WorldWideScience
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Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and children under five years of age since 2000. The survey was the first nationally representative study of ITN use assessing progress towards the Abuja target amongst vulnerable groups. Population and Method A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 7,200 households, selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique from 12 randomly selected states from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data collection was done during the malarious rainy season (October 2005 using a modified WHO Malaria Indicator Survey structured questionnaire about household ownership and utilization of mosquito nets (treated or untreated from household heads. Results Household ownership of any net was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%–25.1% and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%–10.9%. Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%–12.6% and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2% for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion, presence of health facility and wealth index by caregiver's education predicted the use of ITN among this group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the substantial increase in ITN utilization among children under five years of age in Nigeria is still far from the Abuja targets.

Sofola Olayemi T

2008-07-01

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The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The [...] study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to determine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

Olusegun Ayodele, Akanbi.

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Planning law versus the right of the poor to adequate housing: A progressive assessment of the Lagos State of Nigeria's Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law of 2010  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The notion of the neutral application of law is the very foundation of liberal societies, in spite of the fact that this notion has been debunked as a myth by a large body of scholarship. This notion continues to pervade liberal societies, operates discriminately against the poor and less privileged [...] members of society and impedes poverty reduction efforts. The article demonstrates the exclusionary and discriminatory operation and impact of the myth of the neutral application of law on the right of the poor to adequate housing through a progressive assessment of the Lagos State of Nigeria's Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law, 2010, a supposedly neutral planning statute. It concludes that, for the fight against poverty to make any headway in Africa, poverty reduction must continually be mainstreamed. There must constantly be a pro-poor approach to laws and policies.

Akinola E, Akintayo.

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Empirical Assessment of Nigeria’s Agricultural Export and Economic Welfare  

OpenAIRE

This paper assessed empirically Nigeria’s agricultural export and economic welfare. Data used for the study were obtained from secondary sources, bulk of which was collected from institutional and national databases over 1990-2005 and were analyzed using multiple regression and growth rate analysis. The results showed that agricultural output, inflation, subsidy, exchange rate, food import and export were statistically significant at various risk levels and have major implications on the ec...

Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi; Ehumadu, Felix; Mejeha, Remy; Nwaru, Jude; Agwu, Nnanna; Onwumere, Joe

2008-01-01

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An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

Nkechi M. Christopher

2012-05-01

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Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2004-July 2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate polio, the number of countries where polio is endemic decreased from 125 in 1988 to six in 2003. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative faced critical challenges during 2003-2005, when a resurgence of polio cases occurred across Africa. Nigeria, the most populous country of the continent, experienced increased wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission throughout the country after suspension of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in certain northern states because of misconceptions regarding vaccine safety. The resurgence in Nigeria resulted in the spread of WPV during 2003-2005 into 18 countries that had been polio-free for 1 or more years, including three countries outside Africa. Transmission was reestablished and is ongoing in six of these countries. The Nigerian states that suspended campaigns subsequently resumed SIAs in 2004, in synchrony with SIAs being conducted in other countries across West and Central Africa. This report summarizes polio eradication activities and WPV circulation in Nigeria during January 2004-July 2005 and the actions under way to interrupt WPV transmission. PMID:16151372

2005-09-01

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Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 ...

Parvaz Madadi; Sounyo, Adebukola A.; Enato, Ehijie F. O.

2012-01-01

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Gender and Family Structure on Career Progression in Public Audit Firms in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Gender and family structure are important variables in the growth and promotion of auditors in public audit firms to be partners and managing partners. Therefore, this study examines the effect of gender and family structure on the career progression of individuals in public audit firms in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, relevant primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was collected from a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty three respondent...

Ukuta Ayakiri Jeake; Appah Ebimobowei; Bariweni Binaebi

2013-01-01

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Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

Obe Bernardine Wuraola

2011-09-01

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Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, ...

Ogunsumi, L. O.; Adegbite, A. A.; Oyekan, P. O.

2007-01-01

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Using UNAIDS’s organizing framework to assess Nigeria’s national HIV monitoring and evaluation system  

OpenAIRE

The Nigeria National Response Management Information System (NNRIMS), developed in 2004 as a framework for monitoring and evaluating the country’s response to HIV, does not function at an optimum level due to several challenges, including a confusing proliferation of vertical reporting systems, competition among sectors, and the nascent nature of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) sub-systems within many institutions. An assessment of the existing M&E system was conducted to verify...

Kayode Ogungbemi; Oyediran, Kola A.; Stephanie Mullen; Anne LaFond; Aderemi Azeez; David Boone; Tendayi Ndori Mharadze; Natasha Kanagat; Akinyemi Atobatele

2012-01-01

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Assessing Pupils' Progress in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Good assessment practice is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It puts learners at the heart of the process, helping them to recognise achievement and make progress, and enables teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations. Over the past year, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) has…

Slade, Peter

2009-01-01

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Using UNAIDS’s organizing framework to assess Nigeria’s national HIV monitoring and evaluation system  

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Full Text Available The Nigeria National Response Management Information System (NNRIMS, developed in 2004 as a framework for monitoring and evaluating the country’s response to HIV, does not function at an optimum level due to several challenges, including a confusing proliferation of vertical reporting systems, competition among sectors, and the nascent nature of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E sub-systems within many institutions. An assessment of the existing M&E system was conducted to verify whether the system has the capacities to provide essential data for monitoring the epidemic and identifying critical programming gaps. Nigeria’s National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA used an organizing framework for a national HIV M&E system developed by UNAIDS, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the NNRIMS to generate data for evidence-based decisionmaking. The participatory approach used during an assessment workshop ensured that the process was country-led and -owned to build consensus and local capacity, and that it encouraged adoption of a single national-level multisectoral HIV M&E system. The assessment found an operable M&E system at the national level but a much weaker system at the state and local levels and across seven other sectors. There are multiple data collection and reporting tools at the facility level that lead to vertical reporting systems, which increases the burden of reporting at lower levels, especially by service providers. Human resources are being developed, but problems remain with the quantity and quality of staff. Data use, though evident at the national level, is still very weak among five of the seven sectors assessed. The assessment results have been used to develop a national costed M&E workplan to which all stakeholders contributed in a coordinated response to strengthen the system.

Kayode Ogungbemi

2012-08-01

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Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

Butu, A.W

2013-06-01

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A description of HIV prevalence trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622

Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

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Assessment of Child Progress. Monograph Number 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four author-contributed papers examine issues in assessing child progress in early childhood special education. D. Bricker and S. Gumerlock present "A Three-Level Strategy" which features analysis of daily or weekly progress, analysis of progress toward long- and short-term objectives, and analysis of progress toward program goals. C. Dunst…

Danaher, Joan, Ed.

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Multicriteria Assessment of Various Onsite Wastewater Treatment Options for Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Eight onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) were evaluated for suitability of application in Nigeria for efficient treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater, using analytic network process (ANP). Ten location related risks were used as criteria in the decision making process. Expert views were used to obtain pairwise comparison matrices of the OWTSs with respect to the criteria. Saaty’s Super Decision Software was used to complete the ranking process. The ord...

Chidozie Charles Nnaji; Chinedu Ekechukwu; Fortune Onyia; Christopher Afangideh

2014-01-01

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Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact  

OpenAIRE

Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaire’s disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled wa...

Icj, Omalu; Gc, Eze; Ik, Olayemi; Gbesi S; La, Adeniran; Av, Ayanwale; Az, Mohammed; Chukwuemeka V

2011-01-01

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Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals) of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration valu...

Longe, E. O.

2010-01-01

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Assessing the relevance, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV/AIDS in-service training in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than three million people in Nigeria are living with HIV/AIDS. In order to reduce the HIV/AIDS burden in Nigeria, the US Government (USG) has dedicated significant resources to combating the epidemic through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In-service training (IST) of health workers is one of the most commonly used strategies to improve the quality and coverage of HIV/AIDS services. At USAID/Nigeria's request, the USAID-funded CapacityPlus project conducted an assessment of PEPFAR-funded IST for all cadres of health workers in Nigeria. Using the IST Improvement Framework, developed by the USAID Applying Sciences to Strengthen and Improve Systems Project (ASSIST), as a guide, the authors developed a survey tool to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of IST provided between January 2007 and July 2012 by PEPFAR-funded implementing partners in Nigeria. The instrument was adapted to the Nigerian context and refined through a stakeholder engagement process. It was then distributed via an online platform to more than 50 PEPFAR-funded implementing partners who provided IST in Nigeria. A total of 39 implementing partners completed the survey. Our survey found that PEPFAR implementing partners have been providing a wide range of IST to a diverse group of health workers in Nigeria since 2007. Most trainings are developed using national curricula, manuals and/or other standard operating procedures. Many of the partners are conducting Training Needs Assessments to inform the planning, design and development of their training programs. However, the assessment also pointed to a number of recommendations to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of PEPFAR-funded IST. These actions are as follows: improve collaboration and coordination among implementing partners; apply a more diverse and cost-effective set of training modalities; allocate funding specifically for the evaluation of the effectiveness of training; improve links between IST and both continuing professional development and pre-service education; require implementing partners to create sustainability plans to transition training from PEPFAR funding to other funding sources; and develop a training information management system to track key aspects of IST, such as the number and types of providers, courses, and participants of PEPFAR-funded IST. PMID:24739511

Burlew, Randi; Puckett, Amanda; Bailey, Rebecca; Caffrey, Margaret; Brantley, Stephanie

2014-01-01

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Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to properl...

Olayemi Soladoye; Oromakinde, Oluwafemi O.

2013-01-01

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Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in anambra state, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study assessed the use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected by the use of interview schedule from a sample of 60 respondents. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Results revealed that the farmers were using indigenous technologies such as baskets, aerial (over fire) in the kitchen, bare floors, among others in storing maize. The respondents indicated t...

Ajani, E. N.

2012-01-01

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An Assessment of the Impact of Abattoir Effluents on River Illo, Ota, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective seven sampling locations were chosen along the river course. The choice of locations was to reflect the variations in concentrations of the following important parameters of water quality issue: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrate...

Omole, D. O.; Longe, E. O.

2008-01-01

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ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl) inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3)industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM), Furniture (F)and Wood Carving (WC), including a Control (C) wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV) andInternational (WHO) regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA) statistics was us...

Akpan, Michael; Okwara, Obasi Udo

2012-01-01

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Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices of Building Materials in Ogbomoso, South-West Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This research study aims at assessing the radiological hazards indices of materials used for the construction of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical facility in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria. The determination was sequel to the measurement of the radionuclide contents of the materials (Granite, Cement, Sand, and Concrete) used in the construction of the building, using a high-purity germanium detector gamma spectrometer. The natural radionuclides det...

Ajayi Olanipekun Jonathan; Paul Jere; Bashiru Bolaji Balogun

2013-01-01

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Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Insti...

Ojo, O. D.; Adebayo, O. S.; Olaleye, O.; Orkpeh, U.

2012-01-01

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Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: ?The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. ?Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Goveods and then compared against the Government's plans. ?These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. ?The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. ?Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

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Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

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An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples’ Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.

Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political development

Résumé Cet article a évalué la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitulé “Le militaire à la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance émergente au Nigeria” pour le Nigéria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examiné le pouvoir et l’influence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers à la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de l’économie en raison de leur richesse,l’ex-militaire de connexion, la compétence, le prestige et l’expérience. Il pose en principe que les retraités militaires sont regroupés en deux catégories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retraité militaire a été en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraités se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de l’activité humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scène politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle élite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considérable dans la prise de décision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothèses étaient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraités militaires ont émergé depuis 1999 que l’élite dirigeante et même si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure déterminée qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples «Parti démocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont été fortement influencés par ces riches et influents officiers à la retraite qui, à tout prix veiller à ce que leurs candidats à remporter les élections. Avec la nomination d’un nouveau président CENI, la révision de la loi électorale, et la campagne pour l’élection libre et équitable, il est estimé que d’un nouvel ensemble de l’élite émergera qui va réveiller le développement politique au Nigeria.

Mots clés: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire à la retraire comme puissance émergente au Nigeria; développement politique

Gift Ntiwunka

2012-04-01

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Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (PV can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these systems have been jeopardized. The objective of this work is to embark on performance assessments of in- stalled Solar PV system in Oke-Agunla, Akure local government of Ondo State in Nigeria. Visits were conducted to the village; equipments on ground were examined while the people were interviewed. Both functional and non-functional facilities were traced to their manufacturers using the identification data on them and rated to ensure their efficiencies. Energy demands were also prorated, and observed the need to improve on the present energy supplied. Results of the assessments shows that PV facilities used were inadequate, trained technicians were not available giving room for quacks working on the facilities occasionally resulted in further complications and poor facilities maintenance. The assessment result shows that just 14.52% of the 4.5 kW installed solar PV was utilized due to significant malfunctioning and deterioration in performance. It can be concluded from this study that the installed solar PV systems was inefficient as a result of poor maintenance, lack of technical know-how and inability of the project contractors or managers to take these factors into consideration while embarking on the solar PV installations.

