affecting, among other processes, reproductive function or stress responses. The hormone melatonin, mainly produced in the pineal organ of vertebrates, is involved in the regulation of biological rhythms as well as other important functions, and may also act as an antioxidant molecule. The effects of environmental pollutants on the endocrine and metabolic activity of the pineal organ have been studied only in mammals. We here evaluate the effects of the PAHs naphthalene (NAP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and the flavonoid beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) on the pineal organ of rainbow trout by quantifying the diurnal and nocturnal pineal content of some indoles and methoxyindoles, including melatonin. NAP mainly induced diurnal increases in the pineal content of melatonin and other methoxyindoles like 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-MIAA) or 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTOL). Those increases did not occur at night, when even occasional decreases were observed compared with controls. NAP also induced some diurnal and nocturnal decreases in the levels of indolic compounds like serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), while pineal content of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) was first decreased (few hours after injection) and then increased (few days after injection) during the day. BaP and BNF induced strong increases in diurnal levels of melatonin, whereas other pineal compounds were unaffected. It seems that an increase of the methylation capacity of the pineal organ takes place during the day, and a decrease occurs at night. Those effects could be mediated by changes in the activity of key enzymes involved in pineal melatonin biosynthesis, maybe as a result of the alteration of the cellular phototransduction mechanisms involved in the light-induced inhibition of melatonin synthesis in the pineal photoreceptor cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that environmental pollutants can disrupt the activity of the pineal organ of teleost fish. This disruption could be a threat for the survival of the animals in their natural environment, although the increases observed in melatonin levels could play a relevant role as a toxicity-protection factor. PMID:19185928

Gesto, Manuel; Tintos, Adrián; Rodríguez-Illamola, Arnau; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

2009-04-01

15

Daily pattern of melatonin secretion in an antarctic bird, the emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri: seasonal variations, effect of constant illumination and of administration of isoproterenol or propranolol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily variations in circulating melatonin concentrations have been measured at monthly intervals from April to December 1986 in an Antarctic bird, the emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri, maintained under natural conditions. Both duration of the elevated nighttime melatonin levels and amplitude of the day-night rhythm displays an annual variation closely related to variations in the daylength. Duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin secretion depended upon the duration of the darkness, decreasing with increasing daylength and disappearing completely during the summer solstice. The duration of the nighttime melatonin peak melatonin increased inversely with decreasing daylength. The amplitude of the day-night rhythm decreased in such a way that the nocturnal peak of melatonin completely disappeared during the winter solstice. Three days of constant illumination in September did not suppress the nighttime peak of melatonin secretion. The response of melatonin secretion, decreasing after beta-adrenergic agonist treatment and increasing after antagonist treatment, reinforces the hypothesis that in birds the regulation of melatonin synthesis differs from that of the rat. Receptors other than beta receptors may be involved. PMID:1783270

Miché, F; Vivien-Roels, B; Pévet, P; Spehner, C; Robin, J P; Le Maho, Y

1991-11-01

16

Epinephrine preworkout elevation may offset early morning melatonin concentrations to maintain maximal muscular force and power in track athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimal time of day for training has become an important question for many strength and conditioning specialists, and this study was designed to add some insights into this complex question. The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine physical performance within the temporal context of the relationship between physical performance, epinephrine, and melatonin concentrations in the early morning (0530 hours) and late (1500 hours) afternoon in elite collegiate male track and field athletes (jumpers and sprinters). Subjects had a mean (±SD) age, height, and body mass of 20.4 (±1.6) years, 185.8 (±9.4) cm, and 77.9 (±8.5) kg, respectively. Blood was obtained before each AM and PM testing session. Mean plasma melatonin concentrations were 34.9 ± 22.7 pg·ml and 4.8 ± 3.3 pg·ml for the AM vs. PM trials, respectively, demonstrating a significant (p ? 0.05) difference between time points. Mean resting plasma epinephrine concentrations for AM (171.7 ± 33.7 pmol·L) and PM (127.6 ± 47.8 pmol·L) also differed significantly between trails at the different times. In addition, significant differences were observed with respect to foot quickness in the AM (5.14 ± 1.06 seconds) and PM (4.39 ± 0.76 seconds). Mean peak power output for vertical jump power was 5,407.1 ± 1,272.9 W, 5,384.6 ± 888.3 W for AM vs. PM trials, respectively, which were not significantly different. The results of this investigation indicate that time of day did not negatively impact whole body physical performance in trained track athletes but did impact the quality of quickness. Thus in the morning, whole body power performances may be enhanced through adrenergic arousal when melatonin is elevated. However, this was not the case for movements requiring quickness and accuracy of movement. To compensate for the "sleepiness" associated with high concentrations of melatonin, being secreted from the pineal gland representing a continued "sleepiness" effect on the body, early morning practices may require greater adrenergic arousal to potentially offset melatonin's effects. The results of this study raise important questions on the use of early morning practices for more complex tasks that require high reaction speeds, even under conditions of adrenergic arousal. PMID:24513613

Kraemer, William J; Boyd, Brittny M; Hooper, David R; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Newton, Robert U; Vingren, Jakob L; Häkkinen, Keijo; White, Mark T; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

2014-09-01

17

Melatonin effects on luteinizing hormone in postmenopausal women: a pilot clinical trial NCT00288262  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Melatonin's effects on human reproductive endocrinology are uncertain. It is thought that the same hypothalamic pulse generator may both trigger the pulsatile release of GnRH and LH and also cause hot flashes. Thus, if melatonin suppressed this pulse generator in postmenopausal women, it might moderate hot flashes. This clinical trial tested the hypothesis that melatonin could suppress LH and relieve hot flashes. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women troubled by hot flashes underwent one week of baseline observation followed by 4 weeks of a randomized controlled trial of melatonin or matched placebo. The three randomized treatments were melatonin 0.5 mg 2.5–3 hours before bedtime, melatonin 0.5 mg upon morning awakening, or placebo capsules. Twelve of the women were admitted to the GCRC at baseline and at the end of randomized treatment for 24-hour sampling of blood for LH. Morning urine samples were collected twice weekly to measure LH excretion. Subjective responses measured throughout baseline and treatment included sleep and hot flash logs, the CESD and QIDS depression self-ratings, and the SAFTEE physical symptom inventory. Results Urinary LH tended to increase from baseline to the end of treatment. Contrasts among the 3 randomized groups were statistically marginal, but there was relative suppression combining the groups given melatonin as contrasted to the placebo group (p < 0.01 one-tailed, Mann-Whitney U = 14.) Similar but not significant results were seen in blood LH. There were no significant contrasts among groups in hot flashes, sleep, depression, or side-effect measures and no significant adverse effects of any sort. Conclusion The data are consistent with the hypothesis that melatonin suppresses LH in postmenopausal women. An effect related to the duration of nocturnal melatonin elevation is suggested. Effects of melatonin on reproductive endocrinology should be studied further in younger women and in men. Larger studies of melatonin effects on postmenopausal symptoms would be worthwhile. PMID:16704731

Kripke, Daniel F; Kline, Lawrence E; Shadan, Farhad F; Dawson, Arthur; Poceta, J Steven; Elliott, Jeffrey A

2006-01-01

18

Melatonin receptors in pancreatic islets: good morning to a novel type 2 diabetes gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is primarily released from the pineal gland. It is best known as a regulator of seasonal and circadian rhythms; its levels are high during the night and low during the day. Interestingly, insulin levels also exhibit a nocturnal drop, which has previously been suggested to be controlled, at least in part, by melatonin. This regulation can be explained by the proposed inhibitory action of melatonin on insulin release. Indeed, both melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and MTNR1B are expressed in pancreatic islets. The role of melatonin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by three independent publications based on genome-wide association studies of traits connected with type 2 diabetes, such as elevated fasting glucose, and, subsequently, of the disease itself. The studies demonstrate a link between variations in the MTNR1B gene, hyperglycaemia, impaired early phase insulin secretion and beta cell function. The risk genotype predicts the future development of type 2 diabetes. Carriers of the risk genotype exhibit increased expression of MTNR1B in islets. This suggests that these individuals may be more sensitive to the actions of melatonin, leading to impaired insulin secretion. Blocking the inhibition of insulin secretion by melatonin may be a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19377888

Mulder, H; Nagorny, C L F; Lyssenko, V; Groop, L

2009-07-01

19

Melatonin and metabolic regulation: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human life expectancy has increased over the past 50 years due to scientific and medical advances and higher food availability. However, overweight and obesity affect more than 50% of adults and 15% of infants and adolescents. There has also been a marked increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in recent decades, which has been associated with a reduction in nocturnal pineal production of melatonin with aging and an increased risk of coronary diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and death. Melatonin is currently under intensive investigation in experimental animal models of diabetes, obesity and MS at pharmacological doses (between 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) body weight), demonstrating its capacity to ameliorate the total metabolic profile and its potential as an alternative to conventional drug therapies for the disorders associated with the MS, i.e. elevated systolic blood pressure, and impairment of glucose homeostasis, plasma lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress, and increased body weight. An especially significant finding is the induction by melatonin of white adipose tissue browning, which may be related to its effects against oxidative stress, uncoupling the mitochondrial bioenergetic process by enhancing the expression of uncoupled-protein-1 (UCP-1), which has been related to body weight reduction in experimental animals. Further research is required to improve knowledge of this mechanism. Clinical studies are needed with the administration of pharmacological melatonin doses, because the dose has ranged between 0.050 and 0.16 mg kg(-1) bw in most studies to date. Melatonin is a natural phytochemical, and it is also important to test its beneficial metabolic effects when consumed in functional foods. PMID:25207999

Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J; Blanca-Herrera, Rosa M; A-Serrano, María Mohammad; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Agil, Ahmad

2014-11-01

20

Delivery of pineal melatonin to the brain and SCN: role of canaliculi, cerebrospinal fluid, tanycytes and Virchow-Robin perivascular spaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, the direct release of pineal melatonin into the capillary bed within the gland has been accepted as the primary route of secretion. Herein, we propose that the major route of melatonin delivery to the brain is after its direct release into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the third ventricle (3V). Melatonin concentrations in the CSF are not only much higher than in the blood, also, there is a rapid nocturnal rise at darkness onset and precipitous decline of melatonin levels at the time of lights on. Because melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant, we surmise that the elevated CSF levels are necessary to combat the massive free radical damage that the brain would normally endure because of its high utilization of oxygen, the parent molecule of many toxic oxygen metabolites, i.e., free radicals. Additionally, the precise rhythm of CSF melatonin provides the master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, with highly accurate chronobiotic information regarding the duration of the dark period. We predict that the discharge of melatonin directly into the 3V is aided by a number of epithalamic structures that have heretofore been overlooked; these include interpinealocyte canaliculi and evaginations of the posterodorsal 3V that directly abut the pineal. Moreover, the presence of tanycytes in the pineal recess and/or a discontinuous ependymal lining in the pineal recess allows melatonin ready access to the CSF. From the ventricles melatonin enters the brain by diffusion and by transport through tanycytes. Melatonin-rich CSF also circulates through the aqueduct and eventually into the subarachnoid space. From the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, melatonin penetrates into the deepest portions of the neural tissue via the Virchow-Robin perivascular spaces from where it diffuses into the neural parenchyma. Because of the high level of pineal-derived melatonin in the CSF, all portions of the brain are better shielded from oxidative stress resulting from toxic oxygen derivatives. PMID:24553808

Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun Xian; Kim, Seok Joong; Cruz, Maria Helena C

2014-11-01

21

Melatonin synthesis: analysis of the more than 150-fold nocturnal increase in serotonin N-acetyltransferase messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vertebrates, the circadian rhythm in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase [arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT); EC 2.3.1.87] drives the daily rhythm in circulating melatonin. We have discovered that expression of the AA-NAT gene in the rat pineal gland is essentially turned off during the day and turned on at night, resulting in a more than 150-fold rhythm. Expression is regulated by a photoneural system that acts through an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism in pinealocytes, probably involving cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Turning off AA-NAT expression appears to involve de novo synthesis of a protein that attenuates transcription. A approximately 10-fold night/day rhythm in AA-NAT messenger RNA occurs in the retina, and AA-NAT messenger RNA is also detected at low levels in the brain. PMID:8770929

Roseboom, P H; Coon, S L; Baler, R; McCune, S K; Weller, J L; Klein, D C

1996-07-01

22

Nocturnal enuresis  

OpenAIRE

Nocturnal enuresis affects 15% to 20% of 5-year-old children, 5% of 10-year-old children, and 1% to 2% of people aged 15 years and over. Without treatment, 15% of affected children will become dry each year. Nocturnal enuresis is not diagnosed in children aged <5 years, and treatment may be inappropriate for children aged <7 years.

Kiddoo, Darcie

2011-01-01

23

Endogenous melatonin and oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A significant body of literature indicates that melatonin, a hormone primarily produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an important scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Melatonin may also lower the rate of DNA base damage resulting from hydroxyl radical attack and increase the rate of repair of that damage. This paper reports the results of a study relating the level of overnight melatonin production to the overnight excre...

Poulsen Henrik E; Davanipour Zoreh; Weimann Allan; Sobel Eugene

2009-01-01

24

Nocturnal Asthma  

Science.gov (United States)

... Newsroom Departments & Divisions Locations & Directions Who We Are Contact Us More Types Allergic Asthma Exercise-Induced Asthma Nocturnal Asthma Occupational Asthma Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ...

25

Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

Lee, Jack M.

1992-06-01

26

Melatonin and LH secretion patterns in pubertal boys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma melatonin and LH were measured at 20 minute intervals for 24 hours in four normal pubertal boys. All four subjects showed a significant augmentation of LH and melatonin during nocturnal sleep. There was also a significant correlation between the LH and melatonin levels (p<0.001). There were periods of episodic secretion of melanin during the diurnal waking period which seemed related to 'stress'. These data indicate that the peripheral concentrations of melatonin which occur during sleep are insufficient to prevent spontaneous LH secretion during puberty

27

Melatonin in plants and other phototrophs: advances and gaps concerning the diversity of functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is synthesized in Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Dinoflagellata, Euglenoidea, Rhodophyta, Phae ophyta, and Viridiplantae. The biosynthetic pathways have been identified in dinoflagellates and plants. Other than in dinoflagellates and animals, tryptophan is not 5-hydroxylated in plants but is first decarboxylated. Serotonin is formed by 5-hydroxylation of tryptamine. Serotonin N-acetyltransferase is localized in plastids and lacks homology to the vertebrate aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. Melatonin content varies considerably among species, from a few picograms to several micrograms per gram, a strong hint for different actions of this indoleamine. At elevated levels, the common and presumably ancient property as an antioxidant may prevail. Although melatonin exhibits nocturnal maxima in some phototrophs, it is not generally a mediator of the signal 'darkness'. In various plants, its formation is upregulated by visible and/or UV light. Increases are often induced by high or low temperature and several other stressors including drought, salinity, and chemical toxins. In Arabidopsis, melatonin induces cold- and stress-responsive genes. It has been shown to support cold resistance and to delay experimental leaf senescence. Transcriptome data from Arabidopsis indicate upregulation of genes related to ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. Auxin-like actions have been reported concerning root growth and inhibition, and hypocotyl or coleoptile lengthening, but effects caused by melatonin and auxins can be dissected. Assumptions on roles in flower morphogenesis and fruit ripening are based mainly on concentration changes. Whether or not melatonin will find a place in the phytohormone network depends especially on the identification of molecular signals regulating its synthesis, high-affinity binding sites, and signal transduction pathways. PMID:25240067

Hardeland, Rüdiger

2014-09-18

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Plastic oscillators and fixed rhythms: Changes in the phase of clock-gene rhythms in the PVN are not reflected in the phase of the melatonin rhythm of grass rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The same clock-genes, including Period (PER) 1 and 2, that show rhythmic expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are also rhythmically expressed in other brain regions that serve as extra-SCN oscillators. Outside the hypothalamus, the phase of these extra-SCN oscillators appears to be reversed when diurnal and nocturnal mammals are compared. Based on mRNA data, PER1 protein is expected to peak in the late night in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of nocturnal laboratory rats, but comparable data are not available for a diurnal species. Here we use the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) to describe rhythms of PER1 and 2 proteins in the PVN of animals that either show the species-typical day-active (DA) profile, or that adopt a night-active (NA) profile when given access to running wheels. For DA animals housed with or without wheels, significant rhythms of PER1 or PER2 protein expression featured peaks in the late morning; NA animals showed patterns similar to those expected from nocturnal laboratory rats. Since the PVN is part of the circuit that controls pineal rhythms, we also measured circulating levels of melatonin during the day and night in DA animals with and without wheels and in NA wheel runners. All three groups showed elevated levels of melatonin at night, with higher levels during both the day and night being associated with the levels of activity displayed by each group. The differential phase of rhythms in the clock-gene protein in the PVN of diurnal and nocturnal animals presents a possible mechanism for explaining species differences in the phase of autonomic rhythms controlled, in part, by the PVN. The present study suggests that the phase of the oscillator of the PVN does not determine that of the melatonin rhythm in diurnal and nocturnal species or in diurnal and nocturnal chronotypes within a species. PMID:25575946

Martin-Fairey, C A; Ramanathan, C; Stowie, A; Walaszczyk, E; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

2015-03-12

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MELATONIN: POTENTIAL UTILITY FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review summarizes the beneficial actions of melatonin in various experimental conditions/diseases and identifies where the use of melatonin may be helpful in improving public health. The nightly use of melatonin supplements by humans often improves their sleep and helps correct the circadian dyssynchronization associated with “jet lag”. Additionally, melatonin has been found effective in curtailing the growth of a variety of experimental cancers. Mechanistically, this is achieved by melatonin’s ability to limit fatty acid uptake, especially linoleic acid, by tumor cells. Fatty acids are growth factors for many tumors. Additionally, melatonin inhibits the elevated telomerase activity of tumor cells thus making them more fragile and vulnerable to chemotherapies. Melatonin also may inhibit angiogenesis in tumors by suppressing endothelin-1 production and the indole interferes with the stimulatory action of steroids on hormone-responsive tumors. As an ubiquitously-acting antioxidant, melatonin reduces cardiac damage during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (heart attack and during I/R to the brain (stroke. Melatonin also limits the toxicity of amyloid ? peptide and of neurofibrillary tangles, two of the cardinal signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Collectively, these data suggest supplementation with melatonin, whose endogenous levels decrease with age, may improve the quality of life in the aged and, as a consequence, be beneficial for public health generally. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 131-158

Russel J REITER; Fatih GULTEKIN; Luis J FLORES; Ma Pilar TERRON; Dun-Xian TAN

2006-04-01

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Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation...

Liang Wang; Zhi-Yong Zhuo; Wen-Qing Shi; Dun-Xian Tan; Chao Gao; Xiu-Zhi Tian; Lu Zhang; Guang-Bin Zhou; Shi-En Zhu; Peng Yun; Guo-Shi Liu

2014-01-01

31

Evidence for melatonin synthesis in the rat brain during development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin production is not restricted to the pineal gland. Several extrapineal sources of this indole such as retina, Harderian gland, and immune system are well documented. Melatonin of pineal origin is not present in the rat at early stages of development. To assess the potential capacity of local melatonin synthesis by the immature brain and to gain insight into the relationship between melatonin production by the brain (without the pineal gland) and pineal gland during rat development, the melatonin content as well as the expression and activity of the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were studied at fetal and postnatal stages. Moreover, melatonin-membrane receptor (MT(1)) expression was also analyzed. Both, the expression and activity of NAT and HIOMT were found in the brain with significant day/night differences in enzymes activities. Additionally, melatonin content was detected in all stages showing day/night differences depending on the stage of development. The brain nocturnal melatonin content was higher than diurnal content on postnatal day 16 and in adult rats which is in accordance with the pineal melatonin synthesis. To investigate the origin of this brain melatonin, pinealectomized rats were used and we found that the developing brain produced its own melatonin. Also, MT(1) expression was detected in brain during development. These results demonstrate that, when the pineal is not yet producing melatonin, there is melatonin synthesis by the brain that could be used as protection from free radical damage and/or could exert some actions through MT(1) receptors. PMID:17349021

Jimenez-Jorge, Silvia; Guerrero, Juan M; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Naranjo, Maria C; Lardone, Patricia J; Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Osuna, Carmen; Molinero, Patrocinio

2007-04-01

32

Melatonin synthesis and melatonin-membrane receptor (MT1) expression during rat thymus development: role of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain insight into the relationship between thymus and pineal gland during rat development, the melatonin content as well as the activity and expression of the two key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis, i.e. N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were studied in the thymus at fetal and postnatal stages. Moreover, melatonin-membrane receptor (MT1) expression was also analyzed. We found both the expression and activity of thymic NAT and HIOMT at 18 days of fetal life. Additionally, there is production of melatonin in the thymus as well as MT1 expression at this fetal age. These results show values higher in day-time than at night-time. The pineal gland begins to produce significant levels of melatonin around postnatal day 16, and this synthesis shows a circadian rhythm with high values during the dark period; therefore the nocturnal serum melatonin may inhibit thymic melatonin production. To document this, we report an increased melatonin content of the thymus in pinealectomized rats compared with sham-pinealectomized. In conclusion, these results show, for the first time, the presence of the biosynthetic machinery of melatonin and melatonin production in developing rat thymus and that the pineal gland may regulate this process. PMID:15978061

Jimenez-Jorge, Silvia; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Guerrero, Juan M; Naranjo, Maria C; Lardone, Patricia J; Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Osuna, Carmen; Molinero, Patrocinio

2005-08-01

33

Intake of melatonin increases tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 activity in aged rats: Preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal melatonin is important not only for synchronization of biological rhythms, but also in the ageing process as a potential drug to relieve oxidative damage. During ageing, the nocturnal melatonin production decreases resulting in an increased incidence of disorders. Present in vivo experiments were performed to study the effects of exogenous melatonin chronically administered to old rats on the pineal biosynthesis of melatonin and the precursor serotonin (5-HT) mediated by tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 (TPH-1). Accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the TPH-1 activity. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA were also quantified by HPLC-ED. As expected, ageing resulted in worsening of different neurochemical parameters. However, chronic intake of melatonin (1mg/kg/day, diluted in drinking water, 4 weeks) increased TPH-1 activity and significantly improved the age-induced deficits in nocturnal melatonin content in the pineal gland. Results suggest that melatonin intake (or melatonin rich foods) may contribute to recover the pineal function preventing the nocturnal descent of 5-HT and melatonin biosynthesis that normally occur in pineal gland as a consequence of ageing. PMID:24189046

Moranta, D; Barceló, P; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Sarubbo, F; Ramis, M; Nicolau, C; Esteban, S

2014-01-01

34

Use of Transdermal Melatonin Delivery to Improve Sleep Maintenance during Daytime  

OpenAIRE

Oral melatonin can improve daytime sleep, but the hormone's short elimination half-life limits its use as a hypnotic in shift workers, jet-lag and other situations. Here we show in healthy subjects that transdermal delivery of melatonin during the daytime can elevate plasma melatonin and reduce waking after sleep onset by promoting sleep in the latter part of an 8-hour sleep opportunity. Thus, transdermal melatonin may have advantages over fast-release oral melatonin in improving sleep mainte...

Aeschbach, D.; Lockyer, Bj; Dijk, D-j; Lockley, Sw; Nuwayser, Es; Nichols, Ld; Czeisler, Ca

2009-01-01

35

Melatonin: an internal signal for daily and seasonal timing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is secreted only during night, irrespective of the habitat of an organism and the site of its synthesis and secretion, and hence known as "darkness hormone". Elevated melatonin levels reflect the nighttime. In vertebrates, the main site of melatonin production is the pineal gland. Species in which melatonin is also secreted from sources other than the pineal, as in some birds, relative contributions of different melatonin producing tissues to the blood melatonin level can vary from species to species. Melatonin acts through its receptors, which are members of the G protein-coupled (GPCR) superfamily. Three melatonin receptors subtypes MT1 (mella), MT2 (mellb), and MT3 (mellc) have been identified in different brain areas and other body organs of vertebrates. Melatonin synthesis and secretion are circadianly rhythmic. Changes and differences in specific features of melatonin signal can vary among species, and under a variety of natural environmental conditions. Two major physiological roles of melatonin are established in vertebrates. First, melatonin is involved in the circadian system regulated behavioural and physiological functions. Second, it is critical for the photoperiodic system. Besides, melatonin has been implicated in various ways both directly and indirectly to human health, including jet lag, sleep, immune system and cancer. PMID:24851405

Trivedi, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod

2014-05-01

36

Advances in the Research of Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Literature Review and New Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abnormalities in melatonin physiology may be involved or closely linked to the pathophysiology and behavioral expression of autistic disorder, given its role in neurodevelopment and reports of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, decreased nocturnal melatonin production, and beneficial therapeutic effects of melatonin in individuals with autism. In addition, melatonin, as a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. More specifically, the role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators opens interesting perspectives to ascertain better the mechanisms underlying the significant relationship found between lower nocturnal melatonin excretion and increased severity of autistic social communication impairments, especially for verbal communication and social imitative play. In this article, first we review the studies on melatonin levels and the treatment studies of melatonin in autistic disorder. Then, we discuss the relationships between melatonin and autistic behavioral impairments with regard to social communication (verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors or interests with difficulties adapting to change. In conclusion, we emphasize that randomized clinical trials in autism spectrum disorders are warranted to establish potential therapeutic efficacy of melatonin for social communication impairments and stereotyped behaviors or interests.

Guillaume Bronsard

2013-10-01

37

Increased delta aminolevulinic acid and decreased pineal melatonin production. A common event in acute porphyria studies in the rat.  

OpenAIRE

Tryptophan (TRP) is the precursor of melatonin, the primary secretory product of the pineal gland. Hepatic heme deficiency decreases the activity of liver tryptophan pyrrolase, leading to increased plasma TRP and serotonin. As a paradox, patients with attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), exhibit low nocturnal plasma melatonin levels. This study using a rat experimental model was designed to produce a pattern of TRP and melatonin production similar to that in AIP patients. Pineal mel...

Puy, H.; Deybach, J. C.; Bogdan, A.; Callebert, J.; Baumgartner, M.; Voisin, P.; Nordmann, Y.; Touitou, Y.

1996-01-01

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Comparison of the effects of acute fluvoxamine and desipramine administration on melatonin and cortisol production in humans.  

OpenAIRE

1. Acute administration of the specific serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine (100 mg at 16.00 h), markedly increased nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, with high levels extending into the morning hours. 2. Acute administration of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine (DMI) (100 mg at 16.00 h), increased evening plasma melatonin concentrations. 3. Both drug treatments increased the duration of melatonin secretion, fluvoxamine significantly delaying the offset time and DMI ...

Skene, D. J.; Bojkowski, C. J.; Arendt, J.

1994-01-01

39

The internal time-giver role of melatonin. A key for our health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily rhythms in physiological and behavioural processes are controlled by a network of circadian clocks. In mammals, at the top of the network is a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The nocturnal synthesis and release of melatonin by the pineal gland are tightly controlled by the SCN clock. Several roles of melatonin in the circadian system have been identified. As a major hormonal output, melatonin distributes temporal cues generated by the SCN to the multitude of tissues expressing melatonin receptors. In some target tissues, these melatonin signals can drive daily rhythmicity that would otherwise be lacking. In other target structures, melatonin signals are used for the synchronization (i.e., adjustment of the timing of existing oscillations) of peripheral oscillators. Due to the expression of melatonin receptors in the SCN, endogenous melatonin is also able to feedback onto the master clock. Of note, pharmacological treatment with exogenous melatonin can synchronize the SCN clock. From a clinical point of view, provided that the subject is not exposed to light at night, the daily profile of circulating melatonin provides a reliable estimate of the timing of the human SCN. During the past decade, a number of melatonin agonists have been developed. These drugs may target the SCN for improving circadian timing or act indirectly at some downstream level of the circadian network to restore proper internal synchronization. PMID:25287733

Pévet, P

2014-11-01

40

Clinical aspects of melatonin.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Melatonin is produced in the human pineal gland, particularly at night, with the circadian rhythm of blood melatonin levels closely paralleling its production within the pineal gland. Light exposure at night, or rapid transmeridian travel severely compromises the circadian production of melatonin. The disturbed melatonin rhythm contributes to jet lag and sleep inefficiency, both of which are improved by melatonin administration. Melatonin is also a highly effective direct free radical scavenger and antioxidant. In this capacity, melatonin reduces experimental cataractogenesis, traumatic injury to the spinal cord and brain, and protects against oxidative damage to neurons and glia in models of stroke, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, melatonin and its metabolites are highly effective in protecting against ionizing radiation. Finally, melatonin may be a treatment for hypertension. Melatonin's high efficacy, its high safety profile, and its virtual lack of toxicity make it of interest in clinical medicine.

Russel J. Reiter

2008-11-01

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Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

OpenAIRE

Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were ini...

Nunes, D. M.; Mota, R. M. S.; Machado, M. O.; Pereira, E. D. B.; Bruin, V. M. S.; Bruin, P. F. C.

2008-01-01

42

Independence of circadian entrainment state and responses to melatonin in male Siberian hamsters  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in physiology and behavior depend on the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion programmed by the circadian system. A melatonin signal of a given duration, however, can elicit different responses depending on whether an animal was previously exposed to longer or shorter photoperiod signals (i.e., its photoperiodic history). This report examined in male Siberian hamsters which of two aspects of photoperiod history – prior melatoni...

Gorman Michael R

2003-01-01

43

Effects of time of l-ornithine administration on the diurnal rhythms of plasma growth hormone, melatonin, and corticosterone levels in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis and secretion of many hormones such as growth hormone (GH), melatonin, and corticosterone, exhibit temporal variations over each day and night. Oral administration of several nutritional factors, including l-ornithine, modulates these hormonal secretions and induces an acute increase in plasma GH levels. However, the impact of l-ornithine on the diurnal rhythms of hormone secretion remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated whether the diurnal rhythms of plasma GH, melatonin, and corticosterone secretion were altered by the daily administration of l-ornithine as well as the timing of the administration, in CBA/N mice. Our results showed that the plasma GH levels that peaked at light phase were amplified by l-ornithine (500?mg/kg) administered at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 22, but not at ZT10. Additionally, l-ornithine (1000?mg/kg) administered at ZT22 advanced the onset of the nocturnal rise of melatonin, which resulted in the elongation of the melatonin peak. On the other hand, l-ornithine (500 and 1000?mg/kg) administered at ZT10, but not at ZT22, suppressed the diurnal rhythm peaks of plasma corticosterone. The effects of l-ornithine on plasma GH rhythms lasted for at least 2 days after cessation of the daily administration. Running wheel activity during the active phase was slightly elevated by l-ornithine administration at ZT22, but the overall patterns were only slightly affected. l-Ornithine levels in the plasma and hypophysis after a single administration of l-ornithine at ZT22 were lower than those after administration at ZT10, suggesting that the metabolic rate of l-ornithine differs between day and night. In conclusion, our data suggest that a daily administration of l-ornithine regulates the diurnal rhythms of GH, melatonin, and corticosterone in a manner dependent on administration time, which might be related to the diurnal rhythms of l-ornithine metabolism. PMID:25286138

Matsuo, Haruka; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Hishida, Yukihiro; Akiduki, Saori; Aoki, Mami; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

2014-10-01

44

[Melatonin for diagnosis of cancer and assessment of prognosis in elderly patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

A review is given on the analysis of melatonin (MT) and of its main peripheral metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in old patients with different types of primary unoperated carcinomas. A very low production of melatonin (as estimated by the nocturnal urinary excretion of aMT6s) was found in male patients with lung or stomach cancer compared to aged-matched controls as well as in female patients with thyroid cancer. The levels of these women, however, did not differ from female patients with benign thyroid diseases indicating a general suppressive effect of thyroid diseases on the pineal gland. A similar but opposite phenomenon was observed in male patients with primary unoperatide colorectal cancer which showed an elevated production of mellatonin when compared to healthy men but not when compared to patients with colitis ulcerosa. The mechanisms involved in these phenomena are poorly understood and seem to include central as well as peripheral components. This view is supported by the finding that in spite of varying urinary aMT6s excretion measured in patients with different types of tumor, aMT6s shows comparable positive correlations with the degree of tumor cell proliferation (as estimated by the number of PCNA-immunopositive cells). Therefore the amount of aMT6s excreted (as well as the corresponding concentration of circulating MT) has to be understood as the net result of a number of different effects by the tumor on organism. PMID:14743611

Kvetnaia, T V

2003-01-01

45

Melatonin in cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This editorial refers to "Cardiovascular effects of melatonin receptor agonists". The hormone melatonin is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland, retina, several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Based on the data available, the last 18 years indicate that melatonin influences multiple factors of the cardiovascular function. Multiple evidences reveal that the rhythmicity of melatonin has a crucial role in a variety of cardiovascular pathophysiological processes including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and possibly as an antilipidemic function. Melatonin receptors receive and transduce melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology. The melatonin message is translated through the interaction between the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) and its coupling to G proteins, which are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia, circadian sleep disorders, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Based on the data available, melatonin seems to have cardioprotective properties via its direct free radical scavenger activity. Melatonin efficiently interacts with several reactive oxygen species (receptor-independent actions). Collectively, these protective actions of melatonin may have potential clinical applicability for individuals with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22916801

Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto

2012-11-01

46

The relevance of melatonin to sports medicine and science.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal hormone, melatonin, has widespread effects on the body. The aim of this review is to consider the specific interactions between melatonin and human physiological functions associated with sport and exercise medicine. Separate researchers have reported that melatonin concentrations increase, decrease and remain unaffected by bouts of exercise. Such conflicting findings may be explained by inter-study differences in lighting conditions and the time of day the study participants have exercised. Age and fitness status have also been identified as intervening factors in exercise-mediated changes in melatonin concentration. The administration of exogenous melatonin leads to hypnotic and hypothermic responses in humans, which can be linked to immediate reductions in short-term mental and physical performance. Depending on the dose of melatonin, these effects may still be apparent 3-5 hours after administration for some types of cognitive performance, but effects on physical performance seem more short-lived. The hypothesis that the hypothermic effects of melatonin lead to improved endurance performance in hot environments is not supported by evidence from studies involving military recruits who exercised at relatively low intensities. Nevertheless, no research group has examined such a hypothesis with athletes as study participants and with the associated more intense levels of exercise. The fact that melatonin has also been found to preserve muscle and liver glycogen in exercised rats adds weight to the notion that melatonin might affect endurance exercise in humans. Melatonin has been successfully used to alleviate jet lag symptoms of travellers and there is also a smaller amount of evidence that the hormone helps shiftworkers adjust to nocturnal regimens. Nevertheless, the symptoms of jet lag and shiftwork problems have primarily included sleep characteristics rather than performance variables. The few studies that have involved athletes and performance-related symptoms have produced equivocal results. Melatonin has also been found to be useful for treating some sleeping disorders, but interactions between sleep, melatonin and exercise have not been studied extensively with trained study participants. It is unknown whether melatonin plays a role in some exercise training-related problems such as amenorrhoea and over-training syndrome. PMID:12959621

Atkinson, Greg; Drust, Barry; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

2003-01-01

47

Season-dependent postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we have demonstrated that the timing of the nocturnal peak of activity of the pineal arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase - a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway - in 3-wk-old chickens kept from the day of hatch under controlled laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12) varies depending on the season of hatch (summer vs. winter). The present study was undertaken to answer the following questions: (1) are season-related differences seen in the level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway? (2) Does the pineal content of the main precursor (serotonin) and the final product (melatonin) exhibit age- and season-related changes? (3) At which step in postembryonic development are these season-related variations in pineal gland function most pronounced? Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held on L:D 16:8, were kept from the day of hatch under L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2, 9, or 16 d, chickens were sacrificed every 2 h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands, isolated under dim red light, were processed for the measurement of (i) the level of Aanat and Asmt (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) mRNAs encoding the two last enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, (ii) the activity of these enzymes, and (iii) the pineal content of serotonin and melatonin. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The levels of Aanat mRNA, AANAT enzymatic activity, and the pineal melatonin content changed during postembryonic development in a manner that was dependent on the season of hatch. Furthermore, the diurnal profile of Asmt mRNA was elevated during the light phase. In "winter" birds, the pattern and amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of accumulation of this transcript did not change with age, while in "summer" birds it increased in an age-related way. In contrast, the enzymatic activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; encoded by the Asmt gene) did not change rhythmically, although it increased with age in a season-related way. In "winter" chickens, the pineal serotonin content was low, regardless of age, and did not change rhythmically, whereas in "summer" individuals the serotonin rhythm was already well established by day 2, with the amplitude increasing with age. These results confirm the existence of a "seasonal memory" operating within the chicken pineal gland, although the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon have yet to be characterized. PMID:23003334

Piesiewicz, A; Kedzierska, U; Podobas, E; Adamska, I; Zuzewicz, K; Majewski, P M

2012-11-01

48

Melatonin does not inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in waking young men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal hormone melatonin is mainly secreted during night-time which, in humans, is the normal time of sleep. It has been proposed that, during this period, melatonin exerts an inhibitory influence on secretory activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system, although there is little evidence for this view in humans. In blind humans, a single oral dose of melatonin at bed time suppressed nocturnal cortisol secretion. However, suppression could have been secondary to an improved sleep after melatonin in these experiments. In the present study, we examined whether melatonin exerts a similar inhibitory effect on HPA activity in waking subjects. Fourteen healthy young men were tested at bed time, but kept awake throughout the experimental epoch. Thirty minutes after oral ingestion of 5 mg melatonin, activity of the HPA-system was stimulated through a standard insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Adrenocorticotrophin hormone and cortisol concentrations under basal conditions before insulin injection, as well as in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, were almost identical for the melatonin and placebo control conditions (P > 0.5). However, melatonin increased plasma prolactin concentrations (P < 0.01) and reduced systolic blood pressure in the time interval following hypoglycaemia (P < 0.05). Based on a review of the literature and our results, we conclude that melatonin per se has no substantially suppressing effect on HPA secretory activity, although such an effect can be gated by sleep-related processes. PMID:16280028

Perras, B; Ozcan, S; Fehm, H L; Born, J

2005-12-01

49

Nocturnal panic attacks  

OpenAIRE

The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sle...

Lopes Fabiana L; Nardi Antonio E.; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M.; Zin Walter A

2002-01-01

50

Metabolic syndrome, its pathophysiology and the role of melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by symptoms of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in MetS are complex and involved dysregulation of many biochemical and physiological regulatory mechanisms of the body. Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins like VLDL, and LDL with reduction of HDL seen in patients with MetS contribute to atherogenic dyslipedemia. Melatonin has been suggested to be effective in improving MetS through its anti-hyperlipidemic action. Melatonin reduced both adiposity, and body weight in experimental animal studies and also attenuated weight gain and obesityinduced metabolic alterations and this effect of melatonin is attributed to its anti-oxidative effects. Melatonin administration has been shown to inhibit insulin release by acting through both MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in pancreatic ?-cells. Melatonin also increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animals fed with either high fat or high sucrose diet. Melatonin exerts most of its beneficial actions by acting through MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in various tissues of the body and some of the metabolic actions of melatonin have been blocked by melatonin antagonist like luzindole. Ramelteon, the newly available melatonin agonist will also have more promising role in the control of MetS. The numbers of patents are available with regard to treatment of MetS. Drug related to antidepressant fluoxetine is used for treatment of MetS (US Patent No. 2008001400450). Anti-oxidants like S-adenosyl-methionine, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C have been found beneficial in treating MetS (US Patent No. 8063024). Melatonin being a powerful Antioxidant will have a promising role in treating patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:22946959

Srinivasan, Venkataramanujam; Ohta, Yoshiji; Espino, Javier; Pariente, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ana B; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Zakaria, Rahimah

2013-01-01

51

Blood glucose and nocturnal blood pressure in African and caucasian men: the SABPA study  

OpenAIRE

To investigate the relationship between nocturnal blood pressure and chronically elevated blood glucose to determine if these elevated blood glucose concentrations contribute to a non-dipping blood pressure, especially in high-risk groups such as Africans.

Lammertyn, Leandi; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schutte, Rudolph

2011-01-01

52

New developments in the treatment of primary insomnia in elderly patients: focus on prolonged-release melatonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Daniel P Cardinali, María F Vidal, Daniel E VigoDepartment of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: A temporal relationship between the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion and the increase in sleep propensity at the beginning of the night, coupled with the sleep-promoting effects of exogenous melatonin, indicate that melatonin is involved in the regulation of sleep. This action is attributed to the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain areas. The sleep-promoting actions of melatonin, which are demonstrable in healthy humans, have been found to be useful in subjects suffering from circadian rhythm sleep disorders and in elderly patients, who had low nocturnal melatonin production and secretion. The effectiveness of melatonin in treating sleep disturbances in these patients is relevant because the sleep-promoting compounds that are usually prescribed, such as benzodiazepines and related drugs, have many adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence, and impairment of memory. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause any hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency concerning its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin used. Thus, attention has been focused either on the development of more potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects or on the design of slow-release melatonin preparations. A prolonged-release preparation of melatonin 2 mg (Circadin® has been approved for the treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged ?55 years in the European Union. This prolonged-release preparation of melatonin had no effect on psychomotor functions, memory recall, or driving skills during the night or the next morning relative to placebo, and was associated with significantly less impairment on many of these tasks relative to zolpidem alone or in combination with prolonged-release melatonin. In 3-week and 6-month randomized, double-blind, clinical trials in patients with primary insomnia aged ?55 years, prolonged-release melatonin was associated with improvements relative to placebo in many sleep and daytime parameters, including sleep quality and latency, morning alertness, and quality of life. Prolonged-release melatonin was very well tolerated in clinical trials in older patients, with a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Short-term or longer-term treatment with prolonged-release melatonin was not associated with dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia, or withdrawal symptoms.Keywords: insomnia, melatonin, Circadin®, clinical trials

Vigo DE

2012-10-01

53

Nocturnal panic attacks  

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Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

Lopes Fabiana L.

