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Assessment of Community Banks in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study on community banks in Nigeria was undertaken in June 2004 by the FAO Investment Centre, with financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Department for International Development (DFID), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Ford Foundation (FF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank (WB), and in collaboration with the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The objective of the study was to assess th...

Marx, Michael T.

2005-01-01

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The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The [...] study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to determine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

Olusegun Ayodele, Akanbi.

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Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2013-September 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria. PMID:25412063

Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-11-21

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Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014. PMID:24336134

2013-12-13

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Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2011-September 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. To date, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases reported worldwide in 2012 are at historically low levels. Nigeria is one of only three countries with uninterrupted WPV transmission (in addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has been the origin of WPV imported into 25 previously polio-free countries since 2003. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2011-September 2012, as of October 30, 2012. The number of reported WPV cases increased from 21 in 2010 to 62 in 2011. During January-September 2012, a total of 99 WPV cases were reported, more than doubling from the 42 cases reported during the same period in 2011. During 2011, a total of 32 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were confirmed; six cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during January-September 2012, compared with 18 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2011. Nigeria's 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Plan includes senior government leadership oversight, new program management and strategic initiatives, an accountability framework, and a surge in human resources to address chronically missed children during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).* In 2012, indicators of immunization campaign quality show modest improvements; available data indicate gaps in surveillance. Continuing WPV transmission in Nigeria poses an ongoing risk for WPV reintroduction and outbreaks in polio-free countries and is a major obstacle to achieving global eradication. PMID:23134973

2012-11-01

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Empirical Assessment of Nigeria’s Agricultural Export and Economic Welfare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assessed empirically Nigeria’s agricultural export and economic welfare. Data used for the study were obtained from secondary sources, bulk of which was collected from institutional and national databases over 1990-2005 and were analyzed using multiple regression and growth rate analysis. The results showed that agricultural output, inflation, subsidy, exchange rate, food import and export were statistically significant at various risk levels and have major implications on the ec...

Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi; Ehumadu, Felix; Mejeha, Remy; Nwaru, Jude; Agwu, Nnanna; Onwumere, Joe

2008-01-01

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An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

Nkechi M. Christopher

2012-05-01

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Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching...

Falase Bode; Sanusi Michael; Majekodunmi Adetinuwe; Animasahun Barakat; Ajose Ifeoluwa; Idowu Ariyo; Oke Adewale

2013-01-01

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Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 ...

Parvaz Madadi; Sounyo, Adebukola A.; Enato, Ehijie F. O.

2012-01-01

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Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd) in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Or...

Uzairu, A.; Harrison, G. F. S.; Balarabe, M. L.; Nnaji, J. C.

2008-01-01

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Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%, Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%, Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%, Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%, excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%, Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%, Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9% and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%. There were 9 mortalities (17.6% in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria.

Falase Bode

2013-01-01

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Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

Obe Bernardine Wuraola

2011-09-01

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Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations. The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations.

A. Uzairu

2008-04-01

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Assessing Pupils' Progress in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Good assessment practice is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It puts learners at the heart of the process, helping them to recognise achievement and make progress, and enables teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations. Over the past year, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) has…

Slade, Peter

2009-01-01

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ASSESSMENT OF SANITATION FACILITIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS WITHIN ILORIN, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Appropriate sanitation in primary schools is fundamental for effective learning and prevention of diseases prone to children. This study was undertaken to assess the state of sanitation facilities in primary schools within Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select primary schools for the survey and 200 schools eventually participated. Data for the study was obtained from physical inspection of sanitation facilities and semi structured questionnaire. The result of the study reveals that 5.5% - 26.5% of the assessed schools have sanitation facilities in adequate quantity, quality or usage; 23% have less number of facilities compared to pupil population, 42% have grossly inadequate facilities, and 12.5% have no sanitation facility. The quality of facilities in 24.5% of the schools is tolerable while the facilities in 57.5 % of the schools are in deplorable condition. Also 26.5% of the schools effectively use the toilets and urinals, 22.5% seldom use them while 38.5% do not use them at all because they are objectionable or risky. Therefore, raising the status of schools lacking behind in quantity, quality or usage of sanitation facilities should be a top priority in order to achieve developmental goals.

AREMU, A.S.

2012-03-01

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Environmental Impact Assessment for a Pilot Project for Integrated Solid Waste Management in Makurdi, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the Integrated Waste Treatment Facility (IWTF)was conducted through multidisciplinary assessment of the baseline status of the site specific environment usingstandard methods for EIA in Nigeria. The impact assessment took into consideration the project activities andtheir interactions with environmental components. In order to influence the layout of facilities and infrastructureand maintain environmental sustainability throughout the project cycle...

Irtwange, S. V.

2009-01-01

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Using UNAIDS’s organizing framework to assess Nigeria’s national HIV monitoring and evaluation system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Nigeria National Response Management Information System (NNRIMS, developed in 2004 as a framework for monitoring and evaluating the country’s response to HIV, does not function at an optimum level due to several challenges, including a confusing proliferation of vertical reporting systems, competition among sectors, and the nascent nature of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E sub-systems within many institutions. An assessment of the existing M&E system was conducted to verify whether the system has the capacities to provide essential data for monitoring the epidemic and identifying critical programming gaps. Nigeria’s National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA used an organizing framework for a national HIV M&E system developed by UNAIDS, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the NNRIMS to generate data for evidence-based decisionmaking. The participatory approach used during an assessment workshop ensured that the process was country-led and -owned to build consensus and local capacity, and that it encouraged adoption of a single national-level multisectoral HIV M&E system. The assessment found an operable M&E system at the national level but a much weaker system at the state and local levels and across seven other sectors. There are multiple data collection and reporting tools at the facility level that lead to vertical reporting systems, which increases the burden of reporting at lower levels, especially by service providers. Human resources are being developed, but problems remain with the quantity and quality of staff. Data use, though evident at the national level, is still very weak among five of the seven sectors assessed. The assessment results have been used to develop a national costed M&E workplan to which all stakeholders contributed in a coordinated response to strengthen the system.

Kayode Ogungbemi

2012-08-01

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Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals) of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration valu...

Longe, E. O.

2010-01-01

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COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric ...

Umoh Ekaete Dennis; Chidinnma, Olikaeze C.; Awofisayo Sunday Olajide

2010-01-01

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An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria  

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Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken...

Oteku, I. T.; Igene, J. O.; Yessuf, I. M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

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Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, i...

Ugumanim Bassey Obo; Felix Onen Eteng; Maurice Ayodele Coker

2014-01-01

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Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished...

Enwereji, Ee

2009-01-01

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Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis sympt...

Je, Eyo; Gc, Onyishi; Cu, Ugokwe

2013-01-01

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Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria  

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In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters we...

Banjoko, O. B.; Gbadebo, A. M.; Adetunji, M. T.; Adekunle, I. M.

2007-01-01

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An Assessment of the Impact of Abattoir Effluents on River Illo, Ota, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective seven sampling locations were chosen along the river course. The choice of locations was to reflect the variations in concentrations of the following important parameters of water quality issue: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrate...

Omole, D. O.; Longe, E. O.

2008-01-01

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ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA  

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This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl) inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3)industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM), Furniture (F)and Wood Carving (WC), including a Control (C) wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV) andInternational (WHO) regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA) statistics was us...

Akpan, Michael; Okwara, Obasi Udo

2012-01-01

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Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria  

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The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the...

Nwachokor, M. A.; Oviasogie, P. O.

2013-01-01

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Assessment of Loiasis and Outcomes of Ivermectin Masstreatment in Ijebu-North, Nigeria  

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A total of 286 individuals from 3 selected communities (Areedi-Aje, Ipakodo/Ojokodo, and Ijebu-Igbo) of Ijebu-North, southwestern Nigeria were examined for Loa loa microfilaremia using finger prick blood smear, between December 2008 and March 2009. Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to obtain information, from 187 Ijebu-Igbo residents, on adverse reactions experienced from retrospective treatments with ivermectin and history of eye worm. Only 33.9% of the respondents rep...

Hassan, A. A.; Akinsanya, B.; Iyase, N.; Owagboriaye, F. O.

2011-01-01

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Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

L. O. Ogunsumi

2007-04-01

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An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples’ Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.

Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political development

Résumé Cet article a évalué la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitulé “Le militaire à la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance émergente au Nigeria” pour le Nigéria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examiné le pouvoir et l’influence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers à la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de l’économie en raison de leur richesse,l’ex-militaire de connexion, la compétence, le prestige et l’expérience. Il pose en principe que les retraités militaires sont regroupés en deux catégories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retraité militaire a été en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraités se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de l’activité humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scène politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle élite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considérable dans la prise de décision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothèses étaient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraités militaires ont émergé depuis 1999 que l’élite dirigeante et même si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure déterminée qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples «Parti démocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont été fortement influencés par ces riches et influents officiers à la retraite qui, à tout prix veiller à ce que leurs candidats à remporter les élections. Avec la nomination d’un nouveau président CENI, la révision de la loi électorale, et la campagne pour l’élection libre et équitable, il est estimé que d’un nouvel ensemble de l’élite émergera qui va réveiller le développement politique au Nigeria.

Mots clés: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire à la retraire comme puissance émergente au Nigeria; développement politique

Gift Ntiwunka

2012-04-01

32

Assessment of natural radionuclide content of cements used in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in seven brands of Portland cement used in Nigeria have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a hyperpure germanium detector. A total of 22 samples were collected from suppliers. The mean activity concentrations varied between 19.2 and 85.1 Bq kg-1, 12.9 and 31.7 Bq kg-1, and 31.5 and 116 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, which are lower than the world averages for building materials. The average values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K content of all the cement samples are 43.8, 21.5 and 71.7 Bq kg-1, respectively. The results of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index calculated were all within the recommended limits for safety, and compare well with results obtained in some other countries of the world.

33

Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis. (author)

Ajayi, Oluseyi O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria)

2009-02-15

34

Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis

35

Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3-84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

36

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (PV can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these systems have been jeopardized. The objective of this work is to embark on performance assessments of in- stalled Solar PV system in Oke-Agunla, Akure local government of Ondo State in Nigeria. Visits were conducted to the village; equipments on ground were examined while the people were interviewed. Both functional and non-functional facilities were traced to their manufacturers using the identification data on them and rated to ensure their efficiencies. Energy demands were also prorated, and observed the need to improve on the present energy supplied. Results of the assessments shows that PV facilities used were inadequate, trained technicians were not available giving room for quacks working on the facilities occasionally resulted in further complications and poor facilities maintenance. The assessment result shows that just 14.52% of the 4.5 kW installed solar PV was utilized due to significant malfunctioning and deterioration in performance. It can be concluded from this study that the installed solar PV systems was inefficient as a result of poor maintenance, lack of technical know-how and inability of the project contractors or managers to take these factors into consideration while embarking on the solar PV installations.

Olawale Saheed Ismail

2012-08-01

37

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

38

Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended

39

Progress in MELCOR development and assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned

40

Habitat assessment for seasonal variation of river pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria, in a geographic information systems interface  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposure in environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management authorities. Using habitat assessment protocol, the author assesses the pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data used include hydrographic feature data and habitat assessment data. These basic environmental components are the result of the integration of a wide range of relatively independent factor...

Adeyemo, Olanike K.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

Parvaz Madadi

2012-10-01

42

Assessment of wind energy potential of two sites in North-East, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study is used to assess the wind energy potential of Maiduguri and Potiskum, two sites in North-East, Nigeria. 21 years (1987-2007) monthly mean wind data at 10 m height were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological department and subjected to 2-parameter Weibull and other statistical analyzes. The result showed that average monthly mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 3.90 to 5.85 m/s, while for Maiduguri, it ranged from 4.35 to 6.33 m/s. Seasonally, data variation between the dry and wet seasons revealed that, the mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 4.46 (for dry) to 5.16 m/s (for wet), while for Maiduguri it ranged from 5.10 (dry) to 5.59 m/s (wet). The wind power density variation based on the Weibull analysis ranged from 102.54 to 300.15 W/m{sup 2} for Potiskum and it ranged from 114.77 to 360.04 W/m{sup 2} for Maiduguri respectively. Moreover, Maiduguri was found to be the better of the sites in terms of monthly and seasonal variation of mean wind speed, but they both can be suitable for stand alone and medium scale wind power generation. (author)

Fagbenle, R.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Katende, J. [Electrical and Information Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Ajayi, O.O.; Okeniyi, J.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

2011-04-15

43

An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme (TTTP in Katsina State, Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available TVET is key solution to poverty eradication, job creation, reducing unemployment, economic expansion, and improve social and economic well-being of a nation. For years TVET programme in Nigeria has been confronting with unresolved problems such as, misconception of the TVET by the public, low status of TVET teachers, less concern by the government. Thus, this study present “An Assessment of The Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme in Katsina State, Nigeria” the specific objectives were to find out the problems confronting TTTP and to suggest necessary measures for improvement on the basis of the assessment. The population of the study comprised of a total number of 57 instructional staff used for the study. 38 samples were chosen from this population using stratified random sampling techniques. The findings of this study revealed that, there have no enough instructional/workshop attendants, women have underrepresented in instructional staff, no constant supply of electricity to the instructional spaces, lack of awareness for youth about the TVET programme etc. Base on the findings the study recommends to create the provision of in-service training, and to construction of alternative source of electricity establishing educational guidance offices in secondary schools among other.

SagirIlliyasuRafukka

2013-10-01

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ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SPRING WATER IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development of natural spring is one of the mini water schemes which were harnessed to improved access to water in Ibadan city. This study assesses the quality of the water supply from the natural spring with the aim of justifying weather the sources are potable as means for improved access to water. Samples of water from four natural spring sources were collected for qualitative tests: physical (colour, odour and taste), turbidity, Ph, nitrate, bacterial and total coliform test which were do...

Adeniji-oloukoi, Grace

2012-01-01

45

An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken meats as well as motivational and preferred methods of preparation of the meat. Duck meat was nevertheless acceptable and rated fairly by most of the respondents. Consumption of duck meat was however constrained by non-availability, non-familiarity, inability to slaughter the live duck and some traditional and religious taboos associated with the meat. There was a significant indication that consumption level of the meat will improve considerably when established duck meat shop and processed meat products are available.

I.T. Oteku

2006-01-01

46

Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment  

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Full Text Available The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, it is argued that this is not the case in Nigeria. With the aid of the elite and class analytical models, it is contended that the opinions of the Nigerian masses hardly impinge on the policy-making process, and the “public” policies churned out of this process are often designed to promote and protect the class interests of those who control the Nigerian State. It is concluded that the extreme poverty and illiteracy which pervade the Nigerian society have emasculated and disempowered the majority of the people and made them inconsequential observers in the policy-making process in the country.

Ugumanim Bassey Obo

2014-06-01

47

An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effects of SAP on poultry production in Nigeria between 1985 - 1990. It was observed that the Structural Adjustment Programme has had tremendous effects on poultry industry in Nigeria. The farmers have not adjusted favourably to the effect of SAP with 75 % of them operating between 20 - 50 % and 19 % below 20 % of production capacity. Currently the industry is being operated below 30 % mainly due to the high cost of chicks and inputs some of which have risen to over 1000 %. Productivity of the birds has also been affected with about 30 % reduction in the number of eggs laid per bird per year. Age at maturity has also increased to about 30 % among broilers. Farmers found it difficult to buy feed and drug resulting in increased mortality of about 80 % among broilers. The rise in the prices of product of about 500 % does not match the increase cost of production. Recommendations are therefore made to help stabilise the poultry industry.

Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

1996-01-01

48

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SPRING WATER IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of natural spring is one of the mini water schemes which were harnessed to improved access to water in Ibadan city. This study assesses the quality of the water supply from the natural spring with the aim of justifying weather the sources are potable as means for improved access to water. Samples of water from four natural spring sources were collected for qualitative tests: physical (colour, odour and taste, turbidity, Ph, nitrate, bacterial and total coliform test which were done using Most Probable Number (MPN. The results of the spring water quality test were compared with samples from public water taps and the World Health Organization (WHO water quality standards using analysis of variance (Bonferroni method of ANOVA to determine the significance of differences. Result of the comparison of natural spring sources with the WHO standards for drinking water, indicates that only one out of the for sampled spring waters shows a significance difference at 0.05 alpha level (T > t, and are within the acceptable WHO benchmark for drinking water for public health concerns. In order to sustain natural spring’s water, the supply sources should be protected from all forms of contamination.

ADENIJI-OLOUKOI, GRACE

2012-12-01

49

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP  

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Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-12-01

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Natural Radionuclide Concentrations and Radiological Impact Assessment of River Sediments of the Coastal Areas of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out to measure the radioactivity level in the coastal areas of Nigeria by gamma counting of river sediment samples and assess the radiological impact associated with the use of the river sediments as building material. The method of gamma spectrometry with a 7.6 cm by 7.6 cm NaI(Tl detector was employed in determining 40K, 238U and 232Th levels in 95 and 38 sediment samples respectively collected from representative sites in the oil producing and non oil producing coastal areas of Nigeria. Results of the samples assayed showed that the radioactivity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the sediment samples of oil producing areas range from 95.4 to 160.0; 7.6 to 31.0 and 9.5 to 41.6 Bq kg–1, respectively. The respective means were calculated as 122.39 ± 47.49; 18.93 ± 12.53 and 29.31 ± 18.67 Bq kg–1. In the sediment samples from the non oil producing areas, the respective mean values are 88.48 ± 8.22, 14.87 ± 3.51 and 16.37 ± 3.87 Bq kg–1. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there is no significant difference between the radionuclide concentration of the sediment samples from different rivers in the oil producing and non oil producing coastal areas, except for 40K. The values of the natural radionuclide concentrations however translate to the determina-tion of the radiological impact assessment values. The values of the radiological assessment indices obtained were ob-served to be lower than limits internationally reported and recommended for building materials. It could therefore be reported that the operations of the oil companies in the coastline, involving use of radioactive materials have not contributed adversely to the radioactivity level of the river sediments and that the use of river sediments as building mate-rial in the coastal areas of Nigeria poses no radiological risk.

Ayodeji Oladiran Awodugba

2011-06-01

51

Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

Ezeigbo, Obiageli R.; Ike-amadi, C. A.; Ibebuike, C.; Okike-osissiogu, F. U.; Agomoh, N. G.

2013-01-01

52

Multi-Scale, Multi-Temporal Vegetation Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystem Degradation at Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aimed at assessing vegetation cover and status of Gashaka Gumti, Nigeria's largest national park. For this, a traditional pixel-based maximum likelihood classification of a Landsat-7 scene, recorded in December 2000, was carried out. Because simultaneous ground truthing had not been possible, and because of the dynamic nature of the given habitats, different reference data were used to allocate training areas, specify ecological conditions and assess classification accuracy. These i...

Gumnior, M.; Sommer, V.

2012-01-01

53

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought inf...

Ameh, Veronica O.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Umoh, Jarlath U.

2014-01-01

54

Assessment of Electric Load Demand and Prediction of Future Load Demand: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The assessment of electricity load consumption in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria and the prediction of future electricity requirement in the state cannot be over emphasised. The data of monthly load allocation and utilization of electricity of the state in the five previous years (2006-2010) were assessed. Various engineering analysis and applications including calculations, sketches, curves and graphs were applied to justify the study. According to the annual report...

Idoniboyeobu, D. C.; Ekanem, M. B.

2014-01-01

55

Anthropometric and other assessment indices of the newborn in Jos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : Certain neonatal measurements are potential tools for evaluating the status of the newborn. The neonatal anthropometrics measurements and other assessment indices are therefore religiously performedby the attending midwife and entered into the labour room register. Method :This was a retrospective analysis of the infants delivered between January 2004 and December 2005 in the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Results :There were 4,266 deliveries during the study period. The mean age and parity of the mothers were 28.7 ± 5.8 and 3.0 ± 1.9 respectively.The mean gestational age of the infants at birth was 38.3 ± 2.8 weeks and the mean Apgar scores for the first and fifth minutes were 7.4 ± 1.7 and 8.5 ± 1.5 respectively. The mean birth weight of the babies was 3.1 ± 0.8 kg. The mean birth length and head circumference of the newborns were 47.2 ± 5.0 cm and 33.8 ± 2.9 cm respectively. The mean umbilical cord length was 52.9 ± 7.3 cm and the mean placental weight was 560 ± 118 grams. There were more male infants (53.1% compared with female infants (46.9% during the period of study. Twin infants contributed 3.8% of the deliveries in the study. Conclusion :Anthropometric and other assessments indices of the newborn infants at birth in Jos, Nigeria are similar to those in other parts of the country and the world.

Mutihir J

2006-12-01

56

An Assessment of the Impact of Abattoir Effluents on River Illo, Ota, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective seven sampling locations were chosen along the river course. The choice of locations was to reflect the variations in concentrations of the following important parameters of water quality issue: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrate among others. The choice of these parameters was based on their relative importance in abattoir effluents composition. Results of analyses revealed impairment in the quality of River Illo by the wash down from the abattoir activities. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 4.6 mg L-1 while the highest concentrations of TSS and TS of 1026 and 1071.5 mg L-1, respectively were obtained at the point of abattoir effluents discharge. The BOD mean value of 312.9 mg L-1 obtained for the river water is far above the highest permissible value of 30 mg L-1 allowed by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for discharge into receiving water bodies in Nigeria. The mean value of 783 mg L-1 obtained for the COD of the river body corroborates the pollution of the water body. The current water quality status of River Illo from the discharge of abattoir effluents therefore poses both environmental and health hazards to users. In order to redress this and ensure public health safety, River Illo needs adequate treatment before use.

D.O. Omole

2008-01-01

57

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

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This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41%) which...

Stanley A.M.; Joshua I.A.

2012-01-01

58

Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) providing information about primary and secondary schools, ...

Youngu, T. T.; Aliyu, Y. A.; Sule, J. O.

2012-01-01

59

Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria  

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University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the st...

James Okoro

2013-01-01

60

Assessment of Soybean Processing Technologies in Ilorin East and West Local Government Area of Kwara State of Nigeria  

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A survey was conducted in the year to assess soybean processing technologies in Ilorin east and West local government area of Kwara State in Nigeria. Highest percentages of processors (45%) procure their raw materials from farmers and market places while (45%) of fabricators obtain theirs from Owode Onirin in Ilorin. Both processors (40%) and Fabricators (40%) greatly patronize cooperative societies for their loans. Soycheese (42.5%) was the most popular soybean based food. Traditional method...

Ashaye, O. A.; Adegbulugbe, T. A.; Sanni, S.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria  

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Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in...

Orisakwe Orish; Nduka John; Amadi Cecilia; Dike Daniel; Bede Onyinyechi

2012-01-01

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ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL SAFETY OF FRESH SHRIMPS OFFERED FOR SALES AT ALESINLOYE AND ELEYELE MARKETS IN IBADAN, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA  

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Microbial assessment of different fresh shrimp sold at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria was carried out. Ten fresh shrimp samples bought at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan Oyo state were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of micro-organisms. Total plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were enumerated using Nutrient Agar (NA), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar and Salmonella-shigella Agar (SSA) respectively. The total...

Adedeji, O. B.; Ibrahim, S. O.

2011-01-01

63

Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.

2012-01-01

64

Assessing the relevance, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV/AIDS in-service training in Nigeria  

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More than three million people in Nigeria are living with HIV/AIDS. In order to reduce the HIV/AIDS burden in Nigeria, the US Government (USG) has dedicated significant resources to combating the epidemic through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In-service training (IST) of health workers is one of the most commonly used strategies to improve the quality and coverage of HIV/AIDS services. At USAID/Nigeria’s request, the USAID-funded CapacityPlus project conducted a...

Burlew, Randi; Puckett, Amanda; Bailey, Rebecca; Caffrey, Margaret; Brantley, Stephanie

2014-01-01

65

Performance Assessment of Motorcycle Operation, as a Means of Urban Mobility in Lokoja, Nigeria  

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Motorcycles contribute significantly to the number of automobiles on the roads in Lokoja, Nigeria. This scenario is attributable to pitiable public transport supply and bad roads that are synonymous to the country Nigeria. Motorcycles are the major means of urban mobility in Lokoja due to the fact that the available taxies within the town operate within a designed route only (Felele-Army Barrack and Ganaja-Felele, vice-versa). The situations have led to high increases in the...

Olorunfemi Samuel Oluwaseyi; Eke Edward; Chukwuemeka Albert Eyinda; Okoko, Eno E.

2014-01-01

66

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

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Solar Photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these syste...