Olawale Saheed Ismail

2012-08-01

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Multi-Dimensional Approach to Environmental Quality Assessment of life Central Local Government Area in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality of water samples from various sources in Ife Central Local Government Area in Nigeria has been assessed using standard analytical techniques. 300 water samples of 2 litres each were collected. Some were analysed for trace elements using AAS, nitrate using UV Spectrometry and bacteriological content. The specific radioactivity of 100 soil samples were determined using a Gamma Spectrometer. Most of the sources of drinking water were polluted. Iron contents were found to be very high in most of the samples. In general, radioactivity levels from natural and artificial are relatively low in soil samples except at three sample sites

32

Habitat assessment for seasonal variation of river pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria, in a geographic information systems interface  

OpenAIRE

More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposure in environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management authorities. Using habitat assessment protocol, the author assesses the pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data used include hydrographic feature data and habitat assessment data. These basic environmental components are the result of the integration of a wide range of relatively independent factor...

Adeyemo, Olanike K.

2008-01-01

33

Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

Parvaz Madadi

2012-10-01

34

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

35

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SPRING WATER IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Development of natural spring is one of the mini water schemes which were harnessed to improved access to water in Ibadan city. This study assesses the quality of the water supply from the natural spring with the aim of justifying weather the sources are potable as means for improved access to water. Samples of water from four natural spring sources were collected for qualitative tests: physical (colour, odour and taste), turbidity, Ph, nitrate, bacterial and total coliform test which were do...

Adeniji-oloukoi, Grace

2012-01-01

36

Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

Irohibe Ifeoma

2014-03-01

37

Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, it is argued that this is not the case in Nigeria. With the aid of the elite and class analytical models, it is contended that the opinions of the Nigerian masses hardly impinge on the policy-making process, and the “public” policies churned out of this process are often designed to promote and protect the class interests of those who control the Nigerian State. It is concluded that the extreme poverty and illiteracy which pervade the Nigerian society have emasculated and disempowered the majority of the people and made them inconsequential observers in the policy-making process in the country.

Ugumanim Bassey Obo

2014-06-01

38

Assessment of Land Cover Change in the North Eastern Nigeria 1986 to 2005  

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Full Text Available Environmental disturbance such as drought, overgrazing, and increase in population in north eastern Nigeria over the years has led to degradation, shortage of land and water resources and sometimes violent conflict among communities. Land cover change provides a vital means of understanding and managing these problems. Thus this research provided an assessment of how tree, shrub grass, bare ground and urban land cover changed from 1986 to 2005. NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat images were used with data obtained from field survey for the land cover classifications. Change in the land covers were analysed according to persistence, swapping, net loss and gain. Uncertainties were analysed by confusion matrices. The overall accuracies of the classifications used for the analysis are between 60% and 75%. The transition and change accuracies are between 45% and 60%. Approximately 60% of the area of study remained unchanged during the period. Of the remainder, approximately 11% of the area interchanged between shrub grass and bare ground. The most unstable category was shrub grass and was also the source of misclassification. The changes in general concurred with the perception of change in the area and gave some insight on the change that occurred.

Samuel Garba

2013-12-01

39

CT assessment of progression in pulmonary emphysema  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess the progression of pulmonary emphysema (PE) using CT. We reviewed the records of 25 cases (all male smokers and age range of 36-85 years) in whom progression of PE was recognized using CT scanning. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low attenuation areas on CT scan. PE was divided into 2 subtypes: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). There were 8 younger cases less than 50s. With respect to smoking habit, 6 cases had 1 pack per day at maximum whereas the remaining 19 cases had more over than 1.5 packs per day. Interval periods of observation were from 8 months minimum to 10 years maximum. PE, of both CLE and PSE subtype, was recognized even in younger cases less than 40 years of age, and progressed with cigarette consumption even a minimum during 8 months periods of observation. (author)

Satoh, Katashi; Mitani, Masahiro [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Murota, Makiko (and others)

2002-01-01

40

CT assessment of progression in pulmonary emphysema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the progression of pulmonary emphysema (PE) using CT. We reviewed the records of 25 cases (all male smokers and age range of 36-85 years) in whom progression of PE was recognized using CT scanning. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low attenuation areas on CT scan. PE was divided into 2 subtypes: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). There were 8 younger cases less than 50s. With respect to smoking habit, 6 cases had 1 pack per day at maximum whereas the remaining 19 cases had more over than 1.5 packs per day. Interval periods of observation were from 8 months minimum to 10 years maximum. PE, of both CLE and PSE subtype, was recognized even in younger cases less than 40 years of age, and progressed with cigarette consumption even a minimum during 8 months periods of observation. (author)

41

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SPRING WATER IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Development of natural spring is one of the mini water schemes which were harnessed to improved access to water in Ibadan city. This study assesses the quality of the water supply from the natural spring with the aim of justifying weather the sources are potable as means for improved access to water. Samples of water from four natural spring sources were collected for qualitative tests: physical (colour, odour and taste, turbidity, Ph, nitrate, bacterial and total coliform test which were done using Most Probable Number (MPN. The results of the spring water quality test were compared with samples from public water taps and the World Health Organization (WHO water quality standards using analysis of variance (Bonferroni method of ANOVA to determine the significance of differences. Result of the comparison of natural spring sources with the WHO standards for drinking water, indicates that only one out of the for sampled spring waters shows a significance difference at 0.05 alpha level (T > t, and are within the acceptable WHO benchmark for drinking water for public health concerns. In order to sustain natural spring’s water, the supply sources should be protected from all forms of contamination.

ADENIJI-OLOUKOI, GRACE

2012-12-01

42

Natural Radionuclide Concentrations and Radiological Impact Assessment of River Sediments of the Coastal Areas of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out to measure the radioactivity level in the coastal areas of Nigeria by gamma counting of river sediment samples and assess the radiological impact associated with the use of the river sediments as building material. The method of gamma spectrometry with a 7.6 cm by 7.6 cm NaI(Tl detector was employed in determining 40K, 238U and 232Th levels in 95 and 38 sediment samples respectively collected from representative sites in the oil producing and non oil producing coastal areas of Nigeria. Results of the samples assayed showed that the radioactivity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the sediment samples of oil producing areas range from 95.4 to 160.0; 7.6 to 31.0 and 9.5 to 41.6 Bq kg–1, respectively. The respective means were calculated as 122.39 ± 47.49; 18.93 ± 12.53 and 29.31 ± 18.67 Bq kg–1. In the sediment samples from the non oil producing areas, the respective mean values are 88.48 ± 8.22, 14.87 ± 3.51 and 16.37 ± 3.87 Bq kg–1. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there is no significant difference between the radionuclide concentration of the sediment samples from different rivers in the oil producing and non oil producing coastal areas, except for 40K. The values of the natural radionuclide concentrations however translate to the determina-tion of the radiological impact assessment values. The values of the radiological assessment indices obtained were ob-served to be lower than limits internationally reported and recommended for building materials. It could therefore be reported that the operations of the oil companies in the coastline, involving use of radioactive materials have not contributed adversely to the radioactivity level of the river sediments and that the use of river sediments as building mate-rial in the coastal areas of Nigeria poses no radiological risk.

Ayodeji Oladiran Awodugba

2011-06-01

43

Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the same age bracket who are not exposed. A well structured questionnaire was also given to all the solid waste disposal workers to assess their health profile. Haematological parameters, liver function test (LFT) and toxic substance (Pb, Cu, Zn) concentration in the blood were carried out. There were slight decrease in the haematological parameters and liver function test (LFT) results, as compared with the control subjects. The values obtained are: Hb 13.43±1.14 g dL-1, HCT 37.13±3.22%, WBC6.35±1.86x109 L-1, platelet 236.15±104.33x109 L-1, neutrophil 42.60±11.11% and monocyte 3.05±2.41% for solid waste workers. While the values for control subjects are: Hb 14.69±0.4 g dL-1, HCT 41.77±2.74%, WBC 7.23±1.21x109 L-1, platelets 282.40±33.76x109 L-1, neutrophil 58.65±5.87% and monocyte 5.77±2.03%. The lymphocyte counts for waste disposal workers was significantly higher (50.42±11.30%) and (32.83±5.32%) for the control subjects. The AST values increased significantly for solid waste workers with a mean AST concentration of (11.19±2.36 µ L-1) and 8.97±4.07 µL-1 for the control subjects. And mean total bilirubin increased progressively as the number of years of exposure increased (19.00 μmol L-1). The peak value was for workers exposed for about 7 year. The result also showed that mean lead, copper and Zinc concentrations were high for the solid waste workers (Pb = 0.07±0.05 mg L-1, Cu =0.22±0.08 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.56±0.48 mg L-1) while that of control subjects were Pb = 0.02±0.01 mg L-1, Cu =0.11±0.04 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.30±0.04 mg L-1. Malaria parasitaemia was high amongst the solid waste disposal workers. Adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be provided to avoid epidemic among the workers. It can be inferred that the lymphocytosis observed in this category of workers may indicate the presence of bacterial and protozoal infections, while a mild eosinophilia might be as a result of allergic disorders and helminthic infections.

Confidence, Wachukwu K.; Eleanya, E. U.

44

Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

Ezeigbo, Obiageli R.; Ike-amadi, C. A.; Ibebuike, C.; Okike-osissiogu, F. U.; Agomoh, N. G.

2013-01-01

45

Assessment of Electric Load Demand and Prediction of Future Load Demand: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The assessment of electricity load consumption in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria and the prediction of future electricity requirement in the state cannot be over emphasised. The data of monthly load allocation and utilization of electricity of the state in the five previous years (2006-2010) were assessed. Various engineering analysis and applications including calculations, sketches, curves and graphs were applied to justify the study. According to the annual report...

Idoniboyeobu, D. C.; Ekanem, M. B.

2014-01-01

46

Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from <0.3 in the lowly vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested. PMID:25736831

Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

2015-04-01

47

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

Michael AKPAN

2012-12-01

48

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP  

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Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-12-01

49

An Assessment of the Impact of Abattoir Effluents on River Illo, Ota, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective seven sampling locations were chosen along the river course. The choice of locations was to reflect the variations in concentrations of the following important parameters of water quality issue: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrate among others. The choice of these parameters was based on their relative importance in abattoir effluents composition. Results of analyses revealed impairment in the quality of River Illo by the wash down from the abattoir activities. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 4.6 mg L-1 while the highest concentrations of TSS and TS of 1026 and 1071.5 mg L-1, respectively were obtained at the point of abattoir effluents discharge. The BOD mean value of 312.9 mg L-1 obtained for the river water is far above the highest permissible value of 30 mg L-1 allowed by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for discharge into receiving water bodies in Nigeria. The mean value of 783 mg L-1 obtained for the COD of the river body corroborates the pollution of the water body. The current water quality status of River Illo from the discharge of abattoir effluents therefore poses both environmental and health hazards to users. In order to redress this and ensure public health safety, River Illo needs adequate treatment before use.

D.O. Omole

2008-01-01

50

Enhancing Leadership and Governance Competencies to Strengthen Health Systems in Nigeria: Assessment of Organizational Human Resources Development  

OpenAIRE

The lack of effective leadership and governance in the health sector has remained a major challenge in Nigeria and contributes to the failure of health systems and poor development of human resources. In this cross-sectional intervention study, leadership and governance competencies of policy makers were enhanced through a training workshop, and an assessment was conducted of organizational activities designed to promote evidence-informed leadership and governance to improve human resources f...

Uneke, Chigozie J.; Ezeoha, Abel E.; Ndukwe, Chinwendu D.; Oyibo, Patrick G.; Onwe, Fri Day

2012-01-01

51

Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeed...

Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve

2010-01-01

52

Assessment of the Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment of Selected Communities in Delta State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growt...

Christiana Kayinwaye Omorede

2014-01-01

53

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based ...

Adewuyi Alfred; Meekers Dominique; Keating Joseph

2006-01-01

54

Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) providing information about primary and secondary schools, ...

Youngu, T. T.; Aliyu, Y. A.; Sule, J. O.

2012-01-01

55

Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the study...

James Okoro

2013-01-01

56

ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL SAFETY OF FRESH SHRIMPS OFFERED FOR SALES AT ALESINLOYE AND ELEYELE MARKETS IN IBADAN, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Microbial assessment of different fresh shrimp sold at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria was carried out. Ten fresh shrimp samples bought at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan Oyo state were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of micro-organisms. Total plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were enumerated using Nutrient Agar (NA), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar and Salmonella-shigella Agar (SSA) respectively. The total...

Adedeji, O. B.; Ibrahim, S. O.