2002-01-01

54

Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

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Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

Liang Wang

2014-07-01

55

Melatonin: functions and ligands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a chronobiotic substance that acts as synchronizer by stabilizing bodily rhythms. Its synthesis occurs in various locations throughout the body, including the pineal gland, skin, lymphocytes and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Its synthesis and secretion is controlled by light and dark conditions, whereby light decreases and darkness increases its production. Thus, melatonin is also known as the 'hormone of darkness'. Melatonin and analogs that bind to the melatonin receptors are important because of their role in the management of depression, insomnia, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease (AD), diabetes, obesity, alopecia, migraine, cancer, and immune and cardiac disorders. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action of melatonin in these disorders, which could aid in the design of novel melatonin receptor ligands. PMID:24792719

Singh, Mahaveer; Jadhav, Hemant R

2014-09-01

56

Melatonin in plant organs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The indoleamine melatonin, a well-known animal chemical, has been identified in extracts from several plant species. The function of melatonin in plants is unknown. Two major functions of melatonin in animals are dark signaling and antioxidant protection. Fruit ripening was used as a model physiological process that involves changes in the oxidative status of an organ. Tomato fruits at various stages of ripeness were sampled. Morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy, cv. Violet) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. T5 and Castlemart) organs were collected throughout a light/dark cycle to determine whether melatonin levels increased during the night. No consistent evidence was found that melatonin increased significantly in organs of these plants during the night, as it does in many animals. The melatonin content of the fruits generally increased during ripening up to the mature ripe stage and thereafter as the fruit became over ripe. PMID:11485009

Van Tassel, D L; Roberts, N; Lewy, A; O'Neill, S D

2001-08-01

57

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

OpenAIRE

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferatio...

Murat ?nanç Cengiz; Seda Cengiz; Hom-Lay Wang

2012-01-01

58

Radioimmunoassay for Melatonin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay for melatonin has been developed and used to measure the level of melatonin of male and post-menopausal female patients coming to operation for benign and malignant conditions. The amount of melatonin in the serum of the females was considerably lower than that in males. No difference could be found between patients suffering from benign and malignant conditions. A patient with a non-parenchymatous pineal tumour had considerably lower levels in the serum at three months after surgery and radiotherapy. A further month later melatonin could not be found in samples of serum taken over a 24-hour period. (author)

59

Melatonin, Chronobiology, and Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Invited Speaker Series Melatonin, Chronobiology, and Cancer CONTENTS Introduction...................................................................... 1 Presentation Summaries.................................................. 3 Speaker Biographies and Abstracts.

60

Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preemptive renal transplantation is the method of choice for end stage renal disease in childhood and adolescence. However, without preemptive transplantation, waiting time for kidney transplantation might exceed several years. The poor quality of life and the extremely high morbidity and mortality rates of dialysis patients have led to the development of intensified hemodialysis programs in which the modes of dialysis (short daily, nocturnal intermittent or daily nocturnal) are different. Such programs have been shown to significantly improve several uremia-associated parameters, such as blood pressure, phosphate control, anemia and growth retardation, in both adult and pediatric (children and adolescents) patients and lead to a reduction in medications, including phosphate binders, erythropoietin and antihypertensive agents. Fluid limitations and dietary restrictions can also be lifted. With respect to psychosocial rehabilitation and quality of life, nocturnal intermittent dialysis programs provide a reasonable compromise of all forms of intensified programs. Experiences and practical approaches of our own in-center nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis program in the light of the recent publications are described in this review. PMID:25103600

Thumfart, Julia; Müller, Dominik

2014-08-01

61

Melatonin in the biliary tract and liver: health implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a widely-produced and ubiquitously-distributed molecule with multiple critical functions in all organs and organisms. These functions are mediated by both receptor-mediated and receptor-independent actions of the indole. This survey reviews the reports documenting the presence and function of melatonin in the hepatobiliary system. The published data document the exceptionally high concentrations of melatonin in the bile; herein, we speculate on the significance of these high melatonin levels to the function of the biliary tree. Moreover, we suggest that the elevated concentrations of melatonin in the bile fluid may be a consequence of its recirculation in what is referred to as the enterohepatic circulation. The article also examines the published reports related to melatonin levels in hepatocytes, which appear to be independent of pineal-derived melatonin. In both the biliary system and liver, melatonin provides protection against free radicals in cells of these organs. This is particularly important in these organs since they are under constant assault by highly toxic agents/processes that could compromise their critical physiology. As in other tissues, melatonin provides hepatocytes and cholangiocytes with a buffer against free radicals that are persistently produced and thereby this indole protects against oxidative molecular damage and metabolic dysfunction. Melatonin achieves this protection via the diverse free radical scavenging mechanisms of it and its metabolites (known as the antioxidant cascade), due to its ability to reduce electron leakage from the respiratory complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane (radical avoidance) and as a result of the stimulation of antioxidative enzymes. PMID:24251672

Reiter, Russel J; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A; Manchester, Lucien C; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Dun-Xian

2014-01-01

62

Melatonin feedback on clock genes: a theory involving the proteasome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of 'clock' genes occurs in all tissues, but especially in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, groups of neurons in the brain that regulate circadian rhythms. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland in a circadian manner as influenced by the SCN. There is also considerable evidence that melatonin, in turn, acts on the SCN directly influencing the circadian 'clock' mechanisms. The most direct route by which melatonin could reach the SCN would be via the cerebrospinal fluid of the third ventricle. Melatonin could also reach the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary, another melatonin-sensitive tissue, via this route. The major 'clock' genes include the period genes, Per1 and Per2, the cryptochrome genes, Cry1 and Cry2, the clock (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) gene, and the Bmal1 (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like) gene. Clock and Bmal1 heterodimers act on E-box components of the promoters of the Per and Cry genes to stimulate transcription. A negative feedback loop between the cryptochrome proteins and the nucleus allows the Cry and Per proteins to regulate their own transcription. A cycle of ubiquitination and deubiquitination controls the levels of CRY protein degraded by the proteasome and, hence, the amount of protein available for feedback. Thus, it provides a post-translational component to the circadian clock mechanism. BMAL1 also stimulates transcription of REV-ERB? and, in turn, is also partially regulated by negative feedback by REV-ERB?. In the 'black widow' model of transcription, proteasomes destroy transcription factors that are needed only for a particular period of time. In the model proposed herein, the interaction of melatonin and the proteasome is required to adjust the SCN clock to changes in the environmental photoperiod. In particular, we predict that melatonin inhibition of the proteasome interferes with negative feedback loops (CRY/PER and REV-ERB?) on Bmal1 transcription genes in both the SCN and PT. Melatonin inhibition of the proteasome would also tend to stabilize BMAL1 protein itself in the SCN, particularly at night when melatonin is naturally elevated. Melatonin inhibition of the proteasome could account for the effects of melatonin on circadian rhythms associated with molecular timing genes. The interaction of melatonin with the proteasome in the hypothalamus also provides a model for explaining the dramatic 'time of day' effect of melatonin injections on reproductive status of seasonal breeders. Finally, the model predicts that a proteasome inhibitor such as bortezomib would modify circadian rhythms in a manner similar to melatonin. PMID:25369242

Vriend, Jerry; Reiter, Russel J

2015-01-01

63

Comparative aspects of the pineal/melatonin system of poikilothermic vertebrates.  

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The pineal gland of poikilothermic vertebrates originates as an evagination from the diencephalic roof between the habenular and the posterior commissures, and associates with a parapineal organ to form the so-called pineal complex. The pinealocytes may be photosensitive, secretory or intermediate cells between both. Melatonin, the indoleamine secreted by the pineal, exhibits a circadian secretory rhythm that conveys environmental information to the organism. The peak melatonin secretion occurs during the night, although there are a few examples of an increase in indoleamine secretion during the day. Melatonin is also synthesized in other sites such as the retina, and it has been found in many invertebrates and unicellular organisms. The rhythmic secretory pattern of melatonin is responsible for many biological rhythms exhibited by lower vertebrates. These rhythms are abolished by pinealectomy in some species, but not in others, suggesting the existence of an extra-pineal pacemaker. The photoperiod and the temperature (especially in reptiles) are the main environmental factors affecting the secretory rhythm of melatonin. Poikilothermic vertebrates exhibit a circadian rhythmic color change, with nocturnal blanching, usually related to melatonin secretion. In amphibians, melatonin exhibits a potent skin lightening activity. However, in fishes and reptiles the melatonin effects vary with the species, the developmental stage, and the pigment cell location. Melatonin also exerts inhibitory or excitatory activity on the amphibian reproductive system, regulation of circadian locomotory activity in reptiles, and modulation of the amphibian metamorphosis. Melatonin has also a modulatory effect on the response of target cells to different hormones and high concentrations or prolonged exposure to the indoleamine may cause autodesensitization in various tissues. Binding sites of melatonin have been detected in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of various vertebrates. The relative potencies of melatonin analogues demonstrated two subtypes of melatonin receptors (ML-1 and ML-2). A transmembrane melatonin receptor has been cloned from Xenopus laevis melanophores; it belongs to the family of the G protein-coupled receptors and exhibits 85% homology with the mammalian nervous system receptor. Melatonin binding sites in the nucleus of many cell types and its potent intracellular anti-oxidant action suggest mechanisms of action other than through the G-protein coupled receptor. PMID:8836950

Filadelfi, A M; Castrucci, A M

1996-05-01

64

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hemolytic disorder of acquired origin and is clinically manifested by chronic hemolysis, thromboses in various sites, and bone marrow failure. The disease is so rare that the delay in the diagnosis is not uncommon and this bears a tremendous impact on patient management. We present this case to draw attention to this uncommon cause of hemolytic anemia, which should be considered in any patient, of any age, who has signs of chronic hemolysis. PMID:16082407

Paudyal, B P; Zimmerman, M; Karki, A; Neupane, H; Kayastha, G

2005-01-01

65

Nocturnal cough in asthma.  

OpenAIRE

The timing of nocturnal cough and its association with change in ambient temperature was documented in 11 asthmatic children, median age 5.1 years, while they were receiving continuous prophylaxis. Studies were performed in their homes on three nights. A voice activated system with electronic time signal recorded coughing. Ambient temperature was recorded every five minutes throughout the night on a Grant Squirrel data logger. Ten children coughed on 27 nights with a median of six bouts of co...

Thomson, A. H.; Pratt, C.; Simpson, H.

1987-01-01

66

Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

2014-01-01

67

New evidence for a role of melatonin in glucose regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucose triggers insulin secretion of the pancreatic ?-cells. The pineal hormone melatonin interferes in this process by inhibiting secretion and transmitting circadian timing information to the islets. Circadian insulin secretion is adapted to day/night changes through melatonin-dependent synchronization. In rats and mice, melatonin levels are high during the dark period, which is their active feeding period, while, in humans, melatonin levels are high during the overnight fasting and sleeping period. This implies a different read-out of melatonin signaling in day-active species, including man. Dysregulation of circadian secretion may be a key to the increase of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This review discusses the impact of melatonin on insulin secretion transmitted through both the pertussis-toxin-sensitive membrane receptors MT1 (MTNR1a) and MT2 (MTNR1b) and the second messengers cAMP, cGMP and IP3. This is an important topic since, in several genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human MT2-receptor have been described as being causally linked with an elevated risk of developing T2D. This article summarizes interrelationships between melatonin and insulin in type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats and humans. PMID:21112029

Peschke, Elmar; Mühlbauer, Eckhard

2010-10-01

68

Melatonin pretreatment attenuates diazinon-induced testicular damage in mice  

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Full Text Available Background: Diazinon is one of widely used organophosphrous pesticides, can affect both animals and man even after a single exposure. It has a dual toxicity due to acetylcholinestrase inhibition and formation of free oxygen radicals .So, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of diazinon on the mice testes and the possible protective effect of melatonin. Material and Methods: Male CD-1 adult mice were divided into 6 groups, (1 control group,(2 melatonin group 10mg/kg,(3 diazinon group (30mg/kg, (4 diazinon group (60mg/kg,(5 diazinon 30mg + melatonin and (6 diazinon 60mg/kg + melatonin. Diazinon was orally administrated 1 and 28 days of treatment, whereas, melatonin was administrated intraperitoneally at a single dose. Testicular damage was examined by using hematoxyline and eosin staining. Results: Diazinon treated groups diminished the plasma acetylcholinestrase activity on day 1 of treatment. Morphometrical analysis showed a decrease in seminiferous thickness (day 1 and 28, with increased testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD activity (day28. Melatonin pre-treatment prevented alterations induced by diazinon, except diminution of acetylcholinestrase activity. Conclusion: These results suggest that testicular damage observed post-treatment might be due to elevated concentration of free oxygen radicals (ROS with diazinon while, pretreatment with a single dose of melatonin is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce testicular damage in adult mice probably by decreasing oxidative stress.

El-Mazoudy R. H*. and Abdou H. M

2009-09-01

69

Circadian and melatonin disruption by exposure to light at night drives intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to antiestrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of estrogen receptor (ER?(+)) MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speed the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characteristics were not observed in animals in which the circadian melatonin rhythm was not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775

Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M

2014-08-01

70

Genetic variability of the pattern of night melatonin blood levels in relation to coat changes development in rabbits  

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Full Text Available Abstract To assess the genetic variability in both the nocturnal increase pattern of melatonin concentration and photoresponsiveness in coat changes, an experiment on 422 Rex rabbits (from 23 males raised under a constant light programme from birth was performed. The animals were sampled at 12 weeks of age, according to 4 periods over a year. Blood samples were taken 7 times during the dark phase and up to 1 h after the lighting began. Maturity of the fur was assessed at pelting. Heritability estimates of blood melatonin concentration (0.42, 0.17 and 0.11 at mid-night, 13 and 15 h after lights-out respectively and strong genetic correlations between fur maturity and melatonin levels at the end of the dark phase (-0.64 indicates that (i the variability of the nocturnal pattern of melatonin levels is under genetic control and (ii the duration of the nocturnal melatonin increase is a genetic component of photoresponsiveness in coat changes.

Chemineau Philippe

2004-03-01

71

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

Science.gov (United States)

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

72

Melatonin action in a midbrain vocal-acoustic network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a well-documented time-keeping hormone that can entrain an individual's physiology and behavior to the day-night cycle, though surprisingly little is known about its influence on the neural basis of social behavior, including vocalization. Male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) produce several call types distinguishable by duration and by daily and seasonal cycles in their production. We investigated melatonin's influence on the known nocturnal- and breeding season-dependent increase in excitability of the midshipman's vocal network (VN) that directly patterns natural calls. VN output is readily recorded from the vocal nerve as a 'fictive call'. Five days of constant light significantly increased stimulus threshold levels for calls electrically evoked from vocally active sites in the medial midbrain, supporting previous findings that light suppresses VN excitability, while 2-iodomelatonin (2-IMel; a melatonin analog) implantation decreased threshold. 2-IMel also increased fictive call duration evoked from medial sites as well as lateral midbrain sites that produced several-fold longer calls irrespective of photoregime or drug treatment. When stimulus intensity was incrementally increased, 2-IMel increased duration only at lateral sites, suggesting that melatonin action is stronger in the lateral midbrain. For animals receiving 5 days of constant darkness, known to increase VN excitability, systemic injections of either of two mammalian melatonin receptor antagonists increased threshold and decreased duration for calls evoked from medial sites. Our results demonstrate melatonin modulation of VN excitability and suggest that social context-dependent call types differing in duration may be determined by neuro-hormonal action within specific regions of a midbrain vocal-acoustic network. PMID:24265429

Feng, Ni Y; Bass, Andrew H

2014-04-01

73

Identification of genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes in 'Red Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red) and their expression and melatonin production during fruit development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is present in many edible fruits; however, the presence of melatonin in apple has not previously been reported. In this study, the genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes including tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase were identified in 'Red Fuji' apple. Each gene has several homologous genes. Sequence analysis shows that these genes have little homology with those of animals and they only have limited homology with known genes of rice melatonin synthetic enzymes. Multiple origins of melatonin synthetic genes during the evolution are expected. The expression of these genes is fully coordinated with melatonin production in apple development. Melatonin levels in apple exhibit an inverse relationship with the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Two major melatonin synthetic peaks appeared on July 17 and on October 8 in both unbagged and bagged apple samples. At the periods mentioned above, apples experienced rapid expansion and increased respiration. These episodes significantly elevate reactive oxygen species production in the apple. Current data further confirmed that melatonin produced in apple was used to neutralize the toxic oxidants and protect the developing apple against oxidative stress. PMID:24102635

Lei, Qiong; Wang, Lin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing-Tian; Zuo, Bi-Xiao; Kong, Jin

2013-11-01

74

Effects of different colors of light on melatonin suppression and expression analysis of Aanat1 and melanopsin in the eye of a tropical damselfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocular melatonin production exhibits a daily rhythm with a decrease during photophase and an increase during scotophase (nocturnal pattern) in teleost fish due to day-night changes in the activity of the rate-limiting melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Acute light exposure during scotophase suppresses AANAT activity and melatonin production in the eyes, suggesting that external light signals are a principal regulator of ocular melatonin synthesis. To better understand the photic regulation of ocular melatonin synthesis in teleost fish, this study sought to characterize the effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis in the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, which shows a nocturnal pattern and light-induced inhibition of ocular melatonin production during scotophase. Exposure to three different wavelengths of light (half-peak bandwidth=435-475 nm with a peak of 455 nm, 495-565 nm with a peak of 530 nm, and 607-647 nm with a peak of 627 nm for the blue, green, and red LEDs) for 2h during scotophase resulted in the blue wavelength significantly decreasing ocular melatonin content within 30 min after light exposure. This result clearly indicates that the effective range of visible light on ocular melatonin suppression is distributed within the wavelengths of blue light and that a blue light-sensitive opsin is involved in ocular melatonin suppression in the fish. A PCR-based cloning method revealed the expression of melanopsin, a putative blue light-sensitive nonvisual opsin, in the eyes. Furthermore, in situ hybridization using the sapphire devil Aanat1 and melanopsin RNA probes showed mRNA expressions of both genes in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer of the fish retina. These results suggest that melanopsin is a possible candidate photoreceptor involved in ocular melatonin suppression by an external light signal in the sapphire devil. PMID:24859252

Takeuchi, Yuki; Imamura, Satoshi; Sawada, Yuji; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takemura, Akihiro

2014-08-01

75

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is presented in which MR imaging and CT findings were characteristic. The signal intensity of renal cortex was lower than that of medulla on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging. On CT without contrast enhancement the attenuation of renal cortex was higher than that of renal medulla. These findings at MR imaging and CT were the results of a deposition of hemosiderin in the cells of proximal convoluted tubules, and were helpful for diagnosis of PNH. (orig.)

76

Evaluation And Comparison Of Serum Melatonin Determination In Normal Individuals And Migraine Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic hereditary and relapsing headache. With regard to the prevalence of this ancient disease and its economic complications in country, in this study , nocturnal serum melatonin of migraine patients and control subjects have been evaluated and compared by ELISA kit. Materials and Methods: Fifty migraine patients (mostly women were compared to a control group (mostly men matched according to age. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a decrease in nocturnal serum melatonin levels for migraine patients (32.9 28.4 compared to the control one (75.6 56.8. With using of t-test by ELISA kit showed significant difference (p=0.0064. Conclusion: With regard to this, the pineal gland has the main role in the synchronization of the organism with the environmental conditions and migrainous headaches.

Fooladsaz K

2004-06-01

77

The effect of acute exogenous melatonin on P50 suppression in healthy male volunteers stratified for low and high gating levels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sensory gating is frequently found to be disturbed in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, a disruption of the circadian rhythm together with a low nocturnal melatonin output is regularly found in these patients. Since there is some evidence that a brief period of sleep normalizes sensory gating in schizophrenia patients, it is conceivable that their disrupted melatonin level may contribute to the deficits in P50 suppression. In this initial study, the effects of acutely administered melatonin on sensory gating in healthy subjects were investigated. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 21 healthy male volunteers were administered melatonin (4 mg) or placebo, after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm. In the group as a whole, melatonin did not affect P50 suppression. However, melatonin increased the P50 ratio in the individuals with high baseline suppression. In contrast to what was expected, melatonin reduced P50 suppression, albeit only in those individuals with high baseline suppression. The current study does not support a beneficial effect of acute exposure to exogenous melatonin on sensory gating. Future research should focus on melatonin's ability to restore basic sleep rhythms and its subsequent effects on sensory gating, in both healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia.

Ucar, Ebru; Lehtinen, Emilia K

2012-01-01

78

Influence of eye colors of Caucasians and Asians on suppression of melatonin secretion by light.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment tested effects of human eye pigmentation depending on the ethnicity on suppression of nocturnal melatonin secretion by light. Ten healthy Caucasian males with blue, green, or light brown irises (light-eyed Caucasians) and 11 Asian males with dark brown irises (dark-eyed Asians) volunteered to participate in the study. The mean ages of the light-eyed Caucasians and dark-eyed Asians were 26.4 +/- 3.2 and 25.3 +/- 5.7 years, respectively. The subjects were exposed to light (1,000 lux) for 2 h at night. The starting time of exposure was set to 2 h before the time of peak salivary melatonin concentration of each subject, which was determined in a preliminary experiment. Salivary melatonin concentration and pupil size were measured before exposure to light and during exposure to light. The percentage of suppression of melatonin secretion by light was calculated. The percentage of suppression of melatonin secretion 2 h after the start of light exposure was significantly larger in light-eyed Caucasians (88.9 +/- 4.2%) than in dark-eyed Asians (73.4 +/- 20.0%) (P eyed Caucasians and dark-eyed Asians. These results suggest that sensitivity of melatonin to light suppression is influenced by eye pigmentation and/or ethnicity. PMID:17332164

Higuchi, Shigekazu; Motohashi, Yutaka; Ishibashi, Keita; Maeda, Takafumi

2007-06-01

79

Role of melatonin on diabetes-related metabolic disorders  

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Full Text Available Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It is best known as a regulator of seasonal and circadian rhythms, its levels being high during the night and low during the day. Interestingly, insulin levels are also adapted to day/night changes through melatonin-dependent synchronization. This regulation may be explained by the inhibiting action of melatonin on insulin release, which is transmitted through both the pertussis-toxin-sensitive membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and the second messengers 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Melatonin may influence diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances not only by regulating insulin secretion, but also by providing protection against reactive oxygen species, since pancreatic ?-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. On the other hand, in several genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphysms of the human MT2 receptor have been described as being causally linked to an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This suggests that these individuals may be more sensitive to the actions of melatonin, thereby leading to impaired insulin secretion. Therefore, blocking the melatonin-induced inhibition of insulin secretion may be a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes.

Javier Espino

2011-01-01

80

Role of melatonin on diabetes-related metabolic disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It is best known as a regulator of seasonal and circadian rhythms, its levels being high during the night and low during the day. Interestingly, insulin levels are also adapted to day/night changes through melatonin-dependent synchronization. This regulation may be explained by the inhibiting action of melatonin on insulin release, which is transmitted through both the pertussis-toxin-sensitive membrane receptors MT(1) and MT(2) and the second messengers 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Melatonin may influence diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances not only by regulating insulin secretion, but also by providing protection against reactive oxygen species, since pancreatic ?-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. On the other hand, in several genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphysms of the human MT(2) receptor have been described as being causally linked to an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This suggests that these individuals may be more sensitive to the actions of melatonin, thereby leading to impaired insulin secretion. Therefore, blocking the melatonin-induced inhibition of insulin secretion may be a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes. PMID:21860691

Espino, Javier; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B

2011-06-15

81

Bruxism and nocturnal groaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep bruxism (SB) is a sleep-related movement disorder, characterized by tooth grinding and/or clenching. The causes of SB range from psychosocial factors to an excessive sleep arousal response. Some studies showed that SB episodes during sleep are under the influences of transient activity of the brainstem arousal. Nocturnal groaning (NG) is a parasomnia characterized by an expiratory monotonous vocalization occurring during sleep, especially in REM sleep and during the second half of the night. The pathogenesis of NG remains still unclear and many hypotheses arose, ranging from the persistence of a vestigial ventilatory pattern rather than an expiratory upper airways' obstruction. Sleep microstructure fluctuation might modulate the NG, since the end of the NG episode usually is synchronized with a cortical arousal and an autonomic activation. Further studies should clarify the pathophysiology of SB and NG, especially when the two phenomena are associated. PMID:22205592

Ferini-Strambi, L; Pozzi, P; Manconi, M; Zucconi, M; Oldani, A

2011-12-01

82

[Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder. The most common clinical manifestations of PNH include intravascular hemolysis, venous thrombosis, and bone marrow failure. Hematopoietic stems cells with mutant PIG-A are present in normal marrow, but they are not noticed because they have no advantage under normal circumstances. In the setting of immune-mediated bone marrow injury, such as that seen in aplastic anemia, PIG-A mutant cells are selected because they have a survival advantage based on deficiency of one or more GPI-anchored proteins. Expansion of the PIG-A-mutant clones occurs when other events that enhance the growth properties of the cells work together with the effects of the PIG-A mutation to enhance further the growth properties of the mutant cells. PMID:18330025

Nishimura, Jun-ichi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

2008-03-01

83

Role of Melatonin in Schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that disturbs several cognitive functions, such as memory, thought, perception and volition. Schizophrenia’s biological etiology is multifactorial and is still under investigation. Melatonin has been involved in schizophrenia since the first decades of the twentieth century. Research into melatonin regarding schizophrenia has followed two different approaches. The first approach is related to the use of melatonin as a biological marker. The second approach deals with the clinical applications of melatonin as a drug treatment. In this paper, both aspects of melatonin application are reviewed. Its clinical use in schizophrenia is emphasized.

Armando L. Morera-Fumero

2013-04-01

84

Melatonin und das kardiovaskuläre System  

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Full Text Available Melatonin, das physiologisch bedeutendste Hormon der Epiphyse, zog nicht zuletzt aufgrund zahlreicher populärer Bücher über seine "wundersamen Effekte" die Aufmerksamkeit auf sich. Synthese und Sekretion von Melatonin werden wesentlich durch den Hell/Dunkel-Zyklus beeinflußt: Trifft Licht auf die Retina, so wird die Melatoninsekretion supprimiert. Melatonin beeinflußt endogene zirkadiane Rhythmen sowie Köpertemperatur und Stimmungslage. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das derzeitige Wissen um Interaktionen von Melatonin und dem kardiovaskulären System kritisch beleuchtet. Zusammenfassend muß die Rolle von Melatonin im menschlichen Organismus äußerst kontroversiell betrachtet werden.

Sakotnik A

1999-01-01

85

Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone m...

Hua Dong Yin; Long Zhang; Ming Yao Yang; Huai Liang Xu; Rüdiger Hardeland; David Glenn Smith; Di Yan Li; Qing Zhu

2013-01-01

86

Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D2O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H4>H2>H6>>H7, that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

87

Melatonin phase advances circadian rhythm.  

OpenAIRE

We studied the effect of acute (1 day) and subacute (7 days) treatment with melatonin (0.5 mg) on the endogenous rhythms of melatonin secretion in 12 healthy male volunteers, using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. Melatonin given at 1700 h for 7 days significantly advanced the onset of endogenous melatonin secretion, while a single dose was without effect. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that melatonin plays a role in the organisation of circadian rhythms i...

Attenburrow, Me; Dowling, Ba; Sargent, Pa; Sharpley, Al; Cowen, Pj

1995-01-01

88

Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D2O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H4 > H2 H6 >> H7, enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

89

Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. T [...] his randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were initially recruited for the study. None of the participants had a history of disease exacerbation 4 weeks prior to the study, obstructive sleep apnea, mental disorders, current use of oral steroids, methylxanthines or hypnotic-sedative medication, nocturnal oxygen therapy, and shift work. Patients received 3 mg melatonin (N = 12) or placebo (N = 13), orally in a single dose, 1 h before bedtime for 21 consecutive days. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Pulmonary function and functional exercise level were assessed by spirometry and the 6-min walk test, respectively. Twenty-five patients completed the study protocol and were included in the final analysis. Melatonin treatment significantly improved global PSQI scores (P = 0.012), particularly sleep latency (P = 0.008) and sleep duration (P = 0.046). No differences in daytime sleepiness, lung function and functional exercise level were observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in COPD. Further long-term studies involving larger number of patients are needed before melatonin can be safely recommended for the management of sleep disturbances in these patients.

D.M., Nunes; R.M.S., Mota; M.O., Machado; E.D.B., Pereira; V.M.S., de Bruin; P.F.C., de Bruin.

2008-10-01

90

Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

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Full Text Available Disturbed sleep is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Conventional hypnotics worsen nocturnal hypoxemia and, in severe cases, can lead to respiratory failure. Exogenous melatonin has somnogenic properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep in several clinical conditions. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effects of melatonin on sleep in COPD. Thirty consecutive patients with moderate to very severe COPD were initially recruited for the study. None of the participants had a history of disease exacerbation 4 weeks prior to the study, obstructive sleep apnea, mental disorders, current use of oral steroids, methylxanthines or hypnotic-sedative medication, nocturnal oxygen therapy, and shift work. Patients received 3 mg melatonin (N = 12 or placebo (N = 13, orally in a single dose, 1 h before bedtime for 21 consecutive days. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Pulmonary function and functional exercise level were assessed by spirometry and the 6-min walk test, respectively. Twenty-five patients completed the study protocol and were included in the final analysis. Melatonin treatment significantly improved global PSQI scores (P = 0.012, particularly sleep latency (P = 0.008 and sleep duration (P = 0.046. No differences in daytime sleepiness, lung function and functional exercise level were observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in COPD. Further long-term studies involving larger number of patients are needed before melatonin can be safely recommended for the management of sleep disturbances in these patients.

D.M. Nunes

2008-10-01

91

Melatonin for the newborn  

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Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases during the perinatal and neonatal period. Melatonin, an effective direct free-radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant agent, diffuses through biological membranes easily and exerts pleiotropic actions on every cell. Several studies have tested the efficacy of melatonin to counteract oxidative damage in diseases of newborn such as chronic lung disease, perinatal brain injury, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, giving promising results. The peculiar perinatal susceptibility to oxidative stress indicates that prophylactic use of antioxidants as melatonin could help to prevent or at least reduce oxidative stress related diseases in newborns. However, more studies are needed to confirm these beneficial effects. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

Lucia Marseglia

2014-06-01

92

Role of circadian rhythm and endogenous melatonin in pathogenesis of acute gastric bleeding erosions induced by stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress that appears as a consequence of burns, surgical trauma and life threatening conditions is a serious clinical entity, can result in acute gastric mucosal lesions. Such stress lesions can develop in response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and enhanced mucus/bicarbonate secretion. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin is released during the night but little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm and day/night alterations in melatonin secretion on the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. It was found that the gastric mucosa exposed to WRS of various time duration's lasting 1.5, 3 and 6 h, time-dependently increased the number of gastric lesions and this effect was accompanied by the time-dependent fall in the GBF and an increase in the plasma and luminal melatonin levels. Pinealectomy augmented WRS-induced lesions at each time intervals of WRS and produced a marked fall in the GBF and plasma and luminal melatonin levels at each time interval of WRS tested. WRS lesions were significantly reduced at night hours and showed circadian variations in plasma levels melatonin with significantly higher plasma melatonin levels at night than in the day and with a greater magnitude of damage induced in the daily hours than at night hours. WRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions were markedly enhanced in pinealectomized rats, both at day and night, and this was accompanied by a significant fall in plasma melatonin levels Stress that appears as a consequence of burns, surgical trauma and life threatening conditions is a serious clinical entity, can result in acute gastric mucosal lesions. Such stress lesions can develop in response to the imbalance between the aggressive factors promoting mucosal damage and the gastric mucosal defense mechanisms including predominantly gastric blood flow (GBF), biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandins (PG) and enhanced mucus/bicarbonate secretion. Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, whose activity is also abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, was shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion, augment GBF and scavenge free radicals, resulting in the attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin is released during the night but little is known about the effect of circadian rhythm and day/night alterations in melatonin secretion on the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. Using rats with intact pineal glands and those with removed pineal glands (pinealectomy) exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) at both, day and night hours, we studied the effect of light and nocturnal melatonin on the formation of these lesions, and accompanying changes in GBF and plasma melatonin levels. It was found that the gastric mucosa exposed to WRS of various time duration's lasting 1.5, 3 and 6 h, time-dependently increased the number of gastric lesions and this effect was accompanied by the time-dependent fall in the GBF and an increase in the plasma and luminal melatonin levels. Pinealectomy augmented WRS-induced lesions at each time intervals of WRS and produced a marked fall in the GBF and plasma and luminal melatonin levels at each time interval of WRS tested. WRS lesions were significantly reduced at night hours and showed circadian variations in plasma levels melatonin with significantly higher plasma melatonin levels at night than in

Brzozowski, T; Zwirska-Korczala, K; Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Sliwowski, Z; Pawlik, M; Kwiecien, S; Drozdowicz, D; Mazurkiewicz-Janik, M; Bielanski, W; Pawlik, W W

2007-12-01

93

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The absence of two glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, CD55 and CD59, leads to uncontrolled complement activation that accounts for hemolysis and other PNH manifestations. GPI anchor protein deficiency is almost always due to somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA), a gene involved in the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis; however, alternative mutations that cause PNH have recently been discovered. In addition, hypomorphic germ-line PIGA mutations that do not cause PNH have been shown to be responsible for a condition known as multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2. Eculizumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits terminal complement, is the treatment of choice for patients with severe manifestations of PNH. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only cure for PNH but should be reserved for patients with suboptimal response to eculizumab. PMID:25237200

Brodsky, Robert A

2014-10-30

94

[Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria].  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells. PNH is related to a somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIG-A), X-linked gene, responsible for a deficiency in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-AP). The lack of one of the GPI-AP complement regulatory proteins (CD59) leads to haemolysis. The disease is diagnosed with haemolytic anemia, marrow failure or episodes of venous thrombosis. The diagnosis is based on flow cytometry, which allowed direct quantification of the GPI-AP-deficient cells. From earlier descriptions, the clinical polymorphism of PNH has been recognized by two presentations; one form, predominantly haemolytic without overt marrow failure, referred to classic PNH and the other one, with marrow failure, was often described as the aplastic anemia PNH syndrome (AA-PNH). Thromboses remain a major life threatening complication affecting outcomes in both disease subcategories. Thrombotic events are characterized by involvement of unusual sites (hepatic, mesenteric, cerebral, dermal veins). In classic PNH, recent studies have focused on inhibiting the complement cascade with encouraging clinical results using eculizumab, a C5-inhibitor humanized monoclonal antibody. Concerning the AA-PNH syndrome, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the reference treatment in young patients with a sibling donor. Immunosuppressive therapy remains an important treatment modality in this subcategory for patients without a donor or ineligible for BMT. Recurrent thrombotic events remains even now associated with bad prognosis, whatever the form of the disease. PMID:19303177

Peffault de Latour, R; Amoura, Z; Socié, G

2010-03-01

95

Resynchronization of blood pressure circadian rhythm after westward trans-7-meridian flight with and without melatonin treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood pressure (BP) of a healthy 37-yr-old male traveling from Milan to Houston was monitored for 36 h before the flight and continued for 5 d after the arrival. The rhythmometric analysis of BP data was made to investigate the rate of adaptation to a rapid rest-activity cycle shift. Since two trips were evaluated, during the second one the subject took melatonin (3 mg) before the nocturnal rest. In the first trip the BP circadian rhythm synchronization occurred on the 5th day. In the second trip melatonin promoted an immediate but unstable adaptation to the new rest-activity cycle. PMID:11277289

Barattini, P; Dolci, C; Montaruli, A; Roveda, E; Carandente, F

2001-03-01

96

Endogenous melatonin and oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant body of literature indicates that melatonin, a hormone primarily produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an important scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Melatonin may also lower the rate of DNA base damage resulting from hydroxyl radical attack and increase the rate of repair of that damage. This paper reports the results of a study relating the level of overnight melatonin production to the overnight excretion of the two primary urinary metabolites of the repair of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA. Methods Mother-father-daughter(s families (n = 55 were recruited and provided complete overnight urine samples. Total overnight creatinine-adjusted 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s/Cr has been shown to be highly correlated with total overnight melatonin production. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoGua results from the repair of DNA or RNA guanine via the nucleobase excision repair pathway, while urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG may possibly result from the repair of DNA guanine via the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Total overnight urinary levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua are therefore a measure of total overnight guanine DNA damage. 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay. The mother, father, and oldest sampled daughter were used for these analyses. Comparisons between the mothers, fathers, and daughters were calculated for aMT6s/Cr, 8-oxodG, and 8-oxoGua. Regression analyses of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua on aMT6s/Cr were conducted for mothers, fathers, and daughters separately, adjusting for age and BMI (or weight. Results Among the mothers, age range 42-80, lower melatonin production (as measured by aMT6s/CR was associated with significantly higher levels of 8-oxodG (p Conclusion Low levels of endogenous melatonin production among older individuals may lead to higher levels of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA, thereby possibly increasing the risk of developing cancer. The possible different effects of melatonin in the rates of utilization of pathways for repair of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA identified between older women and older men are intriguing.

Poulsen Henrik E

2009-10-01

97

Protecting the Melatonin Rhythm through Circadian Healthy Light Exposure  

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Full Text Available Currently, in developed countries, nights are excessively illuminated (light at night, whereas daytime is mainly spent indoors, and thus people are exposed to much lower light intensities than under natural conditions. In spite of the positive impact of artificial light, we pay a price for the easy access to light during the night: disorganization of our circadian system or chronodisruption (CD, including perturbations in melatonin rhythm. Epidemiological studies show that CD is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes, obesity, heart disease, cognitive and affective impairment, premature aging and some types of cancer. Knowledge of retinal photoreceptors and the discovery of melanopsin in some ganglion cells demonstrate that light intensity, timing and spectrum must be considered to keep the biological clock properly entrained. Importantly, not all wavelengths of light are equally chronodisrupting. Blue light, which is particularly beneficial during the daytime, seems to be more disruptive at night, and induces the strongest melatonin inhibition. Nocturnal blue light exposure is currently increasing, due to the proliferation of energy-efficient lighting (LEDs and electronic devices. Thus, the development of lighting systems that preserve the melatonin rhythm could reduce the health risks induced by chronodisruption. This review addresses the state of the art regarding the crosstalk between light and the circadian system.

Maria Angeles Bonmati-Carrion

2014-12-01

98

Nocturnal polyuria in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis refractory to desmopressin treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The transition from day to night is associated with a pronounced decline in diuresis with reductions in the amount of excreted water, electrolytes, and other end products of our metabolism. Failure to do so leads to a large urine output at night, a condition known as nocturnal polyuria, encountered in a large proportion of children with nocturnal enuresis. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the nocturnal polyuria seen in enuretics with inadequate response to desmopressin (dDAVP). Forty-six enuretics (7-14 yr of age) and fifteen age-matched controls were admitted for a 24-h protocol with standardized fluid and sodium intake, comprising urine collections, blood sampling, and blood pressure monitoring. We included patients with severe enuresis (5 +/- 1 wet nights/wk) showing

Kamperis, K; Rittig, S

2006-01-01

99

Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress, liver damage and hepatocyte apoptosis after bile-duct ligation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of melatonin against cholestatic oxidative stress, liver damage and hepatocyte apoptosis in the common rats with bile duct ligation (BDL). A total of 24 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, BDL and BDL + received melatonin; each group contains eight animals. Melatonin-treated BDL rats received daily melatonin 100 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injection. The application of BDL clearly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. Melatonin treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA levels and increased the reduced SOD and GSH enzyme levels in the tissues. The changes demonstrate that the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts include the extension of proliferated bile ducts into lobules, mononuclear cells and neutrophil infiltration into the widened portal areas as observed in the BDL group. The data indicate that melatonin attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis. The ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the melatonin treatment. These results suggest that administration of melatonin is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce liver damage in BDL by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:23095487

Aktas, Cevat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Mete, Rafet; Oran, Mustafa

2014-10-01

100

Modulation of antioxidant status, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by melatonin on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Melatonin, “synchronizer of the biological clock” is major hormones secreted from the pineal gland have various therapeutic effects. The present study was designed to explore the modulatory effect of melatonin on antioxidant status, glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin (STZ (40 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 30 days. Body weight, blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolic enzyme, lipid profile, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation status were assessed. The level of the blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and lipid peroxidative marker (TBARS were increased in STZ induced diabetic rats while the melatonin treatment revert back to the near normal condition. In contrast, administered melatonin resulted in an increased in body weight and insulin secretion in diabetic rats. The enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPX and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E were also increased by melatonin treatment. The cholesterol and phospholipids which were elevated in diabetic rats were normalized by the melatonin administration. Hence these findings indicate that melatonin protects against STZ induced oxidative stress and thus explain its use in treatment of diabetes by modulating lipid and glucose metabolism.

Mirunalini Sankaran*

2012-08-01

101

Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System  

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Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

Juan M. Guerrero

2013-04-01

102

Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night. PMID:15070533

Basner, M; Samel, A

2004-01-01

103

Karanl???n hormonu: Melatonin  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) hormonu pineal bez ve retina ba?ta olmak üzere çe?itli periferik organ ve dokularda sentezlenir. Melatonin sekresyonunun endojen ritmi suprakiazmatik nukleus taraf?ndan düzenlenir ve karanl?k ayd?nl?k siklüsü ile sürdürülür. Melatonin di?er hormonlar?n regülasyonunu ve organizman?n sirkadyen ritmini düzenler. Amfofilik yap?s? ve küçük moleküllü olmas? nedeniyle organizmada yayg?n da??l?m gösterir, hücresel kompartmanla...

Göksel ?ener

2010-01-01

104

Melatonin Poisoning: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin, also known chemically as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is produced in the pineal gland from the precursor tryptophan and secreted into the blood. Its exogenous forms are used for the treatment of sleep disorders and jet lag. Melatonin is sold as a sleep drug at pharmacies in Turkey and throughout the world. In this study, we present a case of attempted suicide by the ingestion of melatonin.