Olawale Saheed Ismail; Olusegun Olufemi Ajide; Fredrick Akingbesote

2012-01-01

67

Basil (Ocimum basilicum Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT seed collection survey to expand NIHORT basil genetic base. The field layout was completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were: O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and the local basil. Treatments were randomly allocated per replication. There were significant phenotypic differences in the O. basilicum variety. These differences were observed in the plant coloration ranging from deep to light purple coloration of stem, leaf, leaf vein and petiole. Our observations also revealed for the first time significant tolerance to Venial Mottle Mosaic Virus (VMMV in the purple colored compared to the green O. basilicum in the early stages of growth till 50% anthesis. This is the first report of this observation in the African continent. Tolerance to VMMV symptoms increased significantly (LSD 5% with purplish coloration. We concluded that inducement of purplish coloration in Basil through breeding might improve tolerance to VMMV and thereby increase market value of Basil with sustainable pathological interventions.

O.D. Ojo

2012-01-01

68

Radiological assessment of sediment samples from Oporoma oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out on sediment samples collected from an oil producing field in Oporoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, using HPGe detector with the aim of assessing radiological exposure and doses to workers and general public. The activity concentration of 40K varied from (58.21±4.95 - 127.07±10.90) Bq/kg whereas that of 238U varied from (5.67±0.72 - 26.46±2.21) Bq/kg and that of 232Th varied from (5.88±0.61 - 68.51±5.10) Bq/kg. The radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from radium equivalent activities which ranges between (22.68 - 133.64) Bq/kg, internal and external indices ranges from (0.08 - 0.43) Bq/kg and (0.06 - 0.36) Bq/kg respectively, and effective dose rate from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides (40K, 238Uand 232Th ) ranges from (0.01 - 0.38) mSv/y. The values obtained are lower than the internationally recommended limits. The values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the communities within this environment.

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Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals among other things that the increase in the tax rate affected the tax payers revenue generation, and the retroactive nature of our tax laws constitutes a major problem thus: resulting in double taxation during the assessment and collection of taxes. following the findings, the researchers recommends that competent laws should be passed by the government on personal Income tax collection and generation, stiff penalties should be imposed on the tax defaulters and evaders, tax laws should be made less complex, recruitment of qualified personnel to enable them cover fully the scope of work and finally the tax payers should be educated sufficiently on the importance of tax.

Uche Lucy Onyekwelu

2014-08-01

70

Assessment of Adoption Status of Management Practices for West African Dwarf Goat Production in Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Obafemi Awolowo University Rural Development Project communities in Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the adoption status of West African Dwarf Goat (WADG management practices among the seventy (70 project participants purposively considered for the study. A structured interview was used to elicit quantitative data which was subjected to descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were also collected using focus group discussion (FGD, key informants interviews and onthe- spot assessment, which were conducted in seven rural communities. The study revealed, among others, that the farmers adopted the WADG management practices introduced to them at one point in time or the other during the project implementation, from which they derived a lot of socio-economic benefits. However, over 50 percent of the participants were no more involved in goat rearing since the project has stopped. Reasons attributed to this vary from community to community. Management practices like regular feeding (cut and carry system and washing were claimed to be labour intensive and a little bit difficult. All (100% respondents overwhelmingly expressed their desire for continuation and sustainability of the services provided by the project.

Odeyinka, SM.

2006-01-01

71

Assessment of Farm Household Food Security and Consumption Indices in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess farm households’ food security and consumption indices. The study was conducted in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Data used for this study was collected from a total of 244 farm households with the use of structured questionnaire using a multistage random and purposive sampling technique. The main tools of analysis for this study include descriptive statistics and food security index. The study shows that about one third of the rural farm households sampled was food insecure and that the average farm size of the farm households was 2.05ha as food secure and insecure households cultivate 2.09ha and 1.96ha respectively. Average farm and non-farm income were $1,130.7 and $810.3 per annum respectively as household daily calorie consumed was found to exceed household daily calorie requirement. The food security indices for the food secure and insecure households were found to be 1.462 and 0.852 respectively. Large family size was found to lower available calorie intake of households. The study recommends the need for family planning education and policy frames to increase household farm size.

Ojeleye, O. A.

2014-09-01

72

Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the fertility constraints identified were low effective cation exchange capacity and soil acidification. In addition, the clayey texture of the subsoil made these soils susceptible to erosion as well as caused harvesting difficulties. Liming was recommended to ameliorate the acidity constraints. Liming together with incorporation of organic materials into the soils were the measures needed to enhance their effective cation exchange capacity. Soil erosion control was to be given high priority especially by maintaining adequate surface cover and ensuring that tillage was limited to only when soil was drier than the plastic limit.

M. A. Nwachokor

2013-09-01

73

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo

2013-03-01

74

 Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment  

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Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4?0were females; while of the 20 controls,50?0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4?20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05?20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31?20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

Mohammed Sirajo Aminu

2012-03-01

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Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. Methods A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. Results Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. Conclusion Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy. PMID:23682272

Eyo, JE; Onyishi, GC; Ugokwe, CU

2013-01-01

76

Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants  

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Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

Chukwuma Dim

2014-01-01

77

GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria  

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The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles) in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary...

Eludoyin, O. S.; Wokocha, C. C.; Ayolagha, G.

2011-01-01

78

Assessment of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis  

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In a 5-year prospective study on idiopathic scoliosis, an attempt was made to elucidate the natural history of the disease and to determine which factors contribute to curve progression. A total of 85,622 children were examined for scoliosis in a prospective school screening study carried out in northwestern and central Greece. Curve progression was studied in 839 of the 1,436 children with idiopathic scoliosis of at least 10° detected from the school screening program. Each child was follow...

Soucacos, P. N.; Zacharis, K.; Gelalis, J.; Soultanis, K.; Kalos, N.; Beris, A.; Xenakis, T.; Johnson, E. O.

1998-01-01

79

Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

Umar, AdamuMadu

2013-09-01

80

Assessment of Management and Health Practices in Some Selected Poultry Establishments in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to assess certain management and health practices in some selected poultry establishments in Ilorin, Kwara state with the view to improving poultry production. Structured questionnaires were distributed via the Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN, Kwara state chapter. The mean age of respondents was 47.93(±12.397 years. Majority (60.5% of the respondents were large holder farmers with greater than 200 birds; Deep litter (48.7% was the most practiced management system. Almost half 48.5% of the respondents administered all the recommended vaccines. Commercial feed was the most widely used (68.4%. Veterinarian (39.5% and Retail Vendors (39.5% were the source of poultry stock. About 35.1% did not use any form of protective clothing on farms. About 36.8% of respondents disposed waste by use as manure. 42.1% of respondents routinely consulted Veterinarian. Coccidiosis reported by about one third (33.3% of respondent was identified as the most common disease outbreak followed by IBD (24.2% and NCD (21.2%. Veterinary clinic (35.1% and fellow farmer (32% were the most important source of information on poultry. The Chi-square analysis revealed management system (p<0.0001 and number of birds kept (p<0.006 significantly determined the method of waste disposal while age (p<0.0001, Length of being in profession (p<0.03 and Number of birds kept (p<0.0001 determined the reasons for Veterinary consultation. The study gave an overview of the type of management system in Ilorin. Recommendations are therefore made for strengthening of PAN as well as improve biosecurity as a means of disease prevention.

A. Badiru

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Modeling Disease Progression in Acute Stroke Using Clinical Assessment Scales  

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This article demonstrates techniques for describing and predicting disease progression in acute stroke by modeling scores measured using clinical assessment scales, accommodating dropout as an additional source of information. Scores assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the Barthel Index in acute stroke patients were used to model the time course of disease progression. Simultaneous continuous and probabilistic models for describing the nature and magnitude of sco...

Karlsson, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Justin J.; Jonsson, Fredrik; Zingmark, Per-henrik; Karlsson, Mats O.; Jonsson, E. Niclas

2010-01-01

82

Assessment of Teachers' Perception of Instructional Media Use in Colleges of Education in Southern Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The blueprint which the Federal Government rolled out for guiding educational technology practice which was based on the report of the Joint Consultative Committee on Educational Technology in 1991 is a relatively new innovation in educational institutions in Nigeria. However, the adoption of new innovation depends on the perception of teachers…

Ogiegbaen, S. E. Aduwa

2006-01-01

83

A Study of E-Readiness Assessment: The Case of Three Universities in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the readiness of three higher educational institutions in Nigeria in their attempt to introduce and maintain technology-driven services to students, faculty, and support staff. The prerequisites for participation in the digital, networked economy include the affordable ICT, reliable electric supply, reliable and up-to-date…

Eweni, Samuel O.

2012-01-01

84

A Hospital-Based Assessment of Breast-Feeding Behaviour and Practices among Nursing Mothers in Nigeria and Ghana  

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Full Text Available Exclusive breast-feeding is recommended for infant nutrition during the first 6 months after birth. Worst still, this behaviour practices have not yet improved in Africa despite this recommendation. This study therefore, examines breast-feeding behaviour and practices among nursing mothers in two African countries: Nigeria and Ghana. A sample of 300 nursing mothers attending ante-natal clinic was randomly drawn from 4 hospitals, two in Nigeria and two in Ghana. The demographic characteristics of the respondents show that their age range between 19 - 51 years with a mean of 35 years and standard deviation of 22.6 years. A modified self-report questionnaire assessing breast-feeding attitudes, intentions and support was used for the collection of data. The reliability co-efficient yielded r = 0.82 after modification. Four research questions were raised to guide the study. The results indicate that nursing mothers do not breast-feed based on personal frustration and painful experience, fear of loosing weight, nature of job, lack of confidence in breast-feeding, long period of recommended exclusive breast-feeding and the fact that infant may become addicted to the behaviour. The result also reveal that nursing mothers may continue exclusive breast-feeding when decided to do so through the provision of social support, modeling, public enlightenment and appointment of care nursing mother. While at the same time, it was shown that there is significant difference in breast-feeding behaviour of mothers based on their occupations and of course no difference exists in the breast-feeding behaviour of Nigeria and Ghana nursing mothers. Recommendations based on the findings of the study were highlighted.

Tella Adeyinka

2008-01-01

85

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

86

Assessing health workers’ revenues and coping strategies in Nigeria — a mixed-methods study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The setting of realistic performance-based financing rewards necessitates not just knowledge of health workers’ salaries, but of the revenue that accrues from their additional income-generating activities. This study examined the coping mechanisms of health workers in the public health sector of Nasarawa and Ondo states in Nigeria to supplement their salaries and benefits; it also estimated the proportionate value of the revenues from those coping mechanisms in relation to the health workers’ official incomes. Methods This study adopted a mixed-methods approach, consisting of semi-structured interviews, a review of policy documents, a survey using self-administered questionnaires, and the randomized response technique (RRT). In all, 170 health workers (86 in Ondo, 84 in Nasarawa) participated in the survey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 health workers (12 per state) and nine policy makers from both states. Results The health workers perceived their salaries as inadequate, though most policy makers differed in this assessment. There appeared to be a considerable expenditure–income disparity among the respondents. Approximately 56% (n?=?93) of the study population reported having additional earning arrangements: most reported non-medical activities such as farming and trading, but private practice was also frequently reported. Half of the respondents with additional earning arrangements stated that their income from those activities was the equivalent of half or more of their monthly salaries. Specifically, 35% (n?=?32) said that they earned about half of their official monthly salaries and 15% (n?=?14) reported earning the same or more than their monthly salaries from these activities. Other coping mechanisms used by the health workers included prioritizing activities that enabled the earning of per diems, collecting informal payments and gifts from patients, and pilfering drugs from facilities. Conclusions Predatory and non-predatory mechanisms accounted for the health workers’ additional income. It may be difficult for the health workers to meet their expenses with their salaries and financial incentives; this highlights the need for the regulation of additional earnings and to implement targeted accountability mechanisms. This study indicates the value of using mixed methods when investigating sensitive issues. Future studies of this type should employ mixed methods for triangulation purposes to provide better insight into health workers’ responses. PMID:24093219

2013-01-01

87

Geochemical Assessment of Source Rock Qualities Penetrated by Nasara-1 Well (Gongola Basin), Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasara-1 is one in a set of 3 exploratory wells drilled in the ] Gongola basin of the upper Benue trough in Nigeria. Nasara-1 well was dry. Organic geochemical studies have been carried out to assess the qualities of source rocks penetrated by the well. The well penetrated entirely Cretaceous sequences of the Pindiga, Yolde and probably Bima formations. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents are generally very low, with none of the values in the siliciclastic sequences exceeding 1.0w%. About 50% of all TOC values lie between 0.50 -0.87wt%. Hydrogen indices (His) correlated against Tmax indicate source qualities that are of entirely gas-generative potential. However, at depths of between 4710- 4770 ft, TOC values of between 55.10 and 55.20wt% characteristic of coals have been recorded; with His of between 564 -589 mgHC/gTOC and Tmax of 423 -4280C. This is the first report of coal deposition in either the Pindiga, Yolde or Bima Formation. Extract yields (SOM) gave values of 360 -447mgHC/gTOC. Petrographic studies on the samples from this interval reported macerals of the amorphous bituminite group, indicating that the very high His and SOM resulted from migration of oil from probably deeper or laterally located yet to be identified source rocks. The total ion chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the extracts from this interval (4710 -4770ft) show some ramping of unresolved complex mixtures, attributable to biodegradation. Further biomarker date to biodegradation. Further biomarker data indicate a dominance of low molecular weight n-alkanes (C15 - C25)' pristane/phytane ratios of bewteen 0.8 tp 1.3 and very high contents of C28 regular steranes. These attributes indicate that the source Irock that generated the migrated oil was deposited in a lacustrine environment (C28) with high algal-bacterial contents, whose generated hydrocarbons have been intermittently subjected to anoxic to suboxic biodegradation processes

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Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population, also used as the sample, consisted of 388 Business Education graduates who are currently running their postgraduate programme in universities in the south-east and south-south geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The questionnaire was adequately validated by experts in Business Education and measurement and evaluation. The internal consistency of the instrument was determined using Cronbach alpha which has a reliability coefficient of 0.94. The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that Business Education graduates are competent in ability to plan for small or medium scale businesses, ability to source funds for the running of a small scale business among others. However, they are not competent in preparation of tax codes and setting up of a currency. It was recommended that Business Education graduates should undergo training in conferences and workshops to enable them possess more effective accounting knowledge.

James Okoro

2013-12-01

89

Possible impact of climate change on meningitis in northwest Nigeria: an assessment using CMIP5 climate model simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

Meningitis remains a major health burden throughout Sahelian Africa, especially in heavily-populated northwest Nigeria. Cases exhibit strong sensitivity to intra- and inter-annual climate variability, peaking during the hot and dry boreal spring months, raising concern that future climate change may increase the incidence of meningitis in the region. The impact of future climate change on meningitis risk in northwest Nigeria is assessed by forcing an empirical model of meningitis with monthly simulations from an ensemble of thirteen statistically downscaled global climate model projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Experiment Phase 5 (CMIP5) for RCPs 2.6, 6.0 and 8.5 scenarios. The results suggest future temperature increases due to climate change has the potential to significantly increase meningitis cases in both the early and late 21st century, and to increase the length of the meningitis season in the late century. March cases may increase from 23 per 100,000 people for present day (1990-2005), to 29-30 per 100,000 (ptreatment strategies remain similar in the future.

Abdussalam, Auwal; Monaghan, Andrew; Steinhoff, Daniel; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary; Hopson, Thomas; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor

2014-05-01

90

Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

O.J. Kamalu

2011-08-01

91

Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L), BOD (167?...

Etim, E. U.

2012-01-01

92

Assessment of groundwater recharge in semi-arid region of northern nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average annual groundwater recharge value of three sites, representing the major geological basins of Northern Nigeria, ranged from 169 mm for Maiduguri to 837 mm in Kano area and the recharge coefficient for the zone ranged from 0.26 to 0.56. The month of August accounted for about 53% of the average annual estimate. About 69 mm (70%) of average annual potential natural groundwater recharge was lost, as a result. (author)

93

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

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One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contam...

Hedberg, Craig W.; Onyeneho, Sylvester N.

2013-01-01

94

Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria  

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Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June), mid rain (July–August) and late rain seasons (September–October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was c...

John Kanayochukwu Nduka; Orish Ebere Orisakwe

2010-01-01

95

Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria  

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The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals...

Uche Lucy Onyekwelu; Uche Boniface Ugwuanyi

2014-01-01

96

High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

Babalola, O.O.

1984-04-01

97

Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and developments  

CERN Document Server

A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of GOES. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Accordingly, a diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is designed to infer attributes of a favorable microburst environment. In addition, a GOES-West imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3 (upper level water vapor), band 4 (longwave infrared window), and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived products. This paper provides an updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst algorithms, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and presents validation results for the 2008 convective ...

Pryor, Kenneth L

2008-01-01

98

Research progress in dynamic security assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

1982-12-01

99

An Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Development Centres (IDCS On Generation of Employment by Small –Scale Businesses in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the impact of Industrial Development Centres (IDCs on employment generation by small-scale businesses in Nigeria .The study was designed primarily to determine whether or not the generation of employment of small-scale businesses beneficiaries of the IDCs increased significantly after obtaining IDCs’ services. The study indicated that the services offered by many (66.7% of the IDCs led to significant increase in employment generation by large number of beneficiary small- scale businesses at 1% level but at 5% level the services offered by many (66.7% IDCs did not lead to significant increase in employment generation by large number of small-scale businesses beneficiaries. The study also indicated that there were significant differences among the IDCs regarding changes in employment generated by their beneficiary small-scale businesses after receiving services.

Dende Gbolagade Adejumo

2011-06-01

100

Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y-1) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy-1 and 93.60±14.4 nGyh-1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

 
 
 
 
101

Assessment of Challenges in Developing Self-Instructional Course Materials at the National Open University of Nigeria  

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The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) is Nigeria’s only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university’s vision and mission. There are delays and difficulties in developing and distributing materials to students and Study Centres. Many pioneer studen...

Charity Akuadi Okonkwo

2012-01-01

102

Assessment of Electric Load Demand and Prediction of Future Load Demand: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The assessment of electricity load consumption in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria and the prediction of future electricity requirement in the state cannot be over emphasised. The data of monthly load allocation and utilization of electricity of the state in the five previous years (2006-2010 were assessed. Various engineering analysis and applications including calculations, sketches, curves and graphs were applied to justify the study. According to the annual report (IPCL., 2012, the electricity load consumption in the state in December 2011 was 130MW. This study gives the opportunity to address the risk of planning errors that could arise in the electric power upgrade planning process. The assessment however, helped in providing efficient and reliable power system management. The assessment was carried out in the three major towns in Akwa Ibom State (Uyo, Ikot Ekpene and Eket. The result obtained using the least square method and regression exponential analysis method has shown that by 2020, the electricity load requirement in Akwa Ibom state shall increase to 247.84 MW.

D.C. Idoniboyeobu

2014-01-01

103

Assessment of Factors Affecting the Level of Poultry Disease Management in Southwest, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Poultry diseases remain one of the major threats to poultry production in Nigeria. A disease outbreak could result in severe economic losses within the shortest possible time before its medicated recovery is ensured. In the light of this, this study was designed to estimate the level of poultry disease management and its determinants in poultry egg production in Southwest, Nigeria. Primary data was obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire from a cross section survey of 403 poultry farmers drawn through multi-stage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics, Fuzzy logic model and Multinomial Logit model were used to analyze data obtained. The results of the analysis showed that majority (81.4% of the poultry egg farmers were males. Majority (85.6% were married with an average household size of 5±1.68 members. The average age and mean years of experience were 45±9.08 and 10±5.05 years, respectively with majority of them had formal education. Majority (68% of the poultry egg farmers in the study area operate at low level of poultry disease management. The study further revealed that the factors influencing the level of poultry disease management in the study area include gender, years of formal education, household size, years of poultry farming experience, access to credit, livestock insurance, livestock extension services, stock size and poultry system. The study recommended that, improved extension services and the government should formulate a policy that will improve the level of poultry disease management in the study area.

O.K. Akintunde

2014-01-01

104

Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment  

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Full Text Available The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the impact of the caretaker committees in Nigerian Local Government on the practice of constitutional democracy. The discussion is framed by the theoretical perspectives and Nigerian literature on local government and constitutional democracy, and by the recent phenomenal wave of dissolving elected local government councils and subsequent replacement with caretaker committees. Contrary to popular belief, that local government as the third tier of government has failed to achieve the objective for which it was created, this paper observes that party politics has been the bane of Nigerian local government since its inception, and that democratically elected local councils with political and financial autonomy are the major conditions for an effective and efficient multi-purpose local government system in Nigeria.

Jude C Okafor

2013-05-01

105

Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

106

Assessment of Challenges in Developing Self-Instructional Course Materials at the National Open University of Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) is Nigeria's only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university's…

Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi

2012-01-01

107

Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement  

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There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

Jim Berkley

2013-12-01

108

Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard was not made available. This study attempted to assess the spatial impact of the October 2012 flooding of the Niger-Benue basin on the surrounding areas using the moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometre (MODIS data of NASA Terra satellite and developed a geospatial methodology for detecting and extracting the flood risk areas and the vulnerable population to flooding within the basin. The integration of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data within the GIS platform was able to produce series of thematic maps which was used to generate a geospatial database for flood risk analysis and assessment. The result of the analysis effectively demonstrated the contribution of geospatial methods in mitigating and monitoring the effect of flooding along the Niger-Benue basin. It was therefore, suggested that government agencies and policy makers should adopt this powerful technique for reliable and well synthesized information which is a vital component of flood risk assessment and planning.

Felix Ndidi Nkeki

2013-04-01

109

Comprehensive Assessment of Water Quality in the Lake Chad Basin in Northern Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Chad holds great importance in Africa. It is a life and income source for millions of people. In Nigeria, Lake Chad gives support for the three largest economic sectors: fishing, farming, and herding. For many centuries, there has been an equitable balance between these sectors and their survival; with the shrinking of the Lake since the 1960’s though, there has been a struggle for these sectors to all maintain a status quo. By performing water quality testing on the streams and rivers that connect with Lake Chad, one is able to determine the health and vitality of the water. Mainly, it has a direct correlation with what the water is providing the land and villages of the area and what the soil and ground are providing to the water. By looking into the conditions of the water which is sourcing a large part of Nigeria, it gives the ability to directly identify actions that are occurring above and below the ground. This gives great support when investigating the shrinking of the Lake. Areas visited and tested in Nigeria include: Kano, Hadejia, Nguru, and Maiduguri. 15 stream regions were visited and tested. In addition to this, 70 villages were visited in which over a hundred well samples were taken. In determining water quality of a sample, specific parameters were tested, these included: nitrate, nitrite, total chlorine, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. These tests determined the presence of nitrogen, the hardness, and the acidity/neutrality of the water; all which prove important in helping support and maintain healthy growth and life for those who use and consume it. The information gathered thus far is just a base for future research. Although there are little permanent conclusions drawn from the information gathered, it provides great benefits for future research. Given that this is the first time water quality testing has ever been performed in the area, it gives great foundation for additional water quality testing performed in other regions that sync up to the Lake. Comparisons could then be made thus creating more understanding of the hydrologic functions that occur in the area.

Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

2009-12-01

110

Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: Assessment of the effectiveness of public - private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna state, Nigeria  

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Background : In an effort to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection, the Kaduna State TB program in Nigeria started Public-Private Mix (PPM DOTS) in 2002. This study assessed and compared the TB case management practices and treatment outcomes of the public and private health facilities involved in the TB program. Methods : A comparative cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 5 private and 10 public health facilities providing TB services for at least two years ...

Gidado M; Ejembi C

2009-01-01

111

An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion: The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities. Keywords: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptives, patent medicine vendors, mystery client, PPMV, quality of care, Nigeria

Ujuju C

2014-04-01

112

Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in the business, majority of them are retailers selling less than four cartons of fish on daily basis and most of them have formal education. From the gross margin analysis and t-test, marketing of frozen fish is profitable in the area. However, it was recommended that major constraints like poor storage/preservation, inadequate capital and marketing costs should be tackled to improve the efficiency of marketing system of frozen fish in the State.

Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

2013-09-01

113

Assessment of the Perception of Benefits of Organic Gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the perception of benefits of organic gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from 166 respondents through multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage and mean scores. The study indicates that the respondents had perceived a relatively neutral (mean score = 2.87 socio-economic benefits of organic gardening. Nevertheless, they agreed (mean score = 3.84 with the ecological benefits or organic farming. The result, equally reports that the intension of conversion to organic farming was relatively neutral (mean score = 3.49. The most important constraint to organic gardening conversion was lack of knowledge and skills regarding organic gardening. Policy recommendations were made to include: the creation of awareness on the consequences of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides among others, and adequate government support for organic gardening in the study area.

Mustapha, S. B.