2011-01-01

57

Assessment of health risk levels associated with terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A decree on radiation safety and protection have been signed by the Federal Government of Nigeria that established a regulatory body to control the importation, application, transportation and disposal of radioactive materials in the environment. The fundamental function of the body is embodied on radiation protection of the country's population and the environment. However, the protection and assessment of any radiation pollution in the environment to a large extent is based on the knowledge of the baseline of radiation dose rate levels due to natural radionuclides. This study assesses the risks associated with terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate levels in some cities across the major geological formations of the country. Results showed that in the Northern region the number of individuals at risk of incurring cancer ranged between 0.25 and 3.25 yr with an average value of 1.46+/-0.45, while in the southwestern region it ranged between 0.76 and 5.50 yr(-1) with a mean value of 1.66+/-0.63 and in the southeastern region it was between 0.17 and 0.89 yr(-1) with a mean value of 0.35+/-0.14. Assuming uniform exposure for the entire population of 98.5 million, it has been estimated that about 160 individuals annually are at risk of incurring cancer due to exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:11488386

Jibiri, N N

2001-07-01

58

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF without enzymes. The dissolution efficiency (DE and predicted availability equivalence (PAE of the various brands were used to estimate their likely in-vivo bioavailability. The dissolution profile showed that none of the samples attained 70% dissolution in 45 minute in SGF and SIF while only samples A and E in 1 hour in SGF There was no significant difference in the mean values of the DE for the products in SGF and SIF in the range 0.33-0.41 and 0.32-0.43 respectively (p=0.2. Significant difference exists between the values of T70 of the products in both SGF and SIF (p< 0.5. Products E and A (innovator are equivalent and demonstrate comparable quality standards. The method is simple and rugged for evaluation of quality control parameters of amlodipine for consistent batch to batch production of generic product.

Umoh Ekaete Dennis

2011-10-01

59

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF without enzymes. The dissolution efficiency (DE and predicted availability equivalence (PAE of the various brands were used to estimate their likely in-vivo bioavailability. The dissolution profile showed that none of the samples attained 70% dissolution in 45 minute in SGF and SIF while only samples A and E in 1 hour in SGF There was no significant difference in the mean values of the DE for the products in SGF and SIF in the range 0.33-0.41 and 0.32-0.43 respectively (p=0.2. Significant difference exists between the values of T70 of the products in both SGF and SIF (p< 0.5. Products E and A (innovator are equivalent and demonstrate comparable quality standards. The method is simple and rugged for evaluation of quality control parameters of amlodipine for consistent batch to batch production of generic product.

Awofisayo Sunday Olajide

2010-12-01

60

Assessing the relevance, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV/AIDS in-service training in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

More than three million people in Nigeria are living with HIV/AIDS. In order to reduce the HIV/AIDS burden in Nigeria, the US Government (USG) has dedicated significant resources to combating the epidemic through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In-service training (IST) of health workers is one of the most commonly used strategies to improve the quality and coverage of HIV/AIDS services. At USAID/Nigeria’s request, the USAID-funded CapacityPlus project conducted a...

Burlew, Randi; Puckett, Amanda; Bailey, Rebecca; Caffrey, Margaret; Brantley, Stephanie

2014-01-01

61

Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.

2012-01-01

62

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these syste...

Olawale Saheed Ismail; Olusegun Olufemi Ajide; Fredrick Akingbesote

2012-01-01

63

Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The st...

Ogaboh Agba, A. M.; Mboto, W. A.; Agba, M. S.

2013-01-01

64

Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the fertility constraints identified were low effective cation exchange capacity and soil acidification. In addition, the clayey texture of the subsoil made these soils susceptible to erosion as well as caused harvesting difficulties. Liming was recommended to ameliorate the acidity constraints. Liming together with incorporation of organic materials into the soils were the measures needed to enhance their effective cation exchange capacity. Soil erosion control was to be given high priority especially by maintaining adequate surface cover and ensuring that tillage was limited to only when soil was drier than the plastic limit.

M. A. Nwachokor

2013-09-01

65

Assessment of educational services available to blind and low vision school children in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A descriptive study to assess the educational services available to children attending the Pacelli School for the Blind in Lagos, Nigeria. A standardised methodology was used with structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Observations were also made in some areas. Of the 26 children aged 10-15 years who were identified as having low vision, 15 (57.7%) of them had significant improvement in distance and near vision after refraction while one third (31%) had improvement in their reading with low power magnifying lenses. All except 4 (25%) teachers were well educated but none seemed to have appreciable knowledge about the teaching of low vision children as all these children were taught Braille like their blind peers. While educational facilities available were reasonably adequate for blind children, no visual aids were available for low vision children. It is recommended that appropriate educational facilities, optical and non-optical devices should also be provided particularly for low vision children to enable them achieve their optimal potential in life. PMID:12081340

Akinsola, F B; Ajaiyeoba, A I

2002-01-01

66

Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in anambra state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected by the use of interview schedule from a sample of 60 respondents. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Results revealed that the farmers were using indigenous technologies such as baskets, aerial (over fire in the kitchen, bare floors, among others in storing maize. The respondents indicated that they stored maize cobs undehusked in order to overcome wastage and obtained information about indigenous storage of maize from parents and fellow farmers. Major problems militating against effective storage of maize include: attack of pests such as rodents and weevils, diseases, termite attack and use of poor quality storage materials. The respondents indicated that use of materials free from termite, clearing of surroundings against fire disaster; use of durable materials treated with insecticides will help to solve the problems. The study recommends that provision of appropriate and affordable storage structures should be made available to the maize farmers in order to avoid wasting of the produce under storage. This will help to ensure food security among rural farm households.

E.N. Ajani

2012-12-01

67

Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals among other things that the increase in the tax rate affected the tax payers revenue generation, and the retroactive nature of our tax laws constitutes a major problem thus: resulting in double taxation during the assessment and collection of taxes. following the findings, the researchers recommends that competent laws should be passed by the government on personal Income tax collection and generation, stiff penalties should be imposed on the tax defaulters and evaders, tax laws should be made less complex, recruitment of qualified personnel to enable them cover fully the scope of work and finally the tax payers should be educated sufficiently on the importance of tax.

Uche Lucy Onyekwelu

2014-08-01

68

Radiological assessment of sediment samples from Oporoma oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out on sediment samples collected from an oil producing field in Oporoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, using HPGe detector with the aim of assessing radiological exposure and doses to workers and general public. The activity concentration of 40K varied from (58.21±4.95 - 127.07±10.90) Bq/kg whereas that of 238U varied from (5.67±0.72 - 26.46±2.21) Bq/kg and that of 232Th varied from (5.88±0.61 - 68.51±5.10) Bq/kg. The radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from radium equivalent activities which ranges between (22.68 - 133.64) Bq/kg, internal and external indices ranges from (0.08 - 0.43) Bq/kg and (0.06 - 0.36) Bq/kg respectively, and effective dose rate from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides (40K, 238Uand 232Th ) ranges from (0.01 - 0.38) mSv/y. The values obtained are lower than the internationally recommended limits. The values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the communities within this environment.

69

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo

2013-03-01

70

Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:24858228

Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

2014-08-15

71

Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour  

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Full Text Available Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs at Nigeria's BoP. The primary data for this study were collected using Questionnaires administered to consumers in South Western Nigeria. The secondary data used were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics Surveys; 2009/2010 Consumption Pattern and Consumer Expectation. Using a combination of primary and secondary data, the study employed multiple regression analysis on determinants of consumption at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid. Findings of the study were mostly in conflict with the positions of the BoP advocates. On the basis of the trends in Consumer Behavior and the composition of baskets of goods at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the study concluded that the BoP market would be better served by indigenous micro, small and medium enterprises than Multi-National Corporations.

Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

2013-09-01

72

Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues  

OpenAIRE

ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, es...

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2011-01-01

73

 Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment  

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Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4?0were females; while of the 20 controls,50?0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4?20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05?20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31?20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

Mohammed Sirajo Aminu

2012-03-01

74

Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement  

OpenAIRE

Collaborative Adaptive Management (CAM) program stakeholders informally assess program progress through subjective assessments regularly. Each stakeholder does this by individually selecting objective progress indicators based on their needs, values, and preferences. They do this even though there may be a stakeholder group agreed-on set of progress objectives. Individual stakeholder indicators may be a subset of the group set or outside of the agreed-on set. This is because many factors infl...

Jim Berkley

2013-01-01

75

Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants  

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Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

Chukwuma Dim

2014-01-01

76

Trace Element Assessment of Stream Sediments Around the Aluminium Smelting Company in Ikot-Abasi, South-Eastern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

A study to assess the trace element chemistry in the vicinity of a recently established aluminium smelting complex in Ikot Abasi, south-eastern Nigeria was carried out, using stream sediments as sampling media. Twenty three trace elements; Ag, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Ga, La, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, W, Y and Zr, were analysed for in the sediments. Results from analyses showed that concentration levels of these elements were within limits of geogenic sourcing. Correlation and fact...

Ekwere, Azubuike S.; Elueze, Anthony A.

2012-01-01

77

GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles) in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary...

Eludoyin, O. S.; Wokocha, C. C.; Ayolagha, G.

2011-01-01

78

Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

Umar, AdamuMadu

2013-09-01

79

Assessment of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Selected Oil Spilled Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A prelude radiological impact assessment of oil spillage on the oil spilled environment, those saddled with the responsibility of cleaning the spilled crude and the host/nearest communities residents in Rivers State Nigeria has been examined in-situ, using radiation meters (Digilert 100 nuclear radiation meter and a geographical positioning system (GPS. Readings were taken twice in a month for three months in the five different oil spilled site and one measurement taken at a control site where there is no oil spillage but within oil bearing community. The average radiation values in all the oil spilled site is 0.019±0.006mRh-1, this is far above the 0.011±0.003mRh-1obtained for the control and ICRP 0.013±0.005mRh-1 world background levels. The average equivalent dose rate obtained in all the five studied site is 1.6mSvy-1 while the dose rate in the control is 0.93mSvy-1. The results showed that all the oil spilled sites yearly equivalent dose rate exceeded the 1mSvy-1 maximum permissible limit recommend for the public and non-nuclear industrial environment by International Council on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1999. All the oil spilled environment radiation levels exceeded the normal world average BIR level of 0.013mRh-1and other reported values in similar environment. This shows that the oil spilled environment have been impacted radiologically. This will pose some long-term health side effects on the clean-up workers and residents of the host communities. Interim proactive measures are recommended while further and a detail study is ongoing.

U. L. Anekwe

2013-03-01

80

Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices of Building Materials in Ogbomoso, South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This research study aims at assessing the radiological hazards indices of materials used for the construction of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical facility in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria. The determination was sequel to the measurement of the radionuclide contents of the materials (Granite, Cement, Sand, and Concrete used in the construction of the building, using a high-purity germanium detector gamma spectrometer. The natural radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 27.79 and 30.65 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29.22 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th, the range was 16.69-22.73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 19.71 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 132.76-276.42 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 204.59 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1.03-14.90 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 13.32 Bq kg-1. All other values of other indicators were below the maximum permissible limit (MPL. The determination carried out prior to the building being occupied, showed no evidence of artificial radionuclide. Hence, the building materials may be considered safe for building construction and the values measured can therefore serve as reference for future measurement.

Ajayi Olanipekun Jonathan

2013-01-01

81

Assessment of primary health care in a rural health centre in Enugu South east Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Primary health care (PHC) is a vital in any community. Any health centre with a well implemented PHC program can stand the test of time in curbing under five mortality and morbidity. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the activities in a health centre located in a rural area in Enugu state and to determine the pattern and presentation of various diseases in the health centre. Methods: This is retrospective study undertaken in a primary health care centre in Abakpa Nike in Enugu east LGA of Enugu State of Nigeria from December 2011 to December 31st 2013. Data retrieved were collected with the aid of a structured study proforma and analyzed using SPSS Version 18. Results: Total number of children that attended immunization program in the health centre over 20 months period was 25,438 (12,348 males and 13090 females), however only 17745 children (7998 males and 9747 females) were actually registered in the hospital records. None of the children was immunized for DPT2 and OPV0 and HBV1 in the course of this study. The dropout rate using DPT1, 2 and 3 (DPT1-DPT2/DPT3) was very high (494%). The mean immunization coverage rate was 8.3%. Family planning activities, integrated management of childhood illnesses program were also carried out in the health centre but at very low level. Conclusions: The major fulcrum of events in the health centre which include immunization coverage, IMCI, and management of common illnesses were simply non operational. However the health centre had a well knitted referral system. PMID:25878615

M Chinawa, Josephat; T Chinawa, Awoere

2015-01-01

82

Assessment of a progressive electricity tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

83

Assessment of Protein Needs of Nigeria Adult Males Using Short-Term Nitrogen Balance Technique  

OpenAIRE

Protein requirement of Nigerian adult males aged 21-27 years from two different geographical locations in Nigeria was determined as a basis of comparison with previous studies. Eighteen young men from Northern and Southern Nigeria were recruited into the study and fed on a customary Nigerian mixed diet. The subjects were divided into dietary regimen groups of four protein levels (0.4, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 g protein/kg/day) at ordinary level of energy intake of 0.18 MJ/kg/day. The groups were assi...

Oguntona, T.; Mbofung, C. M. F.; Elemo, G.; Atinmo, T.; Erukainure, O. L.

2010-01-01

84

Assessment of the Concentration of Carbon Monoxide in Ambient Air Environment of Abakaliki Urban Area, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a well known gaseous atmospheric pollutant. In this study the baseline concentration of CO in the ambient air environment of Abakaliki Urban Area, Nigeria was estimated using digital CO gas monitor. Ten sites were monitored for their CO levels and the data collected were statistically analyzed. Results show that the mean concentration of ambient CO in Abakaliki Urban Area, Nigeria was 1.01 ± 0.30 ppm. The range was 0.160 – 2.60 ppm. Vanco Junction si...