Mehmet Gül

2012-10-01

105

Melatonin Poisoning: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin, also known chemically as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is produced in the pineal gland from the precursor tryptophan and secreted into the blood. Its exogenous forms are used for the treatment of sleep disorders and jet lag. Melatonin is sold as a sleep drug at pharmacies in Turkey and throughout the world. In this study, we present a case of attempted suicide by the ingestion of melatonin.

Mehmet Gül; Cesareddin Dikmeta?; Ba?ar Cander; Akif O?nal, M.; Defne Du?ndar, Z.; At?f Harmankaya

2012-01-01

106

Role of Melatonin in Schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that disturbs several cognitive functions, such as memory, thought, perception and volition. Schizophrenia’s biological etiology is multifactorial and is still under investigation. Melatonin has been involved in schizophrenia since the first decades of the twentieth century. Research into melatonin regarding schizophrenia has followed two different approaches. The first approach is related to the use of melatonin as a biological marker. The second a...

Morera-fumero, Armando L.; Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez

2013-01-01

107

Melatonin and type 2 diabetes - a possible link?  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine the existence of melatonin membrane receptors and to examine the mRNA expression of nuclear orphan receptors in human pancreatic tissue, in an effort to explain differences between type 2 diabetic and metabolically healthy patients. Molecular and immunocytochemical investigations established the presence of the melatonin membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 in human pancreatic tissue and, notably, also in the islets of Langerhans. Results of a calculation model to determine mRNA expression ratios, as well as subjective analysis of immunoreactions, showed elevated MT1 receptor expression in comparison with MT2 expression. mRNA transcript levels of melatonin receptors appeared to be significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in a control group. An upregulation of receptor expression in type 2 diabetic patients was also observed in immunocytochemical investigations. In addition, transcripts of the nuclear orphan receptors RORalpha, RZRbeta, RORgamma and RevErbalpha were detected in human pancreatic tissue and islets. In correlation with membrane melatonin receptors, data indicate increased mRNA expression levels of RORalpha, RZRbeta, and RORgamma in type 2 diabetic patients. Thus, our data demonstrate the existence of the melatonin membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 as well as mRNA expression of nuclear orphan receptors in human pancreatic tissue, with upregulated expression levels in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:17439551

Peschke, Elmar; Stumpf, Ina; Bazwinsky, Ivonne; Litvak, Liudmila; Dralle, Henning; Mühlbauer, Eckhard

2007-04-01

108

Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

Hua Dong Yin

2013-05-01

109

Melatonin receptor genes in vertebrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

2013-01-01

110

Nocturnal Autonomic Balance and Sleep in PTSD and Resilience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with heightened nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal and sleep disturbances. It has been suggested that relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity are influenced by insomnia; however, investigation of this relationship has been limited in PTSD. This study examined nocturnal ANS activity and its relationship to sleep in PTSD and resilience. Physically healthy young adult African Americans with current PTSD (n = 20) or who had never had PTSD despite exposure to a high-impact traumatic event (resilient, n = 18) were monitored with ambulatory electrocardiograms and actigraphy for 24-hr periods. Frequency-domain heart-rate variability measures, that is, low-frequency to high-frequency ratios (LF/HF), which index sympathetic nervous system activity, and normalized HF (nHF), which indexes parasympathetic nervous system activity were examined. Normalized HF during the time-in-bed period was lower for those with PTSD than those with resilience (p = .041). Total sleep time was strongly correlated with time-in-bed LF/HF (r = -.72) and nHF (r = .75) in the resilient group, but these were not correlated in the PTSD group. The results suggest elevated nocturnal ANS arousal and dissociation between ANS activity and total sleep time in PTSD. PMID:25403523

Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

2014-12-01

111

Hepatoprotective actions of melatonin: Possible mediation by melatonin receptors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin, the hormone of darkness and messenger of the photoperiod, is also well known to exhibit strong direct and indirect antioxidant properties. Melatonin has previously been demonstrated to be a powerful organ protective substance in numerous models of injury; these beneficial effects have been attributed to the hormone’s intense radical scavenging capacity. The present report reviews the hepatoprotective potential of the pineal hormone in various models of oxidative stress in vivo, and summarizes the extensive literature showing that melatonin may be a suitable experimental substance to reduce liver damage after sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia/reperfusion, and in numerous models of toxic liver injury. Melatonin’s influence on hepatic antioxidant enzymes and other potentially relevant pathways, such as nitric oxide signaling, hepatic cytokine and heat shock protein expression, are evaluated. Based on recent literature demonstrating the functional relevance of melatonin receptor activation for hepatic organ protection, this article finally suggests that melatonin receptors could mediate the hepatoprotective actions of melatonin therapy.

Alexander M Mathes

2010-12-01

112

Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland  

OpenAIRE

Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processe...

Kristian Rohde; Xf Ller, Morten M.; Martin Fredensborg Rath

2014-01-01

113

Increased melatonin synthesis in pineal glands of rats in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well-documented that melatonin influences insulin secretion. The effects are mediated by specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled membrane receptors (MT(1) as well MT(2)), which are present in both the pancreatic tissue and islets of rats and humans, as well as in rat insulinoma cells (INS1). Via the Gi-protein-adenylatecyclase-3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and, possibly, the guanylatecyclase-cGMP pathways, melatonin decreases insulin secretion, whereas, by activating the Gq-protein-phospholipase C-IP(3) pathway, it has the opposite effect. For further analysis of the interactions between melatonin and insulin, diabetic rats were investigated with respect to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and plasma insulin levels. In this context, recent investigations have proven that type 2 diabetic rats and humans display decreased melatonin levels, whereas type 1 diabetic IDDM rats or those with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) of the present study show increased plasma melatonin levels and elevated AA-NAT-mRNA. Furthermore, the mRNA of pineal insulin receptors and beta1-adrenoceptors, including the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 and the clock-controlled output gene Dbp, increases in both young and middle-aged STZ rats. The results therefore indicate that the decreased insulin levels in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes are associated with higher melatonin plasma levels. In good agreement with earlier investigations, it was shown that the elevated insulin levels observed in type 2 diabetes, are associated with decreased melatonin levels. The results thus prove that a melatonin-insulin antagonism exists. Astonishingly, notwithstanding the drastic metabolic disturbances in STZ-diabetic rats, the diurnal rhythms of the parameters investigated are maintained. PMID:18624957

Peschke, Elmar; Wolgast, Sabine; Bazwinsky, Ivonne; Pönicke, Klaus; Muhlbauer, Eckhard

2008-11-01

114

Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

Juutilainen, J (Kuopio, University of); Stevens, Richard G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hansen, Norman H.(WAVEID); Kilpelainen, M (Kuopio, University of); Kumlin, T (Kuopio, University of); Laitinen, J T.(Kuopio, University of); Sobell, Eugene (Southern California, Univ Of); Wilson, Bary W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-03-15

115

The Effects of Red and Blue Lights on Circadian Variations in Cortisol, Alpha Amylase, and Melatonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to expand our understanding of the impact of light exposures on the endocrine and autonomic systems as measured by acute cortisol, alpha amylase, and melatonin responses. We utilized exposures from narrowband long-wavelength (red and from narrow-band short-wavelength (blue lights to more precisely understand the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN in these responses. In a within-subjects experimental design, twelve subjects periodically received one-hour corneal exposures of 40 lux from the blue or from the red lights while continuously awake for 27 hours. Results showed-that, as expected, only the blue light reduced nocturnal melatonin. In contrast, both blue and red lights affected cortisol levels and, although less clear, alpha amylase levels as well. The present data bring into question whether the nonvisual pathway mediating nocturnal melatonin suppression is the same as that mediating other responses to light exhibited by the endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems.

Mark S. Rea

2010-01-01

116

Effects of orexigenic peptides and leptin on melatonin secretion during different photoperiods in seasonal breeding ewes: an in vitro study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland (PG) acts as a neuroendocrine transducer of daily and seasonal time through the nocturnal release of melatonin. Here, we examined the interaction of season, orexin, ghrelin, and leptin on melatonin secretion by pineal explants in short-term culture. Glands were collected after sunset from 12 ewes during long days (LD; April and May) and from an additional 12 ewes during short days (SD; October and November). Glands were transected sagittally into strips, with each equilibrated in 2.5 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium for 60 min, followed by a 2-h incubation in control medium or medium containing orexin B (10 and 100 ng/mL), ghrelin (10 and 100 ng/mL), or 50 ng/mL of leptin. After a 3-h incubation, some PG explants treated previously with lower doses of orexin or ghrelin were challenged with 50 ng/mL of leptin and those treated with both doses of orexin were challenged with 300 nM of the ?-agonist isoproterenol. One milliliter of medium was harvested and replaced from each well every 30 min. Treatment with the low dose of orexin during LD increased melatonin secretion about 110% (P<0.01); treatment with a high dose increased melatonin secretion about 47% (P<0.001). During the SD period, leptin stimulated (P < 0.05) melatonin secretion slightly compared with mean melatonin concentration in controls. However, together, orexin and leptin depressed (P<0.01) melatonin secretion. Both doses of ghrelin reduced (P < 0.01) melatonin concentration during the SD season compared with control culture. Addition of ghrelin and leptin to culture medium increased (P<0.01) melatonin concentration compared with ghrelin-treated culture and decreased melatonin concentration (P<0.01) compared with leptin-treated culture during SD. Isoproterenol stimulated (P<0.01) melatonin secretion compared with values observed during the pretreatment period. We conclude that orexigenic peptides (orexin B and ghrelin) and an anorectic peptide (leptin) affect PG directly. The responses of PG to those hormones depend on day length. Moreover, secretion of melatonin from the ovine PG is under an adrenergic regulation. PMID:21185681

Zieba, D A; Kirsz, K; Molik, E; Romanowicz, K; Wojtowicz, A K

2011-04-01

117

Characterization of human melatonin synthesis using autoptic pineal tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes rhythmically the hormone melatonin, which provides the body with a signal coding the duration of the night period. The ultimate enzymatic step in melatonin synthesis is achieved by the hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT); the rate-limiting enzyme is, however, the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT). In contrast to the central importance of a transcriptional regulation of the Aa-nat gene for rodent melatonin synthesis, mechanisms in the human pineal gland are elusive. Therefore, pineal tissue, taken from regular autopsies (n = 69; postmortem intervals ranging from 9 to 147 h) was analyzed simultaneously for Aa-nat and Hiomt mRNA levels by PCR, AA-NAT activity using (14)C-acetyl-coenzyme A, HIOMT activity using S-adenosyl-l-[(14)C]-methionine, and melatonin content using an ELISA. Results were allocated to asserted time-of-death groups (day, 1,000 to 1,630 h; dusk, 1,630 to 2,200 h; night, 2,200 to 0730 h; dawn, 0730 to 1,000 h). RNA degradation rates of genes of interest ran in parallel, and, therefore, data normalization could be established, regardless of postmortem delay in tissue sampling. Aa-nat and Hiomt mRNA and HIOMT activity showed no diurnal rhythm. In contrast, a significant rhythm was found for the correlation between time of death and both AA-NAT activity and melatonin content, with elevated values during dusk and night. Presented data demonstrate that postmortem brain tissue can be used to detect the remnant of premortem adaptive changes in neuronal activity. In particular, our results give strong experimental support for the idea that transcriptional mechanisms are not dominant for the generation of rhythmic melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland. PMID:16556767

Ackermann, Katrin; Bux, Roman; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner; Kauert, Gerold; Stehle, Jörg H

2006-07-01

118

Regularly scheduled, day-time, slow-onset 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure does not depress serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments conducted with laboratory rodents indicate that exposure to 60 Hz electric fields or magnetic fields can suppress nocturnal melatonin concentrations in pineal gland and blood. In three experiments employing three field-exposed and three sham-exposed nonhuman primates, each implanted with an indwelling venous cannula to allow repeated blood sampling, the authors studied the effects of either 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) on serum melatonin patterns. The fields were ramped on and off slowly, so that no transients occurred. Extensive quality control for the melatonin assay, computerized control and monitoring of field intensities, and consistent exposure protocols were used. No changes in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration resulted from 6 weeks of day-time exposure with slow field onset/offset and a highly regular exposure protocol. These results indicate that, under the conditions tested, day-time exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in combination does not result in melatonin suppression in primates.

Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

119

Effect of indomethacin on desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria and nocturnal enuresis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We evaluated the acute effect of indomethacin on renal water and solute handling in children with coexisting monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria, and in healthy controls.

Kamperis, Konstantinos; Rittig, SØren

2012-01-01

120

The effect of night illumination, red and infrared light, on locomotor activity, behaviour and melatonin of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to determine a non-invasive nocturnal lighting system for the behavioural observation of a highly light sensitive species, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Locomotor activity, four types of behaviour and plasma melatonin were analysed in groups of 12 adult Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) reared in captivity and held under four night illumination treatments: total darkness (control), high 50lux intensity red light (group RH), low 5lux intensity red light (group RL) and infrared light (group IR). All groups experienced the same conditions during the day (lights on from 07:00 to 19:00) with white lighting of 125lux. Clarity of video images taken at night for the observation of fish behaviour were ranked as follows: group RH>RL>IR>control. All treatments presented a daily rhythm in locomotor activity with high activity from 14:00 to 18:00 and low activity from 21:00 to 12:00. The sole exposed to the high intensity red light at night appeared to be disturbed as during the low nocturnal locomotor activity period group RH presented higher activity and significantly higher nocturnal behaviour related to escape or fear than was observed in the other groups. The groups control, RL and IR exhibited similar levels of nocturnal locomotor activity and nocturnal behaviour related to escape or fear. Plasma melatonin, at mid-dark was not significantly different between the control and groups RL and IR, while melatonin was significantly lower in group RH compared to the control. The authors recommended low intensity red night illumination for the non-invasive study of nocturnal behaviour of Senegalese sole adults. PMID:23711567

Carazo, I; Norambuena, F; Oliveira, C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Duncan, N J

2013-06-13

121

Hepatoprotective actions of melatonin: Possible mediation by melatonin receptors  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin, the hormone of darkness and messenger of the photoperiod, is also well known to exhibit strong direct and indirect antioxidant properties. Melatonin has previously been demonstrated to be a powerful organ protective substance in numerous models of injury; these beneficial effects have been attributed to the hormone’s intense radical scavenging capacity. The present report reviews the hepatoprotective potential of the pineal hormone in various models of oxidative stress in vivo, a...

Mathes, Alexander M.

2010-01-01

122

Mood Disorders, Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists  

OpenAIRE

Recent advances in the understanding of circadian rhythms have led to an interest in the treatment of major depressive disorder with chronobiotic agents. Many tissues have autonomous circadian rhythms, which are orchestrated by the master clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC). Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is secreted from the pineal gland during darkness. Melatonin acts mainly on MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SNC, regulating physiological and neuro...

Quera Salva, M. A.; Hartley, S.

2012-01-01

123

The organization of melatonin in lipid membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a hormone that has been shown to have protective effects in several diseases that are associated with cholesterol dysregulation, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and certain types of cancers. We studied the interaction of melatonin with model membranes made of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at melatonin concentrations ranging from 0.5mol% to 30mol%. From 2-dimensional X-ray diffraction measurements, we find that melatonin induces a re-ordering of the lipid membrane that is strongly dependent on the melatonin concentration. At low melatonin concentrations, we observe the presence of melatonin-enriched patches in the membrane, which are significantly thinner than the lipid bilayer. The melatonin molecules were found to align parallel to the lipid tails in these patches. At high melatonin concentrations of 30mol%, we observe a highly ordered melatonin structure that is uniform throughout the membrane, where the melatonin molecules align parallel to the bilayers and one melatonin molecule associates with 2 lipid molecules. Understanding the organization and interactions of melatonin in membranes, and how these are dependent on the concentration, may shed light into its anti-amyloidogenic, antioxidative and photoprotective properties and help develop a structural basis for these properties. PMID:25602914

Dies, Hannah; Cheung, Bonnie; Tang, Jennifer; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

2015-04-01

124

Melatonin in pathogenesis and therapy of cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted by the pineal gland to transduce the body?s circadian rhythms. An internal 24 hour time keeping system (biological clock regulated by melatonin, controls the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin production is a highly conserved evolutionary phenomenon. The indole hormone is synthesized in the pinealocytes derived from photoreceptors. Altered patterns and/or levels of melatonin secretion have been reported to coincide with sleep disorders, jetlag, depression, stress, reproductive activities, some forms of cancer and immunological disorders. Lately, the physiological and pathological role of melatonin has become a priority area of investigation, particularly in breast cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, lung cancer and leukemia. According to the ?melatonin hypothesis? of cancer, the exposure to light at night (LAN and anthropogenic electric and magnetic fields (EMFs is related to the increased incidence of breast cancer and childhood leukaemia via melatonin disruption. Melatonin?s hypothermic, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, attribute it to an immunomodulator and an oncostatic agent as well. Many clinical studies have envisaged the potential therapeutic role of melatonin in various pathophysiological disorders, particularly cancer. A substantial reduction in risk of death and low adverse effects were reported from various randomized controlled trials of melatonin treatment in cancer patients. This review summarizes the physiological significance of melatonin and its potential role in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the article focuses on melatonin hypothesis to represent the cause-effect relationship of the three aspects: EMF, LAN and cancer.

Ravindra T

2006-12-01

125

Melatonin, endocrine pancreas and diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin influences insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. (i) The effects are MT(1)-and MT(2)-receptor-mediated. (ii) They are specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G(i)-protein-coupled, leading to inhibition of the cAMP-pathway and decrease of insulin release. [Correction added after online publication 4 December 2007: in the preceding sentence, 'increase of insulin release' was changed to 'decrease of insulin release'.] Furthermore, melatonin inhibits the cGMP-pathway, possibly mediated by MT(2) receptors. In this way, melatonin likely inhibits insulin release. A third system, the IP(3)-pathway, is mediated by G(q)-proteins, phospholipase C and IP(3), which mobilize Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, with a resultant increase in insulin. (iii) Insulin secretion in vivo, as well as from isolated islets, exhibits a circadian rhythm. This rhythm, which is apparently generated within the islets, is influenced by melatonin, which induces a phase shift in insulin secretion. (iv) Observation of the circadian expression of clock genes in the pancreas could possibly be an indication of the generation of circadian rhythms in the pancreatic islets themselves. (v) Melatonin influences diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances. The diabetogens, alloxan and streptozotocin, lead to selective destruction of beta-cells through their accumulation in these cells, where they induce the generation of ROS. Beta-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. Results suggest that melatonin in pharmacological doses provides protection against ROS. (vi) Finally, melatonin levels in plasma, as well as the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, are lower in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats and humans. In contrast, in the pineal gland, the AANAT mRNA is increased and the insulin receptor mRNA is decreased, which indicates a close interrelationship between insulin and melatonin. PMID:18078445

Peschke, Elmar

2008-01-01

126

Melatonin and human skin aging  

OpenAIRE

Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in ski...

Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.

2012-01-01

127

The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. Ht day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

128

Tritiation of melatonin by several methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hormone melatonin acts at several G protein-linked receptors to cause a myriad of significant physiological effects. The tritiation of melatonin at high specific activity and characterization of it with tritium NMR for biological testing is reported. (author)

129

Melatonin formation in mammals: In vivo perspectives  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland specifically at night and contributes to a wide array of physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin is one of the most well understood output of the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Melatonin synthesis is controlled distally via the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and proximally regulated by norepinephrine released in response to the circadian clock signals. To understand melatonin synthesis...

Chattoraj, Asamanja; Liu, Tiecheng; Zhang, Liang Samantha; Huang, Zheping; Borjigin, Jimo

2009-01-01

130

Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 250C during summer and about 200C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s-1 and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin

131

Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs

132

Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a, which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

José Antonio Muñoz-Cueto

2013-04-01

133

Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass) in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day-night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a), which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day-night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass. PMID:23567273

Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Del Carmen Rendón, María; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

2013-01-01

134

Increased Melatonin and Delayed Offset in Menopausal Depression: Role of Years Past Menopause, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Sleep End Time, and Body Mass Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The constellation of endocrine patterns accompanying menopausal depression remains incompletely characterized. Objective: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the amplitude or phase (timing) of melatonin circadian rhythms differs in menopausal depressed patients (DP) vs. normal controls women (NC). Design: We measured plasma melatonin every 30 min from 1800–1000 h in dim light (<30 lux) or dark, serum gonadotropins and steroids (1800 and 0600 h), and mood (Hamilton and Beck depression ratings). Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital. Participants and Setting: Twenty-nine (18 NC, 11 DP) peri- or postmenopausal women participated. Main Outcome Measures: We measured plasma melatonin (onset, offset, synthesis offset, duration, peak concentration, and area under the curve) and mood. Results: Multi- and univariate analyses of covariance showed that melatonin offset time was delayed (P = 0.045) and plasma melatonin was elevated in DP compared with NC (P = 0.044) across time intervals. Multiple regression analyses showed that years past menopause predicted melatonin duration and that melatonin duration, body mass index, years past menopause, FSH level, and sleep end time were significant predictors of baseline Hamilton (P = 0.0003) and Beck (P = 0.00004) depression scores. Conclusions: Increased melatonin secretion that is phase delayed into the morning characterized menopausal DP vs. NC. Years past menopause, FSH, sleep end time, and body mass index may modulate effects of altered melatonin secretion in menopausal depression. PMID:18042653

Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; López, Ana M.; Martínez, Luis F.; Nowakowski, Sara; Hauger, Richard L.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

135

Intracoronary and systemic melatonin to patients with acute myocardial infarction : protocol for the IMPACT trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Ischaemia-reperfusion injury following acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) is an unavoidable consequence of the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) procedure. A pivotal mechanism in ischaemia-reperfusion injury is the production of reactive oxygen species following reperfusion. The endogenous hormone, melatonin, works as an antioxidant and could potentially minimise the ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Given intracoronarily, it enables melatonin to work directly at the site of reperfusion. We wish to test if melatonin, as an antioxidant, can minimise the reperfusion injury following pPCI in patients with AMI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The IMPACT trial is a multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. We wish to include 2 × 20 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions undergoing pPCI within six hours from symptom onset. The primary end-point is the Myocardial Salvage Index assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging on day 4 (± 1) after pPCI. The secondary end-points are high-sensitivity troponin, creatinekinase myocardial band and clinical events. CONCLUSION: The aim of the IMPACT trial is to evaluate the effect of melatonin on reperfusion injuries following pPCI. Owing to its relatively non-toxic profile, melatonin is an easily implementable drug in the clinical setting, and melatonin has the potential to reduce morbidity in patients with AMI. FUNDING: This study received no financial support from the industry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, clinical trials identifier: NCT01172171.

Halladin, Natalie L; Busch, Sarah EkelØf

2014-01-01

136

Melatonin and beta-glucan alone or in combination inhibit the growth of dunning prostatic adenocarcinoma.  

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In this study, the effects of melatonin or beta-glucan treatments on tumor growth, pro-oxidant, and antioxidant status in tumor tissue were investigated in Dunning 3327 MatLyLu prostatic adenocarcinoma model. Prostate cancer (PCa) was induced by single intradermal injection of 2 x 10(4) MatLyLu cells into the right hind leg of Copenhagen rats. Melatonin (10 mg/kg/daily; IP) or beta-glucan (50 mg/kg/daily; orally) treatments applied alone and together continued for 39 days. Melatonin or beta-glucan treatments alone or together inhibited tumor growth and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in tumor tissues of Dunning rats. However, there were no significant differences in tumor volumes and MDA levels among treatment groups. Melatonin and melatonin + beta-glucan treatments elevated glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione transferase activities in tumor tissues. However, beta-glucan treatment did not influence GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in tumor tissue of Dunning rats. These results indicate that melatonin and beta-glucan treatments alone or together inhibit tumor progression and oxidative stress in tumor tissues of rats with Dunning PCa. PMID:21776821

Kabasakal, Levent; Sener, Göksel; Balkan, Jale; Do?ru-Abbaso?lu, Semra; Keyer-Uysal, Meral; Uysal, Müjdat

2011-01-01

137

Melatonin administration decreases adipogenesis in the liver of ob/ob mice through autophagy modulation.  

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Despite efforts to curb the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, this condition remains the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. To identify ways to reduce this global effect, we investigated the actions of daily melatonin administration on oxidative stress parameters and autophagic processes as a possible treatment of obesity in ob/ob mice. The involvement of melatonin in many physiological functions, such as the regulation of seasonal body weight variation, glucose uptake, or adiposity, and the role of this indoleamine as an essential antioxidant, has become the focus of numerous anti-obesity studies. Here, we examined the oxidative status in the livers of obese melatonin-treated and untreated mice, observing a decrease in the oxidative stress levels through elevated catalase activity. ROS-mediated autophagy was downregulated in the liver of melatonin-treated animals and was accompanied by significant accumulation of p62. Autophagy is closely associated with adipogenesis; in this study, we report that melatonin-treated obese mice also showed reduced adiposity, as demonstrated by diminished body weight and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression. Based on these factors, it is reasonable to assume that oxidative stress and autophagy play important roles in obesity, and therefore, melatonin could be an interesting target molecule for the development of a potential therapeutic agent to curb body weight. PMID:24134701

de Luxán-Delgado, Beatriz; Caballero, Beatriz; Potes, Yaiza; Rubio-González, Adrian; Rodríguez, Illán; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, José; Solano, Juan J; Coto-Montes, Ana

2013-10-18

138

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired hematologic disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis, nocturnal hemoglobinuria, thrombotic events, serious infections, and bone marrow failure, is very rare in children. PNH is caused by a somatic mutation of the phosphatidylinositol glycan (GPI) complementation class A (PIGA) gene, followed by a survival advantage of the PNH clone, which results in a deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins on hematopoietic cells. Currently, immunophenotypic GPI-linked anchor protein analysis has replaced the acid Ham and sucrose lysis test, as it provides a reliable diagnostic tool for this disease. The presence of PNH clones should be considered in every child with an acquired bone marrow failure syndrome, for example (hypoplastic) myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia, and/or unexpected serious thrombosis. Treatment of PNH in children is dependent on the clinical presentation. In cases of severe bone marrow failure, stem cell transplantation should be seriously considered as a therapeutic option even if no matched sibling donor is available. This article reviews the reported cases of PNH in children using the recently published guidelines for classification, diagnostics, and treatment. PMID:17291133

van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

2007-01-01

139

Cardioprotective effects of melatonin against myocardial injuries induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases the morbidity and mortality of ischemic heart disease in patients. Yet, there is a paucity of preventive measures targeting the pathogenesis of CIH-induced myocardial injury. We examined the cardioprotective effect of melatonin against the inflammation, fibrosis and the deteriorated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) homeostasis, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury exacerbated by CIH. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats that had received a daily injection of melatonin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle were exposed to CIH treatment mimicking a severe OSA condition for 4 wk. Systolic pressure, heart weights, and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in hypoxic rats but not in the melatonin-treated group, when compared with the normoxic control. Levels of the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, and COX-2) and fibrotic markers (PC1 and TGF-?) were significantly elevated in the hypoxic group but were normalized by melatonin. Additionally, infarct size of isolated hearts with regional I/R was substantial in the hypoxic group treated with vehicle but not in the melatonin-treated group. Moreover, melatonin treatment mitigated the SR-Ca(2+) homeostasis in the cardiomyocyte during I/R with (i) Ca(2+) overloading, (ii) decreased SR-Ca(2+) content, (iii) lowered expression and activity of Ca(2+) -handling proteins (SERCA2a and NCX1),and (iv) decreased expressions of CAMKII and phosphorylated eNOS(ser1177) . Furthermore, melatonin ameliorated the level of expression of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and MnSOD) and NADPH oxidase (p22 and NOX2). Results support a prophylactic usage of melatonin in OSA patients, which protects against CIH-induced myocardial inflammation and fibrosis with impaired SR-Ca(2+) handling and exacerbated I/R injury. PMID:25369321

Yeung, Hang-Mee; Hung, Ming-Wai; Lau, Chi-Fai; Fung, Man-Lung

2015-01-01

140

Radioimmunoassay for melatonin in human serum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goat antisera raised against N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptophan conjugated to bovine thyroglobulin by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide is utilized in a radioimmunoassay for melatonin. The raised antibodies are coupled to Sepharose 4B and melatonin in human serum is isolated by affinity chromatography, thereby avoiding the time-consuming extractions by organic solvents. A detection limit of 1.9 pg (8.2x10-15 mol)melatonin is achieved. The antibody specificity has been analysed and none of the common melatonin analogues influence this method of melatonin measurement. (Auth.)

141

Extrapineal melatonin: sources, regulation, and potential functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan via 5-hydroxytryptamine. It is considered an indoleamine from a biochemical point of view because the melatonin molecule contains a substituted indolic ring with an amino group. The circadian production of melatonin by the pineal gland explains its chronobiotic influence on organismal activity, including the endocrine and non-endocrine rhythms. Other functions of melatonin, including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, its genomic effects, and its capacity to modulate mitochondrial homeostasis, are linked to the redox status of cells and tissues. With the aid of specific melatonin antibodies, the presence of melatonin has been detected in multiple extrapineal tissues including the brain, retina, lens, cochlea, Harderian gland, airway epithelium, skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, thyroid, pancreas, thymus, spleen, immune system cells, carotid body, reproductive tract, and endothelial cells. In most of these tissues, the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes have been identified. Melatonin is present in essentially all biological fluids including cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bile, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. In several of these fluids, melatonin concentrations exceed those in the blood. The importance of the continual availability of melatonin at the cellular level is important for its physiological regulation of cell homeostasis, and may be relevant to its therapeutic applications. Because of this, it is essential to compile information related to its peripheral production and regulation of this ubiquitously acting indoleamine. Thus, this review emphasizes the presence of melatonin in extrapineal organs, tissues, and fluids of mammals including humans. PMID:24554058

Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Escames, Germaine; Venegas, Carmen; Díaz-Casado, María E; Lima-Cabello, Elena; López, Luis C; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

2014-08-01

142

Karanl???n hormonu: Melatonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine hormonu pineal bez ve retina ba?ta olmak üzere çe?itli periferik organ ve dokularda sentezlenir. Melatonin sekresyonunun endojen ritmi suprakiazmatik nukleus taraf?ndan düzenlenir ve karanl?k ayd?nl?k siklüsü ile sürdürülür. Melatonin di?er hormonlar?n regülasyonunu ve organizman?n sirkadyen ritmini düzenler. Amfofilik yap?s? ve küçük moleküllü olmas? nedeniyle organizmada yayg?n da??l?m gösterir, hücresel kompartmanlara kolayca girer. Güçlü antioksidan özelli?i olan bu do?al bile?ik in vitro ve in vivo güçlü bir sitostatik ajand?r. Melatoninin etkinli?i oküler hastal?klarda, diyabette, romatoid artritte, fibromyaljide, kronik yogrunluk sendromunda, enfeksiyon hastal?klar?nda, nörolojik hastal?klarda, uyku bozukluklar?nda, ya?lanmada ve depresyonda gösterilmi?tir. Bu derlemede melatoninin farmakokinetik özellikleri, fizyolojik ve farmakolojik etkileri özetlenmi?tir.

Göksel ?ener

2010-09-01

143

Melatonin uptake through glucose transporters: a new target for melatonin inhibition of cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is present in a multitude of taxa and it has a broad range of biological functions, from synchronizing circadian rhythms to detoxifying free radicals. Some functions of melatonin are mediated by its membrane receptors but others are receptor-independent. For the latter, melatonin must enter into the cell. Melatonin is a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan and reportedly easily crosses biological membranes due to its amphipathic nature. However, the mechanism by which melatonin enters into cells remains unknown. Changes in redox state, endocytosis pathways, multidrug resistance, glycoproteins or a variety of strategies have no effect on melatonin uptake. Herein, it is demonstrated that members of the SLC2/GLUT family glucose transporters have a central role in melatonin uptake. When studied by docking simulation, it is found that melatonin interacts at the same location in GLUT1 where glucose does. Furthermore, glucose concentration and the presence of competitive ligands of GLUT1 affect the concentration of melatonin into cells. As a regulatory mechanism, melatonin reduces the uptake of glucose and modifies the expression of GLUT1 transporter in prostate cancer cells. More importantly, glucose supplementation promotes prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice, while melatonin attenuated glucose-induced tumor progression and prolonged the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice. This is the first time that a facilitated transport of melatonin is suggested. In fact, the important role of glucose transporters and glucose metabolism in cell fate might explain some of the diverse functions described for melatonin. PMID:25612238

Hevia, David; González-Menéndez, Pedro; Quiros-González, Isabel; Miar, Ana; Rodríguez-García, Aida; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Mayo, Juan C; Sainz, Rosa M

2015-03-01

144

Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate. The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation. All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases.

Luigi Di Bella

2013-01-01

145

Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from ?-cells and in glucagon secretion from ?-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin-insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes. PMID:23535335

Peschke, Elmar; Bähr, Ina; Mühlbauer, Eckhard

2013-01-01

146

Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from ?-cells and in glucagon secretion from ?-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin–insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes.

Eckhard Mühlbauer

2013-03-01

147

Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptathoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references

148

Sleep-wake Cycle Assessment in Type 2 Diabetes and Salivary Melatonin Correlates  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze the sleep-wake cycle of T2DM subjects and compare it to healthy controls using the nonparametric approach and to assess the changes in the circadian and homeostatic control of the sleep-wake cycle in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and correlate it with melatonin concentration. The sample consisted of 21 subjects with diagnosis of T2DM for more than a year and 21 healthy controls matched for gender and age. Subjects were assessed using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), actigraphy and melatonin levels. The findings revealed that T2DM subjects demonstrate lower IS (p=.03), higher IV (p=.046) and lower rhythm amplitude (p=.02) when compared to healthy controls. Mean melatonin concentrations collected at bed time were significantly lower in the diabetic subjects than that of controls (11.7+/-7.27 pg/ml vs. 24.13+/-10.80pg/ml; p<.01). Actigraphic analysis during the wake phase demonstrated that diabetic subjects showed lower levels of activity (p=.02). Additionally, there was a significant difference decrease in sleep duration (p=.03), efficiency (p=.02); and higher activity counts during the sleep phase (p=.02) in the diabetic group. Sleep efficiency was significantly correlated with melatonin collected two hours before bed time (rho=.61; p=.047). Additionally, there were significant inverse relationships between melatonin collected at two hours before bed time and latency (rho=-.87; p=.001), wake after sleep onset (rho=-.69; p=.02) and nocturnal activity (rho=-.67; p=.03). Latency was inversely correlated with melatonin collected at bed time (rho=-.69; p=.02). These findings suggest that T2DM presents disturbances in the homeostatic and circadian drives, mainly characterized by less consistency across days of the daily circadian signal, higher rhythm fragmentation and lower rhythm amplitude. In addition to the lower melatonin levels, the decrease in the amplitude of the activity rhythm may also be involved in circadian alterations of the sleep-wake cycle.

Cavalcanti, Paula Regina Aguiar

149

Melatonin modulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on short noradrenergic neurons of the rat vas deferens: a pharmacological characterization  

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Full Text Available Melatonin, the pineal hormone produced during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, modulates neuronal acetylcholine receptors located presynaptically on nerve terminals of the rat vas deferens. Recently we showed the presence of high affinity nicotine-binding sites during the light phase, and low and high affinity binding sites during the dark phase. The appearance of the low affinity binding sites was due to the nocturnal melatonin surge and could be mimicked by exposure to melatonin in vitro. The aim of the present research was to identify the receptor subtypes responsible for the functional response during the light and the dark phase. The rank order of potency of agonists was dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP = cytisine > nicotine > carbachol and DMPP = nicotine = cytisine > carbachol, during the light and dark phase, respectively, due to an increase in apparent affinity for nicotine. Mecamylamine similarly blocked the DMPP response during the light and the dark phase, while the response to nicotine was more efficiently blocked during the light phase. In contrast, methyllycaconitine inhibited the nicotine-induced response only at 21:00 h. Since a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs have low affinity for nicotine in binding assays, we suggest that a mixed population composed of a3ß4 - plus a7-bearing nAChR subtypes is present at night. This plasticity in receptor subtypes is probably driven by melatonin since nicotine-induced contraction in organs from animals sacrificed at 15:00 h and incubated with melatonin (100 pg/ml, 4 h is not totally blocked by mecamylamine. Thus melatonin, by acting directly on the short adrenergic neurons that innervate the rat vas deferens, induces the appearance of the low affinity binding site, probably an a7 nAChR subtype.

W.M. Zago

1999-08-01

150

Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds  

OpenAIRE

The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offsh...

Wernand, Marcel R.; Donners, Maurice A. H.; Han de Vries; Ens, Bruno J.; Hanneke Poot; Marquenie, Joop M.

2008-01-01

151

Ommatidial adaptations for vision in nocturnal insects  

OpenAIRE

Nocturnal vision is a demanding task for insects with small eyes. As it gets dimmer the noise imposed by the stochastic nature of photon arrival makes vision unreliable. Despite this, there are quite a number of animal species that are active at night and apparently see well. In this thesis I show that the compound eyes of nocturnal insects are sufficiently flexible to adapt to the particular window of intensities in which the species is active. These ommatidial adaptations for vision in noct...

Frederiksen, Rikard

2008-01-01

152

Melatonin Improves mitochondrial function by promoting MT1/SIRT1/PGC-1 alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland that has a wide range of physiological functions, and it has been under clinical investigation for expanded applications. Increasing evidence demonstrates that melatonin can ameliorate cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the potentially protective effects of melatonin against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms of this protection remain unclear. This study investigates the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. We exposed HepG2 cells to different concentrations of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, and 10 ?M) for 12 h. We found that Cd stimulated cytotoxicity, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased reactive oxygen species production, and decreased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA content. Consistent with this finding, Cd exposure was associated with decreased Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression and activity, thus promoted acetylation of PGC-1 alpha, a key enzyme involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function, although Cd did not disrupt the interaction between SIRT1 and PGC-1 alpha. However, all cadmium-induced mitochondrial oxidative injuries were efficiently attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. Moreover, Sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA each blocked the melatonin-mediated elevation in mitochondrial function by inhibiting SIRT1/ PGC-1 alpha signaling. Luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, was found to partially block the ability of melatonin to promote SIRT1/ PGC-1 alpha signaling. In summary, our results indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate melatonin to stimulate PGC-1 alpha and improve mitochondrial biogenesis and function at least partially through melatonin receptors in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25159133

Guo, Pan; Pi, Huifeng; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yuming; Li, Min; Cao, Zhengwang; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; Li, Renyan; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

2014-11-01

153

Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis : regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

Rohde, Kristian; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

154

Melatonin enhances adult rat hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation via ERK signaling pathway through melatonin receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin, a neurohormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland, has a variety of physiological functions and neuroprotective effects. Previous studies have shown that melatonin could stimulate the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). Recent studies reported that the activities of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of neural stem cells (NSCs) changed in response to the proliferative effect of melatonin. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the proliferative mechanism mediated by melatonin on the adult rat hippocampal NS/PCs. Treatment with melatonin significantly increased the number of neurospheres in a concentration-dependent manner and up-regulated nestin protein. Pretreatment with luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, and PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, prevented the increase in the number of neurospheres formed by the activation of melatonin. The levels of phospho-c-Raf and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) increased when treated with melatonin. Pretreatment with luzindole or PD98059 prevented the melatonin-induced increase in these signaling molecules. The present results showed that melatonin could induce NS/PCs to proliferate by increasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Raf through melatonin receptor. These results provide further evidence for a role of melatonin in promoting neurogenesis, adding to the remarkably pleiotropic nature of this neurohormone. This intrinsic modulator deserves further investigation to better understand its physiological and therapeutic implication. PMID:24956284

Tocharus, C; Puriboriboon, Y; Junmanee, T; Tocharus, J; Ekthuwapranee, K; Govitrapong, P

2014-09-01

155

Amelioration of melatonin on oxidative stress and genotoxic effects induced by cisplatin in vitro.  

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In this study, we made an effort to evaluate the possible protective actions of melatonin on cisplatin-induced oxidative damage in mice brain homogenate and genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes under in vitro conditions. The tissue homogenate was divided into three parts. The first portion was kept as control treated with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (group 1) while the second and third portion were treated with 24 µg/g tissue cisplatin alone (group 2) and 24 µg/g tissue cisplatin in combination with 3 mM melatonin (group 3), respectively. We measured the oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy 2' deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in brain homogenate. Likewise peripheral venous blood was collected from healthy donors and human lymphocyte culture was done using karyotyping medium. Cultures were divided into three groups. Group 1 was the control i.e. lymphocytes treated with DMSO 5 µg/mL. In group 2, lymphocytes were treated with 2 µg/mL cisplatin and group 3 with a combination of 2 µg/mL cisplatin and 0.3 mM melatonin. Incubation of tissue homogenates with cisplatin elevated the malondialdehyde and 8-OHdG levels which were then reversed by melatonin. Reduction in antioxidant parameters with respect to corresponding controls were also restored by melatonin treatment. Furthermore, supplementation of melatonin was found to modulate the chromosome damage elicited by cisplatin which was determined using Giemsa (GTG) banding and karyotyping. These findings suggest that melatonin improves the cellular function and helps them to survive in the belligerent environment created by free radicals. PMID:22889322

Surendran, Divya; Geetha, C S; Mohanan, P V

2012-10-01

156

Melatonin in human preovulatory follicular fluid  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, has antigonadotrophic activity in many mammals and may also be involved in human reproduction. Melatonin suppresses steroidogenesis by ovarian granulosa and luteal cells in vitro. To determine if melatonin is present in the human ovary, preovulatory follicular fluids (n = 32) from 15 women were assayed for melatonin by RIA after solvent extraction. The fluids were obtained by laparoscopy or sonographically controlled follicular puncture from infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. All patients had received clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin, and hCG to stimulate follicle formation. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture 30 rain or less after follicular aspiration. All of the follicular fluids contained melatonim, in concentrations substantially higher than those in the corresponding serum. A positive correlation was found between follicular fluid and serum melatonin levels in each woman; these observations indicate that preovulatory follicles contain substantial amounts of melatonin that may affect ovarian steroidogenesis.

Brzezinski, Amnon; Seibel, Machelle M.; Lynch, Harry J.; Deng, Mei-Hua; Wurtman, Richard J.