2012-06-01

114

Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

S. A. Arabi,

2011-08-01

115

Assessment of Protein Needs of Nigeria Adult Males Using Short-Term Nitrogen Balance Technique  

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Full Text Available Protein requirement of Nigerian adult males aged 21-27 years from two different geographical locations in Nigeria was determined as a basis of comparison with previous studies. Eighteen young men from Northern and Southern Nigeria were recruited into the study and fed on a customary Nigerian mixed diet. The subjects were divided into dietary regimen groups of four protein levels (0.4, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 g protein/kg/day at ordinary level of energy intake of 0.18 MJ/kg/day. The groups were assigned either an ascending or descending sequence of dietary changes. From regression analysis, the Nitrogen requirement for Nitrogen equilibrium was estimated to be 108.0±9.45 mg N/kg/day (0.68 g protein/kg/day and 110.8±14.53 mg N/kg/day (0.69 g protein/kg/day for the Northern and Southern groups respectively. Estimates for allowances to cover 97.5% of the population were 126.9 mg N/kg/day (0.79 g protein/kg/day and 139.9 mg N/kg/day (0.87 g protein/kg/day for the groups respectively. The mean Net Protein Utilization (NPU for the diet was 64±1.29 with a true digestibility of 95.1±1.82. The requirement compared favorably and difference was not significant from previous studies. Thus, there is no need to set different requirements for any part of the country.

T. Oguntona

2010-01-01

116

Multi-Scale, Multi-Temporal Vegetation Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystem Degradation at Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing vegetation cover and status of Gashaka Gumti, Nigeria's largest national park. For this, a traditional pixel-based maximum likelihood classification of a Landsat-7 scene, recorded in December 2000, was carried out. Because simultaneous ground truthing had not been possible, and because of the dynamic nature of the given habitats, different reference data were used to allocate training areas, specify ecological conditions and assess classification accuracy. These included initial unsupervised classifications of multi-temporal images, inter-seasonal field observations and visual interpretations of newly acquired Quickbird mini scenes. The latter served as spatial and temporal scaling tools and were found to be particularly valuable to detect anthropogenic interference. The data reveal that, during most of the dry season, green vegetation is absent in up to one fifth of the park or in about half of the environments of settlement enclaves. This is largely due to human activities such as cattle grazing and burning. Environmental degradation is already detectable in the older imagery, and clearly confirmed as a trend in the newer scenes. The results of this study are suitable to stimulate enhanced and targeted protection measures.

M. Gumnior

2012-04-01

117

Assessing the contributions of private health facilities in a pioneer private-public partnership in childhood immunization in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vision of Nigeria’s immunization program is to reach and sustain routine immunization coverage of greater than 90% for all vaccines by 2020. In order to achieve this, Abia state embarked on a unique private-public partnership (PPP) between private health facilities and the Abia state ministry of health. The aim of this partnership was to collaborate with private health facilities to provide free childhood immunization services in the state - the first of its kind in Nigeria. This is a r...

Chukwuemeka Oluoha; Chukwuemeka Umeh; Hycienth Ahaneku

2014-01-01

118

An assessment of the eye care workforce in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and distribution of an appropriate eye care workforce are fundamental to reaching the goals of "VISION 2020: The right to sight", the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness launched jointly by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness with an international membership of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations. Periodic evaluation of these parameters is important in the journey towards achieving these goals. The objectives of the study were to determine the availability and distribution of human resources for eye care delivery in Enugu Urban, south-eastern Nigeria. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey, the setting for which was all public and privately owned eye care facilities in Enugu Urban, Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, in October 2006. The health map of Enugu Urban and the hospital register of the Public Health Department of the Enugu State Ministry of Health were used to identify the eye health care facilities in Enugu Urban. A structured, pretested, researcher-administered questionnaire was used to capture data on cadre and distribution of the eye care personnel in these facilities. Relevant population data were obtained from the Enugu Regional Office of the National Population Commission. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to generate percentages and proportions. Eye care personnel-to-population ratios were calculated and compared to World Health Organization recommendations. Results Out of Enugu State's population of three million, Enugu Urban accounts for 22%. The population of Enugu Urban is distributed between the three-component Local Government Areas comprising Enugu North (31%, Enugu South (30% and Enugu East (39%. There are 45 eye care facilities (public: 31 (69%; private: 14 (31% employing 252 eye care workers (public: 226 (90%; private: 26 (10% aged 18 to 63 (mean = 36.1 years, SD = 2 years comprising males (36: 14% and females (216: 86%, giving a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:6. The available eye care workforce is unevenly distributed between Enugu North (128: 51%, Enugu South (65: 26% and Enugu East (59: 23% Local Government Areas. Conclusion Using broad and crude World Health Organization standards for minimum provider-to-population ratios, there is a sufficient eye care workforce in Enugu Urban. However, the maldistribution of the workforce creates a major barrier to uptake of eye care services. Policy modifications could reverse this maldistribution.

Maduka-Okafor Ferdinand

2009-05-01

119

Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues  

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Full Text Available ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, especially in the oil and gas sector, accelerate the loss of topsoil and deforestation, loss of habitat, loss of species and loss of biodiversity, as well as degeneration of wetlands. Water shortages and floods lead to deterioration of urban environmental quality and play a major role in transmission of communicable diseases. Corruption in the water sector is another major player in environmental degradation worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Weak implementation has rendered EIA Act a paper Tiger.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2011-01-01

120

Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic systems for telecommunications in Nigeria  

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Developing countries seeking relevance in the international community have to adopt programmes in order to achieve cost-effective economic growth. Telecommunications is one area where emphasis must be laid because of its impact on development. Since the power supply forms an essential part of any communication system it is important to chose the power supply option that has the lowest life-cycle cost. The life-cycle costs of several power supply alternatives to some telecommunication systems in Nigeria have been evaluated. A hybrid (Solar/Gen. Set) power supply option is shown to be cost-effective when compared with diesel generating systems powering telecommunication equipment and airconditioning loads. The cost of PV power supply option used for a celluphone system is about 10% of the cost of the alternative of daily battery replacement and haulage. The low teledensity in the country creates a need for bold initiatives to incorporate solar power in telecommunications network, particularly in the remote rural communities where conventional electricity is not only unavailable, but is unreliable and very costly to maintain.

Oparaku, O. U.

2002-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05 higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

Okwoche J. Ode

2012-09-01

122

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

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The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

123

An assessment of natural radioactivity of soils and its external radiological impact in southwestern Nigeria.  

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Soil samples collected from five states in the southwestern part of Nigeria have been analyzed for activity concentration of gamma-ray emitters. The States were Oyo, Lagos, Ondo, Ogun, and Osun. Activity concentration measurement was carried out using a co-axial type high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Spectral analyses were performed using spectrometry software. The activity concentration measured ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.2 Bq kg(-1) for 137Cs to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. (40)K accounted for most of the activity. The calculated absorbed dose rates in air at 1.0 m above the ground ranged from 6 to 303 nGy h(-1) with a mean and standard deviation of 60.5 nGy h(-1) and 63.2 nGy h(-1), respectively. Estimated annual outdoor effective dose equivalent varied from 8 to 370 mSv y(-1). The calculated collective dose equivalent values for the five states ranged from 87,000 person-Sv to 600,000 person-Sv. The estimated annual outdoor effective values were considerably higher than the world soil average value of 70 microSv y(-1) reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:18469589

Ajayi, O S; Ibikunle, S B; Ojo, T J

2008-06-01

124

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the 226Ra and 232Th contents were lower, whereas the 40K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

125

Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L, BOD (167±53 mg/L, COD (329±106 mg/L, NO3 - (28.3±3.67 mg/L, NH3 (22.3±4.8 mg/L and (Pb 0.23±0.02 mg/L levels indicated gross organic and metal pollution. Ground water similarly, showed elevated levels of BOD (12.9±0.7 mg/L, nitrate (36.1±5.35 mg/L and ammonia (13.7±2.6 mg/L. Metal levels in surface water and sediment was strongly correlated (r=0.89. Topsoil and vegetation samples around the vicinity of the creek did not show any significant level of contamination. There was no significant differences (p=0.05 in surface and ground water quality among the sampling points. The creek water was classified as heavily polluted. This could affect the aquatic flora and fauna of the creek ecosystem. Remediation measures should be employed to clean up the water way system and the environment.

E.U. Etim

2012-08-01

126

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Craig W. Hedberg

2013-08-01

127

Evaluation of NORM and Dose Assessment in an Aluminium Industry in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in bauxite ore, alumina, dross tailing, aluminium scraps and soil samples collected from an aluminium industry in Nigeria were determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K content of the samples ranged from 16 ± 6 (alumina to 31 ± 10 (scrap, 41 ± 0.12 (scrap to 134 ± 21(bauxite and 47 ± 14 (bauxite to 354 ± 8 (scrap Bq·kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K in all the samples are lower than the world average for soil while 232Th is higher with the exception of alumina and scrap. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and the members of the public, the radium equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to the radionuclides at 1 m above ground surface were calculated. The radium equivalent activities which varied between 88 ± 10 (alumina and 222 ± 34 (bauxite Bq·kg-1 are within the safety recommended limit of 370 Bq·kg-1. The mean annual effective doses calculated from the absorbed dose rates in air were between 54 ± 6 (alumina and 134 ± 20 (bauxite ?Sv·y-1, which is lower than the 1 mSv·y-1 recommended for the general public. The annual gonadal dose equivalent of all the samples with the exception of alumina was higher than the world average for soil.

Janet Ayobami Ademola

2013-10-01

128

A baseline investigation and safety assessment of dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced. A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of 40K found in soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.6±17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0±16.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of 238U ranged from 0.10±17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1±64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from 1.8±17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7±17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of 232Th was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba eku). The average value of the total absorbed dose rates for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.0±44.0nGy/h and 32.0±36.3nGy/h respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety recommended world mean by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

129

Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m?3 and 117 Bq m?3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m?3. - Highlights: ? Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ? The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m?3. ? The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ? This value is elevated though below the action level. ? Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

130

Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

Ofuoku Albert U.

2014-01-01

131

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

Adewuyi Alfred

2006-05-01

132

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41% which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13 on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%. A significant percentage (48% does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.

2012-05-01

133

Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001. The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

Jibiri Nnamdi N.

2007-01-01

134

Assessment of natural radioactivity in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria.  

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The radionuclides present in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plants in Nigeria were identified and their activity concentration determined to assess the potential radiation impact on the environment due to fertilizer production. The mean activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K radionuclides in phosphate ore samples were 616 ± 38.6, BDL (Below Detection Level) and 323.7 ± 57.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively. For the phosphogypsum, 334.8 ± 8.8, 4.0 ± 1.4, and 199.9 ± 9.3 Bq kg(-1) respectively and for soil samples range from 20.5 ± 7.3 to 175.7 ± 10.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 15.5 ± 1.5 to 50.4 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 89.5 ± 8.1 to 316.1 ± 41.3 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 71.4 nGy h(-1). The mean annual effective dose was 86 ?Sv. PMID:22965334

Okeji, Mark C; Agwu, Kenneth K; Idigo, Felicitas U

2012-11-01

135

An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI  

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Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

Musa Haruna D.

2011-11-01

136

Prevalences of loiasis in Ondo state, Nigeria, as evaluated by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA).  

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The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to assess the prevalences of loiasis among 4800 subjects in 60 villages in Ondo state, south-western Nigeria. Coverages for community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) were assessed in the same communities, which were located in the Owo, Akure North, Ifedore, Akure South, Ondo East and Ondo West local government areas (LGA). In addition, fingerprick blood samples were collected from 80 individuals in each of six villages (i.e. one village in each LGA investigated) and checked for Loa loa microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemias were only detected in three of the villages where blood samples were collected and then only at low prevalences (1.25%-5.0%) and intensities (267-1600 microfilariae/ml). No serious adverse events were or ever had been related to the CDTI but mild or moderate adverse reactions were quite common, especially in Akure North (55.0%) and Owo (40.2%). A female subject was more likely to report an history of eye worm than a male subject (20.3%-35.7% v. 20.8%-26.5%, according to LGA). Although the subjects aged 41-50 years formed the age-group most likely to report an history of eye worm (32.7%), the highest CDTI coverage was recorded in the subjects aged 61-70 years (54.7%). The results indicated that CDTI had helped to reduce the prevalence and intensity of Loa microfilaraemia and that ivermectin can continue to be used for mass administrations in Ondo state with little risk of serious adverse events. PMID:18348776

Adeoye, G O; Akinsanya, B; Otubanjo, A O; Ibidapo, C A; Atalabi, T; Okwuzu, J; Adejai, E O; Braide, E I

2008-04-01

137

Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of South East Nigeria using isotope techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the State Capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. Inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydro-chemical analysis, which results, when available would be interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is enr municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydro-chemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to Water Resources Managers and Decision-Makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

138

Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

2014-06-01

139

Assessment of Growth and Cellulase Production of Wild-Type Microfungi Isolated from Ota, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and identify filamentous microfungi involved in wood-waste decomposition in Canaanland, Ota, South-West Nigeria and to evaluate their potentials for cellulose saccharification. Microbiological techniques were used to isolate and identify the fungi. Four filamentous microfungi, identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma sp., were isolated. All the isolates, particularly Trichoderma sp., grew rapidly on Sabouraud’s agar and Czapek-Dox agar. Two of the isolates, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp., was cultivated for 168 h by submerged fermentation in modified Czapek-Dox liquid medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source and harvested at 24 h intervals. The mycelia weight of the harvested cultures, and the protein content and cellulase activity of the filtrates were determined. The peak mycelia weight of 4.6 and 3.0 mg mL-1 was, respectively obtained for Trichoderma sp. and A. niger at 48 h. The protein and cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. peaked at 72 h whereas for A. niger, the peak protein content and peak cellulase activity was obtained at 96 and 72 h, respectively. The peak protein and cellulase activity values of A. niger were 0.175 and 0.077 unit mL-1, respectively. Trichoderma sp. yielded a protein peak of 0.180 mg mL-1 and peak cellulase activity of 0.108 unit mL-1. There is a correlation between the protein content and cellulase activity of the culture filtrates. The strains of A. niger and Trichoderma sp. obtained from this study are potential tools for the saccharification and bioconversion of cellulosic materials.

S. Nwodo Chinedu

2010-01-01

140

Assessment of environmental distribution of lead in some municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April-June), mid rain (July-August) and late rain seasons (September-October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 +/- 0.00 and 80.36 +/- 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 +/- 0.01 and 4,238.29 +/- 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 +/- 0.01 and 21.28 +/- 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13-0.49 mg/kg and 0.15-0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 +/- 0.000 to 0.163 +/- 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb. PMID:20644686

Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Lead (Pb levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June, mid rain (July–August and late rain seasons (September–October for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.

John Kanayochukwu Nduka

2010-06-01

142

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-10-01

143

Radiological assessment of flooded Kudenda soil samples, Kudenda, Kaduna State Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiological survey of flooded soil of Kudenda area located at latitude 10.4800N and 10.4810N and longitude 7.3940E and 7.3950E in Kaduna State, Nigeria was conducted. In situ measurement and samples were taken in each of the grid area at depth 0 to 226Ra, ( 238U), 232Th and 40K) were measured by means of gamma ray spectrometry system using (NaI(Tl)) detector. The recorded ranges of activity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K were found to be 8.1±3.6 - 45±4.4, 38±1.3 - 149.6±3.9 and 400.5±3.9 - 873.7±11.6Bqkg-1, respectively. The results of this current study have been compared with the world mean values of 35, 30 and 400 Bqkg-1, respectively, specified by the UNSCEAR (2000). Concerning radiological risk to human health, the absorbed gamma dose rate (D) in air at 1 metre above the ground surface was estimated to lie in the range 47.4±2.2 to 141.2±4.4nGyh-1; the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) was evaluated to vary from 0.06±0.003 to 0.17±0.005mSvy-1, with the arithmetic mean value of 0.11±0.004mSvy-1. This is slightly higher than the worldwide effective dose of 0.07mSvy-1. Also, the values of the Raeq and the Hex for all soil samples in the present work are lower than the accepted safety limit value of 370 Bqkg-1 and below the limit of unity, respectively. Generally, the obtained radiological data gave an indication of non significant radiological hazard in the area of study.

144

Infiltration Rate Assessment of Coastal Plain (Ultisols Soils for Sustainable Crop Production in the Frontiers of Calabar-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study on infiltration rate assessment of coastal plain soils for sustainable crop production in the frontiers of Calabar, Nigeria, was carried out in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils in the area and its implication in the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer were driven at 5cm into the soil with the aid of a sledge hammer before water was poured simultaneously into the rings. Infiltration rates were taken at 5,10,15, and 30 minutes intervals. The assessment or determination of infiltration rate was preceded by laboratory analysis of soil samples for the particle size distribution. The mean values of 74.0, 12.0: and 12.6 for sand, silt and clay were obtained respectively. While infiltration rates were well above the recommended values for crop production. Result from different locations proved that the area has monolithic soil characteristics. The result equally showed that the least range of infiltration rate of 14.4-60.0 was well above the optimal range of 0.7-3.5 or the suitable infiltration range of 3.5 - 7.5. It would be said, that, given the increasing need for food production to cope with the demand in Calabar Metropolis, the effect of excessive water infiltration as evidence in this study, will continue to impede sustainable crop production except appropriate measures are contemplated. These measures may include adequate cover cropping, temporary abandonment of farm land or skeletal crop farming with compost, green or farmyard manures. This will help improve the structure and restore soil potentials. Apart from these, suitability evaluation of land in order to effectively categorize soils on the basis of their potential for optimal use could as well be imperative.

EGBAI ORUK O.

2011-08-01

145

Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

Obiageli R. Ezeigbo

2013-04-01

146

Mathematically aided risk assessment of crude oil contamination in Ogoni, Nigeria. Pt. 2. Generalizing statistical analysis of the pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical modeling can support environmental risk assessment and decision making processes. Soil contamination caused by crude oil in the Ogoni region, Nigeria, is qualitatively described in detail in part 1 [2] of this three-part contribution to understand the presented mathematical results. A mathematical-statistical analysis following in part 2 characterizes quantitatively 33 contaminated sites as entire ecological complex. The sites are studied in part 3 by classifying multivariate mathematical models to derive precise information about kind and degree of contamination at every single oil spill. The data basis for the environmental risk assessment supported by part 2 consists of about 660 samples analyzed for UNEP. It is restricted to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Data have been interpreted first using generalizing mathematical-statistical analyses. The entire data set was understood as random sample in the statistical sense. So far, all results are valid regarding the contamination of all investigated sites in Ogoni as a whole unit regardless of local specifics. Concentration values of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in soil samples show a statistically significant lognormal frequency distribution: most soil samples are more or less slightly contaminated but extremely high polluted points and sites occur also frequently. Based on the distribution type, the expected (averaged) value was determined as about 3500 mg/kg aliphatics and 1700 mg/kg aromatics. Aliphatics and aromatics are jointly strong and linear correlated. This shows that there is no natural differentiation between the main contaminants caused by migration etc. The degree of contamination is not related to the sampling depth. This unexpected result will be explained by previous, incomplete clean-up measures. The general statistical evaluation defines dimension and problems of future remediation measures but it is insufficient to determine kind and degree of pollution at specific polluted sites. Only classifying models are suitable to solve this problem. (orig.)

Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

2011-12-15

147

Oil and Debt Management in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nigeria’s debt at independent was put at about N488.8 million which was mainly long-term development soft loans. The world economic recession and fall in price of oil in 1982 were identified as major factors that led many countries to debt crisis. Nigeria’s debt accumulated due to gross mismanagement of resources and loans contracted as well as failure of governments to keep-up with repayment schedules. This paper assesses the management of Nigeria’s debt. It examined the role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs in discussing the politics of Nigeria’s debt management vis-à-vis motivational factor behind consideration for loans, disbursement and at what rate? The paper employed both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was sourced from Debt Management Office, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria and National Institute for Social and Economic Research while secondary data was sourced from journals, books, official government gazettes and internet. Data was analyzed using descriptive method. The result of the analyses revealed that 79% of the respondents agreed that Nigeria’s oil contributed to its huge debt accumulation and denied it debt cancellation. Also 65% believed that government has been prudent in managing the nation’s debt with every action taking in the interest of the people even when it failed to keep up with repayment schedules. The dependency theory formed the basis of discussion and analyses in this work. It concluded that, oil was a major factor behind the granting of loans to Nigeria as well as responsible for fiscal irresponsibility on part of the government which led to the failure of efficient management of such loans. This paper recommended that there should be prudent management of the economy while all forms of corruption must be eradicated to bring about real development.

Ako-Nai R. I.

2013-05-01

148

Assessing the contributions of private health facilities in a pioneer private-public partnership in childhood immunization in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The vision of Nigeria’s immunization program is to reach and sustain routine immunization coverage of greater than 90% for all vaccines by 2020. In order to achieve this, Abia state embarked on a unique private-public partnership (PPP between private health facilities and the Abia state ministry of health. The aim of this partnership was to collaborate with private health facilities to provide free childhood immunization services in the state - the first of its kind in Nigeria. This is a retrospective study of the 2011 Abia state, Nigeria monthly immunization data. In the 4 local governments operating the PPP, 45% (79/175 of the health facilities that offered immunization services in 2011 were private health facilities and 55% (96/175 were public health facilities. However, 21% of the immunization services took place in private health facilities while 79% took place in public health facilities. Private health facilities were shown to have a modest contribution to immunization in the 4 local governments involved in the PPP. Efforts should be made to expand PPP in immunization nationally to improve immunization services in Nigeria.

Chukwuemeka Oluoha

2014-02-01

149

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.

Veronica O. Ameh

2014-04-01

150

An Assessment of the Growth of Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria, Using Multi-Temporal Imageries  

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Full Text Available This paper examined the use of GIS and Remote Sensing in monitoring the growth and development pattern of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria over a period of 21 years with a view to predicting its direction of growth. In effect, the study sought to identify and explain the rate and extent of changes in the study area between 1986 and 2007; measure the rate of urban growth in the study area between 1986 and 2007; assess the impact of urban growth on land use patterns; and predict the trend of urban growth in the study area. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Remote Sensing Imagery of Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM 2002 and ALOS 2007 were used to measure the extent of growth and to show the effects of this growth on other Land use/Land cover types. Multi-temporal approach was adopted for the study to detect the changes in the imageries. Pixel analysis was employed to identify and compare the type, nature, trend and magnitude of change that occurred in the study area within the slated dates. The observed land use/land cover and population were projected to the next 15 years. The results showed the growth of Ile-Ife and its effects on other land use classes. Pixel analysis revealed that changes occurred in the magnitude and rate of urbanization in the study area between 1986 and 2007. The results were discussed mainly focusing on the trend of urban growth expansion and its effect to the Environment natural resources, farmland and food security and its contribution to climate change. Its implications to urban planning were also discussed and the recommendations made.

O. A. Ajala

2013-03-01

151

Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90 volunteer patients; comprising (30 patients with malaria only, (30 with typhoid only and (30 with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20 healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23, AST (31.33±12.80, ALT (23.10±11.84, TB (19.43±5.02, CB (5.91±3.03 and ALP(116.69±48.68, AST (28.33±11.72, ALT (22.8±5.94, TB (19.31±5.84,CB (5.60±2.50 were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62, AST (33.97±8.43, ALT (24.40±4.37,TB (21.27±2.96,CB (6.58±3.10 while the control subjects had mean serum levels of ALP (71.05±18.18, AST (16.65±7.45, ALT (13.85±6.09,TB (10.05±4.85 and CB (3.00±1.67. These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05.The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT,TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

B.N. Enemchukwu

2014-01-01

152

GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary forest, secondary forest and mangrove. The area in square kilometers of each land use type in each year was calculated and thereafter the change was determined by subtracting the area of the same land use type in 1986 from 2000 and the percentage of change is therefore calculated. In addition, the probability of change of twenty years was also determined from one land use type to another using Markovian Transition Estimator (MTE from IDRISI Andes. The study reveals that farmland, mangrove, primary forest and sparse vegetation reduced over time by 45.34, 37.06, 43.06 and 8.09%, respectively while secondary forest, built up area and water increased by 5.88, 74.55 and 3.43%, respectively. It is also projected by MTE that in 2020 farmland has the probability of 0.570 (57% of changing to secondary forest and 0.154 (15.4% of changing to built up area. Primary forest has the probability of 0.186 (18.6% to change to built up area. It is recommended among others that laws should be promulgated to prevent unlawful expansion of construction of any form and that the people in the communities in the study area should be enlightened and educated on the effects of deforestation on the environment.