Ehiri, R. C.; Ikelle, I. I.

2014-01-01

85

Assessment of the Vitamin B12 Status of Pregnant Women in Nigeria Using Plasma Holotranscobalamin  

OpenAIRE

Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for neural tube defects and other neurological problems in infants. We determined the vitamin B12 status of 143 pregnant women in Nigeria representing all trimesters who presented to an antenatal clinic in Jos, Nigeria, using holotranscobalamin II levels (holoTCII), which is a measure of the vitamin B12 that is available for uptake into tissues. The holoTCII concentration ranged from 13 to 128?pmol/L. Using a cut...

Crossey, Michael J.; Amelia Hilgart; Victor Pam; Jessica Bryant; Ikeh, Eugene I.; Ujah, Innocent A. O.; Vanderjagt, Dorothy J.; Glew, Robert H.

2011-01-01

86

Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp fo...

Kamalu, O. J.; Wokocha, C. C.

2011-01-01

87

A Study of E-Readiness Assessment: The Case of Three Universities in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the readiness of three higher educational institutions in Nigeria in their attempt to introduce and maintain technology-driven services to students, faculty, and support staff. The prerequisites for participation in the digital, networked economy include the affordable ICT, reliable electric supply, reliable and up-to-date…

Eweni, Samuel O.

2012-01-01

88

Assessing the Cognitive and Affective Progress of Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses issues and challenges related to the assessment of K-12 students' cognitive and affective progress in physical education. The paper recommends that when assessing the cognitive domain, assessment should directly reflect what was taught and should be infused throughout the unit of instruction. It also recommends that should educators…

Worrell, Vicki; Evans-Fletcher, Colleen; Kovar, Susan

2002-01-01

89

Post-Disaster Damage Assessment using Remotely Sensed Data for Post Disaster Needs Assessments: Pakistan and Nigeria case studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the launch of high-resolution optical satellites in 1999, remote sensing has increasingly been used in the context of post-disaster damage assessments worldwide. In the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster, particularly when extensive geographical areas are affected, it is often difficult to determine the extent and magnitude of disaster impacts. The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) has been leading efforts to utilise remote sensing techniques during disasters, starting with the 2010 Haiti earthquake. However, remote sensing has mostly been applied to extensive flood events in the context of developing Post-Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNAs). Given that worldwide, floods were the most frequent type of natural disasters between 2000 and 2011, affecting 106 million people in 2011 alone (EM-DAT) , there is clearly significant potential for on-going use of remote sensing techniques. Two case studies will be introduced here, the 2010 Pakistan flood and the 2012 Nigeria flood. The typical approach is to map the maximum cumulative inundation extent, then overlay this hazard information with available exposure datasets. The PDNA methodology itself is applied to a maximum of 15 sectors, of which remote sensing is most useful for housing, agriculture, transportation. Environment and irrigation could be included but these sectors were not covered in these events. The maximum cumulative flood extent is determined using remotely sensed data led by in-country agencies together with international organizations. To enhance this process, GFDRR hosted a SPRINT event in 2012 to tailor daily flood maps derived from MODIS imagery by NASA Goddard's Office of Applied Sciences to this purpose. To estimate the (direct) damage, exposure data for each sector is required. Initially global datasets are used, but these may be supplemented by national level datasets to revise damage estimates, depending on availability. Remote sensed estimates of direct damage are used to confirm field estimates of the magnitude of the damage; thus, the speed of assessment can be balanced not having to achieve high accuracy results. In the future, to increase the speed of remote sensed damage assessments, there is a need for existing exposure information - which can also be used for risk prediction as well as disaster response. However, advances in this area vary significantly by country and sector and therefore efforts to move this agenda forward will significantly improve disaster reduction and recovery.

Saito, Keiko; Lemoine, Guido; Dell'Oro, Luca; Pedersen, Wendi; Nunez-Gomez, Ariel; Dalmasso, Simone; Balbo, Simone; Louvrier, Christophe; Caravaggi, Ivano; de Groeve, Tom; Slayback, Dan; Policelli, Frederick; Brakenridge, Bob; Rashid, Kashif; Gad, Sawsan; Arshad, Raja; Wielinga, Doekle; Parvez, Ayaz; Khan, Haris

2013-04-01

90

Towards assessing the social sustainability performance of the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Unresolved social issues between the local community and the petroleum industry plague the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. These concerns are addressed by introducing a social sustainability assessment framework for the petroleum industry. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are identified, through a s [...] takeholders' engagement process, for social performance measurement purposes. A five-year time-frame is proposed for the periodic assessment of the state of social sustainability. It is recommended that the petroleum industry make the accounting of social sustainability performance measures a priority before beginning projects, especially greenfield projects, since this can assist in resolving the volatility in the region.

G.M., Bubou; A.C., Brent; C., Tredoux.

91

Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

Orisakwe Orish

2012-08-01

92

An assessment of stillbirths in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the stillbirth rate and causes in Birnin Kudu, North-west, Nigeria. Method: This was a retrospective study. It involved 705 women who presented for delivery in Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu and had stillbirths. The hospital maternity and theatre registers were used to identify the women who had stillbirth during the study period from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Significant association between socio-demographic/obstetrics factors and stillbirth were tested using the chi-square test and p?placental abruption (17.73%) and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (13.33%). Conclusion: The stillbirth rate reported in this study was higher than those reported from other regions of Nigeria and obstructed labour was the common cause. PMID:25204335

Ugwa, Emmanuel A; Ashimi, Adewale

2014-09-26

93

Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

O.J. Kamalu

2011-08-01

94

An Assessment of the Determinants of Share Price in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Listed Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the determinants of share prices in the Nigerian stock exchange market. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 30 listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange market were selected and analyzed for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, the Nigerian stock exchange fact book and the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2010 were used for the study. The paper basically modelled the effects of financial performance, dividend payout and financial leverage on the share price of listed firms operating in the Nigerian stock exchange market using the regression analysis method. The study as part of its findings observed that there is a significant positive relationship between firms’ financial performance and the market value of share prices of the listed firms in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper concludes that firms’ financial performance, dividend payouts and financial leverage are strong determinants of the market value of share prices in Nigeria.

Uwalomwa Uwuigbe

2012-12-01

95

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

1992-05-01

96

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

97

Assessing reinforcers under progressive schedule requirements.  

OpenAIRE

Recent research findings suggest that reinforcing stimuli may be differentially effective as response requirements increase. We extended this line of research by evaluating responding under increasing schedule requirements via progressive-ratio schedules and behavioral economic analyses. The differential effectiveness of preferred stimuli in treating destructive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement also was examined. Results showed that one of two stimuli was associated with more re...

Roane, H. S.; Lerman, D. C.; Vorndran, C. M.

2001-01-01

98

Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help gr...

Ofuoku Albert U.; Albert Carol E.

2014-01-01

99

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results ...

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

2007-01-01

100

On the Assessment of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the management of both solid and hazardous waste constituents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. For this purpose, the study area was divided into four zones and were further classified into low, medium and high income groups. For effective analysis, the frequency of refuse collection from various location and waste disposal methods were also considered. Results in general indicate that there are no organized pattern of wastes disposal. Indiscriminate dumping of wa...

Arimieari, L. W.; , Sangodoyin, A. Y

2014-01-01

101

Assessment of the Perception of Benefits of Organic Gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the perception of benefits of organic gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from 166 respondents through multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage and mean scores). The study indicates that the respondents had perceived a relatively neutral (mean score = 2.87) socio-economic benefits of organic gard...

Mustapha, S. B.; Undiandeye, U. C.; Idrisa Y. L.

2012-01-01

102

Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

- The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional) and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Co...

Yohanna Irimiya,

2013-01-01

103

Improving quality of malaria treatment services: assessing inequities in consumers' perceptions and providers' behaviour in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Information about quality of malaria treatment services of different healthcare providers is needed to know how to improve the treatment of malaria since inappropriate service provision leads to increased burden of malaria. Hence, the study determined the technical and perceived quality of malaria treatment services of different types of providers in three urban and three rural areas in southeast Nigeria. Methods Questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected health...

Obikeze Eric; Onwujekwe Obinna; Uzochukwu Benjamin; Okoronkwo Ijeoma; Onwujekwe Ogochukwu C

2010-01-01

104

Assessment of groundwater recharge in semi-arid region of northern nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average annual groundwater recharge value of three sites, representing the major geological basins of Northern Nigeria, ranged from 169 mm for Maiduguri to 837 mm in Kano area and the recharge coefficient for the zone ranged from 0.26 to 0.56. The month of August accounted for about 53% of the average annual estimate. About 69 mm (70%) of average annual potential natural groundwater recharge was lost, as a result. (author)

105

Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals am...

Uche Lucy Onyekwelu; Uche Boniface Ugwuanyi

2014-01-01

106

Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale in Kano, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Resilience seemed to lie at the core of the recent promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. This concept has been well studied in western countries and less in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. The aim of the study is therefore, to demonstrate the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Resilience Scale (RS) and its 14-item short version (RS-14) in a Nigerian sample. Results The RS, RS-14, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and two...

Abiola Tajudeen; Udofia Owoidoho

2011-01-01

107

Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment  

OpenAIRE

The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the i...

Okafor, Jude C.; Orjinta, Ikechukwu H.

2013-01-01

108

Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The study attempt to compare the influence of wages and other conditions service on employees’ performance. To achieve this objective, we elicited information from 300 respondents who were purposively sample from four organizations in some selected geo-political zones in Nigeria. Data collected were presented in graph, pie chart and bar chart. Findings reveal that, employee job performance are greatly influenced by regular and good wages; followed by conducive work environment, availability of internet facilities, good library, recognition/award, regular promotion, training opportunities, access to medical care and communication flow. We made the following recommendations among others, that managers of formal organizations should properly remunerate workers as well as provide conducive work environment for their employees. We posit that other least motivating factors as identified in this study should not ignore by managers, since each provide workers with a level of stimulant that propel them into maximum performance in work organization.

A. M. Ogaboh Agba

2013-07-01

109

Reading Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through "The Nation's Report Card," the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students perform in…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2010

2010-01-01

110

Reading Framework for the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through The Nation's Report Card, the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students perform in…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2012

2012-01-01

111

Civics Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a survey mandated by the U.S. Congress to collect and report information about student achievement in various academic subjects, such as mathematics, science, reading, writing, history, geography, and civics. The National Assessment Governing Board sets policy and the overall dimensions…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2009

2009-01-01

112

Trace Element Assessment of Stream Sediments Around the Aluminium Smelting Company in Ikot-Abasi, South-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study to assess the trace element chemistry in the vicinity of a recently established aluminium smelting complex in Ikot Abasi, south-eastern Nigeria was carried out, using stream sediments as sampling media. Twenty three trace elements; Ag, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Ga, La, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, W, Y and Zr, were analysed for in the sediments. Results from analyses showed that concentration levels of these elements were within limits of geogenic sourcing. Correlation and factor analyses indicated associations of chemical species to be related to the adjoining geologic suites; Precambrian basement and Cretaceous sediments. Comparatively the sediments exhibit geochemical characteristics consistent with sediments from other parts of the Niger Delta. The deductions provide a baseline data set for future monitoring around the smelting site.

Azubuike S. Ekwere

2012-02-01

113

Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y-1) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy-1 and 93.60±14.4 nGyh-1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

114

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP)  

OpenAIRE

To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following l...

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-01-01

115

Dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Delta region of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ gamma spectroscopy has been employed to characterise natural radiation in the soil at 32 locations in the Delta region of Nigeria. The outdoor gamma dose rates in the air due to 40K, 238U and 232Th in the soil were 1.5 +/- 0.9 nGy h(-1), 6.9 +/- 1.6 nGy h(-1) and 16.3 +/- 3.1 nGy h(-1) respectively. The estimated total annual outdoor effective dose to the people in the region was 31.6 microSv y(-1). PMID:14974607

Arogunjo, A M; Farai, I P; Fuwape, I A

2004-01-01

116

Dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ gamma spectroscopy has been employed to characterise natural radiation in the soil at 32 locations in the Delta region of Nigeria. The outdoor gamma dose rates in the air due to 40K, 238U and 232Th in the soil were 1.5 ± 0.9 nGy h-1, 6.9 ± 1.6 nGy h-1 and 16.3 ± 3.1 nGy h-1 respectively. The estimated total annual outdoor effective dose to the people in the region was 31.6 ?Sv y-1. (authors)

117

Research progress in dynamic security assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

1982-12-01

118

Performance assessment task team progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others

1994-05-01

119

Assessment of Electric Load Demand and Prediction of Future Load Demand: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of electricity load consumption in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria and the prediction of future electricity requirement in the state cannot be over emphasised. The data of monthly load allocation and utilization of electricity of the state in the five previous years (2006-2010 were assessed. Various engineering analysis and applications including calculations, sketches, curves and graphs were applied to justify the study. According to the annual report (IPCL., 2012, the electricity load consumption in the state in December 2011 was 130MW. This study gives the opportunity to address the risk of planning errors that could arise in the electric power upgrade planning process. The assessment however, helped in providing efficient and reliable power system management. The assessment was carried out in the three major towns in Akwa Ibom State (Uyo, Ikot Ekpene and Eket. The result obtained using the least square method and regression exponential analysis method has shown that by 2020, the electricity load requirement in Akwa Ibom state shall increase to 247.84 MW.