1987-01-01

157

Melatonin improves sleep quality in hemodialysis patients  

OpenAIRE

Disturbed sleep is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Exogenous melatonin has somniferous properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep quality (SQ) in several clinical conditions. Recent studies have shown that melatonin may play a role in improving sleep in patients undergoing dialysis. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of exogenous melatonin administration on SQ improvement in daytime hemodialysis patients. Lipid profile and the required dose of erythropoi...

Edalat-nejad, M.; Haqhverdi, F.; Hossein-tabar, T.; Ahmadian, M.

2013-01-01

158

Melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Poster presentation: The mammalian pineal organ is a peripheral oscillator, depending on afferent information from the so-called master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. One of the best studied outputs of the pineal gland is the small and hydrophobic molecule melatonin. In all vertebrates, melatonin is synthesized rhythmically with high levels at night, signalling the body the duration of the dark period. Changes or disruptions of melatonin rhythms in humans are related...

Stehle Jörg H; Kauert Gerold; Rüb Udo; Bux Roman; Ackermann Katrin

2007-01-01

159

Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is secreted principally by the pineal gland and mainly at nighttime. The primary physiological function is to convey information of the daily cycle of light and darkness to the body. In addition, it may have other health-related functions. Melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan, an essential dietary amino acid. It has been demonstrated that some nutritional factors, such as intake of vegetables, caffeine, and some vitamins and minerals, could modify melatonin production but with l...

Katri Peuhkuri; Nora Sihvola; Riitta Korpela

2012-01-01

160

The Impact of Melatonin on Glucose Homeostasis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Melatonin is a pineal product mainly charged with the maintenance of antioxidant conditions in human. This study is performed to identify the short-term effect of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Melatonin and placebo were given perorally to sixty patients. Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured with constant intervals. Results: No significant correlation was found among the levels of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR index at any ti...

Zeynep Arzu Ye?in; Rüya Mutluay; ?ehri Elbeg; Resul Karaku?; Nuri Çak?r

2009-01-01

161

Concentração plasmática de melatonina em novilhas bubalinas (Bubalus bubalis ao longo do ano Plasma melatonin in bufallo heifers (Bubalus bubalis during a year  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coletaram-se nove amostras de sangue ao longo do dia, mês-a-mês durante um ano, de seis novilhas bubalinas da raça Mediterrâneo, para determinação da melatonina plasmática dos animais mantidos na latitude 22° Sul. A concentração plasmática de melatonina se elevou lentamente até atingir o pico entre 21 e 23 horas, permanecendo elevada até as 3-5 horas. A seguir, a concentração diminuiu para valores baixos antes do nascer do sol. A duração da elevação noturna de melatonina plasmática não acompanhou a duração do período noturno ao longo do ano e a diminuição da concentração diurna de melatonina plasmática ocorreu na época de maior atividade reprodutiva estimada do rebanho.Nine blood samples were taken to determine plasma melatonin in a 24h-period/month for a year. The six buffalo heifers used were kept at latitude 22° South. Plasma melatonin rose slowly, peaking at night (between 9 and 11pm and maintained until 3 to 5am. Melatonin concentration decreased day-time to lower levels until sunrise. Nocturnal higher plasmatic melatonin did not vary with night length over the year. Diurnal melatonin concentrations were lower when estimated reproductive rate was the highest for the herd.

P.S.R. Mattos

2000-10-01

162

Concentração plasmática de melatonina em novilhas bubalinas (Bubalus bubalis) ao longo do ano / Plasma melatonin in bufallo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) during a year  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Coletaram-se nove amostras de sangue ao longo do dia, mês-a-mês durante um ano, de seis novilhas bubalinas da raça Mediterrâneo, para determinação da melatonina plasmática dos animais mantidos na latitude 22° Sul. A concentração plasmática de melatonina se elevou lentamente até atingir o pico entre [...] 21 e 23 horas, permanecendo elevada até as 3-5 horas. A seguir, a concentração diminuiu para valores baixos antes do nascer do sol. A duração da elevação noturna de melatonina plasmática não acompanhou a duração do período noturno ao longo do ano e a diminuição da concentração diurna de melatonina plasmática ocorreu na época de maior atividade reprodutiva estimada do rebanho. Abstract in english Nine blood samples were taken to determine plasma melatonin in a 24h-period/month for a year. The six buffalo heifers used were kept at latitude 22° South. Plasma melatonin rose slowly, peaking at night (between 9 and 11pm) and maintained until 3 to 5am. Melatonin concentration decreased day-time to [...] lower levels until sunrise. Nocturnal higher plasmatic melatonin did not vary with night length over the year. Diurnal melatonin concentrations were lower when estimated reproductive rate was the highest for the herd.

P.S.R., Mattos; R., Franzolin; K.O., Nonaka.

2000-10-01

163

Effects of exogenous melatonin--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of studies on the effect of pineal indole hormone melatonin on the life span of mice, rats, fruit flies, and worms are critically reviewed. In mice, long-term administration of melatonin was followed by an increase in their life span in 12 experiments and had no effect in 8 of 20 different experiments. In D. melanogaster, the supplementation of melatonin to the nutrient medium during developmental stages gave contradictory results, but when melatonin was added to food throughout the life span, an increase in the longevity of fruit flies has been observed. Melatonin decreased the survival of C. elegans but increased the clonal life span of planaria Paramecium tertaurelia. Available data suggest antioxidant and atherogenic effects of melatonin. Melatonin alone turned out to be neither toxic nor mutagenic in the Ames test and revealed clastogenic activity in high concentration in the COMET assay. Melatonin inhibits mutagenesis induced by irradiation and by indirect chemical mutagens and inhibits the development of spontaneous and chemical-induced tumors in mice and rats. Further studies and clinical trials are needed to verify that melatonin is both safe and has geroprotector efficacy for humans. PMID:14585727

Anisimov, Vladimir N

2003-01-01

164

Melatonin as antioxidant, geroprotector and anticarcinogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the pineal indole hormone melatonin on the life span of mice, rats and fruit flies has been studied using various approaches. It has been observed that in female CBA, SHR, SAM and transgenic HER-2/neu mice long-term administration of melatonin was followed by an increase in the mean life span. In rats, melatonin treatment increased survival of male and female rats. In D. melanogaster, supplementation of melatonin to nutrient medium during developmental stages produced contradictory results, but and increase in the longevity of fruit flies has been observed when melatonin was added to food throughout the life span. In mice and rats, melatonin is a potent antioxidant both in vitro and in vivo. Melatonin alone turned out neither toxic nor mutagenic in the Ames test and revealed clastogenic activity at high concentration in the COMET assay. Melatonin has inhibited mutagenesis and clastogenic effect of a number of indirect chemical mutagens. Melatonin inhibits the development of spontaneous and 7-12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)- or N-nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rodents; colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats, N-diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, DMBA-induced carcinogenesis of the uterine cervix and vagina in mice; benzo(a)pyrene-induced soft tissue carcinogenesis and lung carcinogenesis induced by urethan in mice. To identify molecular events regulated by melatonin, gene expression profiles were studied in the heart and brain of melatonin-treated CBA mice using cDNA gene expression arrays (15,247 and 16,897 cDNA clone sets, respectively). It was shown that genes controlling the cell cycle, cell/organism defense, protein expression and transport are the primary effectors for melatonin. Melatonin also increased the expression of some mitochondrial genes (16S, cytochrome c oxidases 1 and 3 (COX1 and COX3), and NADH dehydrogenases 1 and 4 (ND1 and ND4)), which agrees with its ability to inhibit free radical processes. Of great interest is the effect of melatonin upon the expression of a large number of genes related to calcium exchange, such as Cul5, Dcamkl1 and Kcnn4; a significant effect of melatonin on the expression of some oncogenesis-related genes was also detected. Thus, we believe that melatonin may be used for the prevention of premature aging and carcinogenesis. PMID:16678784

Anisimov, Vladimir N; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Anisimov, Sergey V; Vesnushkin, Georgy M; Vinogradova, Irina A

2006-01-01

165

Melatonin receptors: Current status, facts, and hypothesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Great progress has been made in the identification of melatonin binding sites, commonly identified as melatonin receptors by many authors, in recent years. The bulk of these studies have investigated the sites using either autoradiographic and biochemical techniques with the majority of the experiments being done on the rat, Djungarian and Syrian hamster, and sheep, although human tissue has also been employed. Many of the studies have identified melatonin binding in the central nervous system with either tritium- or iodine-labelled ligands. The latter ligand seems to provide the most reproducible and consistent data. Of the central neural tissues examined, the suprachiasmatic nuclei are most frequently mentioned as a location for melatonin binding sites although binding seems to be widespread in the brain. The other tissue that has been prominently mentioned as a site for melatonin binding is the pars tuberalis of the anterior pituitary gland. There may be time-dependent variations in melatonin binding densities in both neural and pituitary gland tissue. Very few attempts have been made to identify melatonin binding outside of the central nervous system despite the widespread actions of melatonin. Preliminary experiments have been carried out on the intracellular second messengers which mediate the actions of melatonin

166

Nocturnal offshore convection near the island of Corsica  

Science.gov (United States)

In the region of Corsica, located in the western Mediterranean Sea, the mean daily lightning activity for late summer and autumn as an indicator for deep convection shows a distinct maximum in mid-afternoon and a secondary maximum in the night. During the night, most of the lightning activity is located offshore and near the island's coastline. Currently there are no observational data which could be used to explain this nocturnal offshore convection but understanding its formation mechanism is crucial for accurately forecasting the regional weather. In this work, we explore two possible mechanisms initiating nocturnal offshore convection: (i) convergence with subsequent lifting due to the interaction between drainage winds and the synoptic flow over the sea and (ii) dynamically induced lee-side convergence due to the island barrier effect. To this end, we perform numerical simulations with the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model at a convection-resolving horizontal grid spacing of 2.8 km. The analysis of two cases with different low-level wind directions reveals that the role of the island's drainage flow can either favour or hinder the development of deep convection. Furthermore, convective initiation is very sensitive to terrain elevation and model initialisation time and small changes of these features can decide whether deep convection occurs or not.

Barthlott, Christian; Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert; Handwerker, Jan; Kohler, Martin; Wieser, Andreas

2014-05-01

167

Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon  

OpenAIRE

The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from ?-cells and in glucagon secretion from ?-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2...

Eckhard Mühlbauer; Ina Bähr; Elmar Peschke

2013-01-01

168

Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oded Friedman1, Alexander G Logan21Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blood pressure abnormalities including definitions, diagnostic limitations, pathogenesis and associated patient profiles, prognostic significance, and therapeutic strategies. Taken together, persistent nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping blood pressure pattern, perhaps secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling and/or altered nocturnal sympathovagal balance, are strongly associated with deaths, cardiovascular events, and progressive loss of renal function, independent of daytime and 24-hour blood pressure. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may restore nocturnal blood pressure and circadian blood pressure rhythm to normal; however, whether this translates to a clinically meaningful reduction in unfavorable cardiovascular and renal consequences remains to be seen.Keywords: blood pressure, sleep, nocturnal hypertension

Oded Friedman

2009-09-01

169

Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan  

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During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

2013-09-01

170

Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retino-hypothalamic-sympathetic pathway drives the nocturnal surge of pineal melatonin production that determines the synchronization of pineal function with the environmental light/dark cycle. In many studies, melatonin has been implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available. Here we analyzed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and corticosterone on the transcription of the Aa-nat, hiomt and 14-3-3 protein genes in denervated pineal glands of rats stimulated for 5 hr with norepinephrine, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcription of Aa-nat, a gene encoding the key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, together with the synthesis of the melatonin precursor N-acetylserotonin, was inhibited by TNF-alpha. This inhibition was transient, and a preincubation of TNF-alpha for more than 24 hr had no detectable effect. In fact, a protein(s) transcribed, later on, as shown by cycloheximide, was responsible for the reversal of the inhibition of Aa-nat transcription. In addition, corticosterone induced a potentiation of norepinephrine-induced Aa-nat transcription even after 48 hr of incubation. These data support the hypothesis that the nocturnal surge in melatonin is impaired at the beginning of an inflammatory response and restored either during the shutdown of an acute response or in a chronic inflammatory pathology. Here, we introduce a new molecular pathway involved in the feedback of an inflammatory response on pineal activity, and provide a molecular basis for understanding the expression of circadian timing in injured organisms. PMID:17014691

Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

2006-11-01

171

The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Hypothesis / aims of studyAim of this study was to elucidate the impact of sleep on the quantity and quality of the nocturnal urine production in healthy individuals.Our hypothesis was that sleep deprivation is related to excess nocturnal urine production.Study design, materials and methodsThe study protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee.Twenty healthy volunteers with no history of enuresis, incontinence or nocturia were investigated in the present study. The participants were admitted in the hospital for two 24-hour periods under standardized conditions regarding sodium (2 mmol/kg) and water (25 ml/kg). Normal activities were allowed during the day. Blood samples were drawn every 3 hours and urine was fractionally collected with 3-hour intervals during daytime and following spontaneous voidings at night. During one of the two experimental 24-hour periods subjects were deprived from sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca2+) creatinine, urea and osmolality were made in plasma and urine. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored every hour, using an ambulatory device. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) was measured in plasma by means of radioimmunoassay. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was directly measured in urine using an enzyme immunoassay. 6-sulfatoxy-melatonin (MEL) was measured in urine using and ELISA assay. Clearances, excretions and fractional excretions were calculated for electrolytes, creatinine, urea, osmoles and solute free water. Comparisons were made between the nights with and without sleep deprivation. The circadian rhythm of AVP, PGE2 and MEL was evaluated at baseline and during sleep deprivation.ResultsNo significant differences were found in the urinary production at daytime between the two experimental 24-h periods. Males excreted significantly higher amounts of urine on a 24-h basis. During nighttime and on the nights of sleep deprivation, both males and females produced markedly larger amounts of urine even though the effect was more pronounced for males (males from 1.05 ± 0.10 ml/h/kg to 1.82 ± 0.22 ml/h/kg, p<0.001, females from 0.98 ± 0.09 ml/h/kg to 1.41 ± 0.11 ml/h/kg). A similar effect was found for the urinary excretion of sodium (baseline: 0.06 ± 0.01 mmol/kg/h, sleep deprivation: 0.12 ± 0.01 mmol/kg/h), potassium and urine osmolality (baseline: 416 ± 142 mosm/kg, sleep deprivation: 366 ± 66 mosm/kg). No differences were seen in urinary calcium excretion between baseline night and the night with sleep deprivation. The circadian rhythm in plasma AVP was not influenced by sleep deprivation. In accordance with this, solute free water reabsorption was not significantly different between baseline and during sleep deprivation (baseline 0.45 ± 0.08, sleep deprivation 0.47 ± 0.07 ml/min).We found a significant correlation between hemodynamics as these were assessed by blood pressure and heart rate and the degree of nocturnal polyuria following sleep deprivation.Interpretation of resultsResearch into the field of incontinence has therefore during the past years taken sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights with sleep deprivation and were related to differences in hemodynamics between nights with and without sleep deprivation. The circadian rhythms in AVP, PGE2 and melatonin all seem unaffected by sleep deprivation. Furthermore renal water handling was not influenced by sleep deprivation. Concluding messageSleep seems to be a major regulator of urine production at night and its deprivation leads to natriuresis, kaliuresis and the production of excess amounts

Kamperis, Konstantinos; HagstrØm, SØren

2005-01-01

172

The early response of pineal N-acetyltransferase activity, melatonin and catecholamine levels in rats irradiated with gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male Wistar rats adapted to an artificial light-dark regimen were whole-body gamma-irradiated with a dose of 14.35 Gy. Irradiation, sham-irradiation and decapitation 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure were performed between 2000 h and 0100 h in the darkness. The serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT), the concentration of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined. Ionizing radiation did not change the activity of NAT, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis; however, it decreased the concentration of pineal melatonin. The concentration of pineal dopamine and norepinephrine decreased 30 and 120 min after exposure, while the concentration of epinephrine was elevated 30 min after irradiation, though later it was markedly decreased. The serum melatonin level was not changed but an increase in corticosterone level was observed. In the early period after exposure a decrease in pineal melatonin occurred, accompanied by a decrease in pineal catecholamines. On the contrary, in the phase of developed radiation injury the signs of increased melatonin synthesis were observed on days 3 and 4 after the exposure. (author) 6 figs., 25 refs

173

Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (PPr=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential. PMID:25218686

Kratz, Ewa Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Zeman, Michal; Stebelová, Katarína; Thalhammer, Theresia

2014-09-12

174

The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/V(urea), a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

Rocco, Michael V; Lockridge, Robert S; Beck, Gerald J; Eggers, Paul W; Gassman, Jennifer J; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D; Lindsay, Robert M; Levin, Nathan W; Ornt, Daniel B; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B; Unruh, Mark L; Star, Robert A; Kliger, Alan S; Kliger, A; Eggers, P; Briggs, J; Hostetter, T; Narva, A; Star, R; Augustine, B; Mohr, P; Beck, G; Fu, Z; Gassman, J; Greene, T; Daugirdas, J; Hunsicker, L; Larive, B; Li, M; Mackrell, J; Wiggins, K; Sherer, S; Weiss, B; Rajagopalan, S; Sanz, J; Dellagrottaglie, S; Kariisa, M; Tran, T; West, J; Unruh, M; Keene, R; Schlarb, J; Chan, C; McGrath-Chong, M; Frome, R; Higgins, H; Ke, S; Mandaci, O; Owens, C; Snell, C; Eknoyan, G; Appel, L; Cheung, A; Derse, A; Kramer, C; Geller, N; Grimm, R; Henderson, L; Prichard, S; Roecker, E; Rocco, M; Miller, B; Riley, J; Schuessler, R; Lockridge, R; Pipkin, M; Peterson, C; Hoy, C; Fensterer, A; Steigerwald, D; Stokes, J; Somers, D; Hilkin, A; Lilli, K; Wallace, W; Franzwa, B; Waterman, E; Chan, C; McGrath-Chong, M; Copland, M; Levin, A; Sioson, L; Cabezon, E; Kwan, S; Roger, D; Lindsay, R; Suri, R; Champagne, J; Bullas, R; Garg, A; Mazzorato, A; Spanner, E; Rocco, M; Burkart, J; Moossavi, S; Mauck, V; Kaufman, T; Pierratos, A; Chan, W; Regozo, K; Kwok, S

2011-11-01

175

Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs). In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Because both the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin and circulating sex steroid levels vary with photoperiod, the aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin and sex steroids differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters as compared to LD animals, 2) sex steroid treatment in SD-adapted male and female hamsters increased the numberof Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV but decreased it in the ARC, 3) melatonin administration to LD-adapted hamsters decreased Kiss1 mRNA level in both the AVPV and the ARC in intact animals, whereas in castrated hamsters, melatonin rapidly inhibited Kiss1 expression in the ARC but not in the AVPV, and 4) pinealectomy of male or female SD-adapted hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the ARC but not in the AVPV. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Kiss1 expression in the Syrian hamster hypothalamus is down-regulated in SD via different mechanisms. In the ARC, melatonin inhibits Kiss1 via a direct effect on the hypothalamus, and this effect is probably sex steroid dependent, whereas in the AVPV, the decrease in Kiss1 expression appears to be secondary to the melatonin-driven reduction of sex steroid levels. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that ARC Kiss1 neurons mediate melatonin effects on the gonadotropic axis of the Syrian hamster.

Ansel, L; Bolborea, M

2010-01-01

176

Melatonin attenuates neutrophil inflammation and mucus secretion in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases via the suppression of Erk-Sp1 signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has substantially increased in recent decade. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most important risk factor in the development of COPD. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on the development of COPD using a CS and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced COPD model and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, a human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell. On day 4, the mice were treated intranasally with LPS. The mice were exposed to CS for 1 hr per day (8 cigarettes per day) from day 1 to day 7. Melatonin (10 or 20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 hr before CS exposure. Melatonin markedly decreased the neutrophil count in the BALF, with reduction in the proinflammatory mediators and MUC5AC. Melatonin inhibited Erk phosphorylation and Sp1 expression induced by CS and LPS treatment. Additionally, melatonin decreased airway inflammation with a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression in lung tissue. In in vitro experiments, melatonin suppressed the elevated expression of proinflammatory mediators induced by CSC treatment. Melatonin reduced Erk phosphorylation and Sp1 expression in CSC-stimulated H292 cells. In addition, cotreatment of melatonin and Erk inhibitors significantly limited the proinflammatory mediators with greater reductions in Erk phosphorylation and Sp1 expression than that observed in H292 cells treated with Erk inhibitor alone. Taken together, melatonin effectively inhibited the neutrophil airway inflammation induced by CS and LPS treatment, which was closely related to downregulation of Erk phosphorylation. These findings suggest that melatonin has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of COPD. PMID:25388990

Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Park, Ji-Won; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, In-Chul; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

2015-01-01

177

Melatonin-Based Therapeutics for Neuroprotection in Stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present review paper supports the approach to deliver melatonin and to target melatonin receptors for neuroprotection in stroke. We discuss laboratory evidence demonstrating neuroprotective effects of exogenous melatonin treatment and transplantation of melatonin-secreting cells in stroke. In addition, we describe a novel mechanism of action underlying the therapeutic benefits of stem cell therapy in stroke, implicating the role of melatonin receptors. As we envision the clinical entry of melatonin-based therapeutics, we discuss translational experiments that warrant consideration to reveal an optimal melatonin treatment strategy that is safe and effective for human application.

Cesar V. Borlongan

2013-04-01

178

Utility of melatonin to treat surgical stress after major vascular surgery--a safety study.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with elevated oxidative stress. As an antioxidant in animal and human studies, melatonin has the potential of ameliorating some of this oxidative stress, but melatonin has never been administered to adults during surgery for the purpose of reducing oxidative damage. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety of various doses of melatonin administered during or after surgery and to monitor the changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation during the pre-, intra-, and postoperative period. Six patients undergoing aortic surgery received 10 (n = 2), 30 (n = 2) or 60 (n = 2) mg melatonin intravenously in the intraoperative phase and 10 mg orally for three nights after surgery. Patients were monitored for hemodynamic parameters during and after surgery. Any unexpected events during the hospitalization were registered. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and at 5 min, 6 hr and 24 hr after clamp removal or after re-circulation of the first leg and the samples were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Troponin I (TpI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured for 4 days after surgery. Melatonin administration did not change hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure or pulse rate) during surgery (P = 0.499 and 0.149, respectively), but oxidative stress parameters (MDA and AA) decreased significantly (P = 0.014 and 0.001, respectively). There was a significant increase in the inflammatory parameters (IL-6 and CRP) (P = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and an increase in TpI (P = 0.009) as a consequence of surgery. These were not influenced by melatonin treatment. Treatment of patients undergoing major aortic surgery with melatonin intravenously up to 60 mg in the intraoperative phase was safe and without complications. Melatonin may decrease oxidative damage resulting from surgery, but randomized clinical trials are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the clinical benefit of melatonin in surgical situations.

Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2008-01-01

179

Utility of melatonin to treat surgical stress after major vascular surgery - a safety study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with elevated oxidative stress. As an antioxidant in animal and human studies, melatonin has the potential of ameliorating some of this oxidative stress, but melatonin has never been administered to adults during surgery for the purpose of reducing oxidative damage. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety of various doses of melatonin administered during or after surgery and to monitor the changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation during the pre-, intra- and postoperative period. Six patients undergoing aortic surgery received 10 (n=2), 30 (n=2) or 60 (n=2) mg melatonin intravenously in the intraoperative phase and 10 mg orally for three nights after surgery. Patients were monitored for hemodynamic parameters during and after surgery. Any unexpected events during the hospitalization were registered. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and at 5 min, 6 hrs and 24 hrs after clamp removal or after re-circulation of the first leg and the samples were analysed for malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Troponin I (TpI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured for four days after surgery. Melatonin administration did not change hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure or pulse rate) during surgery (P=0.499 and 0.149, respectively), but oxidative stress parameters (MDA and AA) decreased significantly (P=0.014 and 0.001, respectively). There was a significant increase in the inflammatory parameters (IL-6 and CRP) (P=0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and an increase in TpI (P=0.009) as a consequence of surgery. These were not influenced by melatonin treatment. Treatment of patients undergoing major aortic surgery with melatonin intravenously up to 60 mg in the intraoperative phase was safe and without complications. Melatonin may decrease oxidative damage resulting from surgery, but randomized clinical trials are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the clinical benefit of melatonin in surgical situations.

Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2008-01-01

180

Nocturnal acid breakthrough: consequences and confronting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARY Nocturnal Acid Breakthrough is defined as the appearance of gastric acid in the antrum of pH<4 overnight for a period longer than one hour during the administration of proton pump inhibitors. The prevalence of this phenomenon ranges between 69-79% in normal volunteers and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease respectively. It typically appears in the second 6-hour period after the evening dose of a PPI when patients are sleeping. The significance of nocturnal acid breakthrough is uncertain despite intense clinical and laboratory investigation. The available data do not lead to firm conclusions, so this interesting matter requires more research in different parts of the world. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and nocturnal acid breakthrough both in health and upper GI disorders disease has not been fully investigated. However, it seems that the Helicobacter pylori status must be taken into account when dealing with nocturnal acid breakthrough, both in patients and normal controls. Despite the fact that data concerning the exact significance of nocturnal acid breakthrough are not conclusive it must be stressed that it is a common phenomenon in proton pump inhibitor therapy. Although esophageal reflux in not a frequent event, it is more likely to occur in patients with poor motility, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett?s esophagus and scleroderma. It seems that in every day clinical practice, the administration of a proton pump inhibitor before meals and ranitidine at bedtime may well be the most cost-effective method available to control gastroesophageal reflux disease. Key Words: Nocturnal acid breakthrough, Reflux, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Helicobacter pylori, Extraesophageal manifestations of GERD, H2 receptor antagonists, Proton pump inhibitors

J.K. Triantafillidis, Maria Mylonaki, F. Georgopoulos

2007-03-01

181

Nocturnal acid breakthrough: consequences and confronting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARY Nocturnal Acid Breakthrough is defined as the appearance of gastric acid in the antrum of pH<4 overnight for a period longer than one hour during the administration of proton pump inhibitors. The prevalence of this phenomenon ranges between 69-79% in normal volunteers and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease respectively. It typically appears in the second 6-hour period after the evening dose of a PPI when patients are sleeping. The significance of nocturnal acid breakthrough is uncertain despite intense clinical and laboratory investigation. The available data do not lead to firm conclusions, so this interesting matter requires more research in different parts of the world. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and nocturnal acid breakthrough both in health and upper GI disorders disease has not been fully investigated. However, it seems that the Helicobacter pylori status must be taken into account when dealing with nocturnal acid breakthrough, both in patients and normal controls. Despite the fact that data concerning the exact significance of nocturnal acid breakthrough are not conclusive it must be stressed that it is a common phenomenon in proton pump inhibitor therapy. Although esophageal reflux in not a frequent event, it is more likely to occur in patients with poor motility, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett?s esophagus and scleroderma. It seems that in every day clinical practice, the administration of a proton pump inhibitor before meals and ranitidine at bedtime may well be the most cost-effective method available to control gastroesophageal reflux disease.Key Words: Nocturnal acid breakthrough, Reflux, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Helicobacter pylori, Extraesophageal manifestations of GERD, H2 receptor antagonists, Proton pump inhibitors

K. Triantafillidis, Maria Mylonaki, F. Georgopoulos

2007-03-01

182

Overexpression of MzASMT improves melatonin production and enhances drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a potent naturally occurring reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenger in plants. Melatonin protects plants from oxidative stress and, therefore, it improves their tolerance against a variety of environmental abiotic stressors. N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (ASMT) is a specific enzyme required for melatonin synthesis. In this report, an ASMT gene was cloned from apple rootstock (Malus zumi Mats) and designated as MzASMT1 (KJ123721). The MzASMT1 expression was induced by drought stress in apple leaves. The upregulation of MzASMT1 in the apple leaf positively relates to melatonin production over a 24-hr dark/light cycle. Purified MzASMT1 protein expressed in E. coli converted its substrates to melatonin with an activity of approximately 5.5 pmol/min/mg protein. The transient transformation in tobacco identified that MzASMT1 is located in cytoplasm of the cell. When MzASMT1 gene driven by 35S promoter was transferred to Arabidopsis, melatonin levels in transgenic Arabidopsis plants were 2-4 times higher than those in the wild type. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants had significantly lower intrinsic ROS than the wild type and therefore these plants exhibited greater tolerance to drought stress than that of wild type. This is, at least partially, attributed to the elevated melatonin levels resulting from the overexpression of MzASMT1. The results elucidated the important role that membrane-located melatonin synthase plays in drought tolerance. These findings have significant implications in agriculture. PMID:25250844

Zuo, Bixiao; Zheng, Xiaodong; He, Pingli; Wang, Lin; Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Zhou, Jingzhe; Li, Qingtian; Han, Zhenhai; Kong, Jin

2014-11-01

183

Melatonin reduces the severity of experimental amoebiasis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Melatonin has immunomodulatory effects but very little is known about its influence in protozoan infections, such as Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebiasis, a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous melatonin interference in experimental amoebiasis and on interactions between human blood cells and E. histolytica trophozoites. Methods The effect of melaton...

Honório-França Adenilda C; Franca Eduardo L; Ms, Oliveira Fabri?cio; França Juliana L; França-Botelho Aline C; Caliari Marcelo V; Gomes Maria A

2011-01-01

184

Melatonin-Based Therapeutics for Neuroprotection in Stroke  

OpenAIRE

The present review paper supports the approach to deliver melatonin and to target melatonin receptors for neuroprotection in stroke. We discuss laboratory evidence demonstrating neuroprotective effects of exogenous melatonin treatment and transplantation of melatonin-secreting cells in stroke. In addition, we describe a novel mechanism of action underlying the therapeutic benefits of stem cell therapy in stroke, implicating the role of melatonin receptors. As we envision the clinical entry of...

Borlongan, Cesar V.; Meaghan Staples; Kazutaka Shinozuka

2013-01-01

185

Therapeutic actions of melatonin on gastrointestinal cancer development and progression  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin exerts a multitude of physiological functions including the regulation of the sleep cycle and circadian rhythm. Although the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is regulated by changes in the light/dark cycle, the release of melatonin in the gastrointestinal tract is related to food consumption. Melatonin regulates antioxidative processes and it improves T-helper cell response by stimulating the production of specific cytokines. Melatonin is directly involved in preventing tu...

Glenister, Rachael; Mcdaniel, Kelly; Francis, Heather; Venter, Julie; Jensen, Kendal; Dusio, Giuseppina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Alpini, Gianfranco

2013-01-01

186

Neurobiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Melatonin Deficiency and Dysfunction  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic signaling molecule, which is released as a hormone of the pineal gland predominantly during night. Melatonin secretion decreases during aging. Reduced melatonin levels are also observed in various diseases, such as types of dementia, some mood disorders, severe pain, cancer, and diabetes type 2. Melatonin dysfunction is frequently related to deviations in amplitudes, phasing, and coupling of circadian rhythms. Gene polymorphisms of melatonin receptors and cir...

Hardeland, Ru?diger

2012-01-01

187

Design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial of melatonin supplementation in men and women with the metabolic syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paul D Terry,1 Abhinav Goyal,2,3 Lawrence S Phillips,3 Hillary M Superak,4 Michael H Kutner4 1Departments of Public Health and Surgery, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 2Department of Epidemiology, Emory Rollins School of Public Health, 3Department of Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, 4Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and possibly some cancers. Animal studies and observational clinical data in humans suggest that supplemental melatonin may ameliorate a number of components of the metabolic syndrome, including elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity. The primary objective of this clinical trial was to determine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of melatonin supplementation in men and women with the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Thirty-nine men and women of mixed race/ethnicity were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with two arms: placebo for 10 weeks followed by melatonin for 10 weeks, or vice versa, with an interval 6-week washout period, in a crossover trial design. Outcome measures include metabolic syndrome components (blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, oxidative stress, and inflammation biomarkers. These biomarkers, along with sleep duration and quality and pretreatment endogenous melatonin levels, were measured to explore possible underlying biologic mechanisms. Discussion: This trial will provide knowledge of the effects of melatonin in metabolic syndrome subjects, and lay the groundwork for future clinical trials of melatonin in metabolic syndrome subjects. Keywords: melatonin, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, blood pressure, sleep

Terry PD

2013-03-01

188

Melatonin receptors in the brain of the European sea bass: An in situ hybridization and autoradiographic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal organ and retina of vertebrates and exhibits a clear nocturnal rhythm of secretion. This hormone influences a number of important physiological processes acting through specific transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors. Recently, we have cloned three different melatonin receptors in sea bass belonging to the MT1, MT2, and Mel1c subtypes. In this paper, we have analyzed the central expression of the MT1 gene by in situ hybridization and compared its distribution with the localization of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin binding sites. In situ hybridization and autoradiographic studies provided consistent results. Melatonin receptors were mainly expressed in visually related areas of the sea bass brain, such as the pretectal area, glomerular complex, optic tectum, torus longitudinalis, and thalamus. A conspicuous expression was also detected in neuroendocrine regions including the ventral telencephalon, preoptic area, and hypothalamus. Furthermore, melatonin receptors were evident in the ganglionic cell layer of the cerebellum. The presence of iodomelatonin binding and/or MT1 mRNA-expressing cells was also observed in the hindbrain, in particular in the oculomotor and trigeminal nuclei and in the reticular formation. Our results suggest an important role of MT1 in the mediation of melatonin actions in visual/light integration, mechanoreception, somatosensation, eye-body motor coordination, and integrative and neuroendocrine functions. Remarkable differences in the number and distribution of brain nuclei expressing MT1 mRNAs in sea bass and trout, the only fish species analyzed to date, represent another piece of evidence for differences in the organization of the visual and circadian systems observed between salmoniform and perciform teleosts. PMID:20589910

Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Del Carmen Rendón, Maria; Besseau, Laurence; Sauzet, Sandrine; Falcón, Jack; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

2010-09-01

189

Antepartum depression severity is increased during seasonally longer nights: Relationship to melatonin and cortisol timing and quantity  

Science.gov (United States)

Current research suggests that mood varies from season to season in some individuals, in conjunction with light-modulated alterations in chronobiologic indices like melatonin and cortisol. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations in darkness on mood in depressed antepartum women, and to determine the relationship of seasonal mood variations to contemporaneous blood melatonin and cortisol measures; a secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors on measures of melancholic versus atypical depressive symptoms. We obtained measures of mood and overnight concentrations of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol in 19 depressed patients (DP) and 12 healthy control (HC) antepartum women, during on-going seasonal variations in daylight/darkness, in a cross-sectional design. Analyses of variance showed that in DP, but not HC, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) scores were significantly higher in women tested during seasonally longer vs. shorter nights. This exacerbation of depressive symptoms occurred when the dim light melatonin onset, the melatonin synthesis offset and the time of maximum cortisol secretion (acrophase) were phase-advanced (temporally shifted earlier), and melatonin quantity was reduced, in DP but not HC. Serum cortisol increased across gestational weeks in both the HC and DP groups, which did not differ significantly in cortisol concentration. Nevertheless, serum cortisol concentration correlated positively with HRSD score in DP but not HC; notably, HC showed neither significant mood changes nor altered melatonin and cortisol timing or quantity in association with seasonal variations. These findings suggest that depression severity during pregnancy may become elevated in association with seasonally-related phase-advances in melatonin and cortisol timing and reduced melatonin quantity that occur in DP, but not HC. Thus, women who experience antepartum depression may be more susceptible than their non-depressed counterparts to phase alterations in melatonin and cortisol timing during seasonally longer nights. Interventions that phase delay melatonin and/or cortisol timing -- for example, increased exposure to bright evening light -- might serve as an effective intervention for antepartum depressions whose severity is increased during seasonally longer nights. PMID:23998286

Meliska, Charles J.; Martínez, Luis F.; López, Ana M.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Nowakowski, Sara; Kripke, Daniel F.; Elliott, Jeffrey; Parry, Barbara L.

2014-01-01

190

Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested th NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

191

Daily illumination exposure and melatonin: influence of ophthalmic dysfunction and sleep duration  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Ocular pathology lessens light's efficacy to maintain optimal circadian entrainment. We examined whether ophthalmic dysfunction explains unique variance in melatonin excretion of older adults over and above the variance explained by daily illumination, medical, and sociodemographic factors. We also examined whether ophthalmic dysfunction influences relationships between ambient illumination and melatonin. Methods Thirty older adults (mean age = 69 years; Blacks = 42% and Whites = 58%) of both genders participated in the study. Demographic and health data were collected at baseline. Participants underwent eye exams at SUNY Downstate Medical Center, wore an actigraph to monitor illumination and sleep, and collected urine specimens to estimate aMT6s concentrations. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that illumination factors explained 29% of the variance in aMT6s mesor. The proportion of variance explained by ophthalmic factors, sleep duration, and race was 10%, 2%, and 2%, respectively. Illumination factors explained 19% of the variance in aMT6s acrophase. The proportion of variance explained by ophthalmic factors, sleep duration, and race was 11%; 17%; and 2%, respectively. Controlling for sleep duration and race reduced the correlations between illumination and melatonin, whereas controlling for ophthalmic factors did not. Conclusion Ophthalmic exams showed that elevated intraocular pressure and large cup-to-disk ratios were independently associated with earlier melatonin timing. Lower illumination exposure also had independent associations with earlier melatonin timing. Conceivably, ophthalmic and illumination factors might have an additive effect on the timing of melatonin excretion, which in turn might predispose individuals to experience early morning awakenings. PMID:16321164

Jean-Louis, Girardin; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zizi, Ferdinand; Wolintz, Arthur H; Lazzaro, Douglas R

2005-01-01

192

Immunoregulatory actions of melatonin and zinc during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

After one century of the discovery of Chagas' disease and the development of an efficient drug with amplitude of actions both in the acute and chronic phase is still a challenge. Alternative immune modulators have been exhaustively used. For that purpose, melatonin and zinc were administered during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Wistar rats and several endpoints were assessed. Melatonin has a remarkable functional versatility, being associated with important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. The cross-talk between zinc and the immune system includes its ability to influence the production and signaling of numerous inflammatory cytokines in a variety of cell types. Our study showed that zinc triggered a decrease in the generation of IFN-? for TCD4(+) cells. Reduced percentage of CD4(+) T cells producing TNF-? was observed in control melatonin or zinc-and-melatonin-treated animals as compared with untreated rats. On the other hand, a significant increase in the percentage of IL-4 from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes producers was observed 60 days after infection, for all zinc-treated animals, whether infected or not. Melatonin and zinc therapies increased the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes IL-10 producers. CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells were also elevated in zinc- and melatonin-treated animals. The modulation of the immune system influenced by these molecules affected cytokine production and the inflammatory process during chronic T. cruzi infection. Elucidation of the interplay between cytokine balance and the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease is extremely relevant not only for the comprehension of the immune mechanisms and clinical forms but, most importantly, also for the implementation of efficient and adequate therapies. PMID:25611919

Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Azevedo, Angela Palamin; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; de Morais, Fabiana Rossetto; Prado, José Clóvis do

2015-03-01

193

Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.  

OpenAIRE

Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised.

Clark, A. F.; Tayler, P. J.; Bhate, S. R.

1990-01-01

194

Nocturnal activity and the enuresis alarm device.  

OpenAIRE

The effect on nocturnal activity of the wire mesh element within the 'buzzer and pad' enuresis alarm device was studied using healthy adult volunteers in a single or double cross-over design. On the nights when the mesh was in the bed there was less activity, supporting the finding of improved polygraphic sleep on the mesh and suggesting an unexpected therapeutic mechanism.

Crisp, A. H.; Sireling, L. I.; Faizey, J.

1984-01-01

195

Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

2014-12-01

196

Melatonin and ubiquitin: what's the connection?  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin has been widely studied for its role in photoperiodism in seasonal breeders; it is also a potent antioxidant. Ubiquitin, a protein also widespread in living cells, contributes to many cellular events, although the most well known is that of tagging proteins for destruction by the proteasome. Herein, we suggest a model in which melatonin interacts with the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate a variety of seemingly unrelated processes. Ubiquitin, for example, is a major regulator of central activity of thyroid hormone type 2 deiodinase; the subsequent regulation of T3 may be central to the melatonin-induced changes in seasonal reproduction and seasonal changes in metabolism. Both melatonin and ubiquitin also have important roles in protecting cells from oxidative stress. We discuss the interaction of melatonin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in oxidative stress through regulation of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1. Previous reports have shown that glutathiolation of this enzyme protects proteins from unnecessary degradation. In addition, evidence is discussed concerning the interaction of ubiquitin and melatonin in activation of the transcription factor NF-?B as well as modulating cellular levels of numerous signal transducing factors including the tumor suppressor, p53. Some of the actions of melatonin on the regulatory particle of the proteasome appear to be related to its inhibition of the calcium-dependent calmodulin kinase II, an enzyme which reportedly copurifies with proteasomes. Many of the actions of melatonin on signal transduction are similar to those of a proteasome inhibitor. While these actions of melatonin could be explained by a direct inhibitory action on the catalytic core particle of the proteasome, this has not been experimentally verified. If our hypothesis of melatonin as a general inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is confirmed, it is predicted that more examples of this interaction will be demonstrated in a variety of tissues in which ubiquitin and melatonin co-exist. Furthermore, the hypothesis of melatonin as an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system will be a very useful model for clinical testing of melatonin. PMID:24920061

Vriend, Jerry; Reiter, Russel J

2014-09-01

197

Chronobiology of Melatonin beyond the Feedback to the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus—Consequences to Melatonin Dysfunction  

OpenAIRE

The mammalian circadian system is composed of numerous oscillators, which gradually differ with regard to their dependence on the pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Actions of melatonin on extra-SCN oscillators represent an emerging field. Melatonin receptors are widely expressed in numerous peripheral and central nervous tissues. Therefore, the circadian rhythm of circulating, pineal-derived melatonin can have profound consequences for the temporal organization of almost all organ...