O.S. Eludoyin

2011-06-01

153

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) ?Sv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) ?Sv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

154

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution based on hydro-geological condition and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors incorporated into DRASTIC model and the geographic information system (GIS were used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The output map shows that the southeast of the aquifer is under very high vulnerability while central parts of aquifer have high vulnerability. Other parts (north, northwest and south of the study area have moderate vulnerability to pollution. For testing of the vulnerability assessment, groundwater quality data were collated from literature for the different vulnerability zones of the study area. The chemical analysis results show that both the southeast and northwest west parts of study area aquifer (very high and moderate vulnerability zones have higher nitrate concentration relative to the rest of aquifer, that are located in high vulnerability zone. The validation of the DRASTIC models was accomplished through pair wise comparison of DRASTIC vulnerability maps (using Pearson’s r correlation coefficient with a total of 14 layers representing original DRASTIC input data, Land cover (LC features, and groundwater TDS, Cl- and NO3 data. Results from the correlation analysis indicate a significant association between high groundwater TDS, NO3 concentrations and distances from certain LC types.

Olufunmilola T. Bankole

2013-05-01

155

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

156

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differenttitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

157

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

2013-01-01

158

Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income stream discounted over a 30 year period at 20 percent discount rate in 2008 was between 642.20/ha and 2,852.62/ha. Consequently, the welfare loss due to the loss of 21,340 hectares of mangrove was between 13,704,548 and 60,874,911. The study also established, for the first time, the high social value of the Niger Delta Mangroves.

James, Godstime Kadiri

159

Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, E...

Orebiyi, E. O.; Awomeso, J. A.; Idowu, O. A.; Martins, O.; Oguntoke, O.; Taiwo, A. M.

2010-01-01

160

MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

Daniyan S .Y.; Sangodere T.A.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP) was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the eff...

Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

1996-01-01

162

Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC). Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed hig...

Adetunji, V. O.; Awosanya, A. E. J.

2011-01-01

163

Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh) Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained f...

Braide Wesley; Oranusi, U. S.

2012-01-01

164

Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

1981-01-01

165

Alignment and the States: Three Approaches to Aligning the National Assessment of Educational Progress with State Assessments, Other Assessments, and Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been the common yardstick for measuring the progress of students' education over time across the country. Teachers, principals, parents, policymakers, and researchers all use NAEP results to assess progress and develop ways to improve education in America. To make the…

Vockley, Martha; Lang, Vockley

2009-01-01

166

Child Spacing and Parity Progression: Implication for Maternal Nutritional Status among Women in Ekiti Communities, Southwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolving dynamics that face maternal health in developing countries are worrisome. The achievement of the desirable Millennium Development Goals on maternal and child health in Ekiti will remain a mirage if women nutrition is compromised. Short birth spacing and high frequency of childbearing adversely affect maternal health through maternal depletion syndrome. This study was a cross-sectional house-hold survey where a stratified multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1450 women of childbearing age as respondents. Body Mass Index (BMI measurement was used as indicator of nutritional status. Results showed that the median birth interval was 33.0 months. Parity progression rate was higher among under-nourished mothers and births after an interval of less than 24 months (short birth interval was accounted for by 38.3% of undernourished mothers. Taking into account of several potentially confounding variables, the Cox-regression model showed that mothers who left birth interval of less than 24 months are 2.0 (p<0.01, 4.4 (p<0.001, 5.71 (p<0.001 at risks of undernourishment than their counterparts who left 24-35, 36-59 and 60+ months interval between births respectively. The strength of the association remains unchanged when the potential confounding variables were controlled. Births interval of at least 36 months will produce best health outcomes for mothers in terms of nutrition as evidence in this study. Strategies should be adopted to improve women knowledge on the effect of short birth spacing on maternal nutrition.

F.A. Fagbamigbe

2011-01-01

167

Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no library. Sixty-three (63 percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

T.T. Youngu

2012-03-01

168

ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL SAFETY OF FRESH SHRIMPS OFFERED FOR SALES AT ALESINLOYE AND ELEYELE MARKETS IN IBADAN, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Microbial assessment of different fresh shrimp sold at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria was carried out. Ten fresh shrimp samples bought at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan Oyo state were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of micro-organisms. Total plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were enumerated using Nutrient Agar (NA, Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB Agar and Salmonella-shigella Agar (SSA respectively. The total counts obtained from sample ranged between 2.7x107 to 7.6x107 cfu/mL and 1.2x107 to 1.38x108 cfu/mL for Eleyele and Alesinloye samples respectively. These were generally high exceeding the limit of 1.0x102 cfu/mL. The coliform count ranged between 7.0x106 to 2.32x108 cfu/mL for Eleyele samples and between 7.6x106 to 1.39x108 cfu/mL for Alesinloye samples also exceeding the limit of zero cfu/mL. The Salmonella-Shigella (SS count ranged between 2.7x107 to 1.10x108 for Eleyele samples and between 7.0x106 to 3.7x107 for Alesinloye samples. Twenty-one isolates were obtained from the Alesinloye samples while twenty-nine isolates were obtained from Eleyele samples. Percentage occurrences of different micro-organisms characterized are as follows: Bacillus sp 1 (4.76%, Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (9.52%, Flavobactreium sp 7 (33.3%, Micrococcus sp 1 (4.76%, Salmonella sp 7 (33.3%, Shigella sp 1 (4.76% and Staphylococcus aureus 2 (9.52% for Alesinloye while that of Eleyele is Bacillus sp 8 (27.6%, Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (6.9%, Flavobactreium sp 4 (13.8%, Micrococcus sp 0 (%, Salmonella sp 7 (24.1%, Shigella sp 7 (24.1% and Staphylococcus aureus 1 (3.4%. Consumption of fresh shrimps and shrimp products processed with unhygienic water should be discouraged.

ADEDEJI O.B.

2011-09-01

169

Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

1991-11-01

170

Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES ampersand H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES ampersand H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES ampersand H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES ampersand H issues

171

Assessment of Groundwater Quality and Saline Intrusions in Coastal Aquifers of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available As a result of immense industrialisation and high population growth, groundwater is heavily relied on in Lagos metropolis to serve as an alternative source of water where surface water is seriously polluted. The continued reliance on ground water has resulted in its decline in quantity and quality. In this study, the coastal aquifers of Lagos metropolis were selected for an assessment of its groundwater quality and impact of saline intrusion. Water samples collected along the coastal region were subjected to various physicochemical analyses. Results obtained were compared with permissible values for drinking water stated by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA and World Health Organization (WHO. The results revealed that all the water samples were significantly hard (range 522.14 – 1233.34mg/L. The salinity was delineated by conductivity measurements. Three samples had specific conductance above the stated limits for fresh water. The samples however met the stipulated limits for drinking water for the other tested parameters.

Adewuyi Gregory Olufemi

2010-10-01

172

Risk based assessment for offshore jacket platform in Niger delta, Nigeria (corrosion and fatigue hazards  

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Full Text Available Offshore structures are imperative for uninterrupted crude oil production which is the main stay of Nigerian economy. Fatigue and corrosion have been identified to be the most prevalent structural hazards in offshore environment. Jacket platform may be exposed to certain seawater wave which often leads to structural failure, particularly when the platform is subjected to corrosion and fatigue hazards. Therefore, corrosion and fatigue damage requires detail evaluation to prevent jacket platform from untimely failure. Risk based assessment method has been identified as the appropriate tool to determine the risk levels associated with component damages acted upon by several hazards with different scenarios. The results of this work revealed that simultaneously corroded and fatigued components exhibit unacceptable risk level and is the appropriate limiting damage scenario for marine structures underwater inspection. This technique is proved to be accurate and the most appropriate procedure for management of hazards, safety and environmental protection.

M. A. Salau

2011-12-01

173

Trace element hydrochemical assessment of the Calabar Coastal Plain aquifer (Southern Nigeria) using factor analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article present results of hydrochemical assessmcnt of 43 trace element content of a costal plain sand aquifer. The aim was mainly to determine the natural background evel of trace elements due to anticipated urban and industrial development as a result of the establishment of an export free zone in the area. Results show that all the elements considered are below common averages. Statistical factor analysis indicate two geochemical groups of elements. The first is related to natural geochemical process and the second to tidal flushing of the Calabar River estuary. This indicate that the sources of the elements are natural. This data which is the first of its kind in the area will form a baseline data set for future pollution monitoring and vulnerability assessment of the aquifer.

Edet, A. E.; Merkel, B. J.; Offiong, O. E.

2003-05-01

174

Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin  

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Full Text Available The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and judges accountable without undue harm to their independence. It also started to address the scepticism about the courts among a significant part of the public, through efforts to improve media coverage, make information about courts more available, and make courts user friendly. While praiseworthy and bound to improve the reality and the perception of the administration of justice overall, these initiatives did not end attempts to exert influence on judges and case outcomes by powerful people (in the public and private sectors or the mechanisms that facilitated their efforts. This essay begins by identifying criteria for assessing the quality of the administration of justice in any country, including in the post-soviet world and suggesting specific markers (usually qualitative connected to each of the criteria developed above. Then, the essay provides an account of relevant policy initiatives in judicial reform undertaken first under Yeltsin and then in the Putin years. The essay goes to provide an assessment of the state of the courts in the Russian federation in 2007 in the light of the criteria and markers supplied in the first section. It concludes with a look to the future, and the identification of crucial markers of change for the post-Putin era.

Peter H. Solomon

2008-10-01

175

Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

176

Assessment of Poverty among Arable Crop Farmers: A Case Study of Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) in Osun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmers’ Empowerment has become an important part of the development agenda in the recent years. This study identified and analyzed the poverty status in terms of incidence, depth and severity among arable crop farmers in Osun State and compared the socio-economic characteristics of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) in Osun State, Nigeria. The study made use of pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was us...

Ayanwale, A. B.; Adisa, O. D.

2012-01-01

177

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR), Wischmeier's erodibility index (K), clay dispersion index (CDI) and clay floccula-tion index (CFI) ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mean-weight diameter (MWD) in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictabil...

Mbagwu, J. S. C.; Akamigbo, F. O. R.; Ca, Igwe

1995-01-01

178

Risk Assessment Analysis of Accelerated Gully Erosion in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of accelerated erosion has been on in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area (LGA) in particular and Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living around the gullies in the area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining sediment loss from the gully sites, the vulnerable areas and threat posed by impact of gullies in the study LGA. Oregbeni Housing Estate and Ede Scho...

Aderemi Adediji; Iyamu Felix

2012-01-01

179

Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and prac...

Mj, Oduola Ayo; Afolabi, Bamgboye E.; Falade Catherine O; Ajayi Ikeoluwapo O; Kale Oladele O

2008-01-01

180

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to proce...

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs) in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the ro...

Babagana, S. A.

2010-01-01

182

Assessment of Natural Radionuclides in Fly Ash Produced at Orji River Thermal Power Station, Nigeria and the Associated Radiological Impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. Coal contains trace quantities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The concentrations of these radionuclides are usually low in the coal, but enriched in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and soil samples in the vicinity of Orji River thermal power station in Nigeria wa...

Ademola, Janet A.; Onyema, Uzoma C.

2014-01-01

183

Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

Imoobe T.O.T.

2009-01-01

184

Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC. Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed high values of both enterobacteriacea and TAVC on surfaces of the processing facilities and a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in mean enterobacteriacea and TAVC before and after processing of the wall, knife, table and floor. There was significant increase in both the enterobacteriacea (96% and TAVC (98% on the carcass after evisceration. The mean TAVC for the water and effluent was 1.16±0.1 and 13.79±0.06 logcfu/ml respectively. This study showed the need to maintain good management practice, good hygienic condition and role of sanitation in our abattoirs

V. O. Adetunji

2011-07-01

185

An Assessment of Gully Erosion in Gombe Town, Gombe State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The development of gullies is one of the severe environmental problems in Gombe town. It has threatens urban infrastructure, properties, lives and the physical growth of the town. Knowing the rates of gully development in the last decade helped explain the reasons for current land degradation. This research work therefore assessed gully erosion in Gombe town. Data used in this study were derived from field measurements, satellite imageries, and laboratory analysis and questionnaire survey. Results from the interpretation of Spot 5(1999 and Quick Birds (2009 imageries and field measurements showed that gully variables (length, depth and widths have significantly increased in the last 10 years. Laboratory analysis of soil particle size revealed that sand proportion was 52%, silt 9.5% and clay 38.5%. The values of Atterberg limits (liquid limits; plasticity limit and the plasticity index (PI, shear strength (cohesion and angle of internal friction and bulk density values were low, soil chemical properties also showed that the soils are moderately acidic, contained low organic matter, and low exchangeable cations, with serious implication on biological methods of erosion control.

Lazarus Abore Mbaya

2012-06-01

186

Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the stock market were also x-rayed. Also highlighted were the trading, clearing and settlement process of the Nigerian stock exchange and the short comings. The study concluded that for the Nigerian stock exchange to contribute significantly in the development of the Nigerian economy through mobilization and utilization of funds for expansion of business enterprises in the country, it should intensify efforts in creating public awareness as regards its services to the economy, effective investor education, fostering and stimulating speculation in the market and reforms that would compel investors to take due diligence when funds are to be raised by government to eliminate the buying and selling culture that exists in the market should be carried out.

Okoh, Lucky

2011-04-01

187

Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

Braide Wesley

2012-04-01

188

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105 cfu/ml and fungal counts ranged from 3.0 103 cfu/ml – 36.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of Klebsiella and Bacillus while fungi isolated include Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and species of Candida and Mucor. The most frequently occurring bacteria was S. aureus while the most frequently occurring fungal was species of Mucor. Conclusion: The results suggested that the soybean cheese samples were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and could cause health hazard to the consumers. There is need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation as a good hygienic practice in the production and preparation of the soybean cheese since it serves as a good source of protein, carbohydrate and fat being of great nutritional value to the consumers.

N. U Adabara

2011-02-01

189

MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

Daniyan S.Y.

2011-08-01

190

Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

Ezechiel Longe

2010-05-01

191

Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. A major constraint to the development of properly engineered landfills is the high cost of synthetic liners and its scarcity in the local markets in developing country like Nigeria, which calls for alternative local materials for landfill liner. Consequently, crushed shale / clay shale deposits appear inexpensive and can be utilized to effectively retard the spread of leachate from landfills. Hence, this study focus on the assessment of geotechnical, geochemical and sorption characteristics of shale units from Anambra Basin, SE-Nigeria for suitability or otherwise as compacted clay liner (CCL) in landfills. Twelve samples consisting of three each from four different formations namely: Enugu, Nkporo, Imo and Ameki formations were collected and subjected to basic geotechnical tests such as grain size analysis, Atterberg's limits, compaction and coefficient of permeability following standard testing methods (BS 1377). In addition, mineralogical X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and geochemical ICP-MS / ICP-ES analyses were employed for geochemical characterization. CEC and batch sorption tests with respect to Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn as contaminant in leachates were also employed for sorption characterization. The results of the geotechnical tests conducted on the shale samples revealed that the crushed shale samples have liquid limit range of 55-79%, percentage fines of 80-93%, percentage clay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, allay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the density irrespective of the compaction level to be utilized in the field. In addition, the permeability of 2.14 - 9.12 x 10-5cm/s is higher than 1 x 10-7 cm/s recommended for typical isolation barriers, which implies negative impacts in respect of possible attendant contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater by the leachates. The geochemical analyses of the samples reflect relatively high SiO2 values of 52.1-55.8% compared to Al2O3 of 16.96-27.45% and Fe2O3 of 3.10-7.19%, which suggest the dominance of kaolinite as confirmed by the XRD. Nonetheless, the occurrence of illite in Enugu and Nkporo shales and smectite in Imo shale is a confirmation of the relatively high plasticity indices mentioned earlier and indication of good sorption properties. The CEC of the samples have relatively low value of 2.6 - 5.1 cmol/kg, which is less than the recommended minimum of 10 meq/100 g. The sorption capacity of the samples with respect to Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni ranges from 24.4 to 34.7 ppm with metal sorption in the order of Zn >Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni. The overall assessment revealed that the metal uptake, CEC and plasticity index of the shale samples are positively correlated suggesting strong influence of the clay mineralogy on the sorption characteristics of the samples. In spite of the observed relatively high permeability and swelling potential as well as moderate good sorption properties, the study shale units could be enhanced to the required specification through appropriate amendment technology. Though the shale units do not generally satisfy the requirements of compacted clay liners, however, based on the sorption characteristics, Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shales can be adequately employed for attenuation of contaminant leachates in double, composite or and multiple lining systems

192

Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

193

Structural features of Nigeria's coastal margin: an assessment based on age data from wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological age data from 127 wells drilled for petroleum exploration and production purposes in both the onshore and offshore sections of the Nigerian coastal margin have been examined and correlated from well to well across the margin. By examining the variations in depth to selected key geological marker horizons, the positions of faults and fractures have been inferred between wells and along designated cross-sections. These faults extend across the margin from land to sea, and most of them trend northeast-southwest and north-south. Graben and horst structures dominate the western part of the Nigerian margin. The most prominent of these features on the western part of the margin is the Okitipupa structure, a basement ridge that separates the sediments of the Tertiary Niger Delta to the east from those of the Cretaceous Dahomey Embayment to the west. The Niger Delta basin and the major faults bounding it are the other important tectonic features on the Nigerian coastal margin. It appears that major fractures and transcurrent faults influenced sedimentation rates in different parts of the margin throughout the Tertiary period. A landward prolongation of two main oceanic fracture zones (Chain and Charcot) appears to merge well with some of the inferred faults, especially in the case of the Chain Fracture Zone. It is a well known fact that seismic activities are associated with oceanic fracture zones. The delineation of the extensions of these faults and fractures in the Nigerian continental interior can be regarded as an important basic step towards the assessment of the seismicity of the country's coastal margin. The next logical step would be to determine, through the deployment of a seismograph network, the level of activities associated with these faults.

Onuoha, K. Mosto

1999-10-01

194

Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ?Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

E. O. Orebiyi

2010-01-01

195

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011 in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the rainy season than in the dry season, while pH and Biological Oxygen Demand were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the dry season than in the rainy season. Apparent colour, Total Solids (TS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, K+ Cl-, total acidity, total hardness, NO3- and PO43- decreased (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site, while water transparency, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, SO42 and Mg2+ showed an increase (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site. Apparent colour, TS, TSS, total acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ NO3- and PO43- increased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom, while pH, Mg2+ and DO decreased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom at the lacustrine section of the lake. Cluster analysis of the parameters showed major clusters between the major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and the general chemical characteristics (TDS, alkalinity, conductivity, acidity and hardness and also between the nutrient compounds (Organic matter, NO3- and PO43- and the hydro-physical parameters (TS, TSS, apparent colour, true colour and turbidity. The water quality indices and sodium absorption ratio values in the sampled stations indicated that the water is most suitable for probable applications at the lacustrine section, towards the dam site.

E. O. Akindele

2013-02-01

196

Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 ?Gyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 ?Gyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14?Svy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ? 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

197

Radiological assessment of fish samples due to natural radionuclides in river Yobe, Northern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12), fish became outliers with significant values of 112.53?Svy-1, 121.11?Svy-1 and 114.32?Svy-1 effective dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as well as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

198

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6 for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

Olanike K. Adeyemo

2012-01-01

199

Assessment of the Food Habits and School Feeding Programme of Pupils in a Rural Community in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The food habits and school feeding programme of pupils in a rural community in Odogbolu local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria was assessed in this study. A total of 68 pupils from primaries I to III in both public and private primary schools were involved in the study. It was found that majority of the school children had three meals daily. Majority of the pupils do not bring food to school from home. The amount of money brought to school to purchase mid-day meal foods was higher with pupils from private school than those from public schools. However, generally the quantity and quality of the mid-day meal purchased on both schools were poor and therefore did not have significant contribution of their nutritional status.

J.O. Olusanya

2010-01-01

200

Progress in food irradiation: Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and some of its toxic metabolites has been studied. This involved the determination of radio-sensitivity of aflatoxins to gamma radiation and the toxicity of irradiated aflatoxins, the effect of irradiation on the formation of aflatoxins in some Nigerian foodstuffs and on the macronutrients of soya-gari diet, and isolation and characterisation of radiation-induced mutants in A. flavus. A research project is now underway to investigate the effect on nutrients in foodstuffs following the destruction of fungal toxins (aflatoxins) and fungi by gamma irradiation (OGBADU, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria). (orig.)

 
 
 
 
201

Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10) vertical electricity soundings (VES) was conducted for data generation using terrameter 3...

Onunkwo – A, A.; Okoroji I. L.

2012-01-01

202

Multi-criteria Assessment of the Relationship between Deforestation, Rainfall and Landuse Change from Remotely Sensed Data in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to undertake an in-depth evaluation of deforestation, rainfall and landuse dynamics in Nigeria using a localized hybrid TREES/FAO deforestation model. Forty seven (47) 2002 (October 2001-March, 2002) Landsat 7 scenes covering Nigeria were assembled and processed with 376 ground control points for image rectification, reprojection, conversion to reflectance and mosaicking. We also assembled 250m and 500m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data for Nigeria for 2002. Using data from the NigerianSat1 Atlas for 2003, Nigerian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (NGSDI) 2002 and a threshold of 70% /5ha for forest cover, the Landsat and MODIS composites were classified into Rainforest, Swamp Forest, Deciduous Forest and Cropland. The overall accuracy was 88%. We developed a multi-criteria hybrid TREE/FAO model for sampling deforestation rates for 2002, 2008 and 2012 for Nigeria. For 2008 and 2012, NigerianSat1 and other satellite data sources were used to fill gaps or replace data on the scanner error of Landsat7. Accumulated patches of Rainfall Data (0.250 x 0.250) was obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for selected forest samples while land cover data from NGSDI was updated with field work data in other evaluate its relationship with the Remotely sensed data. Deforestation rates stood at 0.33% yr-1, 0.14 yr-1 and 0.17% yr-1 for the Woodland, Rainforest and Deciduous Forest respectively. Estimates for the Swamp Forest could not be effectively computed due to high cloud cover throughout the year. The relationship between forest cover change and rainfall stood at r= 0.21; p?0.05 and r=0.42; p?0.05 for the forest and Savannah zones respectively. Deforestation rate was higher in the Woodland than the Rainforest and Deciduous zones due to the better economic value of the species and the ease of felling these trees with minimal cost and favorable terrain features. The weak relationship between rainfall and forest cover in the Rainforest is associated with its location within the zone of maximum air mass convergence due to the concave landscape structure of the Niger Delta to the Atlantic. Moreover, the Rainforest region is nearly always green throughout the year with a highly variable dry season when there are no clouds; hence variability in rainfall may not affect the rate forest cover change as opposed to the Savannah landscapes where forest cover change is dependent on rainfall or moisture supply. Consequently our results show that deforestation is concentrated along the Forest-Savannah boundary of Nigeria where intensive agriculture, anthropogenic forest fires and shifting cultivation dominate. Our results could not confirm hot deforestation spots (pixels) as indicated by most continental-global scale evaluation of deforestation patches. We are going to develop a multi-criteria decision support system for identifying localized deforestation hot spots for Nigeria.

Ike, F.; Aragao, L.; Mercado, L.

2013-12-01

203

Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. {yields} Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. {yields} Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

Adaramola, M.S., E-mail: muyiwa.adaramola@usask.ca [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Paul, S.S. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Oyedepo, S.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria)

2011-11-15

204

Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. ? Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. ? Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

205

Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

Babagana, S. A.

2010-04-01

206

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

1992-08-01

207

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

208

Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10 vertical electricity soundings (VES was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands from boreholes within three (3 communities and ten (10 water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3 aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m, middle (82m and lower (102 to 115m aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3 fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984 standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of screen. The middle and lower aquifers are preferable. The middle aquifer is ideal for domestic boreholes while the lower aquifer should be developed for community and industrial boreholes.

Onunkwo – A, A

2012-06-01

209

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

210

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

1993-08-01

211

Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

1992-12-31

212

Is Nigeria’s Unemployment Problem Unsolvable?  

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Full Text Available Unemployment in Nigeria is alarming. Its measurement by statistical authorities does not pose red alert. It has been discovered that the observed situation of unemployment is more serious than what official statistics want us to believe. The aim of this study is to examine unacceptable unemployment rate in Nigeria. Our findings show that labor force in Nigeria grows at more or less a steady rate of 0.3% every year while GDP growth rate at 1984 factor cost grows at 3.5% over a period of 33 years which implies that Nigeria experiences a jobless growth. The causes of unemployment in Nigeria include poor infrastructure, insecurity and non-diversification of the economy and poor educational system that does not readily produce employable graduates. Among other things we have recommended that governments at all levels should partner with the private sector and diversify the economy in order to create jobs.