D.C. Idoniboyeobu

2014-01-01

120

Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

2009-05-01

121

Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

A. Muhammad-Lawal

2013-09-01

122

Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the impact of the caretaker committees in Nigerian Local Government on the practice of constitutional democracy. The discussion is framed by the theoretical perspectives and Nigerian literature on local government and constitutional democracy, and by the recent phenomenal wave of dissolving elected local government councils and subsequent replacement with caretaker committees. Contrary to popular belief, that local government as the third tier of government has failed to achieve the objective for which it was created, this paper observes that party politics has been the bane of Nigerian local government since its inception, and that democratically elected local councils with political and financial autonomy are the major conditions for an effective and efficient multi-purpose local government system in Nigeria.

Jude C Okafor

2013-05-01

123

Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

124

Assessment of Qualities of Surface Water, Sediments and Aquatic Fish from Selected Major Rivers in South-Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Available sources of portable water for drinking, domestic and industrial chores in Nigeria are dwindling because of concomitant increase in population, urbanization and industrial activities. This study assessed the qualities of Surface Water (SW, Sediment (SD and Tilapia Fish (Oreichromis niloticuss (TF samples collected from Asejire, Oni, Ona, Ogun, Ogunpa, Eleyele and Majidun rivers and Lagos lagoon in south-western Nigeria. Samples of SW, SD and TF were collected at strategic locations from each water source and analyzed using standard procedures. SW for all locations were grossly polluted with organics as indicated by high COD (72.8-292 mg/L and BOD (30.8-143 mg/L and low DO (1.04-6.68 mg/L levels. Lead levels in SW for all locations exceeded WHO and NIS limits for drinking water. Cadmium levels in sediments from Oni, Ona, Ogun and Ogunpa rivers also exceeded Canadian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG of 0.6 mg/kg. Fish from Lagos lagoon were most polluted with Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu. Principal Component analysis showed that 86.4% of overall metal load for SW was from Ogunpa and Eleyele rivers, whereas 62.9% metal load for S was from Ogunpa, Eleyele and Ogun rivers. The metal pollution index order was Pb>Cu>Co>Ni>Cr>Cd. Lead and nickel showed strong positive correlation between SW and SD, suggesting common source while Pb and Cr showed strong negative correlation with Cd between SW and TF. Unsafe disposal practices of wastes into or within the vicinity of water bodies should be discourage.

E.U. Etim

2012-12-01

125

Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3. The sample was predominantly male (69.9% and married (64.6%. There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher. Conclusion The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics.

Kass Nancy

2009-08-01

126

An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion: The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities. Keywords: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptives, patent medicine vendors, mystery client, PPMV, quality of care, Nigeria

Ujuju C

2014-04-01

127

ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem) was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC) as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and pre...

Adekunle, Adebola A.; Adekunle, Iheoma M.; Tobit, Igba U.

2012-01-01

128

Measuring Educational Progress: A Study of the National Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides a comprehensive evaluation of the goals, objectives, and procedures of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Separate chapters discuss NAEP's objectives and organizational development; its division of knowledge into subject areas; the subject-area objectives; exercise development; measurement of background…

Greenbaum, William; And Others

129

Comprehensive Assessment of Water Quality in the Lake Chad Basin in Northern Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Chad holds great importance in Africa. It is a life and income source for millions of people. In Nigeria, Lake Chad gives support for the three largest economic sectors: fishing, farming, and herding. For many centuries, there has been an equitable balance between these sectors and their survival; with the shrinking of the Lake since the 1960’s though, there has been a struggle for these sectors to all maintain a status quo. By performing water quality testing on the streams and rivers that connect with Lake Chad, one is able to determine the health and vitality of the water. Mainly, it has a direct correlation with what the water is providing the land and villages of the area and what the soil and ground are providing to the water. By looking into the conditions of the water which is sourcing a large part of Nigeria, it gives the ability to directly identify actions that are occurring above and below the ground. This gives great support when investigating the shrinking of the Lake. Areas visited and tested in Nigeria include: Kano, Hadejia, Nguru, and Maiduguri. 15 stream regions were visited and tested. In addition to this, 70 villages were visited in which over a hundred well samples were taken. In determining water quality of a sample, specific parameters were tested, these included: nitrate, nitrite, total chlorine, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. These tests determined the presence of nitrogen, the hardness, and the acidity/neutrality of the water; all which prove important in helping support and maintain healthy growth and life for those who use and consume it. The information gathered thus far is just a base for future research. Although there are little permanent conclusions drawn from the information gathered, it provides great benefits for future research. Given that this is the first time water quality testing has ever been performed in the area, it gives great foundation for additional water quality testing performed in other regions that sync up to the Lake. Comparisons could then be made thus creating more understanding of the hydrologic functions that occur in the area.

Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

2009-12-01

130

Assessment of the Perception of Benefits of Organic Gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the perception of benefits of organic gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from 166 respondents through multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage and mean scores. The study indicates that the respondents had perceived a relatively neutral (mean score = 2.87 socio-economic benefits of organic gardening. Nevertheless, they agreed (mean score = 3.84 with the ecological benefits or organic farming. The result, equally reports that the intension of conversion to organic farming was relatively neutral (mean score = 3.49. The most important constraint to organic gardening conversion was lack of knowledge and skills regarding organic gardening. Policy recommendations were made to include: the creation of awareness on the consequences of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides among others, and adequate government support for organic gardening in the study area.

Mustapha, S. B.

2012-06-01

131

Assessment of Chemical/phytotoxin and Microbial Contamination of Pasta Foods Marketed in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The possible chemical/phytotoxin and microbial contamination of nine brands of pasta foods (macaroni, spaghetti and noodles commonly consumed in Nigeria were investigated following identification of pesticide residues in Indomie noodles (a brand of pasta food and contamination of baby foods (SMA with some poisonous cassava materials. Enzymatic and spectrophotometric analysis of these foods for cyanide content indicate the presence of this compound ranging from 7.60-70.65 mg CN-kg-1. Chemical analysis of these foods showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and saponins while microbial quality test indicated the presence of Salmonella sp., Rhizopus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus in three food samples. The implications of these findings are discussed from toxicological and food bioterrorism points of view.

P.N. Okafor

2006-01-01

132

Geospatial Assessment and Monitoring of the Dynamics of Urban Expansion of Ogbomoso, South-Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on the dynamics of urban expansion along with the Landuse/Landcover changes in Ogbomoso North and South LGAs, Oyo State, Nigeria, using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Technology. Ogbomoso has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development of large infrastructural facilities such as highway/expressway, power stations as well as the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, the University Teaching Hospital Complex, modern markets, very many schools, a number of low cost housing estates, local authority offices, etc. This has therefore, resulted in loss of agricultural land, modification and alterations in the land use/land cover over time without any detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the changes. There is therefore, need for synoptic analyses of patterning, change and expansion at regional scales over time in the environment. LandSat imageries of 1990, 2000 and NigeriaSat-1 imagery of 2007 of the environment were subjected to supervised image classification using IDRISI Selva 17.0 software. Results obtained from classifications were cross-tabulated for change detection. The results reveal that water body appreciated from 1.2% (1990, 3.1% (2000 to 3.7% (2007. Built-up area appreciated from 6.4 to 20.3% (1990-2007. Arable land remained the largest land cover, with the value of 57.8% in 1990, 47.8% in 2000 and 62% in 2007. Compound Interest formula was used to determine the rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso town and the expansion of the town was projected for the year 2020 and 2025. The average rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso was found to be significantly high with a value of 8.92%.

I.A. Jesuleye

2013-12-01

133

Assessing English Learners' Progress: Longitudinal Invariance of a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing and monitoring student progress is becoming increasingly important in classrooms and for accountability purposes. Yet, in order to interpret changes in assessment results from one year to the next as reflecting differences in underlying ability rather than as variations in the measurement, the assessments used should be measuring the…

Llosa, Lorena

2012-01-01

134

Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement  

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There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

Jim Berkley

2013-12-01

135

Performance needs assessment of maternal and newborn health service delivery in urban and rural areas of Osun State, South-West, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in urban and rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria, to inform decisions for improved services. This study involved 14 urban and 10 rural-based randomly selected PHC facilities. Using a Performance Needs Assessment framework, desired performances were determined by key stakeholders and actual performances measured by conducting facility survey. Questionnaire interview of 143 health workers and 153 antenatal clients were done. Performance gaps were determined for the urban and rural areas and compared using Chi-square tests with SPSS version 17. PHC facilities and health workers in Osun State, Nigeria, were found to have significant gaps in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. Root cause of most of the performance gaps was poor political will of local government authorities. Improved government commitment to MNH is needful to address most of the gaps. PMID:25022147

Esan, Oluwaseun T; Fatusi, Adesegun O

2014-06-01

136

Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues  

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Full Text Available ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, especially in the oil and gas sector, accelerate the loss of topsoil and deforestation, loss of habitat, loss of species and loss of biodiversity, as well as degeneration of wetlands. Water shortages and floods lead to deterioration of urban environmental quality and play a major role in transmission of communicable diseases. Corruption in the water sector is another major player in environmental degradation worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Weak implementation has rendered EIA Act a paper Tiger.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2011-01-01

137

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of bituminous soil in Agbabu, southwest Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in bituminous soil samples and viscous bitumen sample from Agbabu bitumen deposit, southwest Nigeria, has been measured using a high-resolution (HpGe detector) ?-spectrometry. The average values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K obtained are lower than the global average values. The Th/U activity ratio is comparable to values reported in literature. The average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was found to be 12.65±3.19nGyh-1, which is below the corresponding worldwide population weighted average value of 60nGyh-1. Both radium equivalent and representative level index values measured are lower than the internationally accepted limits for building and road construction materials. The results of the study indicate that the area has low background radiation level; as such no significant radiological hazard is expected in the area

138

Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Conventional and Green features in the six study areas. From the study, the annual energy intensity of Kaduna for conventional buildings is 25.24 kwh/m2. With the introduction of green appliances, a drastic reduction in the buildings annual energy consumption was recorded which stood at 20.57 kwh/m2representing about 18.26% reduction in annual energy consumption which indicates a significant energy saving. In Kano VAC consumed the highest energy 12.49 kwh/m2of the total consumption of all end-users. When replaced with energy efficient appliances the consumption dropped to 7.95 kwh/m2representing 34.14% reduction. The use of energy efficient appliances is recommended.

Yohanna Irimiya,

2013-10-01

139

A baseline investigation and safety assessment of dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced. A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of 40K found in soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.6±17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0±16.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of 238U ranged from 0.10±17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1±64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from 1.8±17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7±17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of 232Th was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba eku). The average value of the total absorbed dose rates for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.0±44.0nGy/h and 32.0±36.3nGy/h respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety recommended world mean by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

140

Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m?3 and 117 Bq m?3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m?3. - Highlights: ? Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ? The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m?3. ? The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ? This value is elevated though below the action level. ? Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

141

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Craig W. Hedberg

2013-08-01

142

Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L, BOD (167±53 mg/L, COD (329±106 mg/L, NO3 - (28.3±3.67 mg/L, NH3 (22.3±4.8 mg/L and (Pb 0.23±0.02 mg/L levels indicated gross organic and metal pollution. Ground water similarly, showed elevated levels of BOD (12.9±0.7 mg/L, nitrate (36.1±5.35 mg/L and ammonia (13.7±2.6 mg/L. Metal levels in surface water and sediment was strongly correlated (r=0.89. Topsoil and vegetation samples around the vicinity of the creek did not show any significant level of contamination. There was no significant differences (p=0.05 in surface and ground water quality among the sampling points. The creek water was classified as heavily polluted. This could affect the aquatic flora and fauna of the creek ecosystem. Remediation measures should be employed to clean up the water way system and the environment.

E.U. Etim

2012-08-01

143

A Hospital-Based Assessment of Breast-Feeding Behaviour and Practices among Nursing Mothers in Nigeria and Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Exclusive breast-feeding is recommended for infant nutrition during the first 6 months after birth. Worst still, this behaviour practices have not yet improved in Africa despite this recommendation. This study therefore, examines breast-feeding behaviour and practices among nursing mothers in two African countries: Nigeria and Ghana. A sample of 300 nursing mothers attending ante-natal clinic was randomly drawn from 4 hospitals, two in Nigeria and two in Ghana. The demographic characte...

Tella Adeyinka; Falaye Jibola; Aremu Oyesoji; Tella, Adedeji

2008-01-01

144

Reliability of the Mid Upper Arm Circumference for the Assessment of Wasting among Children Aged 12-59 Months in Urban Ibadan, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, leng...