Rüdiger Hardeland

2013-01-01

198

Melatonin: General Features and its Role in Psychiatric Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing interest in melatonin all over the world. The main task of protecting the body's biological clock, which set the rhythm of melatonin, involves many biological and physiological processes of the body. Cell renewal, strengthening of the immune system and body temperature regulation are other tasks of melatonin. Melatonin, with its lipophilic property, is the most powerful antioxidant as it can reach all body areas and can easily pass the blood-brain barrier. The fact that individuals with low levels of melatonin have sleep problems lead to the consideration of melatonin as a therapeutic medicine in this field. The detailed researches have shown that melatonin can improve sleep quality without changing the total duration of sleep. Nevertheless, despite high number of researches done, the functions of melatonin have not yet fully understood. Therefore, review of the available information related to melatonin will be guide for researchers in the field.

Murat Erdem

2013-06-01

199

Melatonin in epilepsy and febrile seizures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on melatonin rhythm in children with generalized idiopathic epilepsy and simple fever is presented in this article. A population of 40 children was divided into 4 groups, namely, epilepsy, febrile seizure, and 2 control groups. Salivary melatonin was measured by means of radioimmunoassay. Friedman 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon tests were employed to assess the existence of melatonin rhythm. Comparison across groups was performed by means of ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Higher melatonin levels were found at night, with a peak at 04:00 h in all groups. Significant diurnal rhythm was also detected for these levels. No significant overall differences between case and control groups were found for melatonin levels, though patients showed lower peak melatonin values than controls at 04:00 h with a significant difference in the febrile seizure group (10.70 vs 19.5 pg/mL respectively; P<.04). Our data support the presence of diurnal rhythm in blood melatonin concentrations in children with epileptic and febrile seizures. Comparison between case and control groups showed lower peak concentrations in the febrile seizure group with respect to healthy controls. PMID:20505155

Ardura, Julio; Andres, Jesus; Garmendia, Jose R; Ardura, Francisco

2010-07-01

200

Melatonin as a radioprotective agent: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief secretory product of the pineal gland in the brain, is well known for its functional versatility. In hundreds of investigations, melatonin has been documented as a direct free radical scavenger and an indirect antioxidant, as well as an important immunomodulatory agent. The radical scavenging ability of melatonin is believed to work via electron donation to detoxify a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. It has long been recognized that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are brought about by both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct action produces disruption of sensitive molecules in the cells, whereas the indirect effects (?70%) result from its interaction with water molecules, which results in the production of highly reactive free radicals such as ·OH, ·H, and eaq- and their subsequent action on subcellular structures. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of melatonin was used as a rationale to determine its radioprotective efficiency. Indeed, the results from many in vitro and in vivo investigations have confirmed that melatonin protects mammalian cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, several clinical reports indicate that melatonin administration, either alone or in combination with traditional radiotherapy, results in a favorable efficacy:toxicity ratio during theble efficacy:toxicity ratio during the treatment of human cancers. This article reviews the literature from laboratory investigations that document the ability of melatonin to scavenge a variety of free radicals (including the hydroxyl radical induced by ionizing radiation) and summarizes the evidence that should be used to design larger translational research-based clinical trials using melatonin as a radioprotector and also in cancer radiotherapy. The potential use of melatonin for protecting individuals from radiation terrorism is also considered

201

MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, strongly inhibits the growth of cancer cells [i]in vitro[/i] and [i]in vivo[/i]. Some publications indicate that the addition of melatonin to culture medium slows the proliferation of some cancer cell lines. It is also suggested that melatonin used as an adjuvant benefits the effectiveness and tolerance of chemotherapy. The mechanisms of this are not fully understood, but melatonin receptors might be one of the most important elements. Two distinct types of membrane-bound melatonin receptors have been identified in humans: MT1 (Mel1a and MT2 (Mel1b receptors. These subtypes are 60?0homologous at the amino-acid level. MT1 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors. Through the ? subunit of G protein, melatonin receptors stimulate an adenylate cyclase and decrease the level of cAMP. This has a significant influence on cell proliferation and has been confirmed in many tests on different cell lines, such as S-19, B-16 murine melanoma cells, and breast cancer cells. It seems that expression of the MT1 melatonin receptors benefits the efficacy of melatonin treatment. Melatonin and its receptors may provide a promising way to establish new alternative therapeutic approaches in human cancer prevention.

Karolina Danielczyk

2009-09-01

202

Acute treatment with desipramine stimulates melatonin and 6-sulphatoxy melatonin production in man.  

OpenAIRE

Acute administration of the antidepressant drug desipramine (DMI) in man, increased evening melatonin secretion, which reached peak plasma levels 2-4 h earlier than after placebo administration. The increase at set time points 21.00 h-22.00 h was directly proportional to an individual's integrated night-time secretion of melatonin. We have shown that this stimulation was not an effect of DMI inhibition on the hepatic metabolism of melatonin to 6-sulphatoxy melatonin (aMT6s), indeed aMT6s is i...

Franey, C.; Aldhous, M.; Burton, S.; Checkley, S.; Arendt, J.

1986-01-01

203

Neuromodulatory role of melatonin in retinal information processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurohormone melatonin is implicated in a variety of physiological processes. In the retina, a major source for melatonin production, melatonin is involved in modulation of neuronal activities. In this article we review recent advances in this research field, which is preceded by a concise account of general information about melatonin, melatonin receptors and intracellular signaling pathways for melatonin actions. Melatonin is mainly synthesized in and released from photoreceptors in the retina. Different subtypes of melatonin receptors are present on major types of retinal neurons, and the expression of these receptors is highly species- and neuron subtype-dependent. By activating different melatonin receptor subtypes, melatonin modulates activities of retinal neurons. In the outer retina, melatonin regulates the activity of photoreceptors. In addition, melatonin reduces the light responsiveness of cone-driven horizontal cells, but potentiates rod signal to rod-dominant ON type bipolar cells in teleost fish or inhibits the TEA-sensitive potassium channel of rod-driven ON type bipolar cells in rats. In the inner retina, melatonin potentiates inputs from glycinergic amacrine cells to ganglion cells in rats. These actions of melatonin on retinal neurons are mediated by distinct intracellular signaling pathways via different subtypes of melatonin receptors and all serve to improve visual performance in a world of changing ambient illumination. The topics, concerning allosteric action of melatonin, interplay between melatonin and dopamine systems, and potential interaction between melatonin and melanopsin systems, are also discussed. An in-depth discussion of future directions in this research field is presented. PMID:22986412

Huang, Hai; Wang, Zhongfeng; Weng, Shi-Jun; Sun, Xing-Huai; Yang, Xiong-Li

2013-01-01

204

Consequences of nocturnal water loss: a synthesis of regulating factors and implications for capacitance, embolism and use in models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total daily water use is a key factor influencing the growth of many terrestrial plants, and reflects both day-time and nocturnal water fluxes. However, while nocturnal sap flow (En) and stomatal conductance (gs,n) have been reported across a range of species, ecosystems and microclimatic conditions, the regulation of these fluxes remains poorly understood. Here, we present a framework describing the role of abiotic and biotic factors in regulating En and gs,n highlighting recent developments in this field. Across ecosystems, En and gs,n generally increased with increasing soil water content and vapor pressure deficit, but the interactive effects of these factors and the potential roles of wind speed and other abiotic factors remain unclear. On average, gs,n and En are higher in broad-leaved compared with needle-leaved plants, in C3 compared with C4 plants, and in tropical compared with temperate species. We discuss the impacts of leaf age, elevated [CO2] and refilling of capacitance on night-time water loss, and how nocturnal gs,n may be included in vegetation models. Younger leaves may have higher gs,n than older leaves. Embolism refilling and recharge of capacitance may affect sap flow such that total plant water loss at night may be less than estimated solely from En measurements. Our estimates of gs,n for typical plant functional types, based on the published literature, suggest that nocturnal water loss may be a significant fraction (10-25%) of total daily water loss. Counter-intuitively, elevated [CO2] may increase nocturnal water loss. Assumptions in process-based ecophysiological models and dynamic global vegetation models that gs is zero when solar radiation is zero are likely to be incorrect. Consequently, failure to adequately consider nocturnal water loss may lead to substantial under-estimation of total plant water use and inaccurate estimation of ecosystem level water balance. PMID:25413023

Zeppel, M J B; Lewis, J D; Phillips, N G; Tissue, D T

2014-10-01

205

Abnormal melatonin synthesis in autism spectrum disorders.  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is produced in the dark by the pineal gland and is a key regulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms. A low melatonin level has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the underlying cause of this deficit was unknown. The ASMT gene, encoding the last enzyme of melatonin synthesis, is located on the pseudo-autosomal region 1 of the sex chromosomes, deleted in several individuals with ASD. In this study, we sequenced all ASMT exons and promoters in indiv...

Melke, Jonas; Goubran-botros, Hany; Chaste, Pauline; Betancur, Catalina; Nygren, Gudrun; Anckarsa?ter, Henrik; Rastam, Maria; Sta?hlberg, Ola; Gillberg, I. Carina; Delorme, Richard; Chabane, Nadia; Mouren-simeoni, Marie-christine; Fauchereau, Fabien; Durand, Christelle; Chevalier, Fabien

2008-01-01

206

Effects of Dynamic Forcings and Surface Fluxes In The Nocturnal Boundary Layer Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is to simulate with a second order turbulence model, the main features of the stable nocturnal boundary layer, as the presence of the low-level jets, intermittent turbulence, and elevated turbulent layers decoupled from the surface. These simulations have been done with data collected during SABLES98 (Stable At- mospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain), which took place in September of 1998, from 10th to 27th in the northern Castilla Plateau. The results show that the model reproduce fairly accurately the observations, nevertheless, especial attention is paid on explore the effects of dynamic forcings and surface fluxes on the evolution of the vertical turbulence structures within the nocturnal Boundary Layer.

Soler, M. R.; Conangla, L.; Cuxart, J.; Terradellas, E.

207

Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the ability of melatonin in reducing metabolic risk factors and cardiac apoptosis induced by diabetes. Streptozotocin (60mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into male rats, and after diabetic induction melatonin (10mg/kg i.g.) was administered orally for 21 days. Diabetic hearts showed increased number of apoptotic cells with downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of p53 and CD95 as well as the caspases 9, 8 and 3. In addition, there was a significant decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated HOMA-IR, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein. These changes were coupled with a significant increase in the activities of creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of the diabetic rats indicating myocardium injury. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 weeks after diabetes induction ameliorated the levels of hyperglycemia, insulin, HbA1c, lipids profile and HOMA-IR. The oral melatonin treatment of diabetic rats significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the heart compared to diabetic rats. It enhanced Bcl-2 expression and blocked the activation of CD95 as well as caspases 9, 8 and 3. These changes were accompanied with significant improvement of CK-MB and LDH in the serum indicating the ameliorative effect of melatonin on myocardium injury. Melatonin effectively ameliorated diabetic myocardium injury, apoptosis, reduced the metabolic risk factors and modulated important steps in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Thus, melatonin may be a promising pharmacological agent for ameliorating potential cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes. PMID:25510232

Amin, Ali H; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I

2015-01-15

208

Age dependent nitro-oxidative load and melatonin receptor expression in the spleen and immunity of goat Capra hircus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decline in the plasma level of melatonin has been associated with increased oxidative stress in the physiological system while aging. The increased levels of oxidants are known to augment the nitro-oxidative stress, which induces the apoptotic factors in lymphoid organs leading to age dependent immunosenescence. There are no reports to date that can suggest how the age dependent nitro-oxidative stress can influence the melatonin membrane MT1/MT2R expression and immune status of any small ruminant. In the present study, we noted the expression of melatonin receptors MT1R and MT2R and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) along with the apoptotic markers (viz. Bcl-2, Bax and Pro-caspase-3) in the spleen of young, middle-aged and old-aged Indian goat Capra hircus. The lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded along with the total nitrite and nitrate ion concentration (NOx) in the spleen and plasma. An age dependent decline in MT1R and MT2R expressions and lymphocyte proliferation with increased level of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and iNOS expression was noted. An increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and a decreased Pro-caspase-3 expression were observed in the spleen of goat with an age dependent decline in the peripheral melatonin level. This decline in melatonin along with reduced melatonin receptor (MT1/MT2) expression and elevated RNS level in the spleen with aging might have an important role in the regulation of immune function of goats. Our observations suggest that the age-associated immunosenescence observed in goats can be a consequence of declining melatonin and its receptor expression and induction of apoptotic factors influenced by the increased RNS level that deteriorates the proper functioning of the spleen. PMID:25281807

Singh, Amaresh Kumar; Haldar, Chandana

2014-12-01

209

Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use. PMID:23190422

Dwyer, Ross G; Bearhop, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish A; Bryant, David M

2013-03-01

210

Melatonin: a "Higgs boson" in human reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract As the Higgs boson could be a key to unlocking mysteries regarding our Universe, melatonin, a somewhat mysterious substance secreted by the pineal gland primarily at night, might be a crucial factor in regulating numerous processes in human reproduction. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant which has an essential role in controlling several physiological reactions, as well as biological rhythms throughout human reproductive life. Melatonin, which is referred to as a hormone, but also as an autocoid, a chronobiotic, a hypnotic, an immunomodulator and a biological modifier, plays a crucial part in establishing homeostatic, neurohumoral balance and circadian rhythm in the body through synergic actions with other hormones and neuropeptides. This paper aims to analyze the effects of melatonin on the reproductive function, as well as to shed light on immunological and oncostatic properties of one of the most powerful hormones. PMID:25377724

Dragojevic Dikic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Ana Mitrovic; Dikic, Srdjan; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Jurisic, Aleksandar; Dobrosavljevic, Aleksandar

2015-02-01

211

Role of melatonin in upper gastrointestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin, an indole formed enzymatically from L-tryptophan, is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormone molecule produced not only in all animals but also in some plants. This review focuses on the role of melatonin in upper portion of gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including oral cavity, esophagus, stomach and duodenum, where this indole is generated and released into the GIT lumen and into the portal circulation to be uptaken, metabolized by liver and released with bile into the duodenum. The biosynthetic steps of melatonin with two major rate limiting enzymes, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming tryptophan to melatonin, originally identified in pinealocytes have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT wall, where this indole may act via endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway through G-protein coupled receptors. Melatonin in GIT was shown to be generated in about 500 times larger amounts than it is produced in pineal gland. The production of melatonin by pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time peak, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophilic substance, melatonin reaches all body cells within minutes, to serve as a convenient circadian timing signal for alteration of numerous body functions.. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma melatonin levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentrations are attenuated but sustained mainly due to its release from the GIT. After oral application of tryptophan, the plasma melatonin increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals, indicating that extrapineal sources such as GIT rather than pineal gland are the major producers of this indole. In the upper portion of GIT, melatonin exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, free radicals scavenging activity, protection of mucosa against various irritants and healing of various GIT lesions such as stomatitis, esophagitis, gastritis and peptic ulcer. This review concentrates on the generation and pathophysiological implication of melatonin in upper GIT. PMID:18212399

Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Bubenik, G A

2007-12-01

212

Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds  

OpenAIRE

Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this...

Iba?n?ez, Carlos; Juste, Javier; Garci?a-mudarra, Juan L.; Agirre-mendi, Pablo T.

2001-01-01

213

Nocturnal enuresis in sickle cell haemoglobinopathies.  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis (wet at least two nights a week) was investigated in children, aged 8, who were being followed up as part of a prospective cohort study. There were 175 children with homozygous sickle cell disease, 106 with sickle cell haemoglobin C disease, and 150 controls with a normal haemoglobin genotype. In homozygous sickle cell disease, 48 boys (52%) and 31 girls (38%) were enuretic, a significantly higher prevalence than in those with sickle cell haemoglobin C dis...

Readett, D. R.; Morris, J. S.; Serjeant, G. R.

1990-01-01

214

Melatonin in Plants: More Studies are Necessary  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a biogenic indoleamine structurally related with other important substances such as tryptophan, serotonin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In mammals, birds, reptiles and fish melatonin is a biological modulator of several timing (circadian) processes such as mood, sleep, sexual behavior, immunological status, etc. Since its discovery in plants in 1995 several physiological roles, including a possible role in flowering, circadian rhythms and photoperiod...

Arnao, Marino B.; Herna?ndez-ruiz, Josefa

2007-01-01

215

Clinical applications of melatonin in circadian disorders  

OpenAIRE

Chronobiological disorders and syndromes include seasonal affective disorder (SAD), total blindness, advanced and delayed sleep phase syndrome, jet lag, and shift work maladaptation. These disorders are treated by adjusting circadian phase, using appropriately timed bright light exposure and melatonin administration (at doses of 0.5 mg or less). In some cases, it may be necessary to measure internal circadían phase, using the time when endogenous melatonin levels rise.

Lewy, Alfred J.

2003-01-01

216

Seasonal variations in pineal 5-methoxytryptophol (5-ML) concentrations and in the daily pattern of pineal 5-ML and melatonin in the desert rodent Jaculus orientalis: effect of prolonged illumination during the night.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal variations in daytime pineal 5-methoxytryptophol (5-ML) and in the daily pattern of both pineal 5-ML and melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in male and female jerboas, Jaculus orientalis. Pineal 5-ML content was found to be low in winter and spring and showed a short but marked increase in summer. A clear daily rhythm was present in pineal 5-ML in September, with high concentrations during daytime and low concentrations during nighttime. In May there was a considerable drop in the daytime values and a marked decrease in the amplitude of the rhythm, while in December the daily rhythm completely disappeared. On the contrary, a clear daily rhythm was observed for pineal melatonin in September, December, and May with high values during nighttime and low values during daytime; no differences in the amplitude of the rhythm could be observed. Illumination during early night prevented both the nocturnal decrease of 5-ML and the increase of melatonin in September; in May illumination had no clear effect on 5-ML, while it prevented the normal increase of melatonin. These results suggest a possible desynchronization between the regulation of 5-ML and melatonin synthesis and release, and stress the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the environmental synchronization of seasonal functions. PMID:1432574

Lakhdar-Ghazal, N; Vivien-Roels, B; Pevet, P

1992-08-01

217

Nocturnal panic and recent life events.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has hypothesized an association between traumatic events and nocturnal panic (NP). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the onset of nocturnal panic attacks is associated with a higher frequency of and/or greater severity of stressful or traumatic life events than that of patients with panic disorders (PDs) who experience daytime panic attacks (DPs) while awake. A secondary aim was to investigate whether NP is associated with specific life events at the onset of the disorder. Our sample comprised 129 subjects with PD (DSM-IV). We investigated the number and types of stressful life events that occurred in the year prior to PD onset using a semistructured interview. Of the sample, 28.7% had recurrent nocturnal panic attacks (NP group). Subjects with and without recurrent NP did not differ on any sociodemographic or clinical characteristic. Neither the number nor type of life event distinguished those with or without NP. The subgroup of patients with PD with recurrent NP appears to represent a variant of PD with a possible increased vulnerability to conditions of diminished arousal as a trigger of panic attacks. However, the hypothesis that this vulnerability might be determined by life events that occur in the period preceding PD onset was not supported by the findings of this study. PMID:16175567

Albert, Umberto; Maina, Giuseppe; Bergesio, Chiara; Bogetto, Filippo

2005-01-01

218

Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-?, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-? and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-? and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

Ebaid Hossam

2013-02-01

219

Loss of Response to Melatonin Treatment Is Associated with Slow Melatonin Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In some of our patients with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems, the initial good response to melatonin disappeared within a few weeks after starting treatment, while the good response returned only after considerable dose reduction. The cause for this loss of response to melatonin is yet unknown. We hypothesise that this…

Braam, W.; van Geijlswijk, I.; Keijzer, Henry; Smits, Marcel G.; Didden, Robert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

2010-01-01

220

Abnormal melatonin synthesis in autism spectrum disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is produced in the dark by the pineal gland and is a key regulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms. A low melatonin level has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the underlying cause of this deficit was unknown. The ASMT gene, encoding the last enzyme of melatonin synthesis, is located on the pseudo-autosomal region 1 of the sex chromosomes, deleted in several individuals with ASD. In this study, we sequenced all ASMT exons and promoters in individuals with ASD (n=250) and compared the allelic frequencies with controls (n=255). Non-conservative variations of ASMT were identified, including a splicing mutation present in two families with ASD, but not in controls. Two polymorphisms located in the promoter (rs4446909 and rs5989681) were more frequent in ASD compared to controls (P=0.0006) and were associated with a dramatic decrease in ASMT transcripts in blood cell lines (P=2 x 10(-10)). Biochemical analyses performed on blood platelets and/or cultured cells revealed a highly significant decrease in ASMT activity (P=2 x 10(-12)) and melatonin level (P=3 x 10(-11)) in individuals with ASD. These results indicate that a low melatonin level, caused by a primary deficit in ASMT activity, is a risk factor for ASD. They also support ASMT as a susceptibility gene for ASD and highlight the crucial role of melatonin in human cognition and behavior. PMID:17505466

Melke, J; Goubran Botros, H; Chaste, P; Betancur, C; Nygren, G; Anckarsäter, H; Rastam, M; Ståhlberg, O; Gillberg, I C; Delorme, R; Chabane, N; Mouren-Simeoni, M-C; Fauchereau, F; Durand, C M; Chevalier, F; Drouot, X; Collet, C; Launay, J-M; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Bourgeron, T

2008-01-01

221

Putative melatonin receptors in a human biological clock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro autoradiography with 125I-labeled melatonin was used to examine melatonin binding sites in human hypothalamus. Specific 125I-labeled melatonin binding was localized to the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of a putative biological clock, and was not apparent in other hypothalamic regions. Specific 125I-labeled melatonin binding was consistently found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalami from adults and fetuses. Densitometric analysis of competition experiments with varying concentrations of melatonin showed monophasic competition curves, with comparable half-maximal inhibition values for the suprachiasmatic nuclei of adults (150 picomolar) and fetuses (110 picomolar). Micromolar concentrations of the melatonin agonist 6-chloromelatonin completely inhibited specific 125I-labeled melatonin binding, whereas the same concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine caused only a partial reduction in specific binding. The results suggest that putative melatonin receptors are located in a human biological clock

222

Melatonin improves spermatogonial stem cells transplantation efficiency in azoospermic mice  

OpenAIRE

Objective(s): Transplantation quality improvement and reduction of cellular damage are important goals that are now considered by researchers. Melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland and some organs such as testes. According to beneficial effects of melatonin (such as its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties), researchers have proposed that the use of melatonin may improve transplantation quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on the spermatogonial ...

Gholami, Mohammadreza; Saki, Ghasem; Hemadi, Masoud; Khodadadi, Ali; Mohammadi-asl, Javad

2014-01-01

223

Melatonin Induces Akt Phosphorylation through Melatonin Receptor- and PI3K-Dependent Pathways in Primary Astrocytes  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin has been reported to protect neurons from a variety of neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism by which melatonin exerts its neuroprotective property has not yet been clearly understood. We previously demonstrated that melatonin protected kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, accompanied by sustained activation of Akt, a critical mediator of neuronal survival. To further elucidate the neuroprotective action of melatonin, we examined in the present st...

Kong, Pil-jae; Byun, Jong-seon; Lim, So-young; Lee, Jae-jun; Hong, Sung-jun; Kwon, Kwang-jun; Kim, Sung-soo

2008-01-01

224

Melatonin Plays a Protective Role in Postburn Rodent Gut Pathophysiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards this end, we tested the hypothesis that the gut is both a source and a target for melatonin and that mesenteric melatonin plays an anti-inflammatory role following major thermal injury in rats with 3rd degree hot water scald over 30% TBSA. Our methods for assessing the gut as a source of melatonin included plasma melatonin ELISA measurements in systemic and mesenteric circulation as well as rtPCR measurement of jejunum and terminal ileum expression of the melatonin synthesizing enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT in sham versus day-3 postburn rats. Our melatonin ELISA results revealed that mesenteric circulation has much higher melatonin than systemic circulation and that both mesenteric and systemic melatonin levels are increased three days following major thermal injury. Our rtPCR results complemented the ELISA data in showing that the melatonin synthesizing enzymes AA-NAT and HIOMT are expressed in the ileum and jejunum and that this expression is increased three days following major thermal injury. Interestingly, the rtPCR data also revealed negative feedback by melatonin as exogenous melatonin supplementation at a dose of 7.43 mg (32 ?mole/kg, but not 1.86 mg/kg (8 ?mole/kg drastically suppressed AA-NAT mRNA expression. Our methods also included an assessment of the gut as a target for melatonin utilizing computerized immunohistochemical measurements to quantify the effects of exogenous melatonin supplementation on postburn gut mucosa barrier inflammatory profiles. Here, our results revealed that daily postburn intraperitoneal melatonin administration at a dose of 1.86 mg/kg (8 ?mole/kg significantly suppressed both neutrophil infiltration and tyrosine nitrosylation as revealed by Gr-1 and nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry, respectively. In conclusion, our results provide support for high mesenteric melatonin levels and dynamic de novo gut melatonin production, both of which increase endogenously in response to major thermal injury, but appear to fall short of abrogating the excessive postburn hyper-inflammation. Moreover, supplementation by exogenous melatonin significantly suppresses gut inflammation, thus confirming that melatonin is protective against postburn inflammation.

Walid M. Al-Ghoul, Steven Abu-Shaqra, Byeong Gyu Park, Nadeem Fazal

2010-01-01

225

Melatonin plays a protective role in postburn rodent gut pathophysiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards this end, we tested the hypothesis that the gut is both a source and a target for melatonin and that mesenteric melatonin plays an anti-inflammatory role following major thermal injury in rats with 3rd degree hot water scald over 30% TBSA. Our methods for assessing the gut as a source of melatonin included plasma melatonin ELISA measurements in systemic and mesenteric circulation as well as rtPCR measurement of jejunum and terminal ileum expression of the melatonin synthesizing enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in sham versus day-3 postburn rats. Our melatonin ELISA results revealed that mesenteric circulation has much higher melatonin than systemic circulation and that both mesenteric and systemic melatonin levels are increased three days following major thermal injury. Our rtPCR results complemented the ELISA data in showing that the melatonin synthesizing enzymes AA-NAT and HIOMT are expressed in the ileum and jejunum and that this expression is increased three days following major thermal injury. Interestingly, the rtPCR data also revealed negative feedback by melatonin as exogenous melatonin supplementation at a dose of 7.43 mg (32 micromole/kg), but not 1.86 mg/kg (8 micromole/kg) drastically suppressed AA-NAT mRNA expression. Our methods also included an assessment of the gut as a target for melatonin utilizing computerized immunohistochemical measurements to quantify the effects of exogenous melatonin supplementation on postburn gut mucosa barrier inflammatory profiles. Here, our results revealed that daily postburn intraperitoneal melatonin administration at a dose of 1.86 mg/kg (8 micromole/kg) significantly suppressed both neutrophil infiltration and tyrosine nitrosylation as revealed by Gr-1 and nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry, respectively. In conclusion, our results provide support for high mesenteric melatonin levels and dynamic de novo gut melatonin production, both of which increase endogenously in response to major thermal injury, but appear to fall short of abrogating the excessive postburn hyper-inflammation. Moreover, supplementation by exogenous melatonin significantly suppresses gut inflammation, thus confirming that melatonin is protective against postburn inflammation. PMID:20567497

Al-Ghoul, Walid M; Abu-Shaqra, Steven; Park, Byeong Gyu; Fazal, Nadeem

2010-01-01

226

Effects of ageing and exogenous melatonin on pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in ewes during anestrus and the reproductive season.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the effect of melatonin implants on in vivo pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in control, fully productive (5.7+/-0.4 years old, n=17) and aged (10.7+/-0.3 years old, n=14) ovariectomized, estradiol-treated Rasa Aragonesa ewes. On 27 February, eight ewes in each age group received a single implant containing 18 mg melatonin. On 10 April, blood samples to be assayed for LH were collected at 10-min intervals over 4h (starting at 09:00 and 22:00 h). After samples 6 and 18 were collected, ewes received a single i.v. injection of GnRH (20 ng/kg liveweight). The pituitary response to GnRH was assessed using the difference between plasma LH concentrations before and after (highest value) each injection (DLH1, DLH2)), and the area under the LH response curve for 1h after each GnRH injection (AUC1, AUC2). On 23 September, the previously implanted ewes received a new melatonin implant and, on 17 November, all of the ewes were subjected to the same diurnal and nocturnal sampling protocols, again. Generally, non-implanted aged ewes exhibited a lower pituitary response to GnRH than did non-implanted control ewes, particularly in November and after the first injection (P<0.05 for DLH1 and AUC1 in both the diurnal and nocturnal tests). The response was significantly affected by the interaction of age and melatonin treatment, particularly in the diurnal tests (P<0.1 for DLH1 and AUC1, and P<0.05 for AUC2 in April; P<0.05 for DLH1, AUC1 and AUC2 in November), which indicated that exogenous melatonin increased LH levels after GnRH injections in aged ewes compared to non-implanted ewes, this effect being the opposite in control females. Thus, melatonin can restore in ewes the functionality of the neuroendocrine system, after it has been reduced by senescence. PMID:17157375

Forcada, F; Abecia, J A; Casao, A; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T; Palacín, I

2007-03-01

227

Unlike the synchronous Plasmodium falciparum and P. chabaudi infection, the P. berghei and P. yoelii asynchronous infections are not affected by melatonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Piero Bagnaresi1, Eduardo Alves1, Henrique Borges da Silva1, Sabrina Epiphanio2, Maria M Mota2, Célia RS Garcia11Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Unidade de Malária, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, PortugalAbstract: We have previously reported that Plasmodium chabaudi and P. falciparum sense the hormone melatonin and this could be responsible for the synchrony of malaria infection. In P. chabaudi and P. falciparum, melatonin induces calcium release from internal stores, and this response is abolished by U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and luzindole, a melatoninreceptor competitive antagonist. Here we show that, in vitro, melatonin is not able to modulate cell cycle, nor to elicit an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration of the intraerythrocytic forms of P. berghei or P. yoelii, two rodent parasites that show an asynchrononous development in vivo. Interestingly, melatonin and its receptor do not seem to play a role during hepatic infection by P. berghei sporozoites either. These data strengthen the hypothesis that hostderived melatonin does not synchronize malaria infection caused by P. berghei and P. yoelii. Moreover, these data explain why infections by these parasites are asynchronous, contrary to what is observed in P. falciparum and P. chabaudi infections.Keywords: malaria, calcium, melatonin, cell cycle, rhythm, sporozoite

Piero Bagnaresi

2009-04-01

228

Melatonin independent protective role of l-tryptophan in experimental reflux esophagitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is implicated in sustaining the esophageal integrity in gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, the role of its synthetic precursor l-tryptophan is not clear in this pathology. The present study was designed to explore the effects of l-tryptophan on esophageal damage following reflux esophagitis (RE)-establishment and concurrent alterations in factors possibly influencing esophageal integrity such as esophageal melatonin level, luminal acidity, H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, mucin and gastric PGE(2) levels. RE was established in rats by simultaneous ligation of pylorus region and fore-stomach. RE significantly decreased the esophageal-melatonin level and the expression of its synthesizing enzymes: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Administration of l-tryptophan significantly decreased the RE-induced esophageal mucosal damage, without altering the levels of melatonin. l-Tryptophan pretreatment also normalized the esophageal mucosal damage caused by melatonin receptor antagonist-luzindole. Simultaneously, l-tryptophan significantly increased the RE-decreased expression of AA-NAT with insignificant effect on HIOMT gene expression. In contrast, l-tryptophan per se caused a significant elevation in the esophageal melatonin level, with no significant effect on the expression of AA-NAT and HIOMT enzymes. Further, l-tryptophan significantly normalized the RE-induced changes in the gastric juice volume, acidity and pH. However, it did not significantly inhibit the H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro. Also, l-tryptophan significantly increased the RE-reduced mucin level, COX-2 activity and thereby PGE(2) levels. Interestingly, indomethacin (PGE(2) synthesis blocker), aggravated the RE-induced tissue injury with simultaneous changes in the gastric volume, acidity, pH and mucin content, which l-tryptophan failed to reverse, suggesting that the attenuating effect of l-tryptophan on gastric secretions could be PGE(2) driven. Thus the current study provide evidences that protective functions of l-tryptophan against RE is independent of its conversion into melatonin, and possibly involve mobilization of factors such as COX-2 derived PGE(2) and mucin that counterbalance the detrimental effect of gastric acid on esophageal mucosa, signifying the therapeutic efficacy of l-tryptophan against the esophageal pathologies. PMID:21527345

Singh, Pratibha; Singh, Neetu; Ahmad, Ausaf; Singh, Omprakash; Palit, Gautam

2011-09-01

229

Effectiveness of Melatonin, as a Radiation Damage-Mitigating Drug in Modulating Liver Biochemical disorders in ?-Irradiated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melatonin has an anti per oxidative effect on several tissues as well as a scavenger effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst radiation-hazards due to free radical generation, present enormous challenges for biological and medical safety. Therefore, rats were classified into four groups; control (n= 8), (received 0.5 ml of alcoholic saline as a vehicle for 5 days). Melatonin-treated rats received 10 mg/ kg body wt, for 5 days (given to the animals in the morning via stomach tube). gamma-irradiated rats received 0.5 ml of the melatonin vehicle followed by one shot dose of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Each of these groups was compared with a further group, which-received melatonin for 5 days after 3 Gy gamma-irradiation exposure. The results revealed that all considered biochemical parameters were not changed significantly in melatonin-treated group as compared with control one. In the liver tissue of the gamma-irradiated animals (3 Gy), the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly increased, while a marked decrease occurred in the contents of deoxy- and ribo-nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and glutathione (GSH) as well as activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In addition, catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were increased. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Treatment with me of the irradiated rats. Treatment with melatonin for 5 days after gamma-rays exposure significantly modulated the radiation-induced elevations in MDA and PC levels in the liver tissue and significantly restored hepatic GSH content, GST, CAT and MPO activities. Post-irradiation treatment with melatonin showed significant higher hepatic DNA and RNA contents than irradiated rats. The activities of AST, ALP, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated when melatonin was administrated after irradiation. Conclusion: Melatonin has effective mitigating effects against gamma- radiation induced oxidative stress and liver injury.

230

Melatonin improves the quality of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and modifications of relevant gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7) M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7) M) significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes. PMID:24695534

Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhou, YanHua; Tan, DunXian; Zhu, ShiEn; Dai, YunPing; Liu, GuoShi

2014-01-01

231

Effect of laser acupuncture for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis on bladder reservoir function and nocturnal urine output  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The alternative treatments for enuresis have been reported with high efficacy but in noncontrolled studies. Therefore, using a prospective, single-blind, randomized, placebo controlled design we evaluated the effect of laser acupuncture on bladder reservoir function and enuresis frequency in cases of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with reduced maximal voided volume.

Radvanska, E; Kamperis, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

232

Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offshore platforms. Our aim is to develop bird-friendly artificial lighting that meets human demands for safety but does not attract and disorient birds. Our current working hypothesis is that artificial light interferes with the magnetic compass of the birds, one of several orientation mechanisms and especially important during overcast nights. Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

Marcel R. Wernand

2008-12-01

233

Aging and oxygen toxicity: Relation to changes in melatonin  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a chemical mediator produced in the pineal gland and other sites in the body. The melatonin found in the blood is derived almost exclusively from the pineal gland. Since the pineal synthesizes melatonin primarily at night, blood levels of the indole are also higher at night (5–15 fold) than during the day. Some individuals on a nightly basis produce twice as much melatonin as others of the same age. Throughout life, the melatonin rhythm gradually ...

Reiter, Russel J.

1997-01-01

234

Pineal gland of a nocturnal bird, Indian spotted owlet, Athene brama: morphological and endocrine observations.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that owls (Strigiformes) do not have a pineal gland. However, our light microscopy study revealed an intermediate form of tubulofollicular and solid-type large pineal gland in a tropical owlet, Athene brama. The epithelial cells forming follicles (6-8) in the distal region and the solid cluster of parenchymal cells of different diameters in the proximal region anteriorly tapered with a long cylindrical stalk and continued into commissural organs and choroid plexus. The intrapineal localization of perivascular nerve fibers and blood vessels clearly explained the sympathetic innervation as well as vascularization of this neuroendocrine gland. Further, electron microscopy revealed a developed intracellular structure of the pinealocytes with a large number of mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and granular as well as clear vesicles in the process terminals. The evidence of intrapinealocyte lipid droplets and dense bodies and a moderate amount of melatonin in plasma (ranging from 100-365 pg/mL) during different reproductive phases finally proved a defined secretory activity of the gland in this tropical, nocturnal bird. PMID:10900433

Haldar, C; Guchhait, P

2000-07-01

235

The role of melatonin as an antioxidant in the follicle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is secreted during the dark hours at night by pineal gland, and it regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It has been believed that melatonin regulates ovarian function by the regulation of gonadotropin release in the hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis via its specific receptors. In addition to the receptor mediated action, the discovery of melatonin as a direct free radical scavenger has greatly broadened the understanding of melatonin's mechanisms which benefit reproductive physiology. Higher concentrations of melatonin have been found in human preovulatory follicular fluid compared to serum, and there is growing evidence of the direct effects of melatonin on ovarian function especially oocyte maturation and embryo development. Many scientists have focused on the direct role of melatonin on oocyte maturation and embryo development as an anti-oxidant to reduce oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species, which are produced during ovulation process. The beneficial effects of melatonin administration on oocyte maturation and embryo development have been confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments in animals. This review also discusses the first application of melatonin to the clinical treatment of infertile women and confirms that melatonin administration reduces intrafollicular oxidative damage and increase fertilization rates. This review summarizes our recent works and new findings related to the reported beneficial effects of melatonin on reproductive physiology in its role as a reducer of oxidative stress, especially on oocyte maturation and embryo development.

Tamura Hiroshi

2012-01-01

236

The role of melatonin as an antioxidant in the follicle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by pineal gland, and it regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It has been believed that melatonin regulates ovarian function by the regulation of gonadotropin release in the hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis via its specific receptors. In addition to the receptor mediated action, the discovery of melatonin as a direct free radical scavenger has greatly broadened the understanding of melatonin's mechanisms which benefit reproductive physiology. Higher concentrations of melatonin have been found in human preovulatory follicular fluid compared to serum, and there is growing evidence of the direct effects of melatonin on ovarian function especially oocyte maturation and embryo development. Many scientists have focused on the direct role of melatonin on oocyte maturation and embryo development as an anti-oxidant to reduce oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species, which are produced during ovulation process. The beneficial effects of melatonin administration on oocyte maturation and embryo development have been confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments in animals. This review also discusses the first application of melatonin to the clinical treatment of infertile women and confirms that melatonin administration reduces intrafollicular oxidative damage and increase fertilization rates. This review summarizes our recent works and new findings related to the reported beneficial effects of melatonin on reproductive physiology in its role as a reducer of oxidative stress, especially on oocyte maturation and embryo development. PMID:22277103

Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Kizuka, Fumie; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

2012-01-01

237

Ocular melatonin rhythms in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocular melatonin rhythms in the goldfish were studied and compared to those in the pineal organ and plasma. Under light:dark (LD) of 12 h light:12 h dark, melatonin contents in the eye as well as the pineal organ and plasma exhibited clear day-night changes with higher levels at mid-dark than at mid-light. However, melatonin contents in the eye at mid-light and mid-dark were approximately 100 and 9 times greater than those in the pineal organ, respectively. Day-night changes of ocular melatonin persisted after pinealectomy, which abolished those in plasma melatonin under LD 12:12. Ocular melatonin contents in the pinealectomized fish at mid-light were significantly higher than those in the sham-operated control. Under constant darkness (DD), circadian melatonin rhythms were observed in the eye but damped on the 3rd day, whereas plasma melatonin rhythms generated by the pineal organ persisted for at least 3 days. Under constant light, ocular melatonin contents exhibited a significant fluctuation with a smaller amplitude than that under DD, whereas plasma melatonin remained at low levels. These results indicate the involvement of LD cycles, a circadian clock, and the pineal organ in the regulation of ocular melatonin rhythms in the goldfish. PMID:9090571

Iigo, M; Furukawa, K; Hattori, A; Ohtani-Kaneko, R; Hara, M; Suzuki, T; Tabata, M; Aida, K

1997-04-01

238

Transcriptional regulation of programmed hypertension by melatonin: an epigenetic perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is an endogenously produced indoleamine and secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin has pleiotropic bioactivities and is involved in epigenetic regulation. Suboptimal conditions during maternal and perinatal phases can elicit epigenetic regulation of genes for nephrogenesis and reset physiological responses to develop programmed hypertension. This review discusses the early utility of melatonin to prevent programmed hypertension in later life by epigenetic regulation in the kidney, with an emphasis on: (1) the role of melatonin in epigenetic regulation; (2) the beneficial effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension; (3) epigenetic regulation of maternal melatonin therapy in different developmental windows of offspring kidneys analyzed by whole-genome RNA next-generation sequencing; and (4) current blocks in the application of melatonin in preventing programmed hypertension. PMID:25318052

Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Chan, Julie Y H

2014-01-01

239

Transcriptional Regulation of Programmed Hypertension by Melatonin: An Epigenetic Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin is an endogenously produced indoleamine and secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin has pleiotropic bioactivities and is involved in epigenetic regulation. Suboptimal conditions during maternal and perinatal phases can elicit epigenetic regulation of genes for nephrogenesis and reset physiological responses to develop programmed hypertension. This review discusses the early utility of melatonin to prevent programmed hypertension in later life by epigenetic regulation in the kidney, with an emphasis on: (1 the role of melatonin in epigenetic regulation; (2 the beneficial effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension; (3 epigenetic regulation of maternal melatonin therapy in different developmental windows of offspring kidneys analyzed by whole-genome RNA next-generation sequencing; and (4 current blocks in the application of melatonin in preventing programmed hypertension.

You-Lin Tain

2014-10-01

240

Melatonin  

Science.gov (United States)

... much sleepiness. Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.ModerateBe ... cause too much sleepiness. Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and ...