M.A. Adawo

2012-11-01

213

The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the determinants of the real exchange rate in Nigeria. The objective of the study has been to present a dynamic model of real exchange rate determination and empirically test the implications of changes in possible determinants of the real exchange in Nigeria. With data covering 1970-2010, the parsimonious ECM result shows amongst others that the ratio of government spending to GDP, terms of trade and technological progress are not important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The result showed that capital flow, price level and nominal effective exchange rate are important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The paper suggests that the Dutch Disease syndrome holds in Nigeria. The Johansen cointegration test suggests a long relationship among the variables. It is thus recommended amongst others that policies have to be put in place to stabilize the problem of inflation.

Victor E. Oriavwote

2012-07-01

214

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

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Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

J.S.C. Mbagwu

1995-06-01

215

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2010-01-01

216

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

217

Review of prostate cancer research in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Prostate cancer (CaP) disparities in the black man calls for concerted research efforts. This review explores the trend and focus of CaP research activities in Nigeria, one of the ancestral nations for black men. It seeks to locate the place of the Nigerian research environment in the global progress on CaP disparities. Literature was reviewed mainly through a Pubmed search with the terms “prostate cancer”and “Nigeria”, as well as from internet and hard copies of jo...

Ogo Chidiebere N; Akinremi Titilola O; Olutunde Ayodeji O

2011-01-01

218

African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

2013-01-01

219

Assessment of risk of possible exposure to rabies among processors and consumers of dog meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna state, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan) were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6%) were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4%) were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9%) knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6%) knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8%) did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49) and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43) at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9%) of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure. PMID:24373274

Odeh, Leslie E; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

220

Biometric and Intelligent Self-Assessment of Student Progress System  

Science.gov (United States)

All distance learning participants (students, professors, instructors, mentors, tutors and the rest) would like to know how well the students have assimilated the study materials being taught. The analysis and assessment of the knowledge students have acquired over a semester are an integral part of the independent studies process at the most…

Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Pruskus, V.; Vlasenko, A.; Seniut, M.; Kaklauskas, G.; Matuliauskaite, A.; Gribniak, V.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured questionnaire used as instrument for data collection. The study showed that Microfinance service, particularly, those sponsored by government, have resulted in an increased level of credit disbursement and gains in agricultural production and other activities, the effects were short- lived, due to the unsustainable nature of the programme. Microfinance banks should increase the interval between asking for loans repayment and the time of granting the loans as this renders useless the study or verification of the borrower feasibility study, more especially under an inflationary period.

Edafiaje, A. L.

2011-12-01

222

Micronutrient Assessment of Cocoa, Kola, Cashew and Coffee Plantations for Sustainable Production at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The micronutrient status of the soils and leaf of cocoa, kola, cashew and coffee plantations to study the soil-plant micronutrient content relationship in the plantation soils for proper management towards optimum production of the crops was investigated at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria. Soil and leaf samples were collected from these plantations and analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. The soil samples were analyzed for the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe and in addition pH, organic carbon, sand, silt and clay contents, while the leaves were analyzed for only the micronutrient contents. Results indicated that the soils were sandy loam, acidic, low in organic carbon, deficient in Cu and Mn but very high in Fe and Zn contents. This probably resulted in nutrient imbalance in the soils and the deficiency of the nutrients in the crops. The plantations therefore require application of organic manures and micronutrient fertilizers to rectify the inadequate soil organic matter and to supply sufficient amount of Cu and Mn in the soils, to obtain quality fruit yield at optimum level from the plantations.

Joseph Sunday Ogeh

2014-06-01

223

Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of Southwestern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, were 12.5±3.3, 25.8±4.7 and 153.9±18.5 Bq kg-1 for Suntan Beach, 13.1±3.1, 23.9±4.5 and 219.9±33.9 Bq kg-1 for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2±3.2, 26.3±3.8 and 149.0±19.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8±3.1, 29.7±4.0, 28.2±3.3 nGy h-1, respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034±0.004, 0.036±0.005, 0.035±0.004 mSv y-1, which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y-1 recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. (authors)

224

Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 ± 3.3, 25.8 ± 4.7 and 153.9 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 ± 3.1, 23.9 ± 4.5 and 219.9 ± 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 ± 3.2, 26.3 ± 3.8 and 149.0 ± 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 ± 3.1, 29.7 ± 4.0, 28.2 ± 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 ± 0.004, 0.036 ± 0.005, 0.035 ± 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. PMID:23567195

Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O

2013-10-01

225

Sexual and family planning practices and needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: A rapid ethnographic assessment  

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Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs and it tries to understand their sexual and reproductive lives, with the aim of understanding what they know about reproductive health, social challenges of life they face daily and what are their needs. Method : The study was conducted in the Northern state of Kaduna, Nigeria; a qualitative approach was employed using group interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Individual PLWHAs, their associations and officials of the associations were interviewed. Results : People living with HIV/AIDS ( PLWHAs are a group of people whose life has not been studied very well, they have a lot of pressing social issues such as their circumstances of diagnosis, bad experiences following the diagnosis, and lack of adequate provisions for their healthcare. They wish to see their welfare addressed with provision of drugs and social support. Conclusion : PLWHAs and their associations expressed concerns about how they are treated by both medical workers and the society. There is need to address these issues in the way of research aimed at changing the views of policy makers favourably.

Garko S

2007-09-01

226

Schistosomiasis: assessment of the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of serological methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three groups of sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), complement fixation (CF) and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) techniques; 56 (10.1%) of 554 sera from Nigerians were anticomplementary and so could not be tested by the CF. Crude antigen extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni was used in the CF and CCIE tests and cercarial antigen in the IFA test. IFA was the most sensitive test and CF the most specific. The reproducibility of both these tests was good. The CCIE was the least sensitive and specific, and its reproducibility was poor. The IFA test was the most suitable for Nigerian conditions. Cross-reactions to S. haematobium antibodies were consistently present in all three tests and it was not possible to differentiate serologically S. mansoni from S. haemotobium. The interpretations of the results presented some difficulties because of the frequency of cross-reactions and false-positives, but the data fell within the infection prevalence rate of 50% reported earlier from south-western Nigeria. The IFA test was more specific and is considered ideal for serodiagnosis. PMID:393189

Thomas, V; Ogunba, E O; Fabiyi, A

1979-10-01

227

Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposures to bioaerosols in the occupational environment are associated with a wide range of health effects with major public health impact, including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies and cancer. Respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment are the most widely studied and probably among the most important bioaerosol-associated health effects. In addition to these adverse health effects some protective effects of microbial exposure on atopy and atopic conditions has also been suggested. New industrial activities have emerged in recent years in which exposures to bioaerosols can be abundant, e.g. the waste recycling and composting industry, biotechnology industries producing highly purified enzymes and the detergent and food industries that make use of these enzymes. Dose-response relationships have not been established for most biological agents and knowledge about threshold values is sparse. Exposure limits are available for some contaminants, e.g. wood dust, subtilisins (bacterial enzymes) and flour dust. Exposure limits for bacterial endotoxin have been proposed. Risk assessment is seriously hampered by the lack of valid quantitative exposure assessment methods. Traditional culture methods to quantify microbial exposures have proven to be of limited use. Non-culture methods and assessment methods for microbial constituents [e.g. allergens, endotoxin, beta(1-->3)-glucans, fungal extracellular polysaccharides] appear more successful; however, experience with these methods is generally limited. Therefore, more research is needed to establish better exposure assessment tools and validate newly developed methods. Other important areas that require further research include: potential protective effects of microbial exposures on atopy and atopic diseases, inter-individual susceptibility for biological exposures, interactions of bioaerosols with non-biological agents and other potential health effects such as skin and neurological conditions and birth effects. PMID:12639832

Douwes, J; Thorne, P; Pearce, N; Heederik, D

2003-04-01

228

Assessment of disease activity and progression in Takayasu's arteritis  

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Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic panarteritis of the aorta and its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Physical examination findings, presence of constitutional features, elevated acute-phase reactants, and new vessel involvement in imaging are major features of an active disease. However, assessment of disease activity and damage in TA is problematic given the chronic, indolent disease course and lack of specific laboratory and imaging findings. Although CT, MRI, an...

Direskeneli, H.; Ayd?n, S. Z.; Merkel, P. A.

2011-01-01

229

Assessing the Restructuring of SADC - Positions, Policies and Progress  

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This study was commissioned by Norad. The Report provides an assessment of the institutional restructuring of SADC and an input to the planning of future Norwegian assistance to regional co-operation in Southern Africa. The institutional reforms mainly revolve around the changing role and functions of the SADC Secretariat but also include the sector co-ordinating units in member states which have been found highly uneven in their ability to pursue and implement policies; the establishment of ...

Isaksen, Jan; Tjønneland, Elling N.

2001-01-01

230

Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

2014-07-01

231

Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

232

Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg-1, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg-1 and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg-1, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg-1, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg-1 and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

233

Post-impact assessment of oil pollution in Agbada west plain of Niger Delta, Nigeria: field reconnaissance and total extractable hydrocarbon content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical post-impact assessment of an oil-spill-impacted site in Agbada west plain of the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria was carried out 13 months after recorded incidence of spillage, using empirical indices of reconnaissance and extractable hydrocarbon content. Field-reconnaissance surveys revealed lower species' numbers and diversity of surface and subterranean flora and fauna. The presence and absence of such plant species as Elaeis guineensis, Musanga cecropiodes, and Andropogon gayanus, as well as animal species like earthworms and nematodes in sampled plots, corroborated the evidence provided by the total extractable hydrocarbon content (of (2.53+/-0.43)x10(2) mg/kg and (2.00+/-0.76)x10(2) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths, resp.) on the level of degradation and/or regeneration at the polluted site. The most important evidence that oiling must have been responsible, at least in part, for the reduction in species' number and diversity was provided by the plant cover, Andropogan gayanus, which occurred at a lower density of 0.9 plants/m2 in the oil-impacted plots and 14.00 plants/m2 in the unimpacted reference plots of an adjacent, geographically similar area. The presence of this species on site thus presented a significant difference (PXiphinema sp. that were completely absent in the oil-impacted site. PMID:17191800

Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, S O; Obute, G C

2004-10-01

234

ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS  

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Full Text Available As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and predictive equations were developed. Result showed that Ecorem increased SEC by 13.43 to 23.03%, improved the original soil status (159.25 ±9.25 µScm-1 by 8.63 to 52.94% and did not render the treated soil saline. The effect also varied with Ecorem – soil weight ratio, giving positive correlations with coefficients of up to 0.967 (p = 0.01; which is a function of petroleum product type. Predictive equations developed showed that for planning remediation project execution using Ecorem; for soil contaminated by petroleum products such as spent engine oil and crude oil, marginal negative errors of 9% and positive error of 2 to 17% should be taken into consideration.

ADEBOLA A. ADEKUNLE

2012-07-01

235

Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

2015-01-01

236

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

237

Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of south-east Nigeria using isotope techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the state capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. An inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three (33) water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydrochemical analysis, which results, when available would lie interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. ifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydrochemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to water resources managers and decision-makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

238

Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC. This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria.Methods:A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages.Results: There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82% PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64% PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85% of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization.Conclusion: Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother-to-child transmission, infection to others and obstetric complications.

Ezinne E. Enwereji

2010-04-01

239

Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

Oduola Ayo MJ

2008-01-01

240

An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

Kola Adeyemi

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Assessment of the Chemical Characteristics of a Spring Water Source at Ife-Owutu, Ezinihite-Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available The chemical characteristics of the Giri Giri Nwanjoku Spring in Owutu Ezinihitte-Mbaise, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated to carefully determine some basic geochemical constituents of the water sourcewith a view to identifying those constituents whose concentrations are unacceptably high, compared with the maximum permissible level of a regulatory body and as such determine its wholesome portability for diverse usage. The resultant data conform to the Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007 and the World Health Organization (2006 Standard. The water source is generally neutral with an average pH of 6.85. However, the samples gave an average Calcium and Magnesium ion concentrations of 3.205mg/l and 0.82mg/l respectively and an average hardness (as CaCO3 of 11.375mg/l, indicating that the water is relatively soft. The Stiff and Schoeller plots show at a glance the spatial variations of the chemical constituents of the spring with Tri-oxo-carbonate and Calcium dominating. From the Box and Whisker plot, the greater amount of the cations and anions lie within the second quarter of the box ranging from 0.01meq/l to 0.05meq/l indicating similarity in origin. The Piper trilinear diagram reveals an alkaline earth and weak acid group predominantly the Tri-oxo-carbonate and as suchclassified as Ca-(Mg-Na-HCO3 water facies which indicates portability. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SARand Percentage Sodium (%Na values of 0.27 and 34.20% respectively show that the water is good for Agricultural use. The Pollution Index (PI value of 0.6 (which is less than the critical value of unity shows thatthe spring water is not polluted. For industrial use, the Saturation Index (SI value of -3.41 reveals that the water may lead to moderate corrosion if not properly treated.

Ibeneme, S.I.

2013-10-01

242

Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System  

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Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.?

M. Ahmad Chaudhry

2011-09-01

243

Assessing the Impact of Varietal Resistance and Planting Dates on the Incidence of African Yam Bean Flower Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich is one of the underutilized leguminous crops in the tropics despite its nutritional potentials. One of the major reasons for the gross neglect of this crop in many parts of Africa is its low grain yield when compared to other grain legumes under monocrop. The infestation of the plant by flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti has been recorded as the major causes of low yield of the crop. M. sjostedti can cause yield losses of up to 100%. Following its current status as a minor crop, only very few researches have been undertaken in its production especially as it relates to insect control. Hence, in this study we assessed the effect of varietal resistance and three planting dates on the incidence of the thrips and crop yields in Nigeria during 2009/2010 farming seasons. The results indicated that all the varieties planted in May of each season were less infested by M. sjostedti and differed significantly from those planted in June and July of each season. Amongst the varieties assessed, TSs9 was the most resistance and differed significantly from the rest of the varieties. The results of the grain yields showed that all the varieties performed better with higher grain yields when planted in May than those planted later. The flowering and podding formation stages of AYB planted in July coincided with the peak population densities of M. sjostedti resulting in a considerable reduction in grain yields. The highest grain yields were recorded under a combination of early planting with resistant varieties. It could therefore be concluded that planting African yam bean earlier in the season has significant effect on M. sjostedti incidence and grain yield.

Emmanuel O. Ogah

2011-01-01

244

Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in Parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: The Case of Imo Shale and Ameki Formations  

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Full Text Available Hydro-geochemical survey is undertaken in parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria, particularly in the geologic formations of Imo Shale and Ameki, to assess the quality of groundwater. Eleven samples of groundwater are obtained from various boreholes in the study area and subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques. The study is aimed at the assessment of the groundwater quality indicators namely: pH, electrical conductivity (N, phosphate (PO4, sulphate (SO4, nitrate(NO3- and total dissolved solids (TDS. The result shows that the water from boreholes in Umuahia has low pH, and is therefore acidic. The pH values range between 4.40 and 5.60, which is below the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5. The acidity probably results from carbonic acid derived from the solution of CO2 from both the atmosphere and the decomposition of plant materials in the soil zone. The acidity of the groundwater gives slight sour taste to drinking water, due to the mobilization of trace metals from the aquifer material into the groundwater system, because of the corrosive effect of acidic water. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace metals end up in domestic supplies resulting in health implications and complaints. Acidic waters are typically low in buffering calcium minerals, but are high in dissolved carbon dioxide gas, which can cause the low pH or acidity. Calcite neutralizer tanks with natural crushed and screened pure calcium carbonate easily neutralize acidic water from 6.0 to 6.9. Below 6.0 a blend of calcite and Corosex is recommended. Common systems used to treat low pH: Calcite Neutralizer, calcite & Corosex Blend Neutralizer, pflow Neutralizer, Soda Ash Feed Pump Injection System.

Ifiok E. Udoinyang

2013-06-01

245

The schistosomiasis problem in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria as revealed by several prevalence studies but the degree of endemicity is low. The proliferation of several irrigation projects all over the country has stabilized the infection in Northern Nigeria while in the West rapid urbanisation, supply of portable water and mass chemotherapy have combined to reduce the prevalence rates. Human infection is measured by the determination of incidence, prevalence and intensity of infection. Heavy infections can rapidly be detected by use of urinalysis reagent strips to measure haematuria and protein levels in urine. The prevalence of severe pathological forms of the disease is very low and schistosomiasis is not associated with bacteriuria or hypertension in Nigeria, although isolated cases of ectopic lesions of the genitalis and uterus have been reported. Nodular filling defects occur early during infection, while bladder calcification comes at a later stage. The severity of the disease is related to the intensity of infection. Clinical trials with metrifonate and niridazole among other drugs have been carried out, with varying results. A new drug, praziquantel has been assessed and found suitable for mass use. Three methods of control include adequate provision of safe water, selective or targeted mass chemotherapy and use of molluscicides to kill the snails. Each method has its advantages and drawbacks, but the therapeutic approach is cheap, effects quicker result and treats the infected patients. PMID:2504814

Ejezie, G C; Gemade, E I; Utsalo, S J

1989-01-01

246

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Texas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 007  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the alignment between the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

247

Your Standards or Mine? The Case for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the creation and objectives of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and reviews the findings of an evaluation of the NAEP, published in "Measuring the Quality of Education," by Wirtz and Lapointe. Focuses on the role that the NAEP can play in establishing uniform, national educational standards. (GC)

Lapointe, Archie E.; Koffler, Stephen L.

1982-01-01

248

Direct Assessment of a Progressive Public Elementary School: Graduates of Central Park East.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides an assessment of the Central Park East (CPE) elementary school (in New York City) effort, an effort by teachers who believed that the "progressive education" that worked for the children of the wealthy and privileged in many private and suburban schools could work equally well for poor and working-class children. Study data…

Bensman, David

249

Religion in a Secular State and State Religion in Practice: Assessing Religious Influence, Tolerance, and National Stability in Nigeria and Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Some recent state formations are offshoots of religious societies where the elite clothed the state with religious apparel. Diverse communities and their beliefs compel many modern nations to adopt a secular state ideology in order to avoid religious domination of time. Constitutionally, Islam is the official religion in Malaysia, while the state has maintained peaceful co-existence among its religious groups with an emphasis on religious tolerance and improved wealth distribution. Conversely, Nigeria, constitutionally a secular state with shared populations of mainly Christians and Muslims, is embroiled in yearly religious conflicts. This article aims to show how Nigeria’s secular state status is engulfed in religious bigotry due to institutional inadequacies. This is unlike Malaysia’s state-centered influence on religion, yet its wealth distribution policy makes room for peaceful co-existence in its polity as against more severe challenges of corruption in Nigeria. The paper argues that leadership and institutional failures have exacerbated religious conflicts in Nigeria and hence the state totters in the face of tension. A theoretical debate unveils our proposition on religious practices in both countries. We rely on secondary data and empirical evidence in unveiling issues and conclude with modest recommendations.

Chuwunenye Clifford Njoku

2014-11-01

250

Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20?Sv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtainedh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

251

Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: Assessment of the effectiveness of public - private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : In an effort to increase tuberculosis (TB case detection, the Kaduna State TB program in Nigeria started Public-Private Mix (PPM DOTS in 2002. This study assessed and compared the TB case management practices and treatment outcomes of the public and private health facilities involved in the TB program. Methods : A comparative cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 5 private and 10 public health facilities providing TB services for at least two years in the four Local Governments Areas in Kaduna State where both public and private health facilities are involved in the TB program. The heads of the health facilities were interviewed and case notes of all the 492 TB patients registered in these facilities between January 2003 and December 2004 reviewed. Results : Except for the lower use of sputum microscopy for diagnosis, adherence to national TB treatment guidelines was high in both private and public health facilities. The private health facilities significantly saw more TB patients, an average of 51 patients per health facility compared to 23 patients in the public health facilities. There was better completion of records in the public health facilities while patient contact screening was very low in both public and private health facilities, 13.1% and 12.2% respectively. The treatment success rate was higher among patients managed in the private health facilities (83.7% compared to 78.6% in the public health facilities. Conclusion : Private health facilities adhere to national guidelines had higher TB patient case load and better treatment outcome than public health facilities in Kaduna State. PPM-DOTS should be scaled-up and consolidated.

Gidado M

2009-03-01

252

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

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Abstract Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and strengths in the HIV research output from Nigeria, it is difficult to plan substantial ...

Uthman Olalekan A

2008-01-01

253

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle. Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922 and farm size for other crops (0.550. It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde

2006-01-01

254

Prevalence of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild and Captive Birds in Central Nigeria  

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Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute rapidly spreading, contagious, nervous and respiratory disease of domestic and wild birds caused by the Avian Paramxyovirus 1, the Newcastle disease (ND) virus. ND is endemic in Nigeria. The reservoir status of wild and captive birds for ND virus in central Nigeria is assessed in this study. Cloacal swabs were taken from one hundred and sixty three birds caught from five Local Government Council areas of Plateau, Benue and Kaduna States in central Nigeria. A...

Ibu, O. J.; Okoye, J. O. A.; Adulugba, E. P.; Chah, K. F.; Shoyinka, S. V. O.; Salihu, E.; Chukwuedo, A. A.; Baba, S. S.

2009-01-01

255

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Louisiana and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 009  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) and Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

256

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 011  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be based. Applying…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

257

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Arkansas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 008  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the current alignment between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability Program (ACTAAP) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

258

Using aromatic biological markers as a tool for assessing thermal maturity of source rocks in the Campano-Maastrichtian Mamu Formation, southeastern Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La concentración y distribución de biomarcadores aromáticos en carbones y esquistos de cinco perforaciones en la formación Maastrichtian Mamu de la cuenca de Anambra, en el sureste de Nigeria, fueron analizados a través de un estudio de espectometría cromatográfico y de masa del gas para medir la ma [...] durez termal y la entrada de material orgánico. El estudio está enfocado en las variaciones de la abundancia relativa de naftalinas y fenantrenos, y en los esteroides monoaromáticos y triaromáticos identificados en los fragmentogramas de masas. La trimetinaftalina (TMN) es la más abundante de la familia de las naftalinas mientras el metilfenantreno (MP) es el más abundante de los fenantrenos. El tota de los fenantrenos y sus isómeros fue mayor que el de las naftalinas. La distribución de estos hidrocarbones aromáticos y sus alquilos derivados fue controlada ampliamente por un mecanismo de expulsión selectiva y de la maduración térmica de material orgánico. La baja proporción dibenziotofeno/fenantreno (DBT/PHEN) (0.01-0.06), al igual que las concentraciones mejoradas de 1,2,5-TMN relativas de 1,2,7-TMN indican que la materia orgánica se deriva principalmente de plantas mayores, y del diagrama terniario de los esteroides monoaromáticos C27, C28 y C29 sugiere un tipo III mezclado con tipos II/III de querógenos. El valor calculado de la reflectancia de vitrinita (%Rm) determinado de la proporción de isómeros de metildibenziotofeno (MDR) en los extractos rocosos oscila de 0.51 a 1.43. Estos valores de madurez indican que los extractos de carbones y esquistos son marginalmente maduros para la generación de hidrocarbono. Abstract in english The concentration and distribution of aromatic biomarkers in coals and shales from five boreholes penetrating the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess the thermal maturity and organic matter input [...] . The study focused on the variations of the relative abundances of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and monaromatic and triaromatic steroids identified on the mass fragmentograms. Trimethylnaphthalene (TMN) is the most abundant member of the naphthalene family while methylphenanthrene (MP) is the most abundant phenanthrene family member. The total of phenanthrenes and their isomers was greater than that of naphthalenes. The distribution of these aromatic hydrocarbons and their akyl derivatives was strongly controlled by a selective expulsion mechanism and thermal maturation of organic matter. The low dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene (DBT/PHEN) ratios (0.01-0.06), as well as the enhanced concentrations of 1,2,5-TMN relative to 1,2,7- TMN, indicates organic matter derived mainly from higher plants, and the extract ternary plot of C27, C28 and C29 monoaromatic steroids suggests a Type III and mixed Type II/III kerogen. The calculated mean vitrinite reflectance (%Rm), determined from the distributions of the isomers of methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR) in the rock extracts, ranged from 0.51 to 1.43. These maturity values indicate that the coal and shale extracts are marginally mature for hydrocarbon generation.

Jude E, Ogala; Mike I, Akaegbobi.

2014-01-01

259

Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence

260

Taking Stock of Poverty Reduction Efforts in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is an evaluation of the Poverty Eradication Programmes in Nigeria. It tries to assess their effectiveness in helping to improve on the lives of the poor. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administered to randomly selected adult male and female residents in Enugu State of Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from the Poverty Eradication office in the State. The analysis shows that most of the poverty reduction efforts had no significant impact on the lives...