Dairo, M. D.; Fatokun, Modupeoluwa E.; Kuti, Modupeoluwa

2012-01-01

145

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

Adewuyi Alfred

2006-05-01

146

Mathematically aided risk assessment of crude oil contamination in Ogoni, Nigeria. Pt. 1. Geo-ecological characterization of the pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical modeling can support the environmental risk assessment and decision making processes. Soil contamination caused by crude oil in the Ogoni region, Nigeria, is qualitatively described in part 1 to understand expected mathematical results. A mathematical-statistical analysis following in part 2 characterizes quantitatively the 33 contaminated sites as entire ecological complex. The single sites are studied in part 3 by classifying multivariate mathematical models to derive precise information about kind and degree of contamination at every surveyed spill site. The geological structure of the Ogoni subsoil and the composition of the upper soil layers are summarized. In this context, the unprotected aquifers are discussed which are essential for the supply of the local population with potable water. The crude oil exploited within and transported through this region for decades will be characterized to understand and interpret results of data processing. Reference will be taken also to the extensive research about negative effects of crude oil contamination on people, fauna and flora. Oil companies have carried out environmental remediation measures, mainly by land farming. These activities are partly unfinished. Therefore, numerous oil spills are still an environmental hazard. In 2007, the Nigerian Federal Government has invited the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to explore the remaining crude oil contaminations in the compartments soil and groundwater to prepare final clean-up measures. This project is finished now. The mathematical data processing presented within this three-part contribution will be understood as part of this survey. (orig.)

Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

2011-09-15

147

Mathematically aided risk assessment of crude oil contamination in Ogoni, Nigeria. Pt. 3. Spatial model of the multiple contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical modeling can support environmental risk assessment and decision making processes. Soil contamination caused by crude oil in the Ogoni region, Nigeria, is described in detail in part 1 to understand expected mathematical results. A mathematical-statistical analysis following in part 2 characterizes 33 contaminated sites as entire ecological complex. The sites are studied in part 3 by multivariate classifying models to derive precise information about kind and degree of contamination at every studied location. The 33 sites were studied by multivariate heuristic classifying methods (cluster analyses). Resulting classes or groups include all samples which are similar with respect to their pollution. The amount of 665 analyzed samples was reduced to 28 classes distinguishable by kind and degree of pollution. Mutual relationships between the classes were visualized by dendrograms. The calculated averaged properties of each class have been attached to any sample belonging to a class. Additionally, the geographic origin and depth of each sample was introduced to localize the pollution. The cluster membership of any sample can be marked by symbolic colors and visualized in mini-profiles which were drawn into geographic layers. Four sites in Ogoni have been selected to show and to discuss the result. (orig.)

Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

2012-03-15

148

Assessment of Safety Management System Implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization: A Case Study of Nigeria Operators  

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Full Text Available In this study survey data was used to assess employees’ perceptions of Safety Management System (SMS implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO in the aviation industry. AMOs in Nigeria were used as a case study. Results show that over 80% of the population used for this study accord to the existence of plans to implement SMS. However, results indicated a lack of safety management education, training and motivation, which are key concepts that influence all the safety management implementation process. Furthermore, results reveal the lack of skills to analyze risk associated with identified hazard. Internal audit and safety investigation are the main means of safety performance monitoring within the AMO. Hypothetical test was conducted using Chi-square statistic. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the appointment of key personnel and management commitment within an AMO safety management system. Overall, the findings suggest that AMO need to do more to improve the implementation and understanding of SMS within the AMO.

Kole Osaretin Uhuegho

2013-10-01

149

Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001. The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

Jibiri Nnamdi N.

2007-01-01

150

Assessment of the Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment of Selected Communities in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growth, soil infertility, ill-health to members of the community, displacement of the people of the area, constant protestation of host communities, socio-economic deprivation, and perceived marginalization of the people are associated with oil resource exploration. This research concludes that the oil bearing communities have not adequately been compensated for harm done them through degradation of the ecosystem caused by several years of oil exploration. Their oil resource wealth has been turned to oil resource curse as they are disempowered, and condemned to perpetual underdevelopment. It is recommended that Federal Government should exert maximum efforts in assuring strict compliance of its legal instruments by the oil participating industries for a sustainable development in the region.

Christiana Kayinwaye Omorede

2014-06-01

151

An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI  

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Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

Musa Haruna D.

2011-11-01

152

Assessment of natural radioactivity in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radionuclides present in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plants in Nigeria were identified and their activity concentration determined to assess the potential radiation impact on the environment due to fertilizer production. The mean activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K radionuclides in phosphate ore samples were 616 ± 38.6, BDL (Below Detection Level) and 323.7 ± 57.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively. For the phosphogypsum, 334.8 ± 8.8, 4.0 ± 1.4, and 199.9 ± 9.3 Bq kg(-1) respectively and for soil samples range from 20.5 ± 7.3 to 175.7 ± 10.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 15.5 ± 1.5 to 50.4 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 89.5 ± 8.1 to 316.1 ± 41.3 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 71.4 nGy h(-1). The mean annual effective dose was 86 ?Sv. PMID:22965334

Okeji, Mark C; Agwu, Kenneth K; Idigo, Felicitas U

2012-11-01

153

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41% which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13 on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%. A significant percentage (48% does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.

2012-05-01

154

The Relevance of Feasibility study in Assessing the Economic Viability of Dried-sachet Tomato Production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study, “the relevance of feasibility study in assessing the economic viability of dried-sachet tomato production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria” is carried out using the survey research design. The aim is to find out whether dried-sachet tomato production can be done, profitably and successfully in Kano metropolis. Focus group discussion is used to select some dealers on dried sachet tomato production to determine the viability of tomato business in the study area. Data presentation and analysis was quai-qualitative. The major findings revealed that this product is very important and gives financial benefits apart from its health benefits. Several techniques of removing the liquid contents has been observed as either conventional current, or electrical method by addition of anhydrous (de-hydrating reagents. In order to retain its colour, the convention current method was adopted as the best, that is tray drier, drum drier, mechanized manual method, spray drier etc. Conclusively, the production of dried tomato powder in sachet is a good business, if the necessary capital base is provided. Therefore, it is recommended among others that the experience needed to manage a business should be acquired, and that knowledge and experience acquired should be effectively utilized.

Haruna, A. S.

2013-04-01

155

Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of South East Nigeria using isotope techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the State Capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. Inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydro-chemical analysis, which results, when available would be interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is enr municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydro-chemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to Water Resources Managers and Decision-Makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

156

Assessment of sanitation levels of sources of water in Osun State Capital, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the physicochemical and bacteriological analysis including BOD and COD was carried out for sources of water in Oshogbo the Capital of the State of Osun. Seven water sampling areas were selected to cover the low, medium and high population density areas of the State Capital. Water samples were collected from five sources of water, namely, shallow well, borehole, stream, rain and river. Water samples were collected from the well, borehole and stream water sources from Dada Estate and Isale Oshun for low density population, Ayetoro, Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe for medium density, and Oke-Bale and Igbona for high density population areas. Three sampling points were undertaken for the rain water source while River Oshun source at Isale-Oshun was the 25th water sampling point. A total of 25 water quality parameters were analyzed for each of the 25 water sources sampled using the facility at the Rural Water And Environmental Sanitation Agency, RUWESA in Osun State Government Secretariat in Abere. Results indicated that 8 of the water quality parameters, pH, Turbidity; Magnesium hardness, Free Chlorine, Nitrite, Bacteriological, BOD and COD were not within Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON permitted water quality standards and are of concern to sanitation of potable water in the State Capital. The level of each parameter differs from source to source as well as from level of population densities. The sources that were adjudged polluted were Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe well sources; Ogo-Oluwa, Oke-Bale and Igbona stream sources Oke-Bale Rain source.R and the River source at Isale-Oshun. The polluted sources are all within the medium and high population density areas of the State Capital.

Felix A. Oginni

2014-12-01

157

Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

2014-06-01

158

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

Kasim, L. S.

2013-08-01

159

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-10-01

160

Radiological assessment of flooded Kudenda soil samples, Kudenda, Kaduna State Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiological survey of flooded soil of Kudenda area located at latitude 10.4800N and 10.4810N and longitude 7.3940E and 7.3950E in Kaduna State, Nigeria was conducted. In situ measurement and samples were taken in each of the grid area at depth 0 to 226Ra, ( 238U), 232Th and 40K) were measured by means of gamma ray spectrometry system using (NaI(Tl)) detector. The recorded ranges of activity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K were found to be 8.1±3.6 - 45±4.4, 38±1.3 - 149.6±3.9 and 400.5±3.9 - 873.7±11.6Bqkg-1, respectively. The results of this current study have been compared with the world mean values of 35, 30 and 400 Bqkg-1, respectively, specified by the UNSCEAR (2000). Concerning radiological risk to human health, the absorbed gamma dose rate (D) in air at 1 metre above the ground surface was estimated to lie in the range 47.4±2.2 to 141.2±4.4nGyh-1; the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) was evaluated to vary from 0.06±0.003 to 0.17±0.005mSvy-1, with the arithmetic mean value of 0.11±0.004mSvy-1. This is slightly higher than the worldwide effective dose of 0.07mSvy-1. Also, the values of the Raeq and the Hex for all soil samples in the present work are lower than the accepted safety limit value of 370 Bqkg-1 and below the limit of unity, respectively. Generally, the obtained radiological data gave an indication of non significant radiological hazard in the area of study.

161

Oil and Debt Management in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nigeria’s debt at independent was put at about N488.8 million which was mainly long-term development soft loans. The world economic recession and fall in price of oil in 1982 were identified as major factors that led many countries to debt crisis. Nigeria’s debt accumulated due to gross mismanagement of resources and loans contracted as well as failure of governments to keep-up with repayment schedules. This paper assesses the management of Nigeria’s debt. It examined the role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs in discussing the politics of Nigeria’s debt management vis-à-vis motivational factor behind consideration for loans, disbursement and at what rate? The paper employed both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was sourced from Debt Management Office, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria and National Institute for Social and Economic Research while secondary data was sourced from journals, books, official government gazettes and internet. Data was analyzed using descriptive method. The result of the analyses revealed that 79% of the respondents agreed that Nigeria’s oil contributed to its huge debt accumulation and denied it debt cancellation. Also 65% believed that government has been prudent in managing the nation’s debt with every action taking in the interest of the people even when it failed to keep up with repayment schedules. The dependency theory formed the basis of discussion and analyses in this work. It concluded that, oil was a major factor behind the granting of loans to Nigeria as well as responsible for fiscal irresponsibility on part of the government which led to the failure of efficient management of such loans. This paper recommended that there should be prudent management of the economy while all forms of corruption must be eradicated to bring about real development.

Ako-Nai R. I.

2013-05-01

162

Mathematically aided risk assessment of crude oil contamination in Ogoni, Nigeria. Pt. 2. Generalizing statistical analysis of the pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical modeling can support environmental risk assessment and decision making processes. Soil contamination caused by crude oil in the Ogoni region, Nigeria, is qualitatively described in detail in part 1 [2] of this three-part contribution to understand the presented mathematical results. A mathematical-statistical analysis following in part 2 characterizes quantitatively 33 contaminated sites as entire ecological complex. The sites are studied in part 3 by classifying multivariate mathematical models to derive precise information about kind and degree of contamination at every single oil spill. The data basis for the environmental risk assessment supported by part 2 consists of about 660 samples analyzed for UNEP. It is restricted to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Data have been interpreted first using generalizing mathematical-statistical analyses. The entire data set was understood as random sample in the statistical sense. So far, all results are valid regarding the contamination of all investigated sites in Ogoni as a whole unit regardless of local specifics. Concentration values of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in soil samples show a statistically significant lognormal frequency distribution: most soil samples are more or less slightly contaminated but extremely high polluted points and sites occur also frequently. Based on the distribution type, the expected (averaged) value was determined as about 3500 mg/kg aliphatics and 1700 mg/kg aromatics. Aliphatics and aromatics are jointly strong and linear correlated. This shows that there is no natural differentiation between the main contaminants caused by migration etc. The degree of contamination is not related to the sampling depth. This unexpected result will be explained by previous, incomplete clean-up measures. The general statistical evaluation defines dimension and problems of future remediation measures but it is insufficient to determine kind and degree of pollution at specific polluted sites. Only classifying models are suitable to solve this problem. (orig.)

Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

2011-12-15

163

Assessing the psychological well-being of caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in Niger Delta region, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the availability of anti-retroviral drugs and treatment, the care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS has continued to be a major challenge, with greater impact not only on the people living the disease. The burden associated with care often results in high level of stress among caregivers, usually manifesting as anxiety and/or depression. This study assesses the levels of stress among caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in order to determine their coping strategies. Between July and December 2008, 322 caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS attending HIV clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were randomly assessed for stress (anxiety and depression), using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). A total of 293 caregivers comprising 98 (33.4%) males and 195 (66.6%) females were analysed. Mean age of males was 44.0 ± 4.5 years and females was 39.3 ± 4.0 years. The difference in the mean was statistically significant (pcaregivers, 191 (65.2%) and 115 (39.2%) were scored high on SDS and SRQ-20, respectively (representing the levels of stress). Using SDS groups on SRQ-20 subscales, 134 (45.7%) had anxiety only, 23 (7.8%) depression only, 52 (17.7%) had a mixture of anxiety and depression, while 11 (3.7%) exhibited suicidal tendencies. There is increasing level of stress in caregiving. Therefore, adequate attention must be given to the psychological well-being of caregivers to enable them contribute positively to the care of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:21271394

Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem A; Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Udobang, John A

2011-04-01

164

Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

Obiageli R. Ezeigbo

2013-04-01

165

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) ?Sv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) ?Sv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

166

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution based on hydro-geological condition and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors incorporated into DRASTIC model and the geographic information system (GIS were used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The output map shows that the southeast of the aquifer is under very high vulnerability while central parts of aquifer have high vulnerability. Other parts (north, northwest and south of the study area have moderate vulnerability to pollution. For testing of the vulnerability assessment, groundwater quality data were collated from literature for the different vulnerability zones of the study area. The chemical analysis results show that both the southeast and northwest west parts of study area aquifer (very high and moderate vulnerability zones have higher nitrate concentration relative to the rest of aquifer, that are located in high vulnerability zone. The validation of the DRASTIC models was accomplished through pair wise comparison of DRASTIC vulnerability maps (using Pearson’s r correlation coefficient with a total of 14 layers representing original DRASTIC input data, Land cover (LC features, and groundwater TDS, Cl- and NO3 data. Results from the correlation analysis indicate a significant association between high groundwater TDS, NO3 concentrations and distances from certain LC types.

Olufunmilola T. Bankole

2013-05-01

167

Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90 volunteer patients; comprising (30 patients with malaria only, (30 with typhoid only and (30 with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20 healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23, AST (31.33±12.80, ALT (23.10±11.84, TB (19.43±5.02, CB (5.91±3.03 and ALP(116.69±48.68, AST (28.33±11.72, ALT (22.8±5.94, TB (19.31±5.84,CB (5.60±2.50 were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62, AST (33.97±8.43, ALT (24.40±4.37,TB (21.27±2.96,CB (6.58±3.10 while the control subjects had mean serum levels of ALP (71.05±18.18, AST (16.65±7.45, ALT (13.85±6.09,TB (10.05±4.85 and CB (3.00±1.67. These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05.The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT,TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

B.N. Enemchukwu

2014-01-01

168

GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary forest, secondary forest and mangrove. The area in square kilometers of each land use type in each year was calculated and thereafter the change was determined by subtracting the area of the same land use type in 1986 from 2000 and the percentage of change is therefore calculated. In addition, the probability of change of twenty years was also determined from one land use type to another using Markovian Transition Estimator (MTE from IDRISI Andes. The study reveals that farmland, mangrove, primary forest and sparse vegetation reduced over time by 45.34, 37.06, 43.06 and 8.09%, respectively while secondary forest, built up area and water increased by 5.88, 74.55 and 3.43%, respectively. It is also projected by MTE that in 2020 farmland has the probability of 0.570 (57% of changing to secondary forest and 0.154 (15.4% of changing to built up area. Primary forest has the probability of 0.186 (18.6% to change to built up area. It is recommended among others that laws should be promulgated to prevent unlawful expansion of construction of any form and that the people in the communities in the study area should be enlightened and educated on the effects of deforestation on the environment.

O.S. Eludoyin

2011-06-01

169

Progress in violence risk assessment and communication: hypothesis versus evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

We draw a distinction between hypothesis and evidence with respect to the assessment and communication of the risk of violent recidivism. We suggest that some authorities in the field have proposed quite valid and reasonable hypotheses with respect to several issues. Among these are the following: that accuracy will be improved by the adjustment or moderation of numerical scores based on clinical opinions about rare risk factors or other considerations pertaining to the applicability to the case at hand; that there is something fundamentally distinct about protective factors so that they are not merely the obverse of risk factors, such that optimal accuracy cannot be achieved without consideration of such protective factors; and that assessment of dynamic factors is required for optimal accuracy and furthermore interventions aimed at such dynamic factors can be expected to cause reductions in violence risk. We suggest here that, while these are generally reasonable hypotheses, they have been inappropriately presented to practitioners as empirically supported facts, and that practitioners' assessment and communication about violence risk run beyond that supported by the available evidence as a result. We further suggest that this represents harm, especially in impeding scientific progress. Nothing here justifies stasis or simply surrendering to authoritarian custody with somatic treatment. Theoretically motivated and clearly articulated assessment and intervention should be provided for offenders, but in a manner that moves the field more firmly from hypotheses to evidence. PMID:25693955

Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E

2015-02-01

170

An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and R...

Ujuju C; Sb, Adebayo; Anyanti J; Oluigbo O; Muhammad F; Ankomah A

2014-01-01

171

An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

Osuji

2010-01-01

172

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

2013-01-01

173

Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

2009-01-01

174

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011) in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p

Akindele, E. O.; Adeniyi, I. F.; Indabawa, I. I.

2013-01-01

175

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

176

Development, Implementation and Assessment of a Progressive Reading Log System  

Science.gov (United States)

Students in upper-level Engineering classes such as Fluid Mechanics often find themselves faced with over 60 pages of reading a week in addition to assigned problems and exam preparation. Since the reading of the textbook is often infrequently assessed, this aspect of course learning is often postponed or omitted. In addition, with this amount of reading, many students quickly find themselves so far behind in the reading that they can no longer catch up. A reading log system where content responsibility is progressively shifted from the instructors questions to student identification and reflection has been developed and implemented in junior-level Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics courses to address several of the issues associated with student use of the textbook. The goal of the reading log is to improve student use of resource material and to provide opportunities for students to develop skills in reading scientific material. Reflective questioning, guided identification of key concepts, probing questions and cyclic problems are some of the tools that are used to stimulate student use of the textbook. In addition, the progressive content of the reading logs is designed to transition the student from rote learning to self-reflection and synthesis of understanding. To evaluate the effectiveness of the resource, student surveys and responses to reading log questions have beenused to guide its development.

Benson, Daniel

177

Physico-chemical quality assessment of shallow well-waters in Iwo, southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters of shallow well waters of Iwo have been assessed. Nine different locations in parts of Iwo were considered for this study. The physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard methods and methods described by Ademoroti (1996. Generally, results compare favourably with WHO (2006 standards for drinking water, except water temperature with slight high values compared with WHO limits of < 25 ºC for drinking water. This is an indication that the water may enhance the growth of micro-organisms, hence increase the problem related to taste, odour, colour and corrosion. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is therefore recommended that periodical assessment of both physico-chemical and microbial analysis of the area should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation.

Godwin Oladele Olutona

2012-07-01

178

Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the sto...

Okoh, Lucky; Ekane, O. R.

2011-01-01

179

Physico-chemical quality assessment of shallow well-waters in Iwo, southwestern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters of shallow well waters of Iwo have been assessed. Nine different locations in parts of Iwo were considered for this study. The physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard methods and methods described by Ademoroti (1996). Generally, results compare favourably with WHO (2006) standards for drinking water, except water temperature with slight high values compared with WHO limits of < 25 ºC for drinking water. This is an indicati...

Godwin Oladele Olutona; Seun Adeola Ajisekola

2012-01-01

180

Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC). Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed hig...

Adetunji, V. O.; Awosanya, A. E. J.

2011-01-01

181

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discus...

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

2007-01-01

182

Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Cond...

Orebiyi, E. O.; Awomeso, J. A.; Idowu, O. A.; Martins, O.; Oguntoke, O.; Taiwo, A. M.

2010-01-01

183

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differenttitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

184

Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no library. Sixty-three (63 percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

T.T. Youngu

2012-03-01

185

Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water and bottom-sediment samples from an urban drainage system in Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria with respect to trace metals contaminations. The results show that the surface water samples have generally low TDS with average value of 362mg/l, while the average dissolved concentrations of the trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As and Cr vary from 0.01 to 0.5mg/l. Cu, Cr and As exhibit concentrations similar to the local background concentrations (LBC in the pristine stream water with low single metal contamination factor (CF ? 1. Pb, Zn and Ni are 5 folds enriched with contamination factor (CF of >5 indicating moderate to high contamination. For the sediment phase, the adsorbed concentrations of the trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cr and Co vary between 0.1 to 3.1mg/kg. These represent about 1 to 3% of the respective total metal concentrations with average values of 18.2– 533.4mg/kg. Also low anthropogenic factor, AF (0.002 to 0.08 and mostly negative values (–5 to –15 of Mueller’s geo-accumulation index (Igeo for adsorbed metal contents in the sediments suggest dominant geo-genic controls. However, the total metals concentrations in the sediment phase have high estimated AF of 1.1 to 9.3 and positive values of the estimated Igeo (0.9–2.0 and metal contamination index (MCI of 2.5–8.3. All these suggest a medium to high level enrichment (of 2 to 10 factor for most of the metals with respect to the local background concentration (LBC in the basement bedrock units (with the exception of Cr and Ni. This is consistent with the preferential metal enrichment in the sediment phase as indicated by the estimated parti-tioning/distribution coefficient, Kd of >1 exhibited by the total metal concentrations in the stream sediment. Nonetheless, the correlated high peaks of electrical conductivity of the stream water samples and adsorbed concentrations of some trace metals within the urban stretches are indications of point source inputs of un-treated sewage into the drainage system.

Moshood N. TIJANI

2009-09-01

186

Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

187

Risk based assessment for offshore jacket platform in Niger delta, Nigeria (corrosion and fatigue hazards  

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Full Text Available Offshore structures are imperative for uninterrupted crude oil production which is the main stay of Nigerian economy. Fatigue and corrosion have been identified to be the most prevalent structural hazards in offshore environment. Jacket platform may be exposed to certain seawater wave which often leads to structural failure, particularly when the platform is subjected to corrosion and fatigue hazards. Therefore, corrosion and fatigue damage requires detail evaluation to prevent jacket platform from untimely failure. Risk based assessment method has been identified as the appropriate tool to determine the risk levels associated with component damages acted upon by several hazards with different scenarios. The results of this work revealed that simultaneously corroded and fatigued components exhibit unacceptable risk level and is the appropriate limiting damage scenario for marine structures underwater inspection. This technique is proved to be accurate and the most appropriate procedure for management of hazards, safety and environmental protection.

M. A. Salau

2011-12-01

188

Assessment of Groundwater Potential in Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria Using the Electrical Resistivity Method  

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Full Text Available Electrical resistivity survey involving six vertical electrical soundings was conducted in Ozoro to assess the groundwater potential of the area. Record of apparent resistivity and electrode spread were analysed using curve matching and computer iteration technique and the outcome compared with record of existing borehole. Result revealed the presence of four geoelectric strata which are topsoil, fine-medium grain sand, clay-clayey sand and coarse-medium coarse sand. The fourth layer with a resistivity range of 648-917 Wm and depth range of 10.7-18.0 m is identified as the aquifer layer. Result also revealed that the aquifer layer is overlaid by a clayey aquitard of 4.2 m thick. It is recommended that the sourcing of water for domestic purpose by the people should be done in excess of 18.0 m.

Ochuko Anomohanran

2014-07-01

189

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR), Wischmeier's erodibility index (K), clay dispersion index (CDI) and clay floccula-tion index (CFI) ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mean-weight diameter (MWD) in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictabil...

Mbagwu, J. S. C.; Akamigbo, F. O. R.; Ca, Igwe

1995-01-01

190

Assessment of Poverty among Arable Crop Farmers: A Case Study of Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) in Osun State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Farmers’ Empowerment has become an important part of the development agenda in the recent years. This study identified and analyzed the poverty status in terms of incidence, depth and severity among arable crop farmers in Osun State and compared the socio-economic characteristics of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) in Osun State, Nigeria. The study made use of pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was us...

Ayanwale, A. B.; Adisa, O. D.

2012-01-01

191

Prediction And Performance Assessments of External Horizontal Global Illuminance of Measured Data from Port-Harcourt, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the measurements and analysis of external horizontal global illuminance for Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. A set of empirical expressions were derived from seasonal and yearly variations of horizontal global illuminance against solar altitude. The model derived from the study performed better compared with two other models proposed for the area from other studies conducted elsewhere. The results presented here serves to develop the base for reliable localized day lighting data to be used in building designs in the area

192

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Nigeria faces a tremendous shortfall in housing provisions, especially in its urban areas. Consequently, Public-Private Partnership in housing provisions has been adopted as a means of addressing this problem. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies in the government-provider approach to housing, but adequate attention has not been given to the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. This paper attempts to fill this gap in litera...

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2010-01-01

193

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the...

Farinde, A. J.; Owolarafe, O. K.; Ogungbemi, O. I.

2006-01-01

194

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC) dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other de...

Oyinloye, R. O.; Oloukoi, J.

2012-01-01

195

Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs) in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part) for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured question...

Edafiaje, A. L.

2011-01-01

196

Assessment of Natural Radionuclides in Fly Ash Produced at Orji River Thermal Power Station, Nigeria and the Associated Radiological Impact  

OpenAIRE

Coal fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. Coal contains trace quantities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The concentrations of these radionuclides are usually low in the coal, but enriched in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and soil samples in the vicinity of Orji River thermal power station in Nigeria was determined by gamma ray spec...

Ademola, Janet A.; Onyema, Uzoma C.