241

Thirty four years since the discovery of gastrointestinal melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the discovery of melatonin in the pineal gland by Lerner and co-workers in 1958, melatonin was also detected in the retina and the human appendix. Later, melatonin was confirmed immunohistologically in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), in the guts of bovine embryos and in the GIT of low vertebrates. Melatonin was also confirmed in the pancreas and the hepatobiliary system. Melatonin is produced in the enteroendocrine cells of the GIT mucosa. The concentrations of melatonin in the GIT are 10-100x higher than in the plasma and the total amount of melatonin in the GIT is around 400x higher than the amount of melatonin in the pineal gland. Similar to pineal melatonin, GIT melatonin is a multifunctional compound which exhibits some general as well as some specific effects, depending on the organ and the location of GIT tissue. In the GIT, melatonin exhibits endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and luminal actions. Generally, the episodic secretion of melatonin from the GIT is related to the intake and digestion of food and to the prevention of tissue damage caused by hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes. Some actions, such as the scavenging of hydroxyl free radicals, immunoenhancement and antioxidant effects are of general nature, whereas others, such as an increase of mucosal blood flow, the reduction of peristalsis and the regulation of fecal water content, are specific to the tubular GIT. Generally, melatonin actions oppose those of serotonin. Laboratory and clinical studies indicate that the utilization of melatonin can prevent or treat pathological conditions such as esophageal and gastric ulcers, pancreatitis, colitis, irritable bowel disease, and colon cancer. PMID:18812627

Bubenik, G A

2008-08-01

242

Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

Elizabeth K. Perkin

2014-03-01

243

Nocturnal panic attacks / Ataques de pânico noturno  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A conexão pânico-respiração vem apresentando evidências crescentes na literatura. Nós relatamos três pacientes com transtorno de pânico com ataques de pânico no sono com sintomas respiratórios proeminentes, a sobreposição de sintomas com a síndrome de apnéia do sono e a mudança dos ataques de pânico [...] em vigília, de um padrão espontâneo a situacional. A implicação destes achados e a necessidade de maior atenção para o conjunto distinto de sintomas dos ataques de pânico no sono poderá ser útil para o diagnóstico diferencial e na busca por tratamento específico. Abstract in english The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic a [...] ttacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

Fabiana L., Lopes; Antonio E., Nardi; Isabella, Nascimento; Alexandre M., Valença; Walter A, Zin.

2002-09-01

244

Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

245

Melatonin and its atheroprotective effects: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular disease in which oxidative stress and inflammation are commonly implicated as major causative factors. Identification of novel strategies that contribute to plaque stabilization or inhibition represents a continuing challenge for the medical community. The evidence from the last decade highlights that melatonin influences the cardiovascular system, but its mechanisms of action have not been definitively clarified. Melatonin has atheroprotective effects by acting on different pathogenic signaling processes; these result from its direct free radical scavenger activity, its indirect antioxidant properties and its anti-inflammatory actions. In this review, we summarize the many pieces of the puzzle which identified molecular targets for prevention and therapy against the atherosclerotic pathogenic processes and we evaluate the data documenting that melatonin treatment has important actions that protect against atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24291636

Favero, Gaia; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Reiter, Russel J; Rezzani, Rita

2014-02-15

246

Melatonin signaling and cell protection function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides its well-known regulatory role on circadian rhythm, the pineal gland hormone melatonin has other biological functions and a distinct metabolism in various cell types and peripheral tissues. In different tissues and organs, melatonin has been described to act as a paracrine and also as an intracrine and autocrine agent with overall homeostatic functions and pleiotropic effects that include cell protection and prosurvival factor. These latter effects, documented in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies, are sustained through both receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms that control detoxification and stress response genes, thus conferring protection against a number of xenobiotics and endobiotics produced by acute and chronic noxious stimuli. Redox-sensitive components are included in the cell protection signaling of melatonin and in the resulting transcriptional response that involves the control of NF-?B, AP-1, and Nrf2. By these pathways, melatonin stimulates the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes, acting in turn as a glutathione system enhancer. A further and converging mechanism of cell protection by this indoleamine described in different models seems to lie in the control of damage and signaling function of mitochondria that involves decreased production of reactive oxygen species and activation of the antiapoptotic and redox-sensitive element Bcl2. Recent evidence suggests that upstream components in this mitochondrial route include the calmodulin pathway with its central role in melatonin signaling and the survival-promoting component of MAPKs, ERK1/2. In this review article, we will discuss these and other molecular aspects of melatonin signaling relevant to cell protection and survival mechanisms. PMID:20534884

Luchetti, Francesca; Canonico, Barbara; Betti, Michele; Arcangeletti, Marcella; Pilolli, Francesca; Piroddi, Marta; Canesi, Laura; Papa, Stefano; Galli, Francesco

2010-10-01

247

Melatonin administration reduces inflammatory pain in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gabriela Laste,1–3 Isabel Cristina de Macedo,1,3 Joanna Ripoll Rozisky,1–3 Fernanda Ribeiro da Silva,1,3 Wolnei Caumo,1,2 Iraci LS Torres1–31Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina, Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3Unidade de Experimentação Animal e Grupo de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, BrazilAbstract: In view of the broad range of effects attributed to melatonin, this study evaluated its analgesic effect on inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA in Wistar rats. Inflammation was induced by intradermal CFA injection in the hind paw of all animals, which were then divided into two groups that received either 60 mg/kg of melatonin or vehicle (1% alcohol in saline, intraperitoneally, for three days. The analgesic effect of melatonin was assessed by the hot-plate test, immediately and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the first administration and 24 hours after once-daily administration for 2 more days. After CFA injection, melatonin administration increased withdrawal latency at 60 minutes after the first dose. After the end of treatment, melatonin showed a significant analgesic effect on inflammatory pain. This study paves the way for exploration of how brief courses of treatment could improve this analgesic effect in the late phases of inflammatory pain.Keywords: analgesic response, complete Freund's adjuvant, hot-plate test, inflammation, melatonin, nociception

Laste G

2012-09-01

248

[Melatonin, a pertinent prototype for therapeutic innovation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin fulfils most of the requirements of a typical lead compound for rational drug design. We have rationally modified each of its structural features with a view to clarifying their role in drug-receptor interactions (affinity and activity) and to obtain agonist and antagonist ligands which could be used as pharmacological tools and/or as drugs. Molecular modelling studies allow us to propose a pharmacophore model. The naphthalenic bioisostere of melatonin (agomelatin) is currently under clinical (phase II) evaluation and two other compounds have been selected for development. PMID:9921034

Lesieur, D; Leclerc, V; Chavatte, P; Marot, C; Renard, P; Guardiola-Lemaitre, B

1998-01-01

249

Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients wit...

Reza Ghaderi; Samineh Sehatbakhsh; Mehdi Bakhshaee; Gholam Reza Sharifzadeh

2014-01-01

250

The research of melatonin in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To elucidate the function of melatonin in the pathogenesis and the prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and provide the pathophysiology basis for therapying HIE with melatonin. Methods: The level of plasma melatonin of twenty normal term infants and twenty modest HIE and twenty middle-severity HIE in their acute phase and recovery phase were assayed respectively with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Then compare the difference of the melatonin level among these neonates. Results: (1) For modest HIE, the melatonin level was higher than that in the normal in the acute phase and there was no difference to the normal in the recovery phase. (2) There was no difference between the melatonin level in middle-severity HIE in the acute phase and that in the normal, but in the recovery phase it was higher than that in the normal. (3) For modest HIE, the melatonin level in acute phase was higher than that in the recovery phase, but for middle-severity HIE, it was adverse. (4) In the acute phase, the level in modest HIE was higher than that in the middle-severity HIE, but on the contrary in the recovery phase. Conclusion: Melatonin have protection action on HIE. The prognosis of modest HIE neonates with rising melatonin level in the acute phase is better than that with lower melatonin level of middle-severity HIE. (authors)

251

Nocturnal panic attack: is it an another subtype?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if the nocturnal panic attack has different features and might be considered as a subtype or not. Methods: Sociodemographic data form, SCID-I, SCID-II, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D, Beck Anxiety Scale, and Bak?rköy Panic Disorder Behavioral Changes Form are applied to the participants. 51 of the 98 patients were suffering from Nocturnal Panic Attacks according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results: It was revealed that 47.9% of the panic disorder patients were suffering from nocturnal panic attacks. The most frequent symptoms in nocturnal panic disorder cases were experiences of feelings like drowning, lethargy, palpitation, vertigo, fear of death, and anxiety. The existence of nocturnal panic attacks is found to be related with severity of the disorder and comorbid depression. Moreover, comorbid sleep disturbances characterized with troubles in falling asleep, difficulty in sustaining sleep, feeling tired in the morning, were observed. There were sleep related avoidances and behavioral changes. Panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks were found to avoid sleeping, or going to bed alone. Conclusions: Panic disorder cases with nocturnal panic attacks had more severe symptoms. From here, it can be concluded that it might be a subtype of panic disorder.

Sezgin Erdiman

2011-01-01

252

Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Revisited by Impedance-pH Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims Impedance-pH monitoring allows detailed characterization of gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal activity associated with reflux. We assessed the characteristics of nocturnal reflux and esophageal activity preceding and following reflux. Methods Impedance-pH tracings from 11 healthy subjects and 76 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease off acid-suppressive therapy were analyzed. Characteristics of nocturnal supine reflux, time distribution and esophageal activity seen on impedance at 2 minute intervals preceding and following reflux were described. Results Patients had more nocturnal reflux events than healthy subjects (8 [4-12] vs 2 [1-5], P = 0.002), with lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux (57% [35-78] vs 80% [60-100], P = 0.044). Nocturnal reflux was mainly liquid (80%) and reached the proximal esophagus more often in patients (6% vs 0%, P = 0.047). Acid reflux predominated in the first 2 hours (66%) and weakly acidic reflux in the last 3 hours (70%) of the night. Most nocturnal reflux was preceded by aboral flows and cleared by short lasting volume clearance. In patients, prolonged chemical clearance was associated with less esophageal activity. Conclusions Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux is as common as acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and predominates later in the night. Impedance-pH can predict prolonged chemical clearance after nocturnal acid reflux. PMID:21602991

Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Tack, Jan; Sifrim, Daniel

2011-01-01

253

Immune pathogenesis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene is the initial event in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), but the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to clonal expansion remain unclear. The intricate association of PNH with immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes, including aplastic anemia (AA), suggests an immunologic selection process for the glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-deficient hematopoietic clone. The mechanism for the growth advantage of PNH cells may be related to the nature of the antigens targeted by the immune response or to the function of immunomodulatory GPI-anchored proteins on the surface of the hematopoietic target cells. Alternative theories of PNH evolution may include intrinsic properties of the mutated cells, but the experimental evidence is largely lacking. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of PNH may provide key information about the causes of idiopathic AA and help understand the regulation of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. PMID:16926131

Tiu, Ramon; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw

2006-08-01

254

Plume dispersion in a nocturnal drainage wind  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of tracer experiments were conducted under nocturnal drainage wind conditions in a complex terrain setting in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. Concurrent meteorological information including profiles of wind and temperature as well as gross turbulence fluctuations from fixed 2-m stations provided the basis to test plume growth and dilution prescriptions for this moderately complex site. Plume parameters exhibited slightly greater diffusion than would be indicated by simple stability-based prediction methods or the gross turbulence indicators. Two terrain-related mechanisms appear to contribute to the development of the plume. A meandering component immediately downwind of the confluence of two valleys gives the appearance of an abnormally wide time-integrated plume. Further downstream the mean wind direction stabilizes and the plume dimension reflects diffusive spread due to small-scale turbulence.

Barr, Sumner; Kyle, Thomas G.; Clements, William E.; Sedlacek, William

255

[Clinical progress of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria].  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the applications of high-sensitivity flow cytometry of FLAER and the treatment of eculizumab, it is necessary to understand of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) from a new point of view. The results of studies demonstrate that treatment with eculizumab alters the natural history of PNH by virtually eradicating thromboembolic complications, inhibiting of intravascular hemolysis and reducing or eliminating transfusion requirements. Eculizumab treatment may also reduce disease-related mortality. This review focuses on the studies to define the relationship between PNH and bone marrow failure syndromes and to characterize the long-term outcome of patients with PNH treated with eculizumab. New therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling extravascular and intravascular hemolysis are discussed. PMID:24370061

Gong, Ya-Wen; He, Guang-Sheng

2013-12-01

256

Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. PMID:24447995

Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino

2014-10-01

257

Melatonin treatment restores mitochondrial function in Alzheimer's mice: a mitochondrial protective role of melatonin membrane receptor signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is observed in mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models of familial AD. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant, can prevent toxic aggregation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (A?) peptide and, when taken long term, can protect against cognitive deficits in APP transgenic mice. To study the effects of melatonin on brain mitochondrial function in an AD model, APP/PS1 transgenic mice were treated for 1 month with melatonin. Analysis of isolated brain mitochondria from mice indicated that melatonin treatment decreased mitochondrial A? levels by two- to fourfold in different brain regions. This was accompanied by a near complete restoration of mitochondrial respiratory rates, membrane potential, and ATP levels in isolated mitochondria from the hippocampus, cortex, or striatum. When isolated mitochondria from untreated young mice were given melatonin, a slight increase in respiratory rate was observed. No such effect was observed in mitochondria from aged mice. In APP-expressing neuroblastoma cells in culture, mitochondrial function was restored by melatonin or by the structurally related compounds indole-3-propionic acid or N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine. This restoration was partially blocked by melatonin receptor antagonists indicating melatonin receptor signaling is required for the full effect. Therefore, treatments that stimulate melatonin receptor signaling may be beneficial for restoring mitochondrial function in AD, and preservation of mitochondrial function may an important mechanism by which long term melatonin treatment delays cognitive dysfunction in AD mice. PMID:21355879

Dragicevic, Natasa; Copes, Neil; O'Neal-Moffitt, Gina; Jin, Jingji; Buzzeo, Robert; Mamcarz, Maggie; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai; Olcese, James M; Arendash, Gary W; Bradshaw, Patrick C

2011-08-01

258

Nocturnal flow on a western Colorado slope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy sponsored Atomspheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program has conducted a research program designed to increase our knowledge and understanding of terrain-dominated flows with specific emphasis on nocturnal flows within mountain valleys. ASCOT has sponsored both field studies and numerical modeling efforts to improve our understanding of the wind, temperature and turbulence structure of nocturnal drainage flows. One of the most recent ASCOT sponsored field studies involves a study within the Mesa Creek Basin in western Colorado to investigate the seasonal frequency of occurrence of drainage flows along the sloped surfaces and within the basin, and to evaluate the effect of the ambient meteorology on their development. The Mesa Creek Basin, situated on the north slope of the Grand Mesa, encompasses a roughly 10 x 20 km area that is approximately 30 km east of Grand Junction. The observational segment of the study was undertaken jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and involved the operation of network of eight meteorological towers and a monostatic sodar within the Mesa Creek study area over a period of one year that extended from December 1988 through November 1989. These measurements were augmented by tethersonde observations to define the vertical wind and temperature structure during a few nights. The modeling portion of the study is being undertaken by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory using a three-dimensional prognostic boundary layer model to gain further insight into the dynamics of the seasonal variations and the effect of cloud cover on the development of the drainage flows. It is the purpose of this paper to present preliminary results form a numerical simulation done as part of this study. 4 refs., 7 figs

259

Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema. PMID:24876075

Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

2014-12-01

260

Nocturnal light environments influence color vision and signatures of selection on the OPN1SW opsin gene in nocturnal lemurs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although loss of short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) cones and dichromatic color vision in mammals has traditionally been linked to a nocturnal lifestyle, recent studies have identified variation in selective pressure for the maintenance of the OPN1SW opsin gene (and thus, potentially dichromacy) among nocturnal mammalian lineages. These studies hypothesize that purifying selection to retain SWS cones may be associated with a selective advantage for nocturnal color vision under certain ecological conditions. In this study, we explore the effect of nocturnal light environment on OPN1SW opsin gene evolution in a diverse sample of nocturnal lemurs (106 individuals, 19 species, and 5 genera). Using both phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we test whether species from closed canopy rainforests, which are impoverished in short-wavelength light, have experienced relaxed selection compared with species from open canopy forests. We identify clear signatures of differential selection on OPN1SW by habitat type. Our results suggest that open canopy species generally experience strong purifying selection to maintain SWS cones. In contrast, closed canopy species experience weaker purifying selection or a relaxation of selection on OPN1SW. We also found evidence of nonfunctional OPN1SW genes in all Phaner species and in Cheirogaleus medius, implying at least three independent losses of SWS cones in cheirogaleids. Our results suggest that the evolution of color vision in nocturnal lemurs has been influenced by nocturnal light environment. PMID:23519316

Veilleux, Carrie C; Louis, Edward E; Bolnick, Deborah A

2013-06-01

261

Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ? After 30-day chronic CCl4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ? The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ? Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ? The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

262

Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

1990-01-01

263

Antiinflammatory Activity of Melatonin in Central Nervous System  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is mainly produced in the mammalian pineal gland during the dark phase. Its secretion from the pineal gland has been classically associated with circadian and circanual rhythm regulation. However, melatonin production is not confined exclusively to the pineal gland, but other tissues including retina, Harderian glands, gut, ovary, testes, bone marrow and lens also produce it. Several studies have shown that melatonin reduces chronic and acute inflammation. The immunomodulatory prope...

Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

2010-01-01

264

Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation  

OpenAIRE

The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxyge...

Olga Pechanova; Ludovit Paulis; Fedor Simko

2014-01-01

265

Effect of Melatonin on Human Dental Papilla Cells  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin regulates a variety of biological processes, which are the control of circadian rhythms, regulation of seasonal reproductive function and body temperature, free radical scavenging and so on. Our previous studies have shown that various cells exist in human and mouse tooth germs that express the melatonin 1a receptor (Mel1aR). However, little is known about the effects of melatonin on tooth development and growth. The present study was performed to examine the possibility that mel...

Ryusuke Tachibana; Seiko Tatehara; Shuku Kumasaka; Reiko Tokuyama; Kazuhito Satomura

2014-01-01

266

Current knowledge on the melatonin system in teleost fish  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a much conserved feature in vertebrates that plays a central role in the entrainment of daily and annual physiological rhythms. Investigations aiming at understanding how melatonin mediates the effects of photoperiod on crucial functions and behaviors have been very active in the last decades, particularly in mammals. In fish a clear cut picture is still missing. Here we review the available data on (i) the sites of melatonin production in fish, (ii) the mechanisms that contro...

Falcon, Jack; Migaud, Herve?; Mun?oz-cueto, Jose? Antonio; Carrillo, Manuel

2010-01-01

267

Impact of oral melatonin on the electroretinogram cone response.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: In the eye, melatonin plays a role in promoting light sensitivity at night and modulating many aspects of circadian retinal physiology. It is also an inhibitor of retinal dopamine, which is a promoter of day vision through the cone system. Consequently, it is possible that oral melatonin (an inhibitor of retinal dopamine) taken to alleviate circadian disorders may affect cone functioning. Our aim was to assess the impact of melatonin on the cone response of the human retina using ...

Gagne?, Anne-marie; Danilenko, Konstantin; Rosolen, Serge; He?bert, Marc

2009-01-01

268

Genetic variation of melatonin productivity in laboratory mice under domestication  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a pineal hormone produced at night; however, many strains of laboratory mice are deficient in melatonin. Strangely enough, the gene encoding HIOMT enzyme (also known as ASMT) that catalyzes the last step of melatonin synthesis is still unidentified in the house mouse (Mus musculus) despite the completion of the genome sequence. Here we report the identification of the mouse Hiomt gene, which was mapped to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of sex chromosomes. The gene was highly po...

Kasahara, Takaoki; Abe, Kuniya; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Kato, Tadafumi

2010-01-01

269

Genetic variation of melatonin productivity in laboratory mice under domestication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is a pineal hormone produced at night; however, many strains of laboratory mice are deficient in melatonin. Strangely enough, the gene encoding HIOMT enzyme (also known as ASMT) that catalyzes the last step of melatonin synthesis is still unidentified in the house mouse (Mus musculus) despite the completion of the genome sequence. Here we report the identification of the mouse Hiomt gene, which was mapped to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of sex chromosomes. The gene was highly polymorphic, and nonsynonymous SNPs were found in melatonin-deficient strains. In C57BL/6 strain, there are two mutations, both of which markedly reduce protein expression. Mutability of the Hiomt likely due to a high recombination rate in the PAR could be the genomic basis for the high prevalence of melatonin deficiency. To understand the physiologic basis, we examined a wild-derived strain, MSM/Ms, which produced melatonin more under a short-day condition than a long-day condition, accompanied by increased Hiomt expression. We generated F2 intercrosses between MSM/Ms and C57BL/6 strains and N2 backcrosses to investigate the role of melatonin productivity on the physiology of mice. Although there was no apparent effect of melatonin productivity on the circadian behaviors, testis development was significantly promoted in melatonin-deficient mice. Exogenous melatonin also had the antigonadal action in mice of a melatonin-deficient strain. These findings suggest a favorable impact of melatonin deficiency due to Hiomt mutations on domestic mice in breeding colonies. PMID:20308563

Kasahara, Takaoki; Abe, Kuniya; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Kato, Tadafumi

2010-04-01

270

Melatonin Plays a Protective Role in Postburn Rodent Gut Pathophysiology  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards...

Walid M Al-ghoul, Steven Abu-shaqra

2010-01-01

271

Melatonin Effects on Hard Tissues: Bone and Tooth  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is an endogenous hormone rhythmically produced in the pineal gland under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the light/dark cycle. This indole plays an important role in many physiological processes including circadian entrainment, blood pressure regulation, seasonal reproduction, ovarian physiology, immune function, etc. Recently, the investigation and applications of melatonin in the hard tissues bone and tooth have received great attention. Melatonin has been inv...

Hong-Wen He; Fang Huang,; Jie Liu,

2013-01-01

272

Transcriptional Regulation of Programmed Hypertension by Melatonin: An Epigenetic Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is an endogenously produced indoleamine and secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin has pleiotropic bioactivities and is involved in epigenetic regulation. Suboptimal conditions during maternal and perinatal phases can elicit epigenetic regulation of genes for nephrogenesis and reset physiological responses to develop programmed hypertension. This review discusses the early utility of melatonin to prevent programmed hypertension in later life by epigenetic regulation in the kidney, ...

You-Lin Tain; Li-Tung Huang; Chan, Julie Y. H.

2014-01-01

273

RESPONSE OF COMMIPHORA MUKUL (GUGGULU) ON MELATONIN INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM  

OpenAIRE

The results of this study indicate that melatonin induces hypothyroidism in mice within eight days. Simultaneous administration of melatonin and petroleum ether extract of Commiphora mukul brings about a significant improvement in thyroid structure and function. Further, melatonin induced hypothyroidism is although a little reversible yet it is normalized quickly after C. mukul treatment. These data suggest that C. mukul directly stimulates thyroid function probably through some enzymatic mec...

Singh, A. K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Prasad, G. C.

1983-01-01

274

Nocturnal enuresis: an approach to assessment and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of strong evidence, although primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is common and most children will outgrow the condition spontaneously, the psychological effect to the child can be significant and represents the main reason for treatment of these children. On the basis of international consensus panels, treatment of PMNE should be targeted toward the specific type of bedwetting patterns the child has, using bladder diary, sleep history, and daytime elimination concerns as a guide (Table 3). On the basis of international consensus panels, it is important for the primary care physician to be able to differentiate children with PMNE from children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE) and secondary nocturnal enuresis. On the basis of international consensus panels, children with NMNE should have their underlying voiding or stool problem addressed before initiation of therapy for the nocturnal enuresis. On the basis of strong evidence, both the bedwetting alarm and desmopressin are considered first-line therapy for children with PMNE. PMID:25086164

Bayne, Aaron P; Skoog, Steven J

2014-08-01

275

Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis caused by seasonal temperature changes  

OpenAIRE

Background: Primary nocturnal enuresis is the most frequent urologic complaint among pediatric patients. Enuresis is believed to have a complex etiology involving genetic, somatic, and behavioral factors. We study the relationship between seasonal temperature changes effect and monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE). Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, a total of 75 children with primary MNE selected from urology and pediatry clinics were included in this study. All of the children underwent ph...

Tas, Tuncay; Cakiroglu, Basri; Hazar, Aydin Ismet; Balci, Mustafa Bahadir Can; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Nas, Yunus; Yilmazer, Fazli

2014-01-01

276

Nocturnal panic attack: is it an another subtype?  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if the nocturnal panic attack has different features and might be considered as a subtype or not. Methods: Sociodemographic data form, SCID-I, SCID-II, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Beck Anxiety Scale, and Bak?rköy Panic Disorder Behavioral Changes Form are applied to the participants. 51 of the 98 patients were suffering from Nocturnal Panic Attacks according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Resu...

Sezgin Erdiman; Derya ?pekçio?lu; Kür?at Alt?nba?; Özlem Girit Çetinkaya; ?eref Özer

2011-01-01

277

The evolution of color vision in nocturnal mammals  

OpenAIRE

Nonfunctional visual genes are usually associated with species that inhabit poor light environments (aquatic/subterranean/nocturnal), and these genes are believed to have lost function through relaxed selection acting on the visual system. Indeed, the visual system is so adaptive that the reconstruction of intact ancestral opsin genes has been used to reject nocturnality in ancestral primates. To test these assertions, we examined the functionality of the short and medium- to long-wavelength ...

Zhao, Huabin; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Teeling, Emma C.; Li, Chanjuan; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi

2009-01-01

278

Nocturnal sleep pattern in native Brazilian Terena adults  

OpenAIRE

Social-economic factors influence sleep habits. This research analyzes characteristics of nocturnal sleep in Brazilian Native Terena adults. Sixty-four adults (31 M; 33 F) from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.0, from the Indian Reservation village of Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, an agriculturally oriented group were evaluated. Nocturnal sleep characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed ...

REIMÃO RUBENS; SOUZA JOSÉ CARLOS; GAUDIOSO CARLOS EDUARDO VILELA; GUERRA HELLEN DA COSTA; ALVES ANDREA DAS CHAGAS; OLIVEIRA JOLENE CRISTINA FERREIRA; GNOBIE NILTON CEZAR ANTONIO; SILVÉRIO DESIRÉE CORREA GUERRA

2000-01-01

279

SUNCT and high nocturnal prolactin levels: some new unusual characteristics  

OpenAIRE

SUNCT is a rare condition characterised by a short-lasting periorbital pain associated with autonomic symptoms and is usually unresponsive to pharmacological treatment. We report a case of SUNCT syndrome linked to a pituitary micro-adenoma, with only nocturnal attacks. The nocturnal levels of prolactin (PRL) were increased, while other hormonal, haematological, serological and biochemical investigations and levels of PRL did not reveal abnormal findings during the day-time. PRL serum secretio...

Bosco, Domenico; Labate, Angelo; Mungari, Pasquale; Vero, Sergio; Fava, Antonietta

2007-01-01

280

Melatonin and its use in atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Konstantin V Danilenko, Yulia I Ragino Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia Abstract: A review of pineal melatonin synthesis, regulation, and physiological effects indicates that not only does melatonin act as a hormonal signal of darkness, but also that it possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although oxidation and inflammation play a pivotal role in atherogenesis, no studies have investigated administration of melatonin for human arterial atherosclerosis. However, 13 clinical trials have investigated use of melatonin in dyslipidemia, which is a close correlate of atherosclerosis. The results of these clinical trials, particularly the five that are placebo-controlled, are inconclusive as to whether melatonin can normalize the blood lipid profile. Significant confounders in these studies might be a phase shift of the cholesterol rhythm by melatonin, a posture effect at venipuncture, uncontrolled diet during the course of melatonin intake, and the phenomenon of regression to the mean. Thus, future studies are required, which should also consider use of higher doses of melatonin and/or measurement of oxidized forms of cholesterol-containing particles (which are the most aggressive in relation to atherogenesis in addition to lipidic fractions. Keywords: melatonin, serum lipids, atherosclerosis, clinical trials

Danilenko KV

2013-03-01

281

Maternal and placental melatonin: actions and implication for successful pregnancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is one of the main sources of mitochondrial protection and its protective effects are equal or even better if compared with several consecrated antioxidants. Furthermore, the activation of specific melatonin receptors triggers several cellular pathways that improve the oxidoreduction and inflammatory cellular state. The discovery of the melatoninergic machinery in placental cells was the first step to understand the effects of this indoleamine during pregnancy. In critical points of pregnancy, melatonin has been pointed as a protagonist and its beneficial effects have been shown as essential for the control of trophoblastic function and development. On the contrary of the plasmatic melatonin (produced in pineal gland), placental melatonin does not vary according to the circadian cycle and acts as an autocrine, paracrine, intracrine, and endocrine hormone. The important effects of melatonin in placenta have been demonstrated in the physiopathology of pre-eclampsia with alterations in the levels of melatonin and in the expression of its receptors and synthetizing enzymes. Some authors suggested melatonin as a biomarker of pre-eclampsia and as a possible treatment for this disease and other obstetric pathologies associated with placental defect and increases in oxidative stress. This review will approach the beneficial effects of melatonin on placenta homeostasis and consequently on pregnancy and fetal health. PMID:24971781

Sagrillo-Fagundes, L; Soliman, A; Vaillancourt, C

2014-06-01

282

Melatonin regulates proteomic changes during leaf senescence in Malus hupehensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the relationship between melatonin and aging, the overall changes and regulation of proteome profiling by long-term melatonin exposure during leaf senescence is not well understood. In this study, leaf senescence in Malus hupehensis plants was delayed when exogenous melatonin was regularly applied to the roots for 2 months compared with natural leaf senescence. Proteins of samples 0 and 50 day for both treatments were extracted and labeled with TMT regents before being examined via NanoLC-MS/MS. The proteomics data showed that 622 and 309 proteins were altered by senescence and melatonin, respectively. Our GO analysis by Blast2GO revealed that most of the altered proteins that are involved in major metabolic processes exhibited hydrolase activity and were mainly located in the plastids. These proteins were classified into several senescence-related functional categories, including degradation of macromolecules, redox and stress responses, transport, photosynthesis, development, and other regulatory proteins. We found that melatonin treatment led to the downregulation of proteins that are normally upregulated during senescence. The melatonin-related delay in senescence might have occurred due to the altering of proteins involved in processes associated with senescence. And as well, there are many unknown regulatory proteins possibly being involved in the melatonin's function. This study is the first to demonstrate changes at the proteome level in response to exogenous melatonin in plants. Our findings provide a set of informative and fundamental data about the role of melatonin in apple leaf senescence. PMID:25146528

Wang, Ping; Sun, Xun; Xie, Yinpeng; Li, Mingjun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Sheng; Liang, Dong; Ma, Fengwang

2014-10-01

283

Physiology during smoltification in Atlantic salmon: effect of melatonin implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin implants were used to override natural melatonin rhythm in groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, raised at simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) and constant light (LL) from mid-March until end of August. The experiment contained also both sham control (with non-melatonin implants) and control (no implants). No differences were found in the experimental variables between these two control groups. Growth and food intake were negatively affected by melatonin implantation. Overall, higher GH levels were observed in the SNP melatonin-implanted group, whereas no differences in GH levels were seen between the SNP control, LL control, or the LL melatonin-implanted groups. Highest food intake was seen in the LL control group. No differences in food intake were recorded between the LL melatonin-implanted and SNP control groups. Gill Na(+), K(+), ATPase (NKA) activity was influenced by time as well as the interaction between photoperiod and time. No differences in gill NKA activity or plasma chloride levels following transfer to seawater were seen between the groups with melatonin implants and their controls. Based on the present results, it seems apparent that melatonin does play a role in regulating food intake and growth in Atlantic salmon smolts. PMID:23277099

Handeland, S O; Imsland, A K; Björnsson, B Th; Stefansson, S O; Porter, M

2013-10-01

284

Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammatory reaction as well as moderation of visceral sensation. Melatonin is commonly given orally. It is categorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a dietary supplement. Melatonin treatment has an extremely wide margin of safety though it may cause minor adverse effects, such as headache, rash and nightmares. Melatonin was touted as a potential effective candidate for IBS treatment. Putative role of melatonin in IBS treatment include analgesic effects, regulator of gastrointestinal motility and sensation to sleep promoter. Placebo-controlled studies in melatonin suffered from heterogeneity in methodology. Most studies utilized 3 mg at bedtime as the standard dose of trial. However, all studies had consistently showed improvement in abdominal pain, some showed improvement in quality of life of IBS patients. Melatonin is a relatively safe drug that possesses potential in treating IBS. Future studies should focus on melatonin effect on gut mobility as well as its central nervous system effect to elucidate its role in IBS patients. PMID:24627586

Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

2014-03-14

285

Peripheral Reproductive Organ Health and Melatonin: Ready for Prime Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin has a wide variety of beneficial actions at the level of the gonads and their adnexa. Some actions are mediated via its classic membrane melatonin receptors while others seem to be receptor-independent. This review summarizes many of the published reports which confirm that melatonin, which is produced in the ovary, aids in advancing follicular maturation and preserving the integrity of the ovum prior to and at the time of ovulation. Likewise, when ova are collected for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, treating them with melatonin improves implantation and pregnancy rates. Melatonin synthesis as well as its receptors have also been identified in the placenta. In this organ, melatonin seems to be of particular importance for the maintenance of the optimal turnover of cells in the villous trophoblast via its ability to regulate apoptosis. For male gametes, melatonin has also proven useful in protecting them from oxidative damage and preserving their viability. Incubation of ejaculated animal sperm improves their motility and prolongs their viability. For human sperm as well, melatonin is also a valuable agent for protecting them from free radical damage. In general, the direct actions of melatonin on the gonads and adnexa of mammals indicate it is an important agent for maintaining optimal reproductive physiology.

Russel J. Reiter

2013-04-01

286

Melatonin: An Underappreciated Player in Retinal Physiology and Pathophysiology  

OpenAIRE

In the vertebrate retina, melatonin is synthesized by the photoreceptors with high levels of melatonin at night and lower levels during the day. Melatonin exerts its influence by interacting with a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are negatively coupled with adenylyl cyclase. Melatonin receptors belonging to the subtypes MT1 and MT2 have been identified in the mammalian retina. MT1 and MT2 receptors are found in all layers of the neural retina and in the retinal pigmented epithelium...

Tosini, Gianluca; Baba, Kenkichi; Hwang, Christopher K.; Iuvone, P. Michael

2012-01-01

287

Detection of melatonin receptor mRNA in human muscle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To verify the expression of melatonin receptor mRNA in human, muscle, muscle beside vertebrae was collected to obtain total RNA and the mRNA of melatonin receptor was detected by RT-PCR method. The electrophoretic results of RT-PCR products by mt1 and MT2 primer were all positive and the sequence is corresponding with human melatonin receptor cDNA. It suggests that melatonin may act on the muscle beside vertebrae directly and regulate its growth and development. (authors)

288

Melatonin-synthesizing enzymes and melatonin receptor in rat thyroid cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is an indoleamine with a wide spectrum of biological activities other than transmitting photoperiod information, including antioxidant, oncostatic, anti-aging and immunomodulatory properties. Although melatonin is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, other tissues have the same capacity. In the present study, we examined whether two key enzymes in melatonin biosynthesis, arylalkylamine Nacetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) and its receptor MT? are expressed in the two endocrine thyroid cells of the rat, follicular cells and C cells. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that both AANAT and HIOMT mRNAs are expressed in the rat thyroid C-cells, and MT? expression has been detected in C cells and follicular cells. Immunofluorescence revealed that AANAT protein is localized in C-cell cytoplasm, and MT? protein in both cell populations. These findings demonstrate that the rat thyroid expresses AANAT, HIOMT, and its receptor MT?, showing that C cells are the main melatonin-synthesizing sites in the thyroid. This local C-cell-secreted melatonin may protect follicular cells from the oxidative stress inherent to the thyroid gland, and could also have paracrine and autocrine functions. PMID:23018242

García-Marín, Rocío; de Miguel, Manuel; Fernández-Santos, José María; Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Utrilla, José Carmelo; Morillo-Bernal, Jesús; Díaz-Parrado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Prieto, Ismael; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Martín-Lacave, Inés

2012-11-01

289

Molecular characterization of a second melatonin receptor expressed in human retina and brain: the Mel1b melatonin receptor.  

OpenAIRE

A G protein-coupled receptor for the pineal hormone melatonin was recently cloned from mammals and designated the Mel1a melatonin receptor. We now report the cloning of a second G protein-coupled melatonin receptor from humans and designate it the Mel1b melatonin receptor. The Mel1b receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 362 amino acids that is 60% identical at the amino acid level to the human Mel1a receptor. Transient expression of the Mel1b receptor in COS-1 cells results in high-affinity 2-[1...

Reppert, S. M.; Godson, C; Mahle, C. D.; Weaver, D. R.; Slaugenhaupt, S. A.; Gusella, J. F.

1995-01-01

290

Development of a melatonin RIA and observation on the plasma melatonin contents in rat models of chronic hyperirritable-depression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To establish a new melatonin assay and to investigate the changes of plasma melatonin content in rat models of chronic hyperirritable-depression. Methods: Quality melatonin antiserum was obtained from immunization of Newzealand white rabbit with melatonin immunogen derived from conjugation of melatonin to bovine thyroglobulin using formaldehyde. Radioiodinated melatonin was used as tracer and a melatonin assay was developed through non-equilibrium competition. Twenty rat models of chronic hyperirritable-depression were prepared with multiple randomly-combined stimuli as previously reported. Plasma and pineal body tissue contents of melatonin in the models were examined in midsummer (n=10) and mid-winter (n=10) with the newly developed melatonin RIA. Contents of melatonin were also determined in 20 control rats. Results: The antiserum possessed very low cross-reaction rate with several melatonin analogous tested (0.09%-2.3%). At the titer of 1:1800, the maximal combination rate was 41%. The affinity constant was 1.7 x 109 L/M. The specific radioactivity of the tracer 125I-melatonin was 55 ?Ci/?g, with radio-chemical purity of 93% and the tracer was stable at 4 degree C for 65 days. The assay was of high sensitivity (lower detection limit 5pg/ml), intra-CV, 6.5 %; inter-CV, 11%. The plasma and pineal body tissue contents of melatonin in the rat models were consistently significantly lower than those in control rats both during summer aose in control rats both during summer and winter, while the contents of melatonin during winter were always significantly higher than those during summer in both groups of animals. Conclusion: The newly developed assay was of good specificity and sensitivity with stable agents (65 days). The experimental results demonstrated definite correlationship between the depression disorder and melatonin contents in the rat models, however, the disorder was not seasonally affective. The seasonal variation of the melatonin contents in the animals was due to different duration and intensity of light exposure. (authors)

291

Melatonin phase-shifts human circadian rhythms with no evidence of changes in the duration of endogenous melatonin secretion or the 24-hour production of reproductive hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal hormone melatonin is a popular treatment for sleep and circadian rhythm disruption. Melatonin administered at optimal times of the day for treatment often results in a prolonged melatonin profile. In photoperiodic (day length-dependent) species, changes in melatonin profile duration influence the timing of seasonal rhythms. We investigated the effects of an artificially prolonged melatonin profile on endogenous melatonin and cortisol rhythms, wrist actigraphy, and reproductive hormones in humans. Eight healthy men took part in this double-blind, crossover study. Surge/sustained release melatonin (1.5 mg) or placebo was administered for 8 d at the beginning of a 16-h sleep opportunity (1600 h to 0800 h) in dim light. Compared with placebo, melatonin administration advanced the timing of endogenous melatonin and cortisol rhythms. Activity was reduced in the first half and increased in the second half of the sleep opportunity with melatonin; however, total activity during the sleep opportunities and wake episodes was not affected. Melatonin treatment did not affect the endogenous melatonin profile duration, pituitary/gonadal hormone levels (24-h), or sleepiness and mood levels on the subsequent day. In the short term, suitably timed sustained-release melatonin phase-shifts circadian rhythms and redistributes activity during a 16-h sleep opportunity, with no evidence of changes in the duration of endogenous melatonin secretion or pituitary/gonadal hormones. PMID:12970302

Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Middleton, Benita; Stone, Barbara M; Arendt, Josephine

2003-09-01

292

A reproductive phase-dependent effect of dietary L-tryptophan on pineal gland and gonad of a nocturnal bird, Indian spotted owlet Athene brama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike other temperate owls, Indian spotted owlet Athene brama possesses a well-developed pineal gland that secrets moderate amount of hydroxy- (serotonin) and methoxy- (melatonin) indoles in circulation. However, in this study, we have reported the response of this endocrine gland to exogenous L-Tryptophan (precursor of the above indoles), and also its effect on gonads of this nocturnal bird. During breeding phase or pineal inactive phase (March), oral treatment of L-Trp (0.5 mg/100 g Bwt/day) significantly increased the pineal gland wt and plasma melatonin (MEL) level, while decreased the gonadal wt and plasma sex steroids levels (estradiol and progesterone in female and testosterone in male). Interestingly, during reproductively quiescent phase or pineal active phase (August), similar amount of L-Trp significantly decreased the plasma MEL level, while increased the above sex steroid levels in plasma. Finally, the results show a clear reproductive phase-dependent inverse effect of L-Trp on pineal gland and gonads for both sexes of the spotted owlets, and suggest that the therapeutic use of this amino acid would be a great advantage for controlling the reproduction of these economically important birds. PMID:11396829

Guchhait, P; Haldar, C

2001-01-01

293

Expression of melatonin receptors in arteries involved in thermoregulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melatonin binding sites were localized and characterized in the vasculature of the rat by using the melatonin analogue 2-[125I]iodomelatonin (125I-melatonin) and quantitative in vitro autoradiography. The expression of these sites was restricted to the caudal artery and to the arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. The arterial 125I-melatonin binding was stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation studies revealed that the binding represented a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 3.4 x 10(-11) M in the anterior cerebral artery and 1.05 x 10(-10) M in the caudal artery. The binding capacities (Bmax) in these arteries were 19 and 15 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The relative order of potency of indoles for inhibition of 125I-melatonin binding at these sites was typical of a melatonin receptor: 2-iodomelatonin greater than melatonin greater than N-acetylserotonin much much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine. Norepinephrine-induced contraction of the caudal artery in vitro was significantly prolonged and potentiated by melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that these arterial binding sites are functional melatonin receptors. Neither primary steps in smooth muscle contraction (inositol phospholipid hydrolysis) nor relaxation (adenylate cyclase activation) were affected by melatonin. Melatonin, through its action on the tone of these arteries, may cause circulatory adjustments inries, may cause circulatory adjustments in these arteries, which are believed to be involved in thermoregulation

294

Melatonin in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified as common pathophysiological phenomena associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD. As the age-related decline in the production of melatonin may contribute to increased levels of oxidative stress in the elderly, the role of this neuroprotective agent is attracting increasing attention. Melatonin has multiple actions as a regulator of antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes, radical scavenger and antagonist of mitochondrial radical formation. The ability of melatonin and its kynuramine metabolites to interact directly with the electron transport chain by increasing the electron flow and reducing electron leakage are unique features by which melatonin is able to increase the survival of neurons under enhanced oxidative stress. Moreover, antifibrillogenic actions have been demonstrated in vitro, also in the presence of profibrillogenic apoE4 or apoE3, and in vivo, in a transgenic mouse model. Amyloid-? toxicity is antagonized by melatonin and one of its kynuramine metabolites. Cytoskeletal disorganization and protein hyperphosphorylation, as induced in several cell-line models, have been attenuated by melatonin, effects comprising stress kinase downregulation and extending to neurotrophin expression. Various experimental models of AD, PD and HD indicate the usefulness of melatonin in antagonizing disease progression and/or mitigating some of the symptoms. Melatonin secretion has been found to be altered in AD and PD. Attempts to compensate for age- and disease-dependent melatonin deficiency have shown that administration of this compound can improve sleep efficiency in AD and PD and, to some extent, cognitive function in AD patients. Exogenous melatonin has also been reported to alleviate behavioral symptoms such as sundowning. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin, its analogues and kynuric metabolites may have potential value in prevention and treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders.