Ntunde, Flora O.; Oteh, Chukwuemeka O.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Rules of Origin in the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement and Nigeria’s international trade  

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This paper examines the key issues and assesses the impact of the rules of origin (RoO) and cumulation on Nigeria’s international trade within the context of Africa-EU partnerships agreements. The review of literatures shows that RoO are an important element in determining the final benefit associated with the bilateral trade relationship under preferential trade agreements. It notes that Africa-EU bilateral trade relations dates back to the Lome Conventions that gave preferential entry ...

Balogun, Emmanuel Dele

2010-01-01

262

A Systematic Review of Self-reported Swallowing Assessments in Progressive Neurological Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysphagia experienced as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease can have severe consequences on a patient's health and well-being. Regular assessment of swallowing function can assist to achieve adequate nutrition and hydration. Here we review subjective swallowing assessments currently available are suitable for use in people with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement properties were reviewed for each tool and coverage of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO ICF) was considered. Assessments were identified following a review of the published literature Instruments were reviewed on the basis of reliability and validity, as well as administrative properties, such an interpretability, acceptability, and feasibility. Tools were also evaluated according to the WHO ICF framework. In total, 19 studies were identified for full-text review from 13,315 abstracts. Nine self-reported dysphagia assessment tools suitable for use in progressive neurological disorders were identified. The Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) yields the strongest combination of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and convergent validity while simultaneously covering all WHO ICF domains. Lengthy administration time was identified as a limitation of the SWAL-QOL. The review highlights a relative lack of well-validated self-report questionnaires in dysphagia for people with progressive neurological disease. Additional validation and evaluation of the clinical utility of the tools currently available is required to further promote an informed selection of available assessments. PMID:25280814

Keage, Megan; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise; Vogel, Adam

2014-10-01

263

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

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The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Ads...

Obiefuna, G. I.; Sheriff, A.

2011-01-01

264

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR AQUACULTURE USES IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physicochemical studies were conducted to assess water resources in Abeokuta NorthLocal Government Area, Ogun State in relation to their potential for aquaculture uses. Watersamples were collected from both surface and groundwater sources and analyzed for pH,colour, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, BOD, carbonate, iron, lead andcopper. The results revealed a fluctuating behaviour of different parameters throughout thestudy correlations between the physiochemical studied,...

Olaniyi Olopade

2013-01-01

265

Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria  

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The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally expo...

Jibiri Nnamdi N.; Oguntade Grace T.

2007-01-01

266

Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90) volunteer patients; comprising (30) patients with malaria only, (30) with typhoid only and (30) with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State ...

Enemchukwu, B. N.; Ibe, C. C.; Udedi, S. C.; Iroha, A.; Ubaoji, K. I.; Ogundapo, S. S.

2014-01-01

267

Assessment of Coronary Plaque Progression in Coronary CT Angiography Using a Semi-Quantitative Score  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To describe progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque over time by computed tomography (CT) angiography stratified by plaque composition and its association with cardiovascular risk profiles. Background Data on the progression of atherosclerosis stratified by plaque composition using non-invasive assessment by CT are limited and hampered by high measurement variability. Methods This analysis included patients who presented with acute chest pain to the emergency room but had initially no evidence for acute coronary syndrome. All patients underwent contrast enhanced 64-slice CT at baseline and after 2-years using a similar protocol. CT datasets were co-registered and assessed for presence of calcified and non-calcified plaque at 1mm cross-sections of the proximal 40mm of each major coronary artery. Plaque progression over time and its association to risk factors were determined. Measurement reproducibility and correlation to plaque volume was performed in a subset of patients. Results We included 69 patients (mean age 55±12years, 59% male) and compared 8,311 co-registered cross-sections at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, any plaque, calcified plaque, and non-calcified were detected in 12.5%, 10.1%, and 2.4% of cross-sections per patient. There was significant progression in the mean number of cross-sections containing any plaque (16.5±25.3 versus 18.6±25.5, p=0.01) and non-calcified plaque (3.1±5.8 versus 4.4±7.0, p=0.04), but not calcified plaque (13.3±23.1 versus 14.2±22.0, p=0.2). In longitudinal regression analysis, the presence of baseline plaque, number of cardiovascular risk factors and smoking were independently associated with plaque progression after adjustment for age, gender and follow-up time interval. The semi-quantitative score based on cross-sections correlated close with plaque volume progression (r=0.75, p<0.0001) and demonstrated an excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement (?=0.95 and ?=0.93, retrospectively). Conclusions Coronary plaque burden of patients with acute chest pain significantly increases over two years. Progression over time is dependent on plaque composition and cardiovascular risk profile. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results and to determine the effect of medical treatment on progression. PMID:19909929

Lehman, Sam J.; Schlett, Christopher L.; Bamberg, Fabian; Lee, Hang; Donnelly, Patrick; Shturman, Leon; Kriegel, Matthias F.; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo

2009-01-01

268

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR AQUACULTURE USES IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The physicochemical studies were conducted to assess water resources in Abeokuta NorthLocal Government Area, Ogun State in relation to their potential for aquaculture uses. Watersamples were collected from both surface and groundwater sources and analyzed for pH,colour, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, BOD, carbonate, iron, lead andcopper. The results revealed a fluctuating behaviour of different parameters throughout thestudy correlations between the physiochemical studied, the result revealed thatphysicochemical variables were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by site but there were nosignificant difference in the values of Pb and Fe in all the station (P<0.05.

Olaniyi Olopade

2013-01-01

269

Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour  

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Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs ...

Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

2013-01-01

270

Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Status of Water Samples from Major Dams in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical status of water samples from four major dams in Ekiti was assess for a period of three years (dry and wet seasons. Result showed that the physico-chemical parameters determined were higher in the dry season than wet season. The statistical analysis revealed that most of the physico-chemical parameters are significantly different except for temperature, conductivity and dissolved solid whose values are lower than the table value (0.4975 at P = 0.05. The value increased from one year to another. The result obtained fell within the maximum allowable limit set by United State Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization.

O.S. Adefemi

2007-01-01

271

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna

2011-03-01

272

The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Udeme Asibong,1 Ita B Okokon,1 Thomas U Agan,2 Affiong Oku,3 Margaret Opiah,4 E James Essien,5 Emmanuel Monjok1,5 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 4Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 5Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA Background: Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology: Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results: The majority of the respondents (70.8% had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (?2=12.05, P=0.0001 and partograph availability (?2=56.5, P=0.0001 had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (?2=9.43, P=0.002 was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%, nonavailability (70%, shortage of staff (61.5%, and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%. Conclusion: Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. Keywords: knowledge, utilization, partograph, obstetric caregivers, labor monitoring, Nigeria

Asibong U

2014-10-01

273

GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

Edmund C. Merem

2006-03-01

274

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Oklahoma and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 010  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

275

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

276

Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

277

In-Season Assessment of Rabi Crop Progression and Condition from Multi Source Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Timely and accurate information on periodic crop progress and condition is essential to an agricultural country like India. The current study has been carried out with the objective of monitoring the timelines of the sowing of rabi crops viz. wheat and mustard, their progression and condition assessment using data from multiple sources viz. a set of indices derived from remote sensing, meteorological parameters and crop simulation modeling. The study area consists of six districts with significant wheat and mustard crops namely Patiala, Bhiwani, Agra, Bharatpur, Morena and Rohtas, and has been done for three years (2008-09, 2012-13 and 2013-14). The methodology consists of analysis of multi-temporal AWiFS and MODIS datasets of historical and current seasons for the period October to March covering rabi season. Crop simulation for wheat was carried out using DSSAT-CERES crop growth model for assessing crop growth. The results were discussed in terms of crop progression, start-of-the-season and crop condition. As a future scope of this study, thermal indices can be incorporated for further refinement and the same can be extended to larger areas.

Sahay, B.; Ramana, K. V.; Chandrsekar, K.; Biswal, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Rao, S. V. C. K.

2014-11-01

278

An indirect assessment of the effects of oil pollution on the diversity and functioning of turtle communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many documented cases of oil spillage in the Niger Delta region, southern Nigeria (West Africa). Due to both habitat characteristics and omnivorous habits, the freshwater turtles are important vertebrates species in the trophic chain. They are therefore considered to play a significant role as ecological indicators for areas subjected to oil spillage events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oil spillage and consequent pollution on the abundance, complexity and fu...

Luiselli, L.; Akani, G. C.

2003-01-01

279

Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria  

CERN Document Server

The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

2012-01-01

280

Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302 between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230, size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245, hour spent on farm (b = 1.469 and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567 were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

S.A. Adesoji

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Assessing Teaching Readiness of University Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications for Managing Teacher Education Reforms  

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Full Text Available This ex-post-facto designed study was geared towards assessing the readiness of would-be teachers in universities in Cross River State for the teaching profession, and how reforms can be managed to strengthen this. Three hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 200 students from the two universities in the state constituted the sample drawn from a population of 1684 graduating education students. Data were generated using “Students’ Teaching Readiness Questionnaire (S.T.R.Q.”. Population t-test and Independent t-test statistical techniques were used to analyze data collected. Results disclosed that teaching readiness of university education students is significantly low in terms of possession of communication skills, interpersonal skills, ICT skills and entrepreneurial skills; gender influences teaching readiness of university education students in one hand and in the other, it does not; teaching readiness of university education students does not significantly differ on the basis of institution of affiliation. On the strength of these findings, implications for managing teacher education reforms were articulated.

B. A. Akuegwu

2011-11-01

282

A Comparative Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water quality monitoring at five (5 different gauge stations on the course of Njaba River was undertaken to understand the variability of the physico-chemical and microbial contents of the river water within a specified period of time (2003-2008. Collected water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Digital Meters and Standard Plate Counts. Results of the analyses indicated that average pH, electrical conductivity and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS of the Njaba River in 2003 were 6.3, 22 µS/cm and 13.5 mg/l, respectively. Mean values in 2008 for the same parameters were 6.4, 24.4µS/cm and 14.7 mg/l, respectively. Mean concentrations of analyzed cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ in 2003 were 4.10, 0.15, 5.00 and 1.20 mg/l, respectively, and that obtained for same parameters in 2008 were 4.40, 0.18, 6.40 and 1.30 mg/l, respectively. The mean concentrations of analyzed anions (HCO3 - , SO4 2-, Cl- and NO3 - in 2003 were 20.0, 4.0, 1.30 and 0.20 mg/l, respectively and in 2008 the mean concentrations were 24.5, 4.20, 1.60 and 0.22 mg/l, respectively. Characterization of the river water followed the trend: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ (for the cations and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > NO3 - (for anions, showing the Njaba River is NaHCO3 water. Mean concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD of the river water were 7.2 and 2.2 mg/l, respectively in 2003, and 8.0 and 4.0 mg/l respectively, in 2008. Total Coliform Counts of the river water in 2003 ranged from 70 - 90 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 80 cfu/100ml, while the counts in 2008 ranged from 100 - 120 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 110 cfu/100 ml. Calculated Pollution Index (PI slightly increased from 0.72 in 2003 to 0.73 in 2008. These water quality determinants revealed gradual rise in the concentrations of the respective physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological constituents of the Njaba River water. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR of 1.37 in 2003 and 1.54 in 2008, however, indicated that the river remained excellent for irrigation purposes. Except for the observed low pH and poor bacteriological quality, all other measured parameters of the Njaba River water conformed to the World Health Organization (WHO standards for safe drinking water. The generally decreasing low pH value and progressively increasing Coliform Counts and nutrient contents (although still low were the major environmental problems observed in the Njaba River water. These problems are essentially associated with increased anthropogenic activities on the Njaba River Watershed within the period in focus.

Cosmas Ahamefula Ahiarakwem

2011-09-01

283

Special Education Provision in Nigeria: Analyzing Contexts, Problems, and Prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria has made some efforts to educate all of its citizenry, including those with disabilities. And, it has struggled to make sure that programs are available to those who need them. However, its traditional, sociocultural, and educational problems have prevented some programmatic consistency and progress. As a result, the special education…

Obiakor, Festus E.; Offor, MaxMary Tabugbo

2011-01-01

284

Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

2012-02-01

285

Assessment on the Effect of pH on the Soil of Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research work is to assess the level of pH in the soil of irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis using PH meter. It was found that Samples obtained from Nasarawa and Kawo ( pH = 5.8 were the lowest pH in the samples analyzed. These were similar to the pH of the control site Rigachikun with pH = 5.8 (acidic. Sample from Kurmin mashi had the highest pH value (pH = 8.5 and is alkaline. This revealed that most of the soils from the irrigation sites were acidic with the exception of samples from Unguwan Dosa and Kurmin mashi. It was also obtained from the ANOVA p = 0.000<0.05 which shows that there is significant differences in the PH of soil across the various sampling sites. The real differences of soil PH was further analyzed by a post-hoc test using the Duncan Multiple range test with samples from Kawo, Nasarawa,Kinkinau and Rigasa were the least soil PH. In the second homogeneous subgroup there is Makera, Malali, Badiko, Barnawa, Kakuri, Kudenda, Danmani, etc. while the highest soil PH fall in the third subgroup which include samples from Uuguwan Dosa and Kurmin Mashi. The absorption and accumulation of heavy metals in plant tissues depend upon soil PH and nutrient availability which in turn increase the mobility of heavy metals. This variation in soil PH is due to excessive usage of fertilizer such as NPK, urea, super phosphate, manure, pesticides, herbicides and other agro – chemicals as well as human activities and the use of waste water in irrigating the soil. As such resulting to an adverse effect on such agricultural areas.

W. L.O Jimoh

2014-03-01

286

Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

Mmom Prince Chinedu

2010-10-01

287

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria; Mesure des radionucleides naturels et de l'evaluation de la dose de granits de l'Etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th contents were lower, whereas the {sup 40}K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ayeni, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-10-15

288

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a ''client'' of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

289

Risk biomarker assessment for breast cancer progression: replication precision of nuclear morphometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear morphometry is a method for quantitative measurement of histopathologic changes in the appearance of stained cell nuclei. Numerous studies have indicated that these assessments may provide clinically relevant information related to the degree of progression and malignant potential of breast neoplasia. Nuclear features are derived from computerized analysis of digitized microscope images, and a quantitative Feulgen stain for DNA was used. Features analyzed included: (1) DNA content; (2) nuclear size and shape; and (3) texture features, describing spatial features of chromatin distribution. In this study replicated measurements are described on a series of 54 breast carcinoma specimens of differing pathologic grades. Duplicate measurements were performed using two serial sections, which were processed and analyzed separately. The value of a single feature measurement, the nuclear area profile, was shown to be the strongest indicator of progression. A quantitative nuclear grade was derived and shown to be strongly correlated with not only the pathologic nuclear grade, but also with tubule formation, mitotic grade, and with the overall histopathologic grade. Analysis of replication precision showed that the standard methods of the histopathology laboratory, if practiced in a uniform manner, are sufficient to ensure reproducibility of these assessments. We argue that nuclear morphometry provides a standardized and reproducible framework for quantitative pathologic assessments. PMID:12775917

Poulin, N; Frost, A; Carraro, A; Mommers, E; Guillaud, M; Van Diest, P J; Grizzle, W; Beenken, S

2003-01-01

290

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

2004-12-02

291

Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water, in and around Imirigin oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alpha and beta activity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water in and around Imirigin oil field has been carried out. Study area was subdivided into five locations, soil and water samples were collected from field undisturbed environment and oil spilled areas. Sample collection and preparation follows standard procedures. Insitu measurement was conducted for pH and electrical conductivity, heavy metal analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and gross alpha and beta activity concentration was carried out by using Gas Filled Proportional Counter. Average value for pH and electrical conductivity are 6.5±00.2 and 46.8±1.0?S/cm respectively for soil and 6.4±0.5 and 406.1±5.2?S/cm respectively for water. The mean values obtained for AAS analysis for soil are (11.9±1.0, 3.3±0.4, 1.7±0.7, 8.1±0.5, 42.5±1.9, 3.3±0.5, 8.0±0.6, 0.08±0.02 and 79.5±2.2)mg/kg. For Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr respectively. For water, mean value obtained are (8.3±0.5, 4.2±0.4, 1.6±0.4, 1.5±0.3, 1.3±0.2, 0.±0.004, 0.07±0.003, 0.05±0.01 and ND)mg/l for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Pb, Cd, Hg and As respectively. Gross alpha and beta activities mean concentrations for soil are 0.53±0.02Bq/g and 29.29±0.17Bq/g respectively, and 4.02±0.01Bq/l and 54.23±1.76Bq/l respectively for water. The results show that the level of the various metals obtained differs from location to location. Values obtained in soil are within reporte within reported values in the Niger Delta region except iron level. Heavy metals such as Ca, Fe and Cd exceed the WHO limits for drinking water. The mean values for alpha and beta activity in soil are above reported values in similar environment while mean values obtained in water samples are above WHO recommended maximum permissible limit for drinking water. These values obtained suggested that drinking water from sampled locations may pose some health hazards to the public users but soil from the area is safe as construction material for buildings.

292

Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to a...

Olusegun Olowe, Ph D.

2012-01-01

293

Local Residents’ Perception on the Causes and Effects of Deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views

A. M. Ba,

2014-07-01

294

Assessment of solvent extraction for treatment of coal gasifier wastewater. Progress report. [19 refs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary study has been completed for the assessment of solvent extraction for coal gasifier wastewater treatment. This study shows very favorable economics; wastewater contaminants have a market value of about $45.00 per 1000 gallons of water to be treated while treatment costs are about $1.25 to $2.50 per 1000 gallons. Measurements of distribution coefficients between water and various solvents has been completed for m-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) and is in progress for o- and p-dihydroxybenzene, pyridine, o-cresol, and naphthol. A very high distribution coefficient of 40 was found for m-dihydroxybenzene between water and octanone-2 (methyl heptyl ketone).

Luecke, R.H.

1977-06-01

295

Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

1979-07-01

296

Grating visual acuity testing as a means of psychophysical assessment of progressive addition lenses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progressive addition lenses (PAL's) are subject to objectionable astigmatism due to the aspheric nature of their anterior surfaces. Optico-physical assessment of PAL's is commonly undertaken but these measures should be related to the psychophysical responses of patients whilst wearing PAL's. A technique previously used for the psychophysical assessment of contact lenses and spectacle lenses is adapted and demonstrated for the measurement of grating visual acuity (VA) through the aspheric portion of PAL's. The apparatus encompasses an astronomical telescope with magnifying power of unity designed to stabilize accommodation. This paper considers the astigmatism present with three different PAL designs along a horizontal section cutting orthogonally through the umbilical line of each lens. VA was measured, using high contrast vertical and horizontal gratings, along the same horizontal sections of the PAL's studied. A reduction in VA was noted with an increase in the angle of eccentricity from the umbilical line. PMID:2797709

Sullivan, C M; Fowler, C W

1989-09-01

297

Local Residents’ Perception on the Causes and Effects of Deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Niger...

A. M. Ba,; M. Galtima,; A. L. Tukur,; Zemba, A. A.

2014-01-01

298

The Challenge of Liquid Transportation Fuels in Nigeria and the Emergence of the Nigerian Automotive Biofuel Programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is aimed at assessing the challenge of liquid transportation fuel in Nigeria, which necessitated the entrance of the country into the biofuel race. The study found that despite being an important member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC), Nigeria still suffers from fuel scarcities. Reasons for the short supply of refined petroleum products (particularly gasoline, diesel and aviation fuel) in Nigeria include poor capacity utilization of the nation’s refine...

Ohimain, Elijah I.

2013-01-01

299

Assessment of NORM-containing food crops/stuffs in OML 58 and OML 61 within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment of the levels of natural radionuclide in some commonly consumed cereals, fruits, vegetables and tubers within OML 58 and OML 61 in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been carried out. The areas under study were divided into six (6) zones (A,B,C,D,E,F) and investigated. An insitu measurement approach was adopted using Nuclear Radiation Meter (Radarlert-100) and a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS 76 CSX) equipment. Sixteen(16) readings each was taken in each of the six zoned areas making a total of ninety-six (96) food crops samples which was randomly selected. Measured average radiation levels in each of the six zones ranges between 0.009±0.001mRhr-1 (0.479±0.038mSvyr-1) to 0.020±0.001mRhr-1(1.064±0.065mSvyr-1) for zone A, 0.011±0.001mRhr-1, (0.585±0.041mSvyr-1) to 0.022±0.002mRh-1 (1.170±0.105mSvyr-1) for zone B, 0.010±0.001mRhr-1 (0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.025±0.002mRhr-1 (1.330±0.016mSvyr-1) for zone C, 0.010±0.001mRhr-1(0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.028±0.002mRhr-1 (1.490±0.134mSvyr-1) for Zone D, 0.005±0.000mRhr-1 (0.266±0.021mSvyr-1) to 0.022±0.002mRhr-1 (1.170±0.105mSvyr-1) for Zone E, 0.01± 0.001mRhr-1(0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.016±0.001mRhr-1(0.851±0.068mSvyr-1±0.068mSvyr-1) for Zone F. The mean food crop radiation levels ranges from 0.012±0.001mRhr-1(0.798±0.065mSvyr-1) to 0.016±0.001mRhr-1(0.849±0.067mSvyr-1) while the mean background radiation levels ranges from 0.011±0.001mRhr-1 (0.585±0.041mSvyr-1) to 0.015±0.001mRhr-1(0.798±0.065mSvyr-1). The annual equivalent dose estimated were in the range of 0.613mSvyr-1 to 0.849mSvyr-1 far below the dose limits for radiological workers (20mSvyr-1) and the dose limit for the public (1mSvyr-1) (ICRP,1994). Comparison of the measured radiation levels of the food crops samples with the normal background levels show that 45 samples which represent 46.8% of the whole sample exceeded the normal background level of 0.013mRhr-1 (ICRP,1994). These values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the populace consuming these food crops/stuffs but may have some long-term health side-effects.

300

Radiological assessment of the alpha and beta content of water resources of Ogba industrial area (OML- 58 and OML - 61) of Rivers State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of the alpha and beta content of water resources of Ogba industrial areas (OML-58 and 61) of River State, Nigeria were done using gas-flow proportional counter (EURlSYS MEASURE IN 20 low background multiple channel alpha/beta counter). Background measurement and plateau test was done to determine the background radioactivity and optimal operational voltage and frequencies. The alpha activity concentration in well water ranges from 0.012±0.001 to 5.140±0.083Bq/l with a mean value of 0.987±0.035Bq/l. Similarly, the range of gross beta activity concentration spanned from 0.340±0.046 to 16.196±0.126 Bq/l with a mean value of 4.585±0.211Bq/l. For tap water, the gross alpha and beta activity concentration ranges from 0.022±0.001 to 2.300±0.040Bq/l and 0.00 to 5.890±0.025Bq/l respectively. Their mean values are 0.379±0.012Bq/l and 2.815±0.32Bq/l respectively. The gross alpha activity concentration of river water ranges from 0.016±0.001 to 10.064±0.230Bq/l with a mean value of 1.284±0.102Bq/l while the gross beta activity ranges from 2.090±0.019Bq/l to 15.800±0.325Bq/l with a mean value of 7.033±1.020Bq/l. Comparing the results with the WHO safe limit of 0.1Bq/l and 1.0Bq/l for alpha and beta activity in drinking water respectively, the obtained values of all the water sources (well, tap and river) exceeded the maximum permissible limit. Also the control values were lower than the obtained activities. The effective equivalent dose calculated frvalent dose calculated from gross alpha activity for adult and infant to ascertain the health implication of the elevated alpha activity concentration was found to be higher than ICRP limit of 0.1mSvyr-1 in well and river water but the dose equivalent for tap water in infants is lower than the safe limit. However, oil and gas production in the area has contributed to increased activity concentration of alpha and beta in water bodies in the area and therefore may pose serious detrimental health side effects to the public users of these water bodies. Therefore, companies operating in the area should reduce the use of radionuclide in their operations and provide remedial measure to improve the quality of water and reduce the risk of cancer and other related ailments.

 
 
 
 
301

Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean{+-}SD extent, 30{+-}16%) and irregular lines (mean{+-}SD extent, 17{+-}7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean{+-}SD extent, 10{+-}6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean{+-}SD extent, 51{+-}26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean{+-}SD extent, 5{+-}5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p<0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors).

Hartman, T.E.; Primack, S.L.; Kang, E.Y. [Collaborative Research, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1997-03-01

302

How Do Other Countries Measure Up to the Mathematics Achievement Levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we mapped achievement levels from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) onto the score scales for selected assessments from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Achievement (PISA). The mapping was conducted on NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA Mathematics…

Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Smith, Zachary R.