2014-01-01

197

Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. A major constraint to the development of properly engineered landfills is the high cost of synthetic liners and its scarcity in the local markets in developing country like Nigeria, which calls for alternative local materials for landfill liner. Consequently, crushed shale / clay shale deposits appear inexpensive and can be utilized to effectively retard the spread of leachate from landfills. Hence, this study focus on the assessment of geotechnical, geochemical and sorption characteristics of shale units from Anambra Basin, SE-Nigeria for suitability or otherwise as compacted clay liner (CCL) in landfills. Twelve samples consisting of three each from four different formations namely: Enugu, Nkporo, Imo and Ameki formations were collected and subjected to basic geotechnical tests such as grain size analysis, Atterberg's limits, compaction and coefficient of permeability following standard testing methods (BS 1377). In addition, mineralogical X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and geochemical ICP-MS / ICP-ES analyses were employed for geochemical characterization. CEC and batch sorption tests with respect to Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn as contaminant in leachates were also employed for sorption characterization. The results of the geotechnical tests conducted on the shale samples revealed that the crushed shale samples have liquid limit range of 55-79%, percentage fines of 80-93%, percentage clay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, allay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the density irrespective of the compaction level to be utilized in the field. In addition, the permeability of 2.14 - 9.12 x 10-5cm/s is higher than 1 x 10-7 cm/s recommended for typical isolation barriers, which implies negative impacts in respect of possible attendant contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater by the leachates. The geochemical analyses of the samples reflect relatively high SiO2 values of 52.1-55.8% compared to Al2O3 of 16.96-27.45% and Fe2O3 of 3.10-7.19%, which suggest the dominance of kaolinite as confirmed by the XRD. Nonetheless, the occurrence of illite in Enugu and Nkporo shales and smectite in Imo shale is a confirmation of the relatively high plasticity indices mentioned earlier and indication of good sorption properties. The CEC of the samples have relatively low value of 2.6 - 5.1 cmol/kg, which is less than the recommended minimum of 10 meq/100 g. The sorption capacity of the samples with respect to Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni ranges from 24.4 to 34.7 ppm with metal sorption in the order of Zn >Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni. The overall assessment revealed that the metal uptake, CEC and plasticity index of the shale samples are positively correlated suggesting strong influence of the clay mineralogy on the sorption characteristics of the samples. In spite of the observed relatively high permeability and swelling potential as well as moderate good sorption properties, the study shale units could be enhanced to the required specification through appropriate amendment technology. Though the shale units do not generally satisfy the requirements of compacted clay liners, however, based on the sorption characteristics, Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shales can be adequately employed for attenuation of contaminant leachates in double, composite or and multiple lining systems

198

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105 cfu/ml and fungal counts ranged from 3.0 103 cfu/ml – 36.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of Klebsiella and Bacillus while fungi isolated include Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and species of Candida and Mucor. The most frequently occurring bacteria was S. aureus while the most frequently occurring fungal was species of Mucor. Conclusion: The results suggested that the soybean cheese samples were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and could cause health hazard to the consumers. There is need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation as a good hygienic practice in the production and preparation of the soybean cheese since it serves as a good source of protein, carbohydrate and fat being of great nutritional value to the consumers.

Daniyan S. Y.

2010-02-01

199

Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

Imoobe T.O.T.

2009-01-01

200

Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

Braide Wesley

2012-04-01

201

Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC. Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed high values of both enterobacteriacea and TAVC on surfaces of the processing facilities and a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in mean enterobacteriacea and TAVC before and after processing of the wall, knife, table and floor. There was significant increase in both the enterobacteriacea (96% and TAVC (98% on the carcass after evisceration. The mean TAVC for the water and effluent was 1.16±0.1 and 13.79±0.06 logcfu/ml respectively. This study showed the need to maintain good management practice, good hygienic condition and role of sanitation in our abattoirs

V. O. Adetunji

2011-07-01

202

Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

Ezechiel Longe

2010-05-01

203

Structural features of Nigeria's coastal margin: an assessment based on age data from wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological age data from 127 wells drilled for petroleum exploration and production purposes in both the onshore and offshore sections of the Nigerian coastal margin have been examined and correlated from well to well across the margin. By examining the variations in depth to selected key geological marker horizons, the positions of faults and fractures have been inferred between wells and along designated cross-sections. These faults extend across the margin from land to sea, and most of them trend northeast-southwest and north-south. Graben and horst structures dominate the western part of the Nigerian margin. The most prominent of these features on the western part of the margin is the Okitipupa structure, a basement ridge that separates the sediments of the Tertiary Niger Delta to the east from those of the Cretaceous Dahomey Embayment to the west. The Niger Delta basin and the major faults bounding it are the other important tectonic features on the Nigerian coastal margin. It appears that major fractures and transcurrent faults influenced sedimentation rates in different parts of the margin throughout the Tertiary period. A landward prolongation of two main oceanic fracture zones (Chain and Charcot) appears to merge well with some of the inferred faults, especially in the case of the Chain Fracture Zone. It is a well known fact that seismic activities are associated with oceanic fracture zones. The delineation of the extensions of these faults and fractures in the Nigerian continental interior can be regarded as an important basic step towards the assessment of the seismicity of the country's coastal margin. The next logical step would be to determine, through the deployment of a seismograph network, the level of activities associated with these faults.

Onuoha, K. Mosto

1999-10-01

204

Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ?Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

E. O. Orebiyi

2010-01-01

205

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011 in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the rainy season than in the dry season, while pH and Biological Oxygen Demand were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the dry season than in the rainy season. Apparent colour, Total Solids (TS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, K+ Cl-, total acidity, total hardness, NO3- and PO43- decreased (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site, while water transparency, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, SO42 and Mg2+ showed an increase (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site. Apparent colour, TS, TSS, total acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ NO3- and PO43- increased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom, while pH, Mg2+ and DO decreased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom at the lacustrine section of the lake. Cluster analysis of the parameters showed major clusters between the major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and the general chemical characteristics (TDS, alkalinity, conductivity, acidity and hardness and also between the nutrient compounds (Organic matter, NO3- and PO43- and the hydro-physical parameters (TS, TSS, apparent colour, true colour and turbidity. The water quality indices and sodium absorption ratio values in the sampled stations indicated that the water is most suitable for probable applications at the lacustrine section, towards the dam site.

E. O. Akindele

2013-02-01

206

Chemical Water Quality Assessment in Selected Location in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined well water quality (chemical in Jos metropolis which it collected a total of twenty water samples that were taken for laboratory analysis. The stratified systematic random method was used in the selection of sample area/location. A total of (10 out of the existing (20 wards were systematically selected, while in each of the wards, two wells with one each from higher and lower elevations were randomly selected in which water samples were collected. The samples collected were analyses at UNICEF (WATSAN Laboratory Bauchi. USEPA method of water analysis was used to test for the chemical parameters. Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient was used test for the relationship between high and low elevation in the sample elements, as well as mean and standard deviation. The results indicates that pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, As and Cyanide appears within NSDWQMPL, while NO2, Cl, F, Mn, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, CaCo3 and Cr marginally falls within acceptable standard for drinking water quality maximum permitted limit. Consequently, NO3, SO4, Fe and CaCo3 in some parts of Jos metropolis fall outside acceptable standard of NSDWQMPL. Moreover, pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, NO2, NO3, Cl, F, Mn, Cr, As, Cu, Zn, showed that there is no significant relationship within the individual elements in regards to elevation (high and low in the study area whereas, SO4, Fe, Mg, Ca, CaCo 3 and CaCo3 showed that there is significant relationship in elevation (high and low among the individual sample elements. The study concludes that well water quality through chemical assessment in Jos metropolis is not fit for drinking. It recommends sensitizations campaign on the importance of clean water, sanitation, enforcement of existing laws and more research be undertaken to cover for seasonal variation, more elements and sample size.

G.G. Jidauna

2014-05-01

207

Nigeria using more condoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" PMID:12321241

1997-09-01

208

Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

1991-11-01

209

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6 for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

Olanike K. Adeyemo

2012-01-01

210

Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 ?Gyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 ?Gyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14?Svy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ? 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

211

Radiological assessment of fish samples due to natural radionuclides in river Yobe, Northern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12), fish became outliers with significant values of 112.53?Svy-1, 121.11?Svy-1 and 114.32?Svy-1 effective dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as well as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

212

Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration exceeds in two water samples; others are beyond detection level. In all, concentration of heavy metals in groundwater is in the order Mn >Fe > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni. The implication of the elevated levels of heavy metals in some samples of groundwater is a serious cause for concern to public health. Most of the groundwater samples are good and can be used for irrigation with adequate soil management

Hong, Aliyu Haliru

2013-01-01

213

Nigeria. Spotlight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion were derived from oil. Oil reserves are expected to be exhausted in 15 years. To compensate for this expected loss, an effort was initiated in 1980 to revive the country's deteriorating agricultural sector. In addition, the government instituted educational programs aimed at increasing the supply of skilled labor for industrial development. PMID:12313400

Lecky, M

1984-12-01

214

Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products  

OpenAIRE

This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with prod...

Sunday Abayomi Adebisi, Ph D.

2011-01-01

215

Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin  

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Full Text Available The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and judges accountable without undue harm to their independence. It also started to address the scepticism about the courts among a significant part of the public, through efforts to improve media coverage, make information about courts more available, and make courts user friendly. While praiseworthy and bound to improve the reality and the perception of the administration of justice overall, these initiatives did not end attempts to exert influence on judges and case outcomes by powerful people (in the public and private sectors or the mechanisms that facilitated their efforts. This essay begins by identifying criteria for assessing the quality of the administration of justice in any country, including in the post-soviet world and suggesting specific markers (usually qualitative connected to each of the criteria developed above. Then, the essay provides an account of relevant policy initiatives in judicial reform undertaken first under Yeltsin and then in the Putin years. The essay goes to provide an assessment of the state of the courts in the Russian federation in 2007 in the light of the criteria and markers supplied in the first section. It concludes with a look to the future, and the identification of crucial markers of change for the post-Putin era.

Peter H. Solomon

2008-10-01

216

Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

2012-01-15

217

Progress in food irradiation: Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and some of its toxic metabolites has been studied. This involved the determination of radio-sensitivity of aflatoxins to gamma radiation and the toxicity of irradiated aflatoxins, the effect of irradiation on the formation of aflatoxins in some Nigerian foodstuffs and on the macronutrients of soya-gari diet, and isolation and characterisation of radiation-induced mutants in A. flavus. A research project is now underway to investigate the effect on nutrients in foodstuffs following the destruction of fungal toxins (aflatoxins) and fungi by gamma irradiation (OGBADU, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria). (orig.)

218

Multi-criteria Assessment of the Relationship between Deforestation, Rainfall and Landuse Change from Remotely Sensed Data in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to undertake an in-depth evaluation of deforestation, rainfall and landuse dynamics in Nigeria using a localized hybrid TREES/FAO deforestation model. Forty seven (47) 2002 (October 2001-March, 2002) Landsat 7 scenes covering Nigeria were assembled and processed with 376 ground control points for image rectification, reprojection, conversion to reflectance and mosaicking. We also assembled 250m and 500m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data for Nigeria for 2002. Using data from the NigerianSat1 Atlas for 2003, Nigerian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (NGSDI) 2002 and a threshold of 70% /5ha for forest cover, the Landsat and MODIS composites were classified into Rainforest, Swamp Forest, Deciduous Forest and Cropland. The overall accuracy was 88%. We developed a multi-criteria hybrid TREE/FAO model for sampling deforestation rates for 2002, 2008 and 2012 for Nigeria. For 2008 and 2012, NigerianSat1 and other satellite data sources were used to fill gaps or replace data on the scanner error of Landsat7. Accumulated patches of Rainfall Data (0.250 x 0.250) was obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for selected forest samples while land cover data from NGSDI was updated with field work data in other evaluate its relationship with the Remotely sensed data. Deforestation rates stood at 0.33% yr-1, 0.14 yr-1 and 0.17% yr-1 for the Woodland, Rainforest and Deciduous Forest respectively. Estimates for the Swamp Forest could not be effectively computed due to high cloud cover throughout the year. The relationship between forest cover change and rainfall stood at r= 0.21; p?0.05 and r=0.42; p?0.05 for the forest and Savannah zones respectively. Deforestation rate was higher in the Woodland than the Rainforest and Deciduous zones due to the better economic value of the species and the ease of felling these trees with minimal cost and favorable terrain features. The weak relationship between rainfall and forest cover in the Rainforest is associated with its location within the zone of maximum air mass convergence due to the concave landscape structure of the Niger Delta to the Atlantic. Moreover, the Rainforest region is nearly always green throughout the year with a highly variable dry season when there are no clouds; hence variability in rainfall may not affect the rate forest cover change as opposed to the Savannah landscapes where forest cover change is dependent on rainfall or moisture supply. Consequently our results show that deforestation is concentrated along the Forest-Savannah boundary of Nigeria where intensive agriculture, anthropogenic forest fires and shifting cultivation dominate. Our results could not confirm hot deforestation spots (pixels) as indicated by most continental-global scale evaluation of deforestation patches. We are going to develop a multi-criteria decision support system for identifying