Poeggeler B

2006-05-01

295

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: diagnostic tests, advantages, & limitations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired clonal disorder of haematopoietic stem cells. The molecular defect in PNH is mutation in the phosphotidylinositol glycan complementation class A (PIGA gene) causing defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins (Cell, 73, 1993, 703). The deficiency of these GPI-anchored proteins on the membranes of haematopoietic cells lead to the various clinical manifestations of PNH. Clinically PNH is classified into classic PNH, PNH in the setting of another specified bone marrow disorder and sub clinical PNH. Size of the PNH clone differs in these different subtypes. The management of PNH has been revolutionized by the advent of monoclonal antibody, eculizumab. Thus, today it is important to have sensitive tests to diagnose and monitor the clone size in patients of PNH. Before 1990, diagnosis of PNH was made using complement based tests. However in the last decade, flowcytometry has become the gold standard diagnostic test as it has increased sensitivity to detect small clones, ability to measure clone size and is not affected by blood transfusions. This review is aimed to focus mainly on the different methods available for the detection of PNH clone and the recent advances and recommendations for the flowcytometric diagnosis of PNH. PMID:19686268

Madkaikar, Manisha; Gupta, Maya; Jijina, Farah; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

2009-12-01

296

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: stem cells and clonality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease that manifests with intravascular hemolysis, bone marrow failure, thrombosis, and smooth muscle dystonias. The disease can arise de novo or in the setting of acquired aplastic anemia. All PNH patients to date have been shown to harbor PIG-A mutations; the product of this gene is required for the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins. In PNH patients, PIG-A mutations arise from a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell. Interestingly, PIG-A mutations can also be found in the peripheral blood of most healthy controls; however, these mutations arise from progenitor cells rather than multipotent hematopoietic stem cells and do not propagate the disease. The mechanism of whereby PNH stem cells achieve clonal dominance remains unclear. The leading hypotheses to explain clonal outgrowth in PNH are: 1) PNH cells evade immune attack possibly, because of an absent cell surface GPI-AP that is the target of the immune attack; 2) The PIG-A mutation confers an intrinsic resistance to apoptosis that becomes more conspicuous when the marrow is under immune attack; and 3) A second mutation occurs in the PNH clone to give it an intrinsic survival advantage. These hypotheses may not be mutually exclusive, since data in support of all three models have been generated. PMID:19074067

Brodsky, Robert A

2008-01-01

297

Laboratory tests for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematological disorder that is often suspected in a patient presenting with non-immune hemolytic anemia associated with pancytopenia or venous thrombosis. This disorder is a consequence of acquired somatic mutations in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIG-A) gene in the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of patients. The presence of these mutations leads to production of blood cells with decreased glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface proteins, making red blood cells derived from the clone more sensitive to complement mediated hemolysis. The diagnosis of PNH may be difficult in some cases due a low proportion of PNH cells in the blood and occasionally due to difficulties in selecting the most appropriate diagnostic studies. The latest generation of tests allow for detection of very small populations of PNH cells, for following the natural course and response to therapy of the disease, and for helping to decide when to initiate therapy with monoclonal antibody targeting the terminal complement protein C5 (Eculizumab), anticoagulation, and in some cases allogeneic HSC transplant. In this article, we review the different diagnostic tests available to clinicians for PNH diagnosis. PMID:24127129

Preis, Meir; Lowrey, Christopher H

2014-03-01

298

Neutrophil life span in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied neutrophil intravascular life span in six patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH); four had normal neutrophil counts when studied and two were neutropenic. Five patients had enough circulating neutrophils to isolate for tests in vitro. Lysis of labeled neutrophils was greatly increased, compared to that of normal volunteers, when these neutrophils were incubated with acidified fresh serum as a source of active complement plus serum containing antineutrophil antibodies (from three different sources). Despite the in vitro lesion, however, each of these patients had a normal neutrophil intravascular life span as measured by the 32P-diisopropylfluorophosphate technique. One neutropenic patient, who had a normal neutrophil life span, had a shift of cells from the circulating to marginated pool of sufficient degree to cause the neutropenia. A second (severely) neutropenic patient was found to have developed extreme marrow hypoplasia, also explaining the neutropenia. Thus, in contrast to the shortened red cell life span, we have been unable to find a shortened neutrophil life span in PNH. PMID:901939

Brubaker, L H; Essig, L J; Mengel, C E

1977-10-01

299

How significant is nocturnal sap flow?  

Science.gov (United States)

Nocturnal sap flow (Qn) has been found to occur across many taxa, seasons and biomes. There is no general understanding as to how much Qn occurs and whether it is a significant contribution to total daily sap flow (Q). A synthesis of the literature and unpublished data was made to determine how significant is Qn, as a proportion of Q (%Qn), across seasons, biomes, phylogenetic groups and different thermometric sap flow methods. A total of 98 species were analysed to find that %Qn, on average, was 12.03% with the highest average dataset of 69.00%. There was significantly less %Qn in winter than in other temperate seasons, and significantly less %Qn in the wet season than in the dry season. The equatorial and tropical biomes had significantly higher %Qn than the warm temperate and nemoral biomes. The heat ratio method (HRM) and the thermal dissipation (TDP) method had significantly higher %Qn than the heat balance method. Additional analysis between HRM and TDP found HRM to have significantly higher %Qn in winter, wet season and various biomes. In all but one out of 246 cases Qn occurred, demonstrating that Qn is significant and needs to be carefully considered in sap flow and related studies. PMID:24990866

Forster, Michael A

2014-07-01

300

[Melatonin and ubiquinone as endogenous antioxidant factors].  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of restraint stress upon the degree of lipidic peroxidation in the fronto-temporal cerebral cortex, diencephalon, thymus and gastric mucosa. We determined the malon-dialdehyde (MDA) by spectrocolorimetry, the percentage of animals with stress gastric ulcer and the surface of gastric ulcerations. The results demonstrated an important increase of the MDA correlated with frequency and intensity of the gastric ulcer. In the second stage of the experiment, we studied the influence of the ubiquinone and melatonin on the same parameters studied in the first part. In every structures these two substances had antioxidative effect. For ubiquinone, results showed significant variations in the thymus and gastric mucosa, while at the cerebral level the results were doubtful. As antioxidant and antiulcerogenic factor, melatonin was more effective than ubiquinone, because determined significant decrease, or even disappearance of the peroxidative process in the cerebral cortex and the thymus and significantly diminished both peroxidation and ulcerogenesis in the gastric mucosa. PMID:10756734

Turcan, M; Iacobovici, A; Haulic?, I

1997-01-01

301

Microorganisms for the production of melatonin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recombinant microbial cells and methods for producing melatonin and related compounds using such cells are described. More specifically, the recombinant microbial cell may comprise exogenous genes encoding one or more of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5-hydroxy-L- tryptophan decarboxylyase, a serotonin acetyltransferase, an acetylserotonin O- methyltransferase; an L-tryptophan decarboxy-lyase, and a tryptamine-5-hydroxylase, and means for providing tetrahydrobiopterin (THB). Related sequences and vectors for use in preparing such recombinant microbial cells are also described.

Knight, Eric Michael Technical University of Denmark,

302

Melatonin in Alzheimer’s Disease  

OpenAIRE

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with progressive cognition deficit, is characterized by extracellular senile plaques (SP) of aggregated ?-amyloid (A?) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, mainly containing the hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. Multiple factors contribute to the etiology of AD in terms of initiation and progression. Melatonin is an endogenously produced hormone in the brain and decreases during aging and in pa...

Jian-Zhi Wang; Qing Tian; Jiang Chu; Shu-Sheng Yang; Qiong-Xia Huang; Li Lin

2013-01-01

303

Fundamental Issues Related to the Origin of Melatonin and Melatonin Isomers during Evolution: Relation to Their Biological Functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host’s system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT, indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity.

Dun-Xian Tan

2014-09-01

304

Circadian mechanisms in the regulation of melatonin synthesis: disruption with light at night and the pathophysiological consequences  

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Full Text Available In the past two decades, the results of a number of epidemiological studies have uncovered an association between excessive light exposure at night and the prevalence of cancer. Whereas the evidence supporting this link is strongest between nighttime light and female breast and male prostate cancer, the frequency of other tumor types may also be elevated. Individuals who have the highest reported increase in cancer are chronic night shift workers and flight attendants who routinely fly across numerous time zones. There are at least two obvious physiological consequences of nighttime light exposure, i.e., a reduction in circulating melatonin levels and disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption. Both these perturbations in experimental animals aggravate tumor growth. Melatonin has a long investigative history in terms of its ability to stymie the growth of many tumor types. Likewise, in the last decade chronodisruption has been unequivocally linked to a variety of abnormal metabolic conditions including excessive tumor growth. This brief review summarizes the processes by which light after darkness onset impedes melatonin production and disturbs circadian rhythms. The survey also reviews the evidence associating the ostensible danger of excessive nighttime light pollution to cancer risk. If an elevated tumor frequency is definitively proven to be a consequence of light at night and/or chronodisruption, it seems likely that cancer will not be the exclusive pathophysiological change associated with the rampant light pollution characteristic of modern societies. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 13-22

Ahmet Korkmaz

2011-02-01

305

Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats  

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip) for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05), whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

Babaei-Balderlou, Farrin; Zare, Samad

2012-01-01

306

2-Phenylmelatonin: a partial agonist at enteric melatonin receptors.  

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The effect of the melatonin receptor ligand, 2-phenylmelatonin, has been assessed in isolated strips of the guinea-pig proximal colon. 2-Phenylmelatonin (0.01 nM-1 microM) caused a concentration-dependent contractile response. The potency value (-log EC50) was 9.3 +/- 1.0. The maximum effect was 25 +/- 4%, of that elicited by the maximally effective concentration (0.3 microM) of 5-HT and 43 +/- 3%, of that by the maximally effective concentration (10 microM) of melatonin. When used as an antagonist, 2-phenylmelatonin (0.01 nM and 0.1 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited melatonin-induced contractions with depression of the maximum response by 25% and 54%, respectively. Higher (1 nM) 2-phenylmelatonin concentrations failed to antagonize melatonin-induced response. Prazosin (0.3 microM), a selective antagonist of melatonin MT3 sites, antagonized melatonin-induced contractions to an extent similar to that induced by 0.01 nM 2-phenylmelatonin (with 30% reduction of the maximum effect to melatonin). The combination of 0.3 microM prazosin and 0.01 nM 2-phenylmelatonin caused antagonism similar in extent to that caused by each individual antagonist. 2-Phenylmelatonin at subnanomolar concentrations behaves as an antagonist of melatonin-induced contractile responses while at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations it behaves as a weak contractile agonist. PMID:11097268

Santagostino-Barbone, M G; Masoero, E; Spelta, V; Lucchelli, A

2000-10-01

307

Melatonin-mediated effects on killifish reproductive axis.  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the melatonin-mediated effects upon the neuroendocrine axis of the brackish killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), a suitable experimental model to study reproductive events. The ability of melatonin to enhance reproductive capacity (fecundity, embryo survival and hatching rate) inducing the transcriptional activity of gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh), luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) and melatonin receptor (mtnr) was investigated in adult females. Moreover, the melatonin-mediated enhancement of killifish sperm motility and velocity was found consistent with higher fecundity of melatonin-exposed fishes. As a further extent, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy evidenced a reduction of lipid unsaturation level on isolated spermatozoa from treated males. Moreover, the reduction of mtnr gene expression during embryo development and lower biometric parameters documented in the larvae from melatonin-exposed parents suggest that melatonin acts as a hormonal mediator able to transfer the environmental signal to oocytes and then to embryos as inheritance of adaptive environmental changes. These results support the positive role of melatonin on killifish reproduction and its role as a maternal factor on embryo and larval development. PMID:24548909

Lombardo, Francesco; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Fabbrocini, Adele; Candelma, Michela; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Carnevali, Oliana

2014-06-01

308

Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

2012-09-01

309

Melatonin Therapy in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease  

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Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a major health problem and a growing recognition exists that efforts to prevent it must be undertaken by both governmental and non-governmental organizations. In this context, the pineal product, melatonin, has a promising significance because of its chronobiotic/cytoprotective properties potentially useful for a number of aspects of AD. One of the features of advancing age is the gradual decrease in circulating melatonin levels. A limited number of therapeutic trials have indicated that melatonin has a therapeutic value as a neuroprotective drug in the treatment of AD and minimal cognitive impairment (which may evolve to AD. Both in vitro and in vivo, melatonin prevented the neurodegeneration seen in experimental models of AD. For these effects to occur, doses of melatonin about two orders of magnitude higher than those required to affect sleep and circadian rhythmicity are needed. More recently, attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects, which were employed in clinical trials in sleep-disturbed or depressed patients in doses considerably higher than those employed for melatonin. In view that the relative potencies of the analogs are higher than that of the natural compound, clinical trials employing melatonin in the range of 50–100 mg/day are urgently needed to assess its therapeutic validity in neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

Daniel P. Cardinali

2014-04-01

310

A Mathematical Model of the Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Exogenous Melatonin  

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Melatonin is endogenously produced and released in humans during nighttime darkness and is suppressed by ocular light exposure. Exogenous melatonin is used to induce circadian phase shifts and sleep. The circadian phase-shifting ability of a stimulus (e.g., melatonin or light) relative to its timing may be displayed as a phase response curve (PRC). Published PRCs to exogenous melatonin show a transition from phase advances to delays approximately 1 h after dim light melatonin onset. A previou...

Breslow, Emily R.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Huang, Jean M.; St Hilaire, Melissa A.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

2013-01-01

311

Is Nocturnal Systolic Blood Pressure Rise Associated with Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness?  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess central hemodynamics and parameters of arterial stiffness of cases with nocturnal blood pressure rise. MATERIAL and METHODS: In this retrospective study, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of 252 hypertensive patients was performed with the Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph. RESULTS: 174 (%69.0 out of 252 patients were female and 78 (%31 were male and the mean age was 54.5±14.4. When Pearson's correlation test was performed, the nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP decline was associated with age (r=-0.169, p=0.008, diurnal pulse wave velocity (PWV (r=-0.179, p=0.005, nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP decline (r=0.790, p<0.001, nocturnal central SBP (r=-0.410, p<0.001, and nocturnal augmentation index (Aix@75 (r=-0.215, p=0.001. When patients were divided into three groups as 10 % or more nocturnal SBP decline, less than 10 % nocturnal SBP decline and nocturnal SBP increase, there were statistically signifi cant differences regarding nocturnal pulse pressure (p<0.001, nocturnal DBP decline (p<0.001, nocturnal Aix@75 (p<0.001, and nocturnal peripheral resistance (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: We believe that strict follow up of conventional risk factors causing arterial stiffness in patients with less than 10 % nocturnal BP decline or increase and also the use of chronotherapy may be useful.

Gülperi ÇEL?K

2012-05-01

312

Distribution of melatonin receptors in murine pancreatic islets.  

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Melatonin has multiple receptor-dependent and receptor-independent functions. At the cell membrane, melatonin interacts with its receptors MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in numerous tissues. Genome-wide association studies have recently shown that the MTNR1B/MT2 receptor may be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In line with these findings, expression of melatonin receptors has been shown in mouse, rat, and human pancreatic islets. MT1 and MT2 are G-protein-coupled receptors and are proposed to exert inhibitory effects on insulin secretion. Here, we show by immunocytochemistry that these membrane melatonin receptors have distinct locations in the mouse islet. MT1 is expressed in ?-cells while MT2 is located to the ?-cells. These findings help to unravel the complex machinery underlying melatonin's role in the regulation of islet function. PMID:21355877

Nagorny, Cecilia L F; Sathanoori, Ramasri; Voss, Ulrikke; Mulder, Hindrik; Wierup, Nils

2011-05-01

313

High levels of melatonin generated during the brewing process.  

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Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, high melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with high alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. PMID:23607887

Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D

2013-08-01

314

Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan  

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At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)

315

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired disorder of hemopoiesis and is characterized by recurrent episodes of intravascular hemolysis due to an increased sensitivity to complement-mediated hemolysis. Systemic lupus erythematosus with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is very rare. We report a case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria that developed in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. Case presentation A 29-year-old Mongolian woman had systemic lupus erythematosus, which manifested only as skin lesions when she was 12 years old. She had leg edema and proteinuria when she was 23 years old, and a renal biopsy revealed lupus nephritis (World Health Organization type IV. She had been treated with steroids and immunosuppressant therapy. At 29, she had headaches, nausea, general fatigue, and severe pancytopenia and was admitted to our hospital. A laboratory evaluation showed hemolytic anemia. Further examination showed a neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score of 46 points, a CD55 value of 18%, and a CD59 value of 78.6%. The results of Ham test and sugar water tests were positive. The constellation of symptoms throughout the clinical course and the laboratory findings suggested paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, systemic lupus erythematosus with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is very rare. Clinicians should be aware of the association between autoimmune and hematological diseases.

Nakamura Norio

2011-11-01

316

Melatonin, autophagy and intestinal bowel disease.  

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The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier against the intestinal contents and the wider environment, allowing entry of selected molecules for nutrition and programming of the mucosal immune system, but excluding toxins and most microorganisms. Many receptors and signalling pathways are coupled and implicated in the epithelial control and significant advances have been achieved in the understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in the introduction of biologics. However, not all of the patients respond and many lose their response. Data from experimental studies have documented that the pineal secretory product melatonin exerts important inmunoregulatory and antiinflammatory effects in different models of colitis. These actions have been associated to a variety of mechanisms, such as reduction of T cells number, modulation of macrophage activity, suppression of NF?B activity, inhibition of cell adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines , suppression of COX-2 and iNOS levels and the consequent synthesis of PGE2 and NO, reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and -9 activity, and modulation of apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects of melatonin in IBD are related to its scavenger effect on free radicals and the activation of several antioxidant enzymes. However, only a small number of human studies report possible beneficial and also possible harmful effects of melatonin in case reports and clinical trials. There is a considerable bulk of information supporting the connection between autophagy and human diseases, including IBD, and although autophagy is actually considered more a pro-survival than a pro-death pathway, these two features of its action are relevant in human diseases, having therapeutic potential for both activators and inhibitors of autophagy. Some of the opposite effects than have been reported for melatonin in IBD could be related to the duality of its effects on autophagy, which itself can be beneficial or detrimental. In this review, new data for melatonin in IBD are discussed, trying to provide recent information of different molecular mechanism including the role of the autophagy regulation. PMID:24251670

Talero, Elena; Garcia-Maurino, Sofia; Motilva, Virginia

2014-01-01

317

Nocturnal drainage flow on simple slopes  

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Observations of nocturnal slope flow have been made at two sites with quite different topography and vegetation. In both cases, continuous measurements of wind and temperature profiles were made from towers that extended through the depth of the katabatic flow. At the simpler site, which approximates a tilted plane, three towers were located at different distances down the slope to measure the development of slope flow with downslope distance. Slope flow depth, downslope wind speed, and temperature deficit are found to change with downslope distance at rates that are consistent with the predictions of Manins and Sawford's (1979) layer-averaged model of slope flow, while measured entrainment rates are found to be comparable to those predicted by Ellison and Turner's (1959) laboratory experiments. The depth of slope flow is found to be roughly 0.05 times the vertical drop from the top of the slope, a relationship that also follows from combining Manins and Sawford's model and Ellison and Turner's laboratory data. Analysis of the wind spectra and a simple numerical model suggest that the turbulent kinetic energy profiles in slope flow are dependent on the speed and direction of the ambient wind and can differ substantially from those found over flat terrain. At the more complex of the two measurement sites, the occurrence of slope flow was found to correlate well with a dimensionless number 5 that is a function of the ridge-top wind speed and of the strength and depth of the inversion and that is an estimate of the ratio of the buoyancy deficit to the external horizontal pressure gradient.

Horst, T. W.; Doran, J. C.

1986-02-01

318

Melatonin, melatonin isomers and stilbenes in Italian traditional grape products and their antiradical capacity.  

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Although polyphenols represent the paradigm of the health-promoting effects ascribed to grape products, recently, attention has been paid to dietary melatonin, significantly present in Mediterranean foods. In this work, we measured melatonin, its isomers, stilbenes (trans- and cis-resveratrol and their glucosides, piceids) and total polyphenols in some different grape products (red, white and dessert wines, grape juices and Modena balsamic vinegars) of distinct Italian areas. We also evaluated their antiradical activity by DPPH(·) and ABTS(·+) assays. For indoleamine analysis, the separation was carried out on a 1.7-?m C18 BEH column and the detection performed by means of mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The confirmation of the peak identity was accomplished by injection into the high-resolution system (Orbitrap) using accurate mass measurements (error below 1.0 ppm). Mass spectrometry analyses revealed, for the first time, the presence of melatonin in dessert wines and balsamic vinegars, as well as the occurrence of three different melatonin isomers in grape products. PMID:23171152

Vitalini, Sara; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo; Fico, Gelsomina; Iriti, Marcello

2013-04-01

319

Protective effect of melatonin on thrombocytopoiesis in irratiated mice  

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Objective: To study the protective effect of melatonin on thrombocytopoiesis (T) and its mechanism in total-bodily irradiated mice. Methods: Altogether 18 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups (6 each): Group 1(normal control, N) received neither irradiation nor melatonin; Group 2 (model control, C); received total body-irradiation for 4 Gy gamma-rays and Group 3 (melatonin, M), received melatonin after irradiation at the dosage of 10 mg·kg-1·d-1 via i. p. injection in consecutive 21 days. In Group C normal saline instead of melatonin was administered in the same way as above. Peripheral blood platelets and white blood cells (WBC) were analyzed for the three groups on day 0, day 7, day 14, and day 21. All the mice were sacrificed to collect bone marrow cells for the assays of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) and of colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F). The effects of melatonin of different concentrations (0-500 nmol/L) on CFU-MK formation were observed in vitro. Results: The results showed that melatonin enhanced the recovery of T. Moreover, melatonin also promoted the increase of CFU-F (28 ± 10.4 vs 14.6 ± 2.8) and CFU-MK (19.63 ± 3.28 vs 11 ± 2.24) in vivo. The amount of CFU-MK in vitro was dependent on the concentration of melatonin. Compared with the control group, the size of CFU-MK in Group M was much larger and MK cells were more mature, especially when the melatonin concentration was 200 the melatonin concentration was 200 nmol/L. Conclusion: Melatonin provides protective effect on T in irradiated mice. It enhances T in vivo and promotes the growth of bone marrow stromal cells as well as megakaryocytes in vitro. Therefore, we speculate that the T-protective activity of melatonin may be mediated via promoting growth of the progenitors of platelet, megakaryocytes, and bone marrow stromal cells. (authors)

320

Recurrent and progressive abdominal pain and enteritis in a Japanese patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

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This case report describes a young male patient with recurrent abdominal pain persisting for more than 16 months. Clinical investigations showed signs of inflammation and pancytopenia. A diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was made 9 months after the onset of the abdominal pain, following endoscopic examinations that revealed evidence of a previously unknown hemorrhage. Regular monitoring indicated that the abdominal pain was associated with elevations in lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive proteins, and D-dimer levels. The patient started treatment with the complement inhibitor eculizumab shortly after it was approved for use in Japanese PNH patients with hemolysis. Resolution of the abdominal pain and normalization of clinical parameters were noted within 3 weeks from treatment initiation. PMID:24587926

Hino, Akihisa; Yamashita, Yukiko; Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

321

Placental melatonin production and melatonin receptor expression are altered in preeclampsia: new insights into the role of this hormone in pregnancy.  

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The melatonin system in preeclamptic pregnancies has been largely overlooked, especially in the placenta. We have previously documented melatonin production and expression of its receptors in normal human placentas. In addition, we and others have shown a beneficial role of melatonin in placental and fetal functions. In line with this, decreased maternal blood levels of melatonin are found in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancies. However, melatonin production and expression of its receptors in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancy placentas has never been examined. This study compares (i) melatonin-synthesizing enzyme expression and activity, (ii) melatonin and serotonin, melatonin's immediate precursor, levels and (iii) expression of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in placentas from preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Protein and mRNA expression of aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, as well as MT1 and MT2 receptors were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The activities of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes were assessed by radiometric assays while melatonin levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. There is a significant inhibition of AANAT, melatonin's rate-limiting enzyme, expression and activity in preeclamptic placentas, correlating with decreased melatonin levels. Likewise, MT1 and MT2 expression is significantly reduced in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancy placentas. We propose that reduced maternal plasma melatonin levels may be an early diagnostic tool to identify pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. This study indicates a clinical utility of melatonin as a potential treatment for preeclampsia in women where reduced maternal plasma levels have been identified. PMID:22686298

Lanoix, Dave; Guérin, Pascale; Vaillancourt, Cathy

2012-11-01

322

Inhibition of Endotoxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Melatonin in Rats  

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Bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide causes extensive damage to various organs including the liver. This is due to an increased production of tumor necrosis factor ? induced- reactive intermediates. These intermediates are known to cause extensive damage to a variety of cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress. In the present study, the role of the pineal hormone melatonin was evaluated as an antioxidant against endotoxin induced- hepatotoxicity using Wistar rats. Bacterial endotoxin was injected (i.v) and animals were sacrificed 8h post-challenge. Endotoxemia was associated with a statistically significant rise in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and also caused histopathological changes. Administration of melatonin could significantly attenuate these enzymatic and associated histological alterations. Melatonin was administered (i.p) pre and/or post endotoxin challenge. A significant reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-? in the hepatic tissue was also observed with melatonin supplementation. Reduction in the levels of endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione after endotoxin challenge was effectively attenuated by the administration of melatonin. Endotoxin challenge caused a marked increases in the levels of nitrite, and this was significantly lowered by melatonin administration. The above mentioned changes might have resulted in endotoxin associated hepatocellular necrosis which was minimized by melatonin supplementation in the present study. PMID:23675075

Rishi, Praveen; Bharrhan, Sushma; Bhalla, Manmeet Pal Singh; Koul, Ashwani; Chopra, Kanwaljit

2008-01-01

323

Ebola virus: Melatonin as a readily available treatment option.  

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There is currently an urgent need for a viable, cheap, and readily available treatment for the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. Here, it is proposed that melatonin may have significant utility in helping the management of this outbreak. Optimizing natural killer (NK) cell responses seems crucial to surviving Ebola virus infection. Melatonin increases NK cell cytotoxicity significantly, suggesting efficacy in managing the Ebola virus. Under conditions of challenge, melatonin increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which inhibits Ebola virus replication. Melatonin also has protective effects in cases of septic shock, which, although bacterial, has similar end-point presentations involving blood vessel leakage. Melatonin's effects on haemorrhage are mediated primarily by a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines. By optimizing the appropriate immune response, melatonin is likely to afford protection to those at high risk of Ebola viral infection, as well as having direct impacts on the course of infection per se. Although no direct data pertain to the utility of melatonin in the management of the Ebola virus, convergent bodies of data suggest its utility, which is reviewed in this article. J. Med. Virol. 87:537-543, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25611054

Anderson, George; Maes, Michael; Markus, Regina P; Rodriguez, Moses

2015-04-01

324

Melatonin and atopy: role in atopic dermatitis and asthma.  

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Melatonin may have important immunostimulatory actions in allergic diseases, in addition to its well-known antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in several inflammatory conditions. The activation of the immune system leads to free radical production associated with decreased melatonin levels and depressed antioxidant enzyme activities in several inflammatory diseases. Many skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis, are accompanied by infiltration and activation of mast cells, which release vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators. Experimental data suggest that melatonin inhibits development of atopic eczema and reduces serum total IgE and IL-4. Allergic asthma is a condition characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the presence of IgE antibodies in response to inhaled allergens; often there is also enhanced total serum IgE levels. Melatonin regulates smooth muscle tone and influences the immune response. Melatonin may, however, act as a pro-inflammatory agent in asthma leading to bronchial constriction. The safety of melatonin as a sleep-inducing agent has been confirmed in asthmatic subjects, but its routine use is not recommended in bronchial asthma. This review summarizes what is known about the role of melatonin as an immunomodulatory agent in asthma and atopic eczema. PMID:25093714

Marseglia, Lucia; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Manti, Sara; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa; Barberi, Ignazio; Reiter, Russel J; Gitto, Eloisa

2014-01-01

325

Effect of Melatonin on Human Dental Papilla Cells  

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Full Text Available Melatonin regulates a variety of biological processes, which are the control of circadian rhythms, regulation of seasonal reproductive function and body temperature, free radical scavenging and so on. Our previous studies have shown that various cells exist in human and mouse tooth germs that express the melatonin 1a receptor (Mel1aR. However, little is known about the effects of melatonin on tooth development and growth. The present study was performed to examine the possibility that melatonin might exert its influence on tooth development. DP-805 cells, a human dental papilla cell line, were shown to express Mel1aR. Expression levels of mRNA for Mel1aR in DP-805 cells increased until 3 days after reaching confluence and decreased thereafter. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that melatonin increased the expression of mRNAs for osteopontin (OPN, osteocalcin (OCN, bone sialoprotein (BSP, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1 and dentin sialophosphoprotin (DSPP. Melatonin also enhanced the mineralized matrix formation in DP-805 cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that melatonin may play a physiological role in tooth development/growth by regulating the cellular function of odontogenic cells in tooth germs.

Ryusuke Tachibana

2014-09-01

326

Antioxidant properties of melatonin--an emerging mystery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over three centuries ago, the French philosopher René Descartes described the pineal gland as "the seat of the soul." However, it was not until the late 1950s that the chemical identity and biosynthesis of melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal body, were revealed. Melatonin, named from the Greek melanos, meaning black, and tonos, meaning color, is a biogenic amine with structural similarities to serotonin. The mechanisms mediating the synthesis of melatonin are transcriptionally regulated by the photoperiodic environment. Once synthesized, the neurohormone is a biologic modulator of mood, sleep, sexual behavior, reproductive alterations, immunologic function, and circadian rhythms. Moreover, melatonin exerts its regulatory roles through high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive, G-protein (or guanine nucleotide binding protein) coupled receptors that reside primarily in the eye, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and brain. Additional evidence also indicates a role for melatonin in aging and age-related diseases, probably related to its efficient free radical scavenger (or antioxidant) activity. The potential clinical benefit of melatonin as an antioxidant is remarkable, suggesting that it may be of use in the treatment of many pathophysiological disease states including various cancers, hypertension, pulmonary diseases, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of melatonin and its many endocrine and physiological functions, including its therapeutic potential in human disease states. Emphasis is placed on the recent speculations indicating that this pineal hormone serves as an endogenous antioxidant agent with proficient free radical scavenging activity. PMID:9825724

Beyer, C E; Steketee, J D; Saphier, D

1998-11-15

327

Growth conditions determine different melatonin levels in Lupinus albus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin, an indoleamine, which has recently been assigned several roles in plant physiology as a growth promoter, as rooting agent, and as antioxidant in senescence delay and cytoprotection, seems to have a relevant function in plant stress situations. The presence of melatonin increases the resistance of lupin plant tissues (Lupinus albus L.) against natural or artificially induced adverse situations. In this work, we studied the response of lupin plants in controlled stress situations (drought-, anaerobic-, pH-, and cold stress and using ZnSO4 , NaCl, and H2 O2 as chemical stressors) and measured the changes in endogenous melatonin levels in lupin plants. Also, the effect of abscisic acid, ethylene, and natural environmental conditions were evaluated. In general, nearly all stressful factors caused an increase in melatonin in the investigated organs. The chemical stress provoked by ZnSO4 or NaCl caused the most pronounced changes in the endogenous level of melatonin, followed by cold and drought stressors. In some cases, the level of melatonin increased 12-fold with respect to the levels in control plants, indicating that melatonin biosynthesis is upregulated in common stress situations, in which it may serve as a signal molecule and/or as a direct antistress agent due to its well-known antioxidative properties. PMID:23600673

Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

2013-09-01

328

Melatonin as a local regulator of human placental function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin plays a critical role in a variety of mammalian reproductive processes not only acting on the central nervous system but also behaving as a peripheral physiologic regulator. To address the relevance of melatonin to the maintenance of pregnancy at the feto-maternal interface, we investigated the expression of two types of membrane melatonin receptors, MT1 and MT2, as well as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the two enzymes required for the conversion of serotonin to melatonin, in the human placenta and the effect of melatonin on the release of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) from cultured human trophoblast cells. RT-PCR analysis and DNA sequencing revealed that transcripts of MT1, MT2, AA-NAT, and HIOMT were present in the first-trimester human placenta. We also found that melatonin significantly potentiated hCG secretion at optimal concentrations. These results suggest that melatonin may regulate human placental function in a paracrine/autocrine manner, providing evidence for a novel role in human reproduction. PMID:16150106

Iwasaki, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazumi; Sakai, Jun; Kometani, Kunio; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Maruyama, Tetsuo

2005-10-01

329

A radiobiological review on melatonin. A novel radioprotector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. For the sake of improvement in radiation therapy, radiobiology plays a crucial role through explaining observed phenomena, and suggesting improvements to existing therapies. Due to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, radiobiologists have long been interested in identifying novel, nontoxic, effective, and convenient compounds to protect humans against radiation induced normal tissue injuries. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief secretory product of the pineal gland in the brain, has been documented to ameliorate the oxidative injuries due to ionizing radiation. This article reviews different features that make melatonin a potentially useful radioprotector. Moreover, based on radiobiological models we hypothesize that melatonin may postpone the saturation of repair enzymes which leads to repairing more induced damage by repair system and more importantly allows the use of higher doses of radiation during radiotherapy to get a better therapeutic ratio. The implications of the accumulated observations suggest by virtue of melatonin's radioprotective and anticancer effects; it is time to use it as a radioprotector both for radiation workers and patients suffering from cancer either alone for cancer inhibition or in combination with traditional radiotherapy for getting a favorable efficacy/toxicity ratio during the treatment. Although compelling evidence suggests that melatonin may be effective for a variety of datonin may be effective for a variety of disorders, the optimum dose of melatonin for human radioprotection is yet to be determined by further research. We propose that, in the future melatonin improve therapeutic ratio in radiation oncology.

330

Solubilization and purification of melatonin receptors from lizard brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melatonin receptors in lizard brain were identified and characterized using 125I-labeled melatonin ([125I]MEL) after solubilization with the detergent digitonin. Saturation studies of solubilized material revealed a high affinity binding site, with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 181 +/- 45 pM. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs, but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of solubilized material with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, guanosine 5'-(3-O-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S), significantly reduced receptor affinity. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized melatonin receptors revealed a high affinity, large (Mr 400,000) peak of specific binding. Pretreatment with GTP-gamma-S before solubilization resulted in elution of a lower affinity, smaller (Mr 150,000) peak of specific binding. To purify solubilized receptors, a novel affinity chromatography resin was developed by coupling 6-hydroxymelatonin with Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. Using this resin, melatonin receptors were purified approximately 10,000-fold. Purified material retained the pharmacologic specificity of melatonin receptors. These results show that melatonin receptors that bind ligand after detergent treatment can be solubilized and substantially purified by affinity chromatography

331

Melatonin and Atopy: Role in Atopic Dermatitis and Asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin may have important immunostimulatory actions in allergic diseases, in addition to its well-known antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in several inflammatory conditions. The activation of the immune system leads to free radical production associated with decreased melatonin levels and depressed antioxidant enzyme activities in several inflammatory diseases. Many skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis, are accompanied by infiltration and activation of mast cells, which release vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators. Experimental data suggest that melatonin inhibits development of atopic eczema and reduces serum total IgE and IL-4. Allergic asthma is a condition characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the presence of IgE antibodies in response to inhaled allergens; often there is also enhanced total serum IgE levels. Melatonin regulates smooth muscle tone and influences the immune response. Melatonin may, however, act as a pro-inflammatory agent in asthma leading to bronchial constriction. The safety of melatonin as a sleep-inducing agent has been confirmed in asthmatic subjects, but its routine use is not recommended in bronchial asthma. This review summarizes what is known about the role of melatonin as an immunomodulatory agent in asthma and atopic eczema.

Lucia Marseglia

2014-08-01

332

Drug-mediated ototoxicity and tinnitus: alleviation with melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review evaluates the published basic science and clinical reports related to the role of melatonin in reducing the side effects of aminoglycosides and the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, in the cochlea and vestibule of the inner ear. A thorough search of the literature was performed using available databases for the purpose of uncovering articles applicable to the current review. Cochlear function was most frequently evaluated by measuring otoacoustic emissions and their distortion products after animals were treated with cytotoxic drugs alone or in combination with melatonin. Vestibular damage due to aminoglycosides was evaluated by estimating hair cell loss in explanted utricles of newborn rats. Tinnitus was assessed in patients who received melatonin using a visual analogue scale or the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Compared to a mixture of antioxidants which included tocopherol, ascorbate, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine, melatonin, also a documented antioxidant, was estimated to be up to 150 times more effective in limiting the cochlear side effects, evaluated using otoacoustic emission distortion products, of gentamicin, tobramycin and cisplatin. In a dose-response manner, melatonin also reduced vestibular hair cell loss due to gentamicin treatment in explanted utricles of newborn rats. Finally, melatonin (3 mg daily) limited subjective tinnitus in patients. These findings suggest the potential use of melatonin to combat the ototoxicity of aminoglycosides and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Additional studies at both the experimental and clinical levels should be performed to further document the actions of melatonin at the cochlear and vestibular levels to further clarify the protective mechanisms of action of this ubiquitously-acting molecule. Melatonin's low cost and minimal toxicity profile supports its use to protect the inner ear from drug-mediated damage. PMID:21673362

Reiter, R J; Tan, D-X; Korkmaz, A; Fuentes-Broto, L

2011-04-01

333

Melatonin as a principal component of red light therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is well recognized for its role as a potent antioxidant and is directly implicated in the free radical theory of aging [1] [Reiter RJ, Pablos MI, Agapito TT, Guerrero JM. Melatonin in the context of the free radical theory of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996;786:362-78]. Moreover, melatonin has been shown to retard age-related increases in lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage [2] [Okatani Y, Wakatsuki A, Reiter RJ. Melatonin protects hepatic mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in senescence-accelerated mice. J Pineal Res 2002;32:143-8] and to act directly upon the immune system [3] [Poon AM, Liu ZM, Pang CS, Brown GM, Pang SF. Evidence for a direct action of melatonin on the immune system. Biol Signals 1994;3:107-17]. This report focuses on characterizing documented functions of melatonin in the context of red light therapy and proposes that melatonin is a potential mediator of red light's therapeutic effects, a hypothesis that is as yet untested. Red light therapy (670 nm, 4J/cm(2)) has been shown to restore glutathione redox balance upon toxicological insult and enhance both cytochrome c oxidase and energy production, all of which may be affected by melatonin. The red light treatment has also been successfully implemented in the clinical setting for its effectiveness in reducing both the number of incidences and severity of oral mucositis resulting in part from the chemotherapy and/or radiation administered prior to bone marrow transplants. Moreover, red light therapy improves wound healing and is being further tested for its ability to ameliorate toxicant-induced retinal and visual cortical neuron damage. Researchers in the growing field of light therapy may be in a position to draw from and collaborate with melatonin researchers to better characterize this alternative treatment. PMID:17321060

Yeager, Ronnie L; Oleske, Deanna A; Sanders, Ruth A; Watkins, John B; Eells, Janis T; Henshel, Diane S

2007-01-01

334

Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased ?-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (P<0.05) and HbA(1) c by 11% (P<0.05) in ZDF rats. Also, melatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (P<0.05) and HOMA-IR by 31% (P<0.01) and increased HOMA1-%B by 14.4% (P<0.05). In addition, melatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (P<0.001) and raised hypoadiponectinemia by 40% (P<0.001) in ZDF rats. Moreover, melatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (P<0.05). These data demonstrate that oral melatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and ?-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects. PMID:21883445

Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

2012-03-01

335

Therapeutic application of melatonin in mild cognitive impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an etiologically heterogeneous syndrome defined by cognitive impairment in advance of dementia. We previously reported in a retrospective analysis that daily 3 - 9 mg of a fast-release melatonin preparation given p. o. at bedtime for up to 3 years significantly improved cognitive and emotional performance and daily sleep/wake cycle in MCI patients. In a follow up of that study we now report data from another series of 96 MCI outpatients, 61 of who had received daily 3 - 24 mg of a fast-release melatonin preparation p. o. at bedtime for 15 to 60 months. Melatonin was given in addition to the standard medication prescribed by the attending psychiatrist. Patients treated with melatonin exhibited significantly better performance in Mini-Mental State Examination and the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale. After application of a neuropsychological battery comprising a Mattis´ test, Digit-symbol test, Trail A and B tasks and the Rey´s verbal test, better performance was found in melatonin-treated patients for every parameter tested. Abnormally high Beck Depression Inventory scores decreased in melatonin-treated patients, concomitantly with the improvement in the quality of sleep and wakefulness. The comparison of the medication profile in both groups of MCI patients indicated that 9.8% in the melatonin group received benzodiazepines vs. 62.8% in the non-melatonin group. The results further support that melatonin can be a useful add-on drug for treating MCI in a clinic environment. PMID:23383398

Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E; Olivar, Natividad; Vidal, María F; Furio, Analía M; Brusco, Luis I

2012-01-01

336

Reactions of melatonin with radicals in deoxygenated aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactions of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) with radiolytically generated radicals were studied. Reaction of melatonin with OH radicals is diffusion-controlled (k=1.2 x 1010 dm3 mol-1 x s-1), the main (but not the only one) intermediate being the indolyl-type radical, while the rate constant for the reaction with hydrated electrons is k=4.3 x 108 dm3 x mol-1 x s-1. Melatonin is capable of scavenging tert-butanol radicals, while its reactivity towards polymer radicals of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) is very low. (author)

337

Light, melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle.  