2009-01-01

303

Assessment of Risk of Possible Exposure to Rabies among Processors and Consumers of Dog Meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale...

Odeh, Leslie E.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Asabe Adamu Dzikwi

2013-01-01

304

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)

1998-04-20

305

Cybercrime in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of some key organizations. We investigated these crimes and noted some useful observations. From our observations, we profound solution to the inadequacies of existing enabling laws. Prevention of cybercrime requires the co-operation of all the citizens and not necessarily the police alone who presently lack specialists in its investigating units to deal with cybercrime. The eradication of this crime is crucial in view of the devastating effect on the image of Nigeria and the attendant consequence on the economy. Out of over 140 million Nigerians less than 5x10-4% are involved in cybercrime across Nigeria.

Okonigene Robert Ehimen, Adekanle Bola

2010-01-01

306

Assessment of calving progress and reference times for obstetric intervention during dystocia in Holstein dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this observational study were (1) to assess the time from the appearance of the amniotic sac (AS) or feet outside the vulva to birth in Holstein cows (primiparous and multiparous) with (dystocia) or without assistance (eutocia) at calving, and (2) to estimate reference times to be used as guidelines for obstetric intervention in Holstein cows that need assistance during difficult births. Cows (n=92) from 1 commercial dairy operation were used in this study. Periparturient dairy cows (primiparous, n=58; multiparous, n=34) were placed in a maternity pen and constantly monitored until birth. The calving ease of cows, time from AS or feet appearance to birth, calving progress from a subset of 15 cows (frequency and duration of abdominal contractions during labor), calf birth weight, calf sex, and stillbirths (born dead or died within 24h after birth) were recorded. The reference times for obstetric intervention during dystocia were estimated based on values from unassisted births (normal). The normal range of times from the appearance of AS or feet outside the vulva to birth was estimated based on the mean+2 standard deviations (SD) of unassisted births. According to farm protocol, assistance was provided to cows without calving progress 80 min after AS appearance or earlier (e.g., to correct malpositions). Cows with dystocic births had a longer time from AS appearance to birth and increased incidence of stillbirth compared with cows with eutocic calvings. After the appearance of the AS, calving progress was evident every 15 min for eutocic births. The estimated reference times (mean+2 SD) from AS appearance to birth were 69.7 min and from feet appearance to birth were 64.6 min for eutocic births. Findings from this study suggested that calving personnel should start assisting cows 70 min after AS appearance (or 65 min after feet appearance) outside the vulva. The time spent in labor (straining) combined with the time from the appearance of the AS or feet to birth, and the assessment of calving progress (as described for eutocic births) should be used as guidelines for obstetric intervention during difficult births under field conditions. These reference times should be interpreted in combination with adequate obstetrical knowledge and examination. PMID:22032372

Schuenemann, G M; Nieto, I; Bas, S; Galvão, K N; Workman, J

2011-11-01

307

PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recover...

Ingwe, Richard; Mboto, Walter A.

2012-01-01

308

Nigeria's youth at risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498

Igwe, S A

1992-05-01

309

Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government embarked on a number of public sector reform programmes aimed at blocking leakages of all sorts in public sector service delivery and transactions. The official instrument designed to achieve this much desired honesty, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business especially in the award of contracts and procurement in the ministries, parastatals and departments in Nigeria is the introduction of the Due Process Policy.


Key words: Due process; Public procurement; Administration

Stephen Ocheni

2012-09-01

310

TRADE OPENNESS AND ITS IMPACT ON NIGERIA’S NON-OIL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: 1979-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of the industrial sector and the resultant export witnessed in Nigeria in the 1960s and 1970s was largely the outcome of a policy of import substitution which precipitated the overvaluation of the domestic currency partly through the encouragement of low return investments by preferential credit policies and direct public investment in industrial ventures. The ‘fait accompli’ adoption of the IMF – induced structural economic reforms whose main trust is trade openness among others was targeted at restructuring the economy away from over dependence on the oil sector. This study focused on the impact of trade openness on Nigeria’s industrial performance with a view to determining the spill over effect of the policy on the major contending sectors in the economy. This study therefore examined the relationship between trade openness and industrial performance,armed with secondary time series data and using an ordinary least square multiple regression analytical method. The study found that the unilateral trade openness of 1986 produced the sustainable impact on the nonoil industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. It was observed that Public domestic investment, saving rate, capacity utilization and infrastructure has negative impacts on Nigeria’s industrial performance. Our findings and conclusion support the need for the government to consolidate and maintain the credibility of the trade policies for sustainable growth and development. More progress will be achieved if the conditions needed for a deregulated trade system to work properly are set in place.

Bakare A.S Ph.D

2011-10-01

311

Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope

2010-12-01

312

Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY 04 Year-end Progress Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL), along with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), are developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology for the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This CY04 report describes the latest developments and progress with the development of the Pulsed, Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) nuclear material inspection ystem, such as: (1) the identification of an optimal range of electron beam energies for interrogation applications, (2) the development of a new “cabinet safe” electron accelerator (i.e., Varitron II) to assess “cabinet safe-type” operations, (3) the numerical and experimental validation responses of nuclear materials placed within selected cargo configurations, 4) the fabrication and utilization of Calibration Pallets for inspection technology performance verification, 5) the initial technology integration of basic radiographic “imaging/mapping” with induced neutron and gamma-ray detection, 6) the characterization of electron beam-generated photon sources for optimal performance, 7) the development of experimentallydetermined Receiver-Operator-Characterization curves, and 8) several other system component assessments. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security and is a technology component of the Science & Technology Active Interrogation Portfolio entitled “Photofission-based Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization.”

J.L. Jones; W.Y. Yoon; K.J. Haskell; D.R. Norman; J.M. Zabriskie; J.W. Sterbentz; S.M. Watson; J.T. Johnson; B.D. Bennett; R.W. Watson; K. L. Folkman

2005-05-01

313

Assessing the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease: current trends and future directions  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of advances in biomarker detection and neuropsychological measurement, prospects have improved for identifying and tracking the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from its earliest stages through dementia. While new diagnostic techniques have exciting implications for initiating treatment earlier in the disease process, much work remains to be done to optimize the contributions of the expanding range of tools at the disposal of researchers and clinicians. The present paper examines recent work in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, neuropsychological measures, and functional assessment. The strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies are explored and discussed. It is concluded that AD from its mild cognitive impairment state through dementia represents a continuous process, and that progression over time can best be accomplished by interval-level variables. Biomarkers that are most sensitive to early AD may not be the most optimal for monitoring longitudinal change, and it is likely that multivariate models incorporating cognitive measures, functional variables and biomarker data will be the most fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:20920147

2010-01-01

314

The Developmental State Debate: Where Is Nigeria?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a renewed interest in the idea of the developmental state in Africa. This is partly a reaction to the failure of the pro-market reforms under the Washington Consensus to deliver socio-economic progress. Nonetheless, the Nigerian There is a renewed interest in the idea of the developmental state in Africa. This is partly a reaction to the failure of the pro-market reforms under the Washington Consensus to deliver socio-economic progress. Nonetheless, the Nigerian economy, after fifty years of political independence and economic governance and management, has suffered from fundamental structural defects and has remained in persistent stagnation. Many features in Nigeria’s economy combined with other non-economic factors have produced a weak private sector that is largely oriented towards distributive activities. The productive and technological base is weak, outdated, narrow, inflexible and externally dependent. Furthermore, infrastructure is poor, inadequate and lacks maintenance. Thus, the effectiveness of incentives has been generally low, giving rise to inadequate utilization of the factors of production. The paper blames the country’s overdependence on single product export-crude oil-without profound efforts to diversify the economy as a key weakness. Questions that the paper tries to address are; is Nigeria at present, making enough efforts to move towards the identified features of a developmental state? Does it require a sound re-thinking into the development agenda with regards to the various key issues relevant to developing countries? How can we break out of this vicious cycle? Correcting this scenario forms the crux of this paper. The paper suggests different solution scenarios to many of the problems on the platform of the developmental state paradigm. As such, the country should develop a class of entrepreneurs that possess the tacit knowledge required for rapid industrialization and development of the manufacturing sector. This proactive stance with capable institutions would move Nigerian economy to the desired direction.

Benedict. I. Ezema

2011-12-01

315

An Assessment of Quality of Service (QoS In Voice Communications over Four GSM Networks in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of four operators of mobile telecommunications services in voice communications in Lagos and Oyo States in South Western Nigeria for the first five years of operation. Using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU standard of measuring customer experience of voice telephony service through the voice quality scores known as the Mean Opinion Score (MOS, the study identified the quality of service in voice call between the year 2001 and 2006. The data used for the statistical analysis were obtained randomly from the subscribers of GSM services in the states. The research established that the voice quality for the first five years of operation on all the networks considered were below the ITU specified conversational voice quality of > 3.0 on the MOS scale.

T. O. OYEBISI

2011-09-01

316

Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) accordingP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

317

Microfinance Institutions in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The advocation of micro – financing was triggered by the poor performance of the conventional finance sector. The essence was to reach the overwhelming population of the poor to assist in the drive to alleviate poverty. Barely a million had been provided with some credit in Nigeria while a yawning 40 million poor people are yet to be attended to. In terms of supply, commercial and development finance institutions are in the fore front of the outfits that provide credits to the microfinance ...

Mejeha, Remy O.; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi N.

2008-01-01

318

Could fuelwood use contribute to household poverty in Nigeria?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To show whether fuelwood use could contribute to household poverty in Nigeria, the paper has used the discounted cash flow microeconomic assessment to evaluate the annual worth cost of harnessing fuel wood for cooking and water heating in Nigerian households, for an average household size of five persons per day. Findings indicate that 9786 Naira is being expended on cooking and water heating activities at the household level in Nigeria which is much greater than the mean national household income of about 5150 Naira a year. The study has shown that households using fuelwood are made poorer and left with no savings. (Author)

Adeoti, O.; Idowu, D.O.O.; Falegan, T. [Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Dept.

2001-07-01

319

Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

Yohanna, J. K.

2010-12-01

320

Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

 
 
 
 
321

Exposure of Dentists to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ibadan, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among dental patients and to assess dentists’ risk for exposure, we conducted a study among dental patients at a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a country where tuberculosis is endemic. Ten (13%) of 78 sputum samples obtained were positive for M. tuberculosis.

Cadmus, Simeon I.; Okoje, Victoria N.; Taiwo, Babafemi O.; Soolingen, Dick

2010-01-01

322

Exposure of dentists to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ibadan, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among dental patients and to assess dentists' risk for exposure, we conducted a study among dental patients at a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a country where tuberculosis is endemic. Ten (13%) of 78 sputum samples obtained were positive for M. tuberculosis. PMID:20735939

Cadmus, Simeon I; Okoje, Victoria N; Taiwo, Babafemi O; van Soolingen, Dick

2010-09-01

323

Recent progress in structural integrity assessment techniques for components subject to service-induced degradation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant components are exposed to a wide range of environmental and loading conditions which can cause degradation over time. Aging embrittlement, erosion-corrosion, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue are examples of aging mechanisms which could reduce structural margins in reactor components. The degradation effects from these mechanisms have been seen more frequently with the aging of the early nuclear plants. Since there is a strong incentive for keeping these older plants running for longer periods of time without compromising safety, proper plant management to minimize damage from degradation mechanisms is extremely important. Structural margin assessment, monitoring, and maintenance are important elements of such a management plan. Significant progress has been recently made in the understanding, evaluation and monitoring of these degradation mechanisms. This has led also to new requirements in the ASME Code design basis for nuclear plants. Current state of understanding and new developments in the ASME Code to address some of these degradation mechanisms are covered in this paper. Cast stainless steels used in pump casings and valve bodies have been known to experience thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperatures. Recent predictive models of thermal aging effects on material toughness, developed at Argonne National Lab are reviewed and applied to assess ASME Code structural margins of a reactss ASME Code structural margins of a reactor pump casing. A recent ASME Code Case provides methods for the evaluation and acceptance criteria for reactor pressure vessels having ductile fracture toughness values reduced below the requirements of 10CFR50 due to irradiation embrittlement. Background and application of this code case to an older BWR vessel is described. The occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel piping highlighted the need for evaluation methods for structural margin assessment in piping

324

SERVICE TRADE AND NON-OIL EXPORT IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper was set to examine the relationship between different aspects of service trade and non oil export in Nigeria as well as assess the impact of capacity development on value of service trade and the implications for improving value of non oil export in Nigeria. Secondary data 1980 to 2010 were used. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results show that total service trade value in Nigeria has increased from $1126.59 million in 1980 to $3076.19 million in 2010. Significant correlations existed between the total value of service trade and all the types of service trade except with other service trade value. Road network, government (domestic capital expenditure on services, agricultural credit and domestic service GDP positively determine exportable services. Recommendations include improvement of service GDP and agricultural credit/loan facilities.

Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

2013-01-01

325

Curriculum-Based Measurement: Developing a Computer-Based Assessment Instrument for Monitoring Student Reading Progress on Multiple Indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To…

Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar

2011-01-01

326

E-banking and Bank Performance: Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available he resultant of technological innovation has been the transformation in operational dimension of banks over some decades. Internet technology has brought about a paradigm shift in banking operations to the extent that banks embrace internet technology to enhance effective and extensive delivery of wide range of value added products and services. However, the fact that e-banking is fast gaining acceptance in Nigerian banking sector does not assuredly signify improved bank performance nor would conspicuous use of internet as a delivery channels make it economically viable, productive or profitable. Whether progression is made in the use of internet technology (e-banking or not, there should be parameter to empirically assess its impact over specified period of adoption. Consequently, the study examined the impact of electronic banking on banks’ performance in Nigeria. Panel data comprised annual audited financial statements of eight banks that have adopted e- and retained their brand name banking between 2000 and 2010 as well as macroeconomic control variables were employed to investigate the impact of e-banking on return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE and net interest margin (NIM. Result from pooled OLS estimations indicate that e-banking begins to contribute positively to bank performance in terms of ROA and NIM with a time lag of two years while a negative impact was observed in the first year of adoption. It was recommended that investment decision on electronic banking should be rational so as to justify cost and revenue implications on bank performance.

Oginni Simon Oyewole, Mohammed Abba, El-maude, Jibreel Gambo, Arikpo, I. Abam

2013-08-01

327

Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

1995-12-31

328

Assessing Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Fractionation of Diesel Fuel n-alkanes During Progressive Evaporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis offers potential for fingerprinting of diesel fuels, however, possible confounding effects of isotopic fractionation due to evaporation need to be assessed. This study measured the fractionation of the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes in n-alkane compounds in neat diesel fuel during evaporation. Isotope ratios were measured using a continuous flow gas chromatograph/isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Diesel samples were progressively evaporated at 24 ± 2°C for 21 days. Increasing depletion of deuterium in nC12 -nC17 alkanes in the remaining liquid with increasing carbon chain length was observed. Negligible carbon isotope fractionation was observed. Preferential vaporization was measured for the shorter chain n-alkanes and the trend decreased with increasing chain length. The decrease in ?(2) H values indicates the preferential vaporization of the isotopically heavier species consistent with available quantitative data for hydrocarbons. These results are most important in the application of stable isotope technology to forensic analysis of diesel. PMID:25131396

Muhammad, Syahidah A; Hayman, Alan R; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D

2015-01-01

329

The Food Industry in Nigeria: Development and Quality Assurance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nigeria, the food processing sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises, as well as multinational food companies. Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. These standards are essential elements for local and international businesses which contribute to economic progress through industrial development and trade. This review takes a critical look on the Nigerian ...

Ojinnaka, M. C.

2011-01-01

330

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

331

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The concern about youths development borders on the believe that they constitute an important labour force which can easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques of agricultural production. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in recognition of these potentials has established a rural youths extension out-reach Program to encourage the youths to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this program on agricultural production. This study was carried out during the 2005/2006 cropping season by comparing the performance of the program participants with non-participants. The results revealed that the participants had an adoption level of improved practices higher than the non-participants. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01). Yield of major crops and income of farmers were slightly higher among the participants than the non-participants. The results of the study have helped to identify for the benefit of policy makers, the type of extension approaches required to encourage rural youths to adopt modern farming techniques.

Gambo Akpoko, Joseph; Kudi, Thomas M.

332

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview st...

Oladele, A. O.; Olabanji, J. K.

2010-01-01

333

Providing financial services to consumers at the base of the pyramid in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assesses challenges of financial service providers, specifically banks, microfinance institutions, long term insurers and short term insurers, at the base of the pyramid with respect to affordability, acceptability, availability and awareness in Nigeria. This was done through a questionnaire posed to base of the pyramid consumers in Nigeria. Loyalty to financial service providers was examined to determine what the drivers of loyalty are in the base of the pyram...

Robertson, Nicole

2010-01-01

334

CLAPPING WITH ONE HAND: THE CASE OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES IN NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper expounded the relevance of community participation in the achievement of sustainable urban environmental sanitation in Nigeria. Conceptually, it discussed community participation and urban environmental sanitation and expressed the interface between the two. The paper also discussed the evolution of environmental sanitation practices in Nigeria before, during and after the colonial era. It went further to assess the situation of community participation in urban environmental sanita...

OLUWOLE DARAMOLA

2012-01-01

335

Efficiency Profiles of Vegetable Producers in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vegetables are among the major staple foods in Southern Nigeria. This study assessed the efficiency profiles of vegetable producers in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria with specific focus on farm level technical efficiency. One hundred and twenty (120) vegetable producers were randomly selected from three agricultural zones in the State. The Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLEs) indicate positive relationships between input variables used by farmers and farm outputs. The Generalized Likelih...

Idiong Christopher Idiong; Inibehe George Ukpong; Etim Okon Effiong

2013-01-01

336

Evaluation of blood pressure and indices of obesity in a typical rural community in eastern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: With increasing urbanization of lifestyle, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been on the increase in Africans. Studies on cardiovascular risk factors in rural communities in South East Nigeria are scarce. This study focused on hypertension and obesity in adult Nigerians dwelling in a rural setting in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 218 participants from the rural community were recruited into the study. A questionnaire was used to assess prior ...

Ahaneku Gladys; Osuji C; Anisiuba B; Ikeh V; Oguejiofor O; Ahaneku J

2011-01-01

337

Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea, On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L. P. BEAUV in North-eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea, on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05 the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.

Z. G. S. Turaki

2014-02-01

338

Gender Perspectives in Self-Assessment of Quality of Life of the Elderly in South-Western Nigeria. Are there variations in quality of life among ageing men and women?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined gender variations in self reported quality of life among randomly selectedelderly populations in selected Yoruba communities in three local government areas of Osun StateNigeria. Data was generated through cross-sectional survey of 947 elderly population aged 60 yearsand above. Two internationally tested instruments were used to assess quality of life status amongthe respondents- Activities of Daily Life (with 14 items scales (ADL and Aging Male Symptoms(AMS (with 17 items scales and adapted for both males and females. Findings showed that elderlyfemale fared better than the male counterparts on some of the measures. Also, females were morelikely than their spouse to be able to cope without any assistance. Results from males with a livingspouse showed that majority of the spouse (females were more likely to need assistance for usualdaily activities compared with the male (husband. This trend was also confirmed among femalerespondents as a fewer proportion of spouse (male can cope without any help compared withfemales. The AMS showed that male reported a better health status in the domains of sexual,psychosocial and somatic measures. The study concluded that measures of quality of life were likelyto favour elderly females than males because of many challenges and responsibilities of males. Thestudy raised the need for more in-depth studies to investigate the role of social –cultural factors ofmale dominance and patriarchal system on quality of life of the elderly from the gender lens.

Akanni Akinyemi

2010-03-01

339

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms ...

Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H.; Dickerson, Bradford C.

2013-01-01

340

Compliance with topical glaucoma medications in Owo, Nigeria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Poor compliance with medications is a major challenge in the management of primary open angle glaucoma as it can lead to deterioration of eyesight. This study assessed the compliance with glaucoma medications among patients attending an Eye Clinic in Nigeria. We also assessed the problems encountered during the applications of topical medications. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of one year (October 2011 to October 2012) at the Eye Clinic of the Fed...

BO OMOLASE; OA ADEOSUN; AK AKINWALERE; OA SOTILOYE; OT OGUNLEYE; CO OMOLASE

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI, which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigeria’s domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

A Y Dutse

2008-09-01

342

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-07-15

343

Health Assessment Questionnaire disability progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and analysis of two inception cohorts  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The Health Assessment Questionnaire is widely used for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and its subset, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the progression of HAQ scores in RA (i) by systematically reviewing the published literature on the methods used to assess changes in functional disability over time and (ii) to study in detail HAQ progression in two large prospective observational studies from the UK. Methods Data from two large inception cohorts, ERAS and NOAR, were studied to determine trajectories of HAQ progression over time by applying latent class growth models (LCGMs) to each dataset separately. Age, sex, baseline DAS28, symptom duration, rheumatoid factor, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria and socio-economic status (SES) were included as potential predictors of HAQ trajectory subgroup membership. Results The literature search identified 49 studies showing that HAQ progression has mainly been based on average changes in the total study population. In the HAQ progression study, a LCGM with four HAQ trajectory subgroups was selected as providing the best fit in both cohorts. In both the cohorts, older age, female sex, longer symptom duration, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria, higher DAS28 and lower SES were associated with increased likelihood of membership of subgroups with worse HAQ progression. Conclusion Four distinct HAQ trajectory subgroups were derived from the ERAS and NOAR cohorts. The fact that the subgroups identified were nearly identical supports their validity. Identifying distinct groups of patients who are at risk of poor functional outcome may help to target therapy to those who are most likely to benefit. PMID:24925692

Norton, Sam; Fu, Bo; Scott, David L.; Deighton, Chris; Symmons, Deborah P.M.; Wailoo, Allan J.; Tosh, Jonathan; Lunt, Mark; Davies, Rebecca; Young, Adam; Verstappen, Suzanne M.M

2014-01-01

344

Assessment of Radionuclide Concentrations and Absorbed Dose from Consumption of Community Water Supplies in Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCl per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photopeaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49 ± 15 Bq L–1 with a range of 6 - 177 Bq L–1 while for 238U, the mean specific activity was 3 ± 1 Bq L–1 with a range of 1 - 12 Bq L–1 and the mean specific activity for 232Th was 3 ± 2 Bq L–1 with a range of 2 - 10 Bq L–1 and the total annual effective dose, which vary between 0 - 2 ?Sv y–1, did not show any significant health impact.

Pascal Tchokossa

2011-10-01

345

The Impact of Political Leadership and Corruption on Nigeria’s Development since Independence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper draws an interlocking relationship between political leadership and development and concludes that, while leadership had played tremendous role in the socio-political and economic development of most nations of the world, the reverse is the case in Nigeria. Apart from identifying other social vices that accounted for the protracted state of Nigeria’s underdevelopment, the paper also singles out corruption as the major impediment to Nigeria’s quest for development since independe...

Olu Awofeso; Temitayo Isaac Odeyemi

2014-01-01

346

Solar energy implementation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing...

Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

2008-01-01

347

60 FR 31354 - The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Program Notice Inviting Applications for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...components of the 1998 assessment. It is anticipated...will be a national assessment of the arts (dance, theater, music, visual arts...scope of the arts assessment are possible...supports the National Education Goals by...

1995-06-14

348

60 FR 13136 - The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Program Notice Inviting Applications for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...1997, and 1998 assessments. It is anticipated...will be a national assessment of the arts (dance, theater, music, visual arts...scope of the arts assessment are possible...supports the National Education Goals by...

1995-03-10

349

Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil with Axonopus compressus in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study assessed the effectiveness of carpet grass (Axonopus compressus) in the phytoremediation management of oil impacted soil in Ubeji and Alesa Eleme communities of Niger Delta region of Nigeria. To achieve this, the stud...

Efe Sunday Ighovie; Elenwo Ephram Ikechukwu

2014-01-01

350

Wind Energy Potential In Eastern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria are presented. Monthly mean wind speeds throughout the year have been processed, analysed and presented for Eastern Nigeria. From these values, the wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria were estimated using three different methods. In view of this analysis, Enugu can be considered as the most suitable site for the installation of wind energy conversion system (WESC) in Eastern Nigeria

351

Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

352

Evaluation of Condom Use and Associated Factors among Adult HIV Clients in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria: A Comparative Cross Sectional Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To assess the pattern of condom use among HAART naive and experienced patients in north eastern Nigeria. Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess the pattern of condom use among 201 HIV clients. Particip...