OpenAIRE

Blood levels of the pineal hormone melatonin are high at night and low during the day. Its secretion is regulated by a rhythm-generating system located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is in turn regulated by light. Melatonin is regulated not only by that circadian oscillator but acts as a darkness signal, providing feedback to the oscillator. Melatonin has both a soporific effect and an ability to entrain the sleep-wake rhythm. It also has a major role in regulating ...

Brown, G. M.

1994-01-01

338

Diurnal rhythm of melatonin binding in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to localize and characterize 2-125I-melatonin binding sites in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei in relation to pineal melatonin production. In a light:dark cycle of 12:12 h, binding density exhibited significant diurnal variation with a peak at the dark-light transition and a trough 12 hours later. Saturation studies suggested that the decreased binding at light-dark transition might be due to a shift of the putative melatonin receptor to a low affinity state

339

Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

340

Some observations in paroxysmal nocturnal haemglobinuraria and myelofibrosis  

OpenAIRE

This thesis deals with some clinical and laboratory aspects o f two haematological disorders,namely paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria( PNH) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In both disoders precursors of the red and white blood cells as well as the thrombocytes are involved. This could point to a clonal genesis of the two disorders. .... Zie: Summary

Vellenga, Edo

1983-01-01

341

Renal and hepatic scintigraphy in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintigraphic findings in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have been presented. To summarize, a focal hot spot on liver imaging was better seen on the IDA scan, showing resolution following a satisfactory portacaval anastomosis. PNH is another cause of hot kidneys on bone imaging

342

Sleep board review question: nocturnal hypoxemia in COPD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at end of question. Question: Which of the following is the strongest predictor of nocturnal hypoxemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD?1.Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV12.Age3.Daytime Oxygen Saturation4.Radiological severity of COPD…

Poongkunran C

2013-01-01

343

Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

2011-07-01

344

Hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna: Actualización Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria  

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Full Text Available La hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN es una enfermedad clonal y adquirida causada por una mutación somática en el gen PIG-A que se encuentra en el cromosoma X y codifica una proteina involucrada en la síntesis del glicosilfosfatidilinositol (GPI, el cual le sirve como anclaje a muchas proteínas de la membrana celular. La mutación ocurre en el stem cell hematopoyético y da lugar a una deficiencia parcial o total de la proteína PIG-A con la consecuente alteración en la síntesis del GPI de anclaje; como resultado, una parte de las células sanguíneas serán deficientes de todas las proteínas ligadas al GPI. La ausencia de estas proteinas en la HPN explica algunos de los síntomas clínicos de la enfermedad, como la hemólisis intravascular mediada por el complemento, la trombosis venosa, el déficit de la hematopoyesis, etc; pero no el mecanismo mediante el cual el clon HPN se expande en la médula ósea. Varios estudios han demostrado que la inactivación del gen PIG- A por sí sola, no confiere una ventaja proliferativa al stem cell mutado, uno o más factores ambientales externos son necesarios para la expansión de este clon mutado, los cuales ejercen una presión selectiva a favor del clon HPN. La causa por el cual el clon HPN se estimula a proliferar podría ser un daño selectivo a la hematopoyesis normal. En el tratamiento de esta enfermedad se han utilizado varios agentes terapéuticos, pero el único tratamiento curativo es el trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticosThe paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH is a clonal acquired disease caused by a somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene that is located in the chromosome X and codifies a protein involved in the synthesis of glycosil phosphatidylinositol (GPI, which serves as an anchor for many proetins of the cellular membrane. The mutations occurs in the hematopoietic stem cell and gives rise to a partial or total deficiency of the protein PIG-A with the subsequent alteration in the synthesis of the anchored GPI. As a result, a part of the blood cells will be lacking all the proteins bound to the GPI. The absence of these proteins in the NPH explains some of the clinical symptoms of the disease, such as the intravascular hemolysis mediated by the complement, the venous thrombosis, the deficit of hematopoiesis, etc., but not the mechanism by which the NPH clone expands into the bone marrow. Some studies have proved that the inactivation of the GPI-A gene does not confer a proliferative advantage to the mutated stem cell. One or more external environmental factors are needed for the expansion of this mutated clone. These factors exert a selective pressure in favor of the NPH clone. The cause for which the NPH clone is estimulated to proliferate may be a selective damage to the normal hematopoiesis. Several therapeutic agents have been used in the treatment of this disease, but the only curative treatment is the transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors

María Teresa Milanés Roldán

2003-04-01

345

Enurese noturna monossintomática / Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: a enurese noturna monossintomática (ENM) ocupa papel de destaque na prática pediátrica, pela alta freqüência, pelo impacto psicossocial e por ser assunto controverso em relação à etiologia e ao tratamento. O principal interesse deste trabalho é mostrar que a ENM é uma entidade clínica bem [...] individualizada. A enurese noturna pode ser sintoma de distúrbio miccional cuja abordagem terapêutica é completamente diferente. MÉTODOS: Encontramos na literatura uma enorme quantidade de publicações, mas procuramos selecionar, para esta revisão, as publicações clássicas e as mais recentes, de autores internacionalmente reconhecidos como estudiosos neste tema; além disso, trazemos a experiência acumulada ao longo de 13 anos no Centro de Nefrologia Pediátrica do Paraná - Unidade de Distúrbios Miccionais. RESULTADOS: A falta de consenso internacional bem definido quanto a conceituação, terminologia e classificação dificulta a avaliação dos inúmeros estudos publicados na literatura. A individualização da entidade clínica ENM é o ponto de partida fundamental para uma orientação adequada do paciente. A enurese não é um mal da civilização moderna e encontra-se presente na maioria das sociedades, dando oportunidade às mais diversas interpretações e propostas de tratamento (1). Há consenso em relação ao prejuízo da auto-estima em crianças enuréticas e, portanto, em relação ao benefício de seu tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: A enurese noturna continua sendo um grande segredo de família, e muitas crianças permanecem sem orientação e tratamento, sofrendo por falta de compreensão e tendo sua auto-estima atingida. A ENM deve ser ativamente pesquisada na ocasião da consulta pediátrica. Um interrogatório detalhado sobre hábitos e qualidade da micção, antecedentes de infecção urinária e exame físico minucioso, permite descartar outros diagnósticos. A ENM é um problema médico, merecedor de atenção dos profissionais e familiares. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) plays a very important role in the practice of pediatrics due to its high prevalence, its psychosocial impact, and its controversial etiology and treatment. Our objective was to show that MNE can be a well-defined clinical entity (monosymptomatic) [...] , but it can also be a symptom of urinary disorder, thus requiring a completely different therapeutic approach. METHODS: The literature presents numerous publications related to the matter of MNE, thus we tried to select, for this review, the classical and the most recent publications from internationally recognized authors; in addition, we also have a 13-year work experience at the Unit for Urinary Disorders of the Pediatric Nephrology Center of the state of Paraná (Unidade de Distúrbios Miccionais - Centro de Nefrologia Pediatrica do Paraná). RESULTS: The lack of a well-defined, international consensus on the concept, terminology, and classification of MNE is an obstacle for the assessment of the numerous studies found in the literature. The individualization of the MNE clinical entity is the fundamental starting point for providing appropriate guidance for patients. Enuresis can be found in most societies and, thus, it gives way to several interpretations and forms of treatment. There is a consensus, however, on the damage to the self-esteem of enuretic children, and consequently, on the advantage of proper treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, MNE is kept as a family secret while children remain without proper guidance and treatment and suffering with the lack of understanding and damage to their self-esteem. Doctors should survey patients extensively for MNE during pediatric appointments. It is possible to discard other diagnoses with a detailed survey of habits, quality of the urination, and history of urinary infection and a meticulous physical examination. MNE should be faced as a medical problem worthy of the attention of professiona

Rejane de P., Meneses.

2001-06-01

346

Enurese noturna monossintomática Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a enurese noturna monossintomática (ENM ocupa papel de destaque na prática pediátrica, pela alta freqüência, pelo impacto psicossocial e por ser assunto controverso em relação à etiologia e ao tratamento. O principal interesse deste trabalho é mostrar que a ENM é uma entidade clínica bem individualizada. A enurese noturna pode ser sintoma de distúrbio miccional cuja abordagem terapêutica é completamente diferente. MÉTODOS: Encontramos na literatura uma enorme quantidade de publicações, mas procuramos selecionar, para esta revisão, as publicações clássicas e as mais recentes, de autores internacionalmente reconhecidos como estudiosos neste tema; além disso, trazemos a experiência acumulada ao longo de 13 anos no Centro de Nefrologia Pediátrica do Paraná - Unidade de Distúrbios Miccionais. RESULTADOS: A falta de consenso internacional bem definido quanto a conceituação, terminologia e classificação dificulta a avaliação dos inúmeros estudos publicados na literatura. A individualização da entidade clínica ENM é o ponto de partida fundamental para uma orientação adequada do paciente. A enurese não é um mal da civilização moderna e encontra-se presente na maioria das sociedades, dando oportunidade às mais diversas interpretações e propostas de tratamento (1. Há consenso em relação ao prejuízo da auto-estima em crianças enuréticas e, portanto, em relação ao benefício de seu tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: A enurese noturna continua sendo um grande segredo de família, e muitas crianças permanecem sem orientação e tratamento, sofrendo por falta de compreensão e tendo sua auto-estima atingida. A ENM deve ser ativamente pesquisada na ocasião da consulta pediátrica. Um interrogatório detalhado sobre hábitos e qualidade da micção, antecedentes de infecção urinária e exame físico minucioso, permite descartar outros diagnósticos. A ENM é um problema médico, merecedor de atenção dos profissionais e familiares.OBJECTIVES: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE plays a very important role in the practice of pediatrics due to its high prevalence, its psychosocial impact, and its controversial etiology and treatment. Our objective was to show that MNE can be a well-defined clinical entity (monosymptomatic, but it can also be a symptom of urinary disorder, thus requiring a completely different therapeutic approach. METHODS: The literature presents numerous publications related to the matter of MNE, thus we tried to select, for this review, the classical and the most recent publications from internationally recognized authors; in addition, we also have a 13-year work experience at the Unit for Urinary Disorders of the Pediatric Nephrology Center of the state of Paraná (Unidade de Distúrbios Miccionais - Centro de Nefrologia Pediatrica do Paraná. RESULTS: The lack of a well-defined, international consensus on the concept, terminology, and classification of MNE is an obstacle for the assessment of the numerous studies found in the literature. The individualization of the MNE clinical entity is the fundamental starting point for providing appropriate guidance for patients. Enuresis can be found in most societies and, thus, it gives way to several interpretations and forms of treatment. There is a consensus, however, on the damage to the self-esteem of enuretic children, and consequently, on the advantage of proper treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, MNE is kept as a family secret while children remain without proper guidance and treatment and suffering with the lack of understanding and damage to their self-esteem. Doctors should survey patients extensively for MNE during pediatric appointments. It is possible to discard other diagnoses with a detailed survey of habits, quality of the urination, and history of urinary infection and a meticulous physical examination. MNE should be faced as a medical problem worthy of the attention of professionals and patients' families.

Rejane de P. Meneses

2001-06-01

347

Efectos de la melatonina sobre la macro-arquitectura del sueño en pacientes con demencia tipo Alzheimer / Melatonin effects on macro arquitecture sleep in Alzheimer's disease patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los efectos de 5 mg. de melatonina de liberación inmediata sobre la macro-arquitectura del sueño en ocho pacientes con diagnóstico de Demencia Tipo Alzheimer (DTA) de media a moderada. Utilizando la técnica polisomnográfica (PSG) se realizó un estudio [...] simple ciego, no aleatorio, controlado con placebo. Los registros PSG se llevaron a cabo de la siguiente manera: Noche 1: administración de placebo; noche 2 y 3: administración continua de melatonina (5 mg). Observamos que el tratamiento con melatonina durante la primera noche de administración disminuyó significativamente la latencia de la fase 2, del sueño de ondas delta y el sueño de MOR al ser comparadas con el placebo (P ?.05). No se observaron diferencias significativas en el tiempo total de cada fase de sueño; tampoco se observaron diferencias en la eficiencia del sueño en presencia de la melatonina. Sin embargo se observó una tendencia a la disminución del tiempo total de vigilia y un aumento del tiempo total de sueño, principalmente durante la segunda noche de tratamiento. Concluimos que la melatonina puede mejorar el sueño en pacientes con DTA de media a moderada. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the 5 mg. melatonin effects on the sleep macro-architecture in eight patients with middle to moderate Alzheimer's disease (DTA). Using the polysomnography technique (PSG), we made a simple-blind, non-randomized, controlled with placebo study. The PS [...] G was carried out according to the following order: night 1: placebo administration; night 2 and 3: continues melatonin administration. In the first night with melatonin treatment, the sleep latency to the first episode of Stage 2, Delta and REM sleep, was significantly diminished as compared with placebo (?.05). No significant difference in total time of each sleep stage and sleep efficiency was observed. Nevertheless, a tendency to diminish the total time of nocturnal wake and increase of the total sleep time in the second night with melatonin treatment was observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in patients with middle to moderate DTA.

Manuel Alejandro, Cruz-Aguilar; Ignacio, Ramírez-Salado; Carlos, Cruz-Ulloa; Gloria, Benítez-King.

2013-08-01

348

Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study  

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Background The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; de Paola, Angelo

2014-01-01

349

Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

2014-11-01

350

Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy  

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Full Text Available Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78% patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22% had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001. Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001. It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation.

Reza Ghaderi

2014-01-01

351

Blood pressure modulation and cardiovascular protection by melatonin: potential mechanisms behind.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of the pineal hormone melatonin is synchronized with day-night cycle via multisynaptic pathway including suprachiasmatic nucleus linking several physiological functions to diurnal cycle. The recent data indicate that impaired melatonin production is involved in several cardiovascular pathologies including hypertension and ischemic heart disease. However, the mechanisms of melatonin effect on cardiovascular system are still not completely understood. The activation of melatonin receptors on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells and antioxidant properties of melatonin could be responsible for the melatonin effects on vascular tone. However, the data from in vitro studies are controversial making the explanation of the melatonin effect on blood pressure in vivo difficult. In vivo, melatonin also attenuates sympathetic tone by direct activation of melatonin receptors, scavenging free radicals or increasing NO availability in the central nervous system. The central and peripheral antiadrenergic action of chronic melatonin treatment might eliminate the mechanisms counter-regulating decreased blood pressure, providing thus additional cardioprotective mechanism. The extraordinary antioxidant activity and antilipidemic effects of melatonin may enhance the modulation of blood pressure by melatonin and probably play the most important role in the amelioration of target organ damage by chronic melatonin treatment. Further investigation of these mechanisms should provide novel knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases, additional explanation for their circadian and seasonal variability and potentially generate new impulses for the development of therapeutic arsenal. PMID:18197748

Paulis, L; Simko, F

2007-01-01

352

New actions of melatonin and their relevance to biometeorology  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is not only produced by the pineal gland, retina and parietal but also by various other tissues and cells from vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, plants, multicellular algae and by unicells. In plants, many invertebrates and unicells, its concentration often exceeds that found in vertebrate blood by several orders of magnitude. The action of melatonin is highly pleiotropic. It involves firstly, direct effects, via specific binding sites in various peripheral tissues and cells of vertebrates, including immunomodulation; secondly, systemic influences on the cytoskeleton and nitric oxide formation, mediated by calmodulin; and thirdly, antioxidative protection, perhaps also in the context of photoprotection in plants and unicells. In some dinoflagellates, melatonin conveys temperature signals. On the basis of these comparisons, melatonin appears to mediate and modulate influences from several major environmental factors, such as the photoperiod, radiation intensity and temperature.

Hardeland, Rüdiger

353

Melatonin: a protective and detoxifying agent in paraquat toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of melatonin as a protective and detoxifying agent against paraquat-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs and liver was examined. Changes in reduced glutathione (OSH) concentration and malonaldehyde (MDA) level were measured. Pathological examination to lungs and liver was done. Paraquat in 2 doses (20,70 mg/kg) was injected I.P. into rats with melatonin (10 mg/kg) I. P. either before and after paraquat intoxication or only after it. Melatonin proved its protective role when given before and after paraquat intoxication more than its detoxifying effect when given only after paraquat. The biochemical improvement following melatonin therapy was more evident than the histopathological one. (author)

354

Melatonin and Testicular Damage in Busulfan Treated Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Advancement in the treatment of various types of cancer has led to greater patient survival. These treatments essentially have toxic effects on different kinds of cells, such as germ cells. Infertility as one of the side effects of cancer treatment has changed the quality of life of young cancer survivors dramatically. Melatonin is an antioxidant with receptors in the reproductive systems. Objectives: We supposed that melatonin, as an antioxidant, may protect testis against the toxic effects of the drugs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three groups with seven mice each, were allocated. The control group received normal saline for two months, and the busulfan group received a single dose of 40 mg/kg busulfan intra-peritoneally, and the melatonin group received 20 mg/kg melatonin daily for two months, 45 days after a single dose of busulfan. Next, after decapitation and removal of the testis, tissues were fixed in Bouin's solution and stained by H&E and TUNEL. The sections were evaluated, assessing morphology and spermatogenesis. Results: In this research, a significant reduction in Johnson’s criteria in the busulfan group (Mean rank = 15.50) was found versus the control group (Mean rank = 45.50), P < 0.001 and in the melatonin group (Mean rank = 45.50) compared to the busulfan group (Mean rank = 15.50), P < 0.001. There was a significant difference between the melatonin and control groups, P < 0.05. In addition, a significant decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter was observed in the busulfan group (763.2 ± 104.41) versus the control group (855.4 ± 52.35), P < 0.01 and melatonin group (834.2 ± 87.26), P < 0.05. Testicular epithelium height was significantly decreased in the busulfan group (Mean rank = 14.60) compared to the control group (Mean rank = 26.40), P < 0.01 and in the busulfan group (Mean rank = 14.95) in comparison with the melatonin group (Mean rank = 26.05), P < 0.01. Also melatonin group (Mean rank = 25.42) showed a significant reduction in epithelium height compared to the control group (Mean rank = 35.58), P < 0.05. Spermatogenesis was impaired in the busulfan group. Although melatonin reduced the rate of apoptosis in the busulfan group, yet it could not remove all apoptotic cells. Conclusions: This study indicated that melatonin ameliorates the cytotoxic effects of busulfan on germ cells. PMID:24719743

Mirhoseini, Mehri; Saki, Ghasem; Hemadi, Masoud; Khodadadi, Ali; Mohammadi Asl, Javad

2014-01-01

355

Radioprotective effects of melatonin on radiation-induced cataract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the mechanisms proposed to explain lens opacification is the oxidation of crystallins, either by radiation or reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been shown that melatonin has both an anti-peroxidative effect on several tissues and a scavenger effect on ROS. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant role of melatonin (5 mg/kg/day) against radiation-induced cataract in the lens after total-cranium irradiation of rats with a single dose of 5 Gy. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Control group received neither melatonin nor irradiation. Irradiated rats (IR) and melatonin+irradiated rats (IR+Mel) groups were exposed to total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose by using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. IR+Mel and melatonin (Mel) groups were administered 5 mg/kg melatonin daily by intraperitoneal injections during ten days. Chylack's cataract classification was used in this study. At the end of the 10th day, the rats were killed and their eyes were enucleated to measure the antioxidant enzymes i.e. the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde (MDA)). Irradiation significantly increased the MDA level, as an end product of lipid peroxidation, and also significantly decreased SOD and GSH-Px activity, emphasizing the generation of increased oxidative stress. Rats injected with melatonin only did not cause cataract formation. Melatonin suppt cause cataract formation. Melatonin supplementation with irradiation significantly increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes and significantly decreased the MDA level. Total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose enhanced cataract formation, and melatonin supplementation protected the lenses from radiation-induced cataract formation. Our results suggest that supplementing cancer patients with adjuvant therapy of melatonin may reduce patients suffering from toxic therapeutic regimens such as chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and may provide an alleviation of the symptoms due to radiation-induced organ injuries. (author)

356

Variations in sea bass melatonin concentration and receptors  

OpenAIRE

The present study reports on the daily and seasonal variations in plasma melatonin concentration, and also in optic tectum and hypothalamus melatonin binding sites, in male European sea bass maintained under natural photoperiod (NP) or continuous light (LL) from early stages of development. Samples were collected on a 24-h cycle, at four physiological phases of their first annual reproductive cycle, i.e., pre-spermatogenesis, spermatogenesis, spermiation and post-spermiation. Under NP, ...

Bayarri, Mari?a J.; Falcon, Jack; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

2010-01-01

357

Melatonin and its use in atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia  

OpenAIRE

Konstantin V Danilenko, Yulia I Ragino Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia Abstract: A review of pineal melatonin synthesis, regulation, and physiological effects indicates that not only does melatonin act as a hormonal signal of darkness, but also that it possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although oxidation and inflammation play a pivotal role in atherogenesis, no studies have investigated admin...

Kv, Danilenko; Yi, Ragino

2013-01-01

358

Effects of melatonin on the thermoregulatory responses to intermittent exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of a single 2.5-mg dose of melatonin on the thermoregulatory and circulatory responses to intermittent exercise at a room temperature of 27.2+/-0.4 degrees C (mean+/-S.D.), a relative humidity of 55+/-3% (mean+/-S.D.), and a light intensity of 200-300 lux. In a double-blind cross-over study, six male participants ingested either melatonin or placebo at 11:45 hr. Participants then rested in a semi-supine position for 75 min and completed an intermittent running protocol for 66 min at alternating intensities of 40, 60 and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake. Rectal and mean skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, skin blood flow, subjective alertness and sleepiness, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal strain were recorded. No effects of melatonin were found on these variables measured during the resting period (P>0.10). During exercise, melatonin was found to moderate the increase in rectal temperature by approximately 0.25 degrees C (P=0.050) and magnify the increase in skin blood flow (P=0.047). Postexercise systolic blood pressure was 7.8+/-2.5 mmHg (mean+/-S.D.) lower than before the exercise in the melatonin trial; a change which differed significantly to that in the placebo trial (P=0.018). Melatonin did not influence subjective alertness and sleepiness before or after exercise and did not change the responses of mean skin temperature, RPE and thermal strain during the exercise (P>0.10). In summary it is apparent that a 2.5-mg dose of melatonin has hypothermic, but not soporific, effects during 66 min of intermittent exercise performed under moderate heat stress. Whether such effects improve endurance athletic performance in hot conditions remains to be confirmed. Our data also suggest that postexercise systolic hypotension is more marked after ingestion of melatonin. PMID:16207290

Atkinson, Greg; Holder, Anna; Robertson, Caroline; Gant, Nicholas; Drust, Barry; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

2005-11-01

359

Melatonin Acts as Antioxidant and Improves Sleep in MS Patients  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and sunlight’s ultraviolet radiation was proved. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenic traits of MS. Melatonin possesses antioxidative properties and regulates circadian rhythms. Sleep disturbances in MS patients are common and contribute to daytime fatigue. The aim of study was to evaluate 5 mg daily melatonin supplementation over 90 days on serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ...

Adamczyk-sowa, Monika; Pierzchala, Krystyna; Sowa, Pawel; Mucha, Sebastian; Sadowska-bartosz, Izabela; Adamczyk, Jowita; Hartel, Marcin

2014-01-01

360

Melatonin, a possible promising panacea for premature ovarian failure  

OpenAIRE

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by impairment of ovarian function unrelated to elevatedfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) before the age of 40. The consequence of POF is severe and distinctive, presentingfrom infertility to symptoms caused by hormone deprivation. The mechanism of POF remains unclearand current treatments are therefore ineffective. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a neuroendocrinalhormone chiefly secreted by the pineal body. Melatonin exerts extensi...

Ting Guo; Chao Gu; Bin Li

2011-01-01

361

Melatonin and Atopy: Role in Atopic Dermatitis and Asthma  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin may have important immunostimulatory actions in allergic diseases, in addition to its well-known antioxidant and cytoprotective effects in several inflammatory conditions. The activation of the immune system leads to free radical production associated with decreased melatonin levels and depressed antioxidant enzyme activities in several inflammatory diseases. Many skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis, are accompanied by infiltration and activation of mast cells, which release...

Lucia Marseglia; Angelo, Gabriella D.; Sara Manti; Carmelo Salpietro; Teresa Arrigo; Ignazio Barberi; Reiter, Russel J.; Eloisa Gitto

2014-01-01

362

Formulation and in vitro evaluation of transdermal patches of melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to prepare and evaluate monolithic drug-inadhesive type transdermal patches of melatonin containing penetration enhancers such as fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and terpenes. The patches were prepared using Eudragit E 100 as the adhesive polymer. The release profile of melatonin from control as well as enhancer-containing patches showed an initial burst of melatonin release for up to 4 hours and then a plateau after 8 hours. The release profiles of melatonin from patches containing various enhancers were similar to the control patch. However, the addition of enhancers in the patch increased the permeation of melatonin through hairless rat skin. The flux values of patches containing octanol, nonanoic acid, and myristic acid were higher than the control patch (no enhancer), but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Decanol, myristyl alcohol, and undecanoic acid at 5% concentrations showed significantly higher flux values through hairless rat skin (enhancement ratios 1.7, 1.5, and 1.6 for decanol, myristyl alcohol, and undecanoic acid, respectively) (P<0.05). Menthol and limonene at 5% w/w showed maximum permeation of melatonin among all enhancers studied (enhancement ratios=2.1 and 2.0 for menthol and limonene, respectively) (P<0.001). In general, there was about 4-6 hours of lag time observed before a steady state flux of melatonin was achieved. Though the flux of melatonin observed in the present study is 5-10 times higher than the required delivery rate in humans, it must be noted that the present study was performed using hairless rat skin, which is generally more permeable compared to human skin. Further studies using human skin would prove the usefulness of these patches. PMID:15089055

Kanikkannan, N; Andega, S; Burton, S; Babu, R J; Singh, Mandip

2004-02-01

363

Effect of melatonin on jet lag after long haul flights.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether doses of the pineal hormone melatonin alleviate jet lag. DESIGN: Double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. SETTING: Long haul return flights from Auckland, New Zealand, to London and back. SUBJECTS: Twenty volunteers with experience of transcontinental flights (eight women and 12 men aged 28 to 68). INTERVENTIONS: Melatonin (or placebo) 5 mg three days before flight, during flight, and once a day for three days after arrival. END POINT: Symptoms of jet ...

Petrie, K.; Conaglen, J. V.; Thompson, L.; Chamberlain, K.

1989-01-01

364

Melatonin pretreatment attenuates diazinon-induced testicular damage in mice  

OpenAIRE

Background: Diazinon is one of widely used organophosphrous pesticides, can affect both animals and man even after a single exposure. It has a dual toxicity due to acetylcholinestrase inhibition and formation of free oxygen radicals .So, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of diazinon on the mice testes and the possible protective effect of melatonin. Material and Methods: Male CD-1 adult mice were divided into 6 groups, (1) control group,(2) melatonin group 10mg/kg,(3) diazinon gr...

El-Mazoudy R. H*. and Abdou H. M

2009-01-01

365

Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammator...

Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

2014-01-01

366

Melatonin in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified as common pathophysiological phenomena associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). As the age-related decline in the production of melatonin may contribute to increased levels of oxidative stress in the elderly, the role of this neuroprotective agent is attracting increasing attention. Melatonin has multiple ...

Poeggeler B; Dp, Cardinali; Sr, Pandi-perumal; Srinivasan V.; Hardeland R

2006-01-01

367

Impact of photoperiod manipulation on day/night changes in melatonin, sex steroids and vitellogenin plasma levels and spawning rhythms in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoperiod and temperature are known as the main synchronizers of seasonal reproduction in fish. This paper studied the role of photoperiod on the synchronization of F1 Senegal sole reproduction rhythms. Fish were maintained under constant short-photoperiod (9L:15D) from the winter solstice onwards (experimental group) or under naturally-changing photoperiod (control group), and water temperature naturally oscillated in both groups. Blood samples were collected during the reproduction season at pre-spawning (March), spawning (April) and post-spawning (May) to determine the endocrine status. Spawning events and egg quality parameters were also monitored. The results revealed a significant increase in nocturnal melatonin concentration from March to May in the control group, while in the experimental group such seasonal change did not occur. As to plasma levels of vitellogenin, testosterone, estradiol and 11keto-testosterone, differences between groups were found mostly in March, while in April and May levels were often similar. Spawning was observed in both groups, although the experimental group started slightly earlier and also finished earlier than the control group, perhaps as a result of the increase in sex steroids and VTG observed at pre-spawning. Briefly, reproduction rhythms persisted in the absence of the natural lengthening of photoperiod, although photoperiod manipulation altered the seasonal modulation of melatonin, increased sex steroids and vitellogenin at pre-spawning, and slightly advanced the timing of spawning. PMID:21466857

Oliveira, Catarina; Mañanós, Evaristo; Ramos, Jesus; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

2011-07-01

368

Melatonin attenuates cognitive dysfunction and reduces neural oxidative stress induced by phosphamidon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin is an important modulator of nervous system functioning and important neural antioxidant. Organophosphate pesticides like phosphamidon (PHOS) have been shown to adversely affect memory and induce oxidative stress on both acute and chronic exposure. This study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of PHOS on cognitive function by melatonin (MEL). Cognitive function was assessed using step-down latency (SDL) on a passive avoidance apparatus and transfer latency (TL) on an elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress was assessed by examining the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein thiols (NP-SH) in isolated homogenized whole brain samples. The results showed a significant reduction in SDL and prolongation of TL in the PHOS (1.74 mg/kg/day; p.o.)-treated group at weeks 6 and 8 as compared to the control group. Two-week treatment with MEL (5 mg/kg/day; i.p.) antagonized the effect of PHOS on SDL as well as TL. PHOS alone produced a significant increase in the brain MDA levels and decrease in the brain NP-SH levels. Treatment with MEL attenuated the effect of PHOS on oxidative stress. Together the results showed that MEL attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and decreased oxidative stress induced by PHOS in the brain. PMID:21790778

Sharma, Amit K; Mehta, Ashish K; Rathor, Naveen; Chalawadi Hanumantappa, Mahendra Kumar; Khanna, Naresh; Bhattacharya, Swapan K

2013-04-01

369

Serum levels of melatonin and cytokines in multiple sclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cytokines are important factors of the immune system in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS in which damage caused by oxidants plays a major role in the pathology. Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland has recently been considered as an antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between melatonin and cytokines in patients with MS. Thirty patients with MS and 30 healthy controls were selected. Serum levels of melatonin and cytokines, including interleukin-4, interferon-?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?, were detected in all participants by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. There was a significant difference between patient and control groups in the levels of melatonin and TNF-?. Also, no significant correlation between the serum levels of melatonin and cytokines in both patient and control groups was seen. We concluded that decrease of melatonin and subsequent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-?, could be a factor in the inflammatory reactions in the pathologic process of MS.

Naser Farhadi

2014-04-01

370

Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or ?-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

Jacek Drobnik

2012-02-01

371

Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS. The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology.

Olga Pechanova

2014-10-01

372

Peripheral and central effects of melatonin on blood pressure regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS). The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25299692

Pechanova, Olga; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

2014-01-01

373

Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant roles of different doses of melatonin (5 and 10 mg kg-1) against ?-irradiation-caused oxidative damage in liver tissue after total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.0 Gy. Fifty adult rats were divided into 5 equal groups, 10 rats each. Groups I and II were injected with 5 and 10 mg kg-1 of melatonin, and group III was injected with an isotonic NaCl solution. Group IV was injected with only 5 mg kg-1 of melatonin. Group V was reserved as a sham control. Following a 30-min-period, 6.0 Gy TBI was given to groups 1, 2 and 3 in a single fraction. The liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in all groups. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the liver tissue MDA levels and a decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities. The results demonstrated that the liver tissue MDA levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with melatonin (5 or 10 mg kg-1) were significantly decreased, while the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased. Decreasing the MDA levels by melatonin was dose dependent, but the liver tissue SOD and GSH activities were not. The data obtained in this study suggest that melatonin administration prior to irradiation may prevent liver damage by irradiation. (author)

374

Melatonin and Female Hormone Secretion in Postmenopausal Overweight Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogen deficiency is considered to be the main cause of increased appetite and increased weight in postmenopausal women. In this period, reduced secretion of melatonin (MEL) was also observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the secretion of melatonin, 17-? estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study included 90 women divided into three equal groups: group I (control)—women without menstrual disorders, group II—postmenopausal women without change in appetite and body weight, group III—postmenopausal women experiencing increased appetite and weight gain. In each patient, serum melatonin, 17-?-estradiol, FSH and urine a 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) were determined. Compared to the control group, the level of melatonin and estradiol was statistically lower. The FSH level was higher than in the groups of postmenopausal women. No significant correlation was found in all groups between the level of melatonin and the levels of estradiol and FSH. A negative correlation was found between aMT6s excretion and BMI, and a positive correlation between the level of FSH and BMI, mainly in overweight women. The obtained results indicate a significant effect of melatonin deficiency on the process of weight gain in postmenopausal women and justify its use in treatment of these disorders. PMID:25569084

Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Chojnacki, Jan; St?pie?, Agnieszka; Wachowska-Kelly, Patrycja; Klupi?ska, Gra?yna; Chojnacki, Cezary

2015-01-01

375

Diurnal Profiles of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles, Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in the Duck Pineal Organ  

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Full Text Available This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime.

Bogdan Lewczuk

2014-07-01

376

Diurnal profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles, catecholamines and their metabolites in the duck pineal organ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime. PMID:25032843

Lewczuk, Bogdan; Zió?kowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

2014-01-01

377

Melatonin suppresses markers of inflammation and oxidative damage in a human daytime endotoxemia model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Melatonin used as an exogenous drug has been documented to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in animal model. We aimed to examine the effect of melatonin in an experimental human sepsis model.

Alamili, Mahdi; Bendtzen, Klaus

2014-01-01

378

Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melatonin, the chief hormone of the pineal gland in vertebrates, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. Among many functions, melatonin synchronizes circadian and circannual rhythms, stimulates immune function, may increase life span, inhibits growth of cancer cells in vitro and cancer progression and promotion in vivo, and was recently shown to be a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger and antioxidant. Hydroxyl radicals are highly toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that damage cellular DNA and other macromolecules. Herein we report that melatonin, in varying concentrations, is also found in a variety of plants. Melatonin concentrations, measured in nine different plants by radioimmunoassay, ranged from 0 to 862 pg melatonin/mg protein. The presence of melatonin was verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that the consumption of plant materials that contain high levels of melatonin could alter blood melatonin levels of the indole as well as provide protection of macromolecules against oxidative damage. (au) 30 refs.

Dubbels, R.; Klenke, E.; Schnakenberg, E.; Ehlers, C.; Schloot, W. [Univ. of Bremen, Center of Human Genetics and Genetic Counselling, Bremen (Germany); Reiter, R.J. [The Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Dept. of Cellular and Structural Biology, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Goebel, A.; Schiware, H.W. [Gemeinschaftslabor Dr. Schiwara et al., Breman (Germany)

1995-01-01

379

Profiling of melatonin in the model tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin exists in a considerable variety of plant species. However, the physiological roles of melatonin in plants are not well understood. In this study, the distribution and accumulation of melatonin during leaf and fruit development were analyzed in Micro-Tom, a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Melatonin was extracted using an acetone-methanol method and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Melatonin was detected in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seedlings and seeds in the range of 1.5-66.6 ng/g fresh weight, with seeds containing the highest concentration of melatonin. In fruits and leaves, melatonin concentrations varied depending on the developmental stage, suggesting that melatonin controls some of the processes involved in plant maturation. PMID:19317796

Okazaki, Masateru; Ezura, Hiroshi

2009-04-01

380

Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melatonin, the chief hormone of the pineal gland in vertebrates, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. Among many functions, melatonin synchronizes circadian and circannual rhythms, stimulates immune function, may increase life span, inhibits growth of cancer cells in vitro and cancer progression and promotion in vivo, and was recently shown to be a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger and antioxidant. Hydroxyl radicals are highly toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that damage cellular DNA and other macromolecules. Herein we report that melatonin, in varying concentrations, is also found in a variety of plants. Melatonin concentrations, measured in nine different plants by radioimmunoassay, ranged from 0 to 862 pg melatonin/mg protein. The presence of melatonin was verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that the consumption of plant materials that contain high levels of melatonin could alter blood melatonin levels of the indole as well as provide protection of macromolecules against oxidative damage. (au) 30 refs

381

Melatonin identified in meats and other food stuffs: potentially nutritional impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin has been identified in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals including humans. Vegetables, fruits, cereals, wine, and beers all contain melatonin. However, the melatonin content in meats has not been reported previously. Here, for the first time, we report melatonin in meats, eggs, colostrum, and in other edible food products. The levels of melatonin measured by HPLC, in lamb, beef, pork, chicken, and fish, are comparable to other food stuffs (in the range of ng/g). These levels are significantly higher than melatonin concentrations in the blood of vertebrates. As melatonin is a potent antioxidant, its presence in the meat could contribute to shelf life duration as well as preserve their quality and taste. In addition, the consumption of these foods by humans or animals could have health benefits considering the important functions of melatonin as a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. PMID:24942090

Tan, Dun-Xian; Zanghi, Brian M; Manchester, Lucien C; Reiter, Russel J

2014-09-01

382

A one step synthesis of ring labelled melatonin-3H with high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mixture of brominated melatonin derivatives has been synthesized for use as starting material for preparation of ring tritium labelled melatonin by catalytic hydrogenolysis. The high specific activity obtained makes this product useful in radioimmunoassay studies. (author)

383

Cloning and retinal expression of melatonin receptors in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin contributes to synchronizing behaviors and physiological functions to daily and seasonal rhythm in fish. However, no coherent vision emerges because the effects vary with the species, sex, moment of the year or sexual cycle. And, scarce information is available concerning the melatonin age, receptors, which is crucial to our understanding of the role melatonin plays. We report here the full length cloning of three different melatonin receptor subtypes in the sea bass Dicentrarchus l...

Sauzet, S.; Besseau, L.; Perez, P.; Coves, Denis; Chatain, Beatrice; Peyric, E.; Boeuf, G.; Munoz Cueto, J.; Falcon, J.

2008-01-01

384

Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American kestrels.  

OpenAIRE

Birds reproduce within electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from transmission lines. Melatonin influences physiologic and behavioral processes that are critical to survival, and melatonin has been equivocally suppressed by EMFs in mammalian species. We examined whether EMFs affect photophasic plasma melatonin in reproducing adult and fledgling American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and whether melatonin was correlated with body mass to explain previously reported results. Captive kestrel pairs were b...

Fernie, K. J.; Bird, D. M.; Petitclerc, D.

1999-01-01

385

Protective Effect of Melatonin Against Mitomycin C-Induced Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Rats  

OpenAIRE

Mitomycin C (MMC) generates free radicals when metabolized. We investigated the effect of melatonin against MMC-induced genotoxicity in polychromatic erythrocytes and MMC-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver homogenates. Rats (N = 36) were classified into 4 groups: control, melatonin, MMC, and MMC + melatonin. Melatonin and MMC doses of 10?mg/kg and 2?mg/kg, respectively, were injected intraperitoneally. Peripheral blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h...

Ortega-guti Amp Rrez, S.; Amp Pez-vicente, M. L.; Lostal Amp, F.; Fuentes-broto, L.; E. Martínez-Ballarín; J. J. García

2009-01-01

386

Distribution, function and physiological role of melatonin in the lower gut  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a hormone with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions. It is involved in the regulation of multiple functions, including the control of the gastrointestinal (GI) system under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Since the gut contains at least 400 times more melatonin than the pineal gland, a review of the functional importance of melatonin in the gut seems useful, especially in the context of recent clinical trials. Melatonin exerts its physiological effects thro...

Chun-Qiu Chen; Jakub Fichna; Mohammad Bashashati; Yong-Yu Li; Martin Storr

2011-01-01

387

The role of mitochondrial complex III in melatonin induced ROS production in cultured mesangial cells  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). At pharmacological concentrations, however, melatonin is documented to cause ROS/RNS production, especially in cultured cancerous cells. Currently, the mechanism responsible for melatonin-induced ROS generation remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidence that melatonin, at micromolar concentrations induced rapid ROS generation by a mitochondrial dependent mechanism in primary human mesangial ...

Zhang, Hong-mei; Zhang, Yi-qiang; Zhang, Bin-xian

2010-01-01

388

Electron Microscopic Study on the Effects of Melatonin on Early Spermatids in the Rat Testis  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted principally at night by pineal gland and regulate