Ballah Akawu Denue; Salisu Aliyu Kwayabura; David Bukbuk; Umaru Inuwa; Babajide Babatunde Ajayi

2014-01-01

353

Beyond the Rhetorics of Statecraft in Africa: Searching for a New Paradigm of Leadership in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leadership question features most prominently in virtually all reported analyses, comments and interviews in the media, especially the print media. One thing that is evident is the recognition of leadership deficit as an important factor in understanding Africa and indeed Nigeria’s predicament. Chinua Achebe, in “The Trouble with Nigeria” identified leadership failure as the bane of development in Nigeria and by implication in most of Africa. As a matter of fact, even honest African leaders like the late Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria, late Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana, and Nelson Mandela (South Africa had in the past pointed at the leadership malaise in development in the continent. This paper therefore examines leadership and governance in Nigeria within the framework of servant- leadership. We noted that for Nigeria to evolve a positive and focus leadership with morals, values and accountability, there is the need for selfless in the form of putting others above self in service delivery, which is the essence of servant-leadership. The creating of a culture of servant leader-leadership in Nigeria would mean the replacement of the top-bottom culture with one where attributes of servant-leadership as already identified flourish. It would require having in place a leadership that has “worked well enough to be considered valid.” It is, therefore, an evidence of internalization of values and “a stabilizing force which creates social reality for its techniques for creating a culture of servant-leadership which is not possible except there is progress in evolving a team of servant-leaders.

J. David Agaba

2010-01-01

354

Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cance...

Oladepo Oladimeji; Abimbola, Oluwatosin O.

2006-01-01

355

Measurement of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activity concentrations of the selected radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured in surface soil samples collected from 38 cities in the southwest region of Nigeria by means of gamma spectroscopy with a high-purity germanium detector. Measured activity concentration values of (40)K varied from 34.9 +/- 4.4 to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) (given on a dry mass (DM) basis) with a mean value of 286.5 +/- 308.5 Bq kg(-1); that of (226)Ra varied from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to 198.1 +/- 13.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 54.5 Bq kg(-1) and a standard deviation of 38.7 Bq kg(-1), while that of (232)Th varied from 5.4 +/- 1.1 to 502.0 +/- 16.5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 91.1 Bq kg(-1) and standard deviation of 100.9 Bq kg(-1). The mean activity concentration values obtained for (226)Ra and (232)Th are greater than the world average values reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation for areas of normal background radiation. Radiological indices were estimated for the radiation/health hazards of the natural radioactivity of all soil samples. Estimated absorbed dose rates in air varied from 12.42 +/- 2.25 to 451.33 +/- 19.06 nGy h(-1), annual outdoor effective dose rates from 0.015 +/- 0.003 to 0.554 +/- 0.023 mSv year(-1), internal hazard index from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 3.02 +/- 0.16, external hazard index from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 2.60 +/- 0.11, representative level index from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 6.84 +/- 0.29, activity index from 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 3.42 +/- 0.15, and radium equivalent activity from 26.95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits. PMID:19352690

Ajayi, Oladele Samuel

2009-08-01

356

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

2012-07-01

357

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1 in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations. Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

Mendell Nancy R

2010-03-01

358

An indirect assessment of the effects of oil pollution on the diversity and functioning of turtle communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available There are many documented cases of oil spillage in the Niger Delta region, southern Nigeria (West Africa. Due to both habitat characteristics and omnivorous habits, the freshwater turtles are important vertebrates species in the trophic chain. They are therefore considered to play a significant role as ecological indicators for areas subjected to oil spillage events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oil spillage and consequent pollution on the abundance, complexity and functioning of freshwater turtle communities of the Niger Delta, by comparing the turtle fauna found in two areas with similar environmental characteristics, one unpolluted and the other polluted by a case of oil spillage in 1988. A total of 510 turtle specimens belonging to four different species (Trionyx triunguis, Pelusios castaneus, Pelusios niger, and Pelomedusa subrufa were captured in the unpolluted area, whereas 88 specimens, from two different species (P. castaneus and P. niger were captured in the polluted area. The dominant species was P. castaneus followed by P. niger in the unpolluted area, and P. niger in the polluted area. A marked shift in habitat use was observed in one species (P. niger after the oil spillage event. This study revealed both direct and indirect effects of oil pollution on the complexity and habitat use of Nigerian freshwater communities of turtles. The main direct effect was a considerable reduction in the specific diversity of the turtles; 50% of species were lost after oil spillage and there was a very strong decline in the numbers of turtle specimens also for those species which were able to survive the catastrophic pollution event. The shift in habitat use after oil spillage by P. niger may have a significant effect on the long-term persistence of this species, independently of the pollution effects of the oil spillage event, because it considerably reduced habitat niche separation between this species and the closely related P. castaneus, a potential competitor. It is therefore stressed that eco-ethological modifications in populations of animals subjected to catastrophic events such as oil pollution should be taken into account when evaluating the long-term effects of these devastating phenomena.

Luiselli, L.

2003-01-01

359

Gamma spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K ) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta State, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2'x2' NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2±5.6Bq/kg to 94.2±7.7Bq/kg with mean value of 41±5Bq/kg for 226Ra, 17.1±3Bq/kg to 47.5±5.3Bq/kg with mean value of 29.7±4Bq/kg for 232Th and 107±10.2Bq/kg to 712.4±38.9 Bq/kg with a mean value of 412.5±20 Bq/kg for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5±12.3Bq/kg, 0.8 Bq/kg, 54.6nGy/h, 0.07?Sv/y, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as consbitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excessive exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area.

360

Overview of safety assessment in the 2nd draft of the second progress report on research and development for the HLW disposal in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the approach used in the safety assessment of the second progress report for research and development for the geological disposal in Japan, and illustrates their application in evaluating the safety of Japanese HLW disposal systems. The safety assessment methodology in the second progress report consists of conceptualizing a geological disposal system, analyzing scenarios, assessing safety through performance assessment calculations and interpreting results. The key role of the engineered barriers and the surrounding host rock in the safety case for a generic system is illustrated in the safety assessment. (author)

Miyahara, Kaname; Makino, Hitoshi; Naito, Morimasa; Umeki, Hiroyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokyo (Japan)

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES FOR NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

Mary Gloria C. Njoku

2013-10-01

362

A Content Analysis of the DMI Mathematics Systems Instructional Objectives Inventory according to the 1985-86 National Assessment of Educational Progress Content by Process Matrix for Mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the DMI Mathematics Systems Objective Inventory (DMIMS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) content by process matrix prepared for the Fourth Assessment of Mathematics. The DMIMS is a criterion-referenced standardized test comprised of seven levels, and it can be used…

Solomon, Alan

363

The Nation's Report Card: Arts 2008--Music & Visual Arts. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 8. NCES 2009-488  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of the 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the arts, which was given to a nationally representative sample of 7,900 eighth-grade public and private school students. Approximately one-half of these students were assessed in music, and the other half were assessed in visual arts. The Music…

Keiper, S.; Sandene, B. A.; Persky, H. R.; Kuang, M.

2009-01-01

364

Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live births by the year 2015.

Odiase Justice I

2011-01-01

365

An Assessment of Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Extension Services Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM): The Case of Oyo State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for extension services. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to assess the amount which farmers are willing to pay. Primary data on the demographic, socio-economic variables of farmers and their WTP were collected from 228 farmers selected randomly in a stage-wise sampling procedure…

Ajayi, A. O.

2006-01-01

366

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

367

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

2011-12-01

368

Activity Based Costing System and Nigeria’s March towards VISION 20: 2020  

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Full Text Available The paper examines the need to develop Activity Based Costing Systems (ABC in accounting practices among manufacturing firms in Nigeria as a tool for product costing as Nigeria marches to the top 20 economics of the World come 2020. With the aid of a structured questionnaire, a total of 50 copies of questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of Accountants, Managers and Auditors in the manufacturing sector but only 45 copies were returned. T-test of difference between means was used to statistically test hypotheses one, two and three. Based on these, the study found among other things that there is extreme low adoption of ABC among manufacturing firms in Nigeria, possibly because of low level of ICT. Secondly, ABC improves efficiency, reduces operational costs, and properly cost products better than traditional cost accounting systems. The implication of these on the study is that in this era of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT and ICT development, traditional cost accounting systems used decades ago when the manufacturing sector was labour intensive and less automated may no longer give the required result. This should give way to Activity Based Costing system, an offshoot of the new manufacturing innovation with capabilities to cost product properly, recognizing causality and transactions involved. Consequent upon these, the study recommends that with expectations of the country to march towards a vision of attaining the height of top 20 economies of the world, Activity Based Costing systems are the challenges we need to face now. The system is in tandem with progressive ideas and new way of thinking in accounting in the manufacturing sector.

Amaechi Patrick Egbunike

2013-10-01

369

Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

2012-05-01

370

Progression of Parkinson's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... Order Free Materials Today Progression The progression of Parkinson’s disease varies among different individuals. Parkinson's is chronic and ... assess the progression of Parkinson's is the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). It is more comprehensive than ...

371

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05). The prevalenc...

S O Sam-wobo, M. A. Adeleke

2012-01-01

372

Environmental gamma radiation indoors at Akure, Southwestern Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposures to environmental gamma radiation were assessed by using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed inside family dwellings made out of stone, gravel concrete, brick etc., at Akure, the capital of Ondo State. Southwestern Nigeria for about two and a half months. The results show that houses made out of soil bricks give the least exposures to dwellers. The dosimetric implications are discussed in the text.

Ajayi, O.S

2000-09-01

373

Environmental gamma radiation indoors at Akure, Southwestern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposures to environmental gamma radiation were assessed by using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed inside family dwellings made out of stone, gravel concrete, brick etc., at Akure, the capital of Ondo State. Southwestern Nigeria for about two and a half months. The results show that houses made out of soil bricks give the least exposures to dwellers. The dosimetric implications are discussed in the text

374

Challenges of Women in Urban Agriculture in Kwara State, Nigeria  

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Women play significant roles generally in urban agricultural production. In spite of their roles, women farmers are faced with myriads of challenges that affect their increased production in the urban areas. This study assessed the challenges of women farming in urban areas with reference to Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 1,801 women farmers were sampled from different urban areas in the state. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were organized for them in order to explore their minds on the ...

Adedayo A; Tunde A. M.

2013-01-01

375

Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria  

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The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria with the view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, the study made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita) as a measure for insurance market activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such as inflation and savings rate as other determinants of growth. The Johansen cointegration and vector error correction approach...

Philip Chimobi Omoke

2012-01-01

376

The physiologic climate of Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

377

Assessing the Relationship between ITIL Implementation Progress and Firm Size: Evidence from Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a service management framework that is considered as aset of best practices that assist organizations to increase IT service management effectiveness, service deliveryand IT governance. ITIL enables technology departments to demonstrate strong IT service management viasystematic execution of operations with stringent controls. A questionnaire survey method was utilized toexplore the relationship between ITIL implementation progress and firm size, amongst 84 Multimedia SuperCorridor (MSC status firms in Malaysia. The study revealed that ITIL is widely adopted in MSC status firms.ITIL implementation progress was found to be positively associated with firm size, in terms of turnover, totalnumber of employees and total number of IT staff.

Kanagi Kanapathy

2012-01-01

378

Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis for Assessment of Progressive Collapse Potential in intermediate RC frame structures  

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Full Text Available Through accident or act of terrorism, structures may be subject to conditions that could lead to progressive collapse. A large part of common reinforced concrete (RC structures are designed as intermediate moment resisting frames. In this study, based on the acceptance criteria of the last edition of UFC 4-023-03 document, the influence of some external column removal cases are evaluated by nonlinear procedures in all stories of a regular structure. Nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analyses are conducted to estimate the progressive collapse resistance of the building subjected to column failure. Results show that after column removal in top stories, in both nonlinear static and dynamic analysis, the structure hinges exceeds CP level of performance. Compared to dynamic analyses, it is concluded that static analyses are more conservative in the estimation of total number of plastic hinges and shear force in beams.

Amin Khazaee

2013-09-01

379

Assessing the role of the EGF receptor in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natalie Cook,1 Kristopher K Frese,2 Malcolm Moore11Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, 2Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: The prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor despite increased knowledge of its molecular genetics and histopathological progression. Pancreatic cancer is a complicated, heterogeneous tumor with several common genetic alterations. Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression can...

Cook N; Kk, Frese; Moore M

2014-01-01

380

Assessing progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a comparison between two radiographic methods.  

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OBJECTIVE: To compare two plain radiographic methods for sensitivity to detect progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis. METHODS: Two sets of paired skyline and lateral knee radiographs from 54 hospital referred patients (108 knees) with knee osteoarthritis were taken an average of 31 months apart (range 12-40). Films were examined separately in random order by a single observer blind to patient identity and time order. Minimum joint space was measured by metered caliper; individual featu...

Lanyon, P.; Jones, A.; Doherty, M.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Using Hand Bone Mass Measurements to Assess Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

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In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) bone involvement presents as joint erosions in addition to generalized and periarticular osteoporosis. Joint erosions on radiographs of the hands and feet are considered to be the gold standard to evaluate progression of bone and joint damage in RA, even though erosions on radiographs are not used as a marker of early bone involvement. Periarticular bone loss seen on radiographs may be the first sign of bone involvement in RA. Over the last decade there has been a...

Hoff, Mari; Haugeberg, Glenn

2010-01-01

382

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Ondo State being the highest producer of Cocoa in Nigeria constitutes the most probable area with the highest use of chemical pesticides to enhance cocoa production. As effective as these chemicals may be in achieving this goal, the incidence of their residues on non-targeted substances and the total environment, with the attendant adverse effects have being of serious concerns. Our objective in this paper is to assess contamination of farm soils by organochlorine pesticides applied on cocoa farms within the Central Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from selected cocoa farms and analysed for organochlorine pesticides residues using GC-MS. Some soil physicochemical properties including pH, particle size and organic matter that may influence the dynamics of the pollutants were also determined. Organochlorine compounds detected at varied concentrations include Endosulfan I and Endosulfan II occurring most frequently with highest concentrations of 350.10 mg/kg and 3.55 mg/kg respectively. Other organochlorine compounds detected were Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Aldrin, Deldrin,, isomers of Benzene hexachloride: ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, and ?-BHC (lindane. The concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (mg/kg measured in the soil samples showed significant (p<0.05 correlation with the total organic matter contents of the soil. Findings from this research thus, provide information on the current and health risk residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in soil from this region with which future environmental performance on the use of pesticides on cocoa farms could be progressively monitored.

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi

2012-05-01

383

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784

Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J

2013-07-01

384

Religious Ideals and Responsible Leadership: The Shepherd Model and Lessons for Nigeria’s Fledging Democracy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria is a country where religion thrives in the form of Christianity, Islam and African indigenous religion. Paradoxically, Nigeria is also a country where amorality thrives. A t all levels of governance, amorality has been a prom inent feature of Nigerian politics. This study discusses religion, morality and politics nexus in Nigeria. It argues that though religion has played indispensable roles in the authoritative allocation of values and distribution of political offices in Nigeria, it...

Ogundiya Ilufoye Sarafa

2010-01-01

385

High rate of injuries among students in Southern Nigeria: An urgent call to action  

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Full Text Available Addressing injury and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that injury is a significant public health problem capable of affecting the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take actions to avert its rate of occurrence particularly in developed nations. While in low-income countries, despite the growing burden of injury, there are few school-based studies from which to develop prevention initiatives. Thus this study describes the cause, nature and types and prevalence of injuries in a cross sectional population of students in Southern Nigeria, in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. An interviewer-administered school-based survey of students attending schools in Southern Nigeria was conducted in 2013. The study sample involved 585 students (60.9% male, 39.2% female and overall mean age of 15 years. We inquired about participants self-reported injuries in the past one year (all injury inclusive. When reported, injuries were further assessed according to cause, intent, nature, type, place, and number of days absent from school due to injury. Overall, there were 549 self-reported injuries in the past one year (93.8% among the respondents (95.5% for males and 90.8% for females, p = 0.6696. Sex wise, prevalence of injury differ by age, school setting and parents’ occupation (p higher in males compared to females [206 (60.4% vs 87 (41.8% p = 0.002, and 10 (2.9% vs 0 (0.0 p = 0.016] respectively. Traffic injuries and falls decrease progressively with age. Homes and schools were settings injuries occurred mostly. Over 68% of the reported injuries were unintentional. On the average, 2 days of normal school activity were lost per injured persons because of an injury. Given the high prevalence of injury reported in this study, injury like tropical diseases, should be considered a significant public health problem in Nigeria. We expect that this school-based information will be useful in establishing rational priorities for prevention, and the targeting of interventions toward responsible authorities. Also, there is a high need for safety education aiming to educate this young population on how to prevent injury.  

Jephtha C. Nmor

2013-12-01

386

Threat to Nigeria Since 1960: A Retrospection  

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Full Text Available The post-independence Nigerian state was faced with the intractable task of governing a multifaceted nation, comprised of 36 regional states which were divided along ethno-religious lines, up to 300 ethnic groups and a plethora of linguistic dialects, in addition to three (3 distinct religious groupings. The challenge of the post-colonial Nigerian state was the efficient administration and governance of a broad-based society with a multiplicity of interests, values, traditions and cultural inclinations. The culmination of an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and dissatisfaction from different regions of Nigeria came with the advent of the Biafra secessionist battle of 1967. Following the end of the Biafra conflict, the Nigerian society became characterised with struggles and resistance against the state system in various forms, with the gripes and disquiets of various groups coming to the fore in various, often violent ways. Making use of library research and content analysis methologies, the authors trace the sequence of crises faced by the Nigerian state since independence, with a keen focus on the Biafra War of 1967, the Niger Delta crisis (particularly, the botched Amnesty Programme of 2009, as well as the current threat of Boko Haram terrorism which has taken hold of the Nigerian society since 2009. The paper concluded that, for the high ideals of Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress to be attained in Nigeria, the State must deal with corruption, ethnicity, religious fundamentalism and security related crimes, while doing more to restructure the polity and enthrone free and fair elections.

L. Andy Afinotan

2014-06-01

387

Perception and practice of lifestyle modification in the management of hypertension among hypertensives in south-east Nigeria  

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Background: Hypertension ranks first among the non-communicable diseases in Nigeria and globally. Interventions like lifestyle modifications, with its advantages, are often overlooked. Awareness and practice of these measures will aid in blood pressure control. Aim: To assess the level of awareness and practice of lifestyle modification among hypertensive adults in a semi-urban community of Olokoro in Umuahia South local government area of Abia state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study...

Okwuonu C.G; Emmanuel C.I; Ojimadu N.E.

2014-01-01

388

Pain relief in labor: a survey of awareness, attitude, and practice of health care providers in Zaria, Nigeria  

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E Ogboli-Nwasor1, SE Adaji2, SB Bature2, OS Shittu21Department of Anesthesia, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of maternal health care providers to pain relief during labor in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: This was a multicenter, collaborative, cross-sectional pilot study of provider perspectives concerning pain relief during labor. A structured, self-administered, que...

Ogboli-Nwasor E; Se, Adaji; Sb, Bature; Os, Shittu

2011-01-01

389

Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

390

Assessment of progression of secondary bone lesions following cancer of the breast or prostate using serial radionuclide imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A serial study on 32 patients with bone metastases following cancer of the breast or prostate was performed over three years. Up to ten sets of images (average of four) per patient were obtained during this period using 99Tcsup(m) methylene diphosphonate as the radiopharmaceutical. Ninety-three paired serial images of individual lesions were qualitatively assessed for change by three physicians in nuclear medicine and the results were compared with the quantitative results from computer analysis. The reproducibility of the quantitative approach was determined by the analysis of 20 paired lesions by three physicists. It was found that quantitative changes in uptake of less than 20% between images were generally not detected by the medical observers; a change of 41% had only a 95% probability of being identified as change by the physicians. Although much more reproducible in determining changes in individual lesions, the quantitative approach was found to be inferior to the qualitative assessment of overall change in the majority of cases which involve multiple lesions. The basic assumption that uptake varies proportionally with progression of the bone lesion is discussed and is considered in some instances to be untenable. The conclusion is drawn that the determination of progression from changes of uptake in longstanding lesions is uncertain and is subsidiary in importance to the detection of new lesions (U.K.)

391

NON-CANCER HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FROM EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA  

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Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the Un...

Ayantobo, O. O.; Awomeso, J. A.; Oluwasanya, G. O.; Bada, B. S.; Taiwo, A. M.

2014-01-01

392

The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

2013-01-01

393

The Nation's Report Card: Reading and Mathematics 2011. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4 and 8. Findings in Brief. NCES 2012-459  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

2011-01-01

394

Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

Hamlin, Teri L.

2011-01-01

395

Hope and violence in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

396

Progress on the European Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) project was set up by the European Community Fusion Programme in response to recommendations made by a high level Fusion Programme Evaluation Board. The Evaluation Board stated that fusion potentially possesses ''inherent environmental and safety advantages over all current alternatives for base load electricity generation'', but that a ''convincing demonstration'' of these potential advantages is necessary. SEAFP is undertaken by three main participants: the NET Team, The Euratom/UKAEA Association, and European industry. Other EC fusion laboratories also participate. The work embraces the outline design of fusion power stations, the safety and environmental assessment of those designs, and interactions between design and assessment to improve the design. The project began in April 1992 and will report in December 1994. In the first year of the project, five candidate blanket concepts were developed in parallel. Other aspects of design were developed as far as possible independently of the blanket designs. Assessments were made of the technical merits of the candidate designs, and scoping calculations were used to provide preliminary assessments of their accident and waste management characteristics. Accident identification studies were used to select the bounding sequences to be analysed later in detail. Targets for safety and environmental performance were developed. This phase of the study culminated, oped. This phase of the study culminated, in August 1993, in the selection of two plant models, one based on a water/martensitic steel/lithium-lead blanket, the other based on a helium/vanadium alloy/lithium oxide blanket, to be developed and assessed in more detail. Other design variants will be assessed through sensitivity studies. ((orig.))

397

Bank Credit and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This paper assesses the significance of real bank credit in stimulating real output growth in the case of Nigeria. The study observes that credit Granger causes output. In testing the factors that mobilise credit, it finds that exports in general are negatively related to credit. However, while oil exports are negatively related to credit, non-oil export has positive relationship with credit. Credit is also positively linked to capital inflows and imports. These findings suggest that bank credit is inextricably linked to the opening of the economy to international trade and capital flows in non-oil.

key words: Bank credit; Economic growth; Nigeria

Roseline Oluwatoyin Oluitan

2012-12-01

398

TQM STRATEGIES AND HEALTH CARE DELIVERIES: LESSONS FROM NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available We examine the TQM Strategies and health care delivery in Nigeria, and the various means of measuring service quality. Nigeria continues to suffer outbreaks of various diseases cholera, malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis, measles, yellow fever, Bird flu e.t.c., all these diseases combine to cause high morbidity and mortality in the population. To assess the situation this paper looks at the relevant indicators like Annual Budgets by Government, Individual’s income, the role of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA and various health care agencies vested with the sole responsibility for elaborating standards for products and processes in Health care Delivery.The paper also examines the implication of Government Budget estimates on the Life expectancy of an average Nigerian. The findings necessitated the need for the government to seek support from WHO to assist in strengthening the health care system by advocating and providing technical support to health sector reforms.

Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

2007-10-01

399

Islamism Vs Secularism: A Religious- Political Struggle in Modern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper is a historically based approach to the topic of contemporary political and religious status of Nigeria. Recently, the secular administration by Islamists has generated violence between Muslims and Christians. The latter view Islamism as a gradual Islamisation of the country. Modern Islamists plead for a re-introduction of shari?a and OIC membership. They reject the secular status of Nigeria, the Islamic banking and educational system, etc. The meaning and purpose of these are not different from hijrah, and mahdism of early 20th century. The is- sue is about restoring the ousted Caliphal system, and about rejecting the Western system and secularism, which were introduced by imperialists. The spirit of Islamism is increasing, especially among the grass-roots, elite, and politicians. In these circumstances, the phe- nomenon has to be assessed in an interdisciplinary way.

Mukhtar Umar Bunza

2002-08-01

400

Islamism Vs Secularism: A Religious- Political Struggle in Modern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper is a historically based approach to the topic of contemporary political and religious status of Nigeria. Recently, the secular administration by Islamists has generated violence between Muslims and Christians. The latter view Islamism as a gradual Islamisation of the country. Modern Islamists plead for a re-introduction of shari'a and OIC membership. They reject the secular status of Nigeria, the Islamic banking and educational system, etc. The meaning and purpose of these are not different from hijrah, and mahdism of early 20th century. The issue is about restoring the ousted Caliphal system, and about rejecting the Western system and secularism, which were introduced by imperialists. The spirit of Islamism is increasing, especially among the grass-roots, elite, and politicians. In these circumstances, the phenomenon has to be assessed in an interdisciplinary way.

Mukhtar Umar Bunza

2002-08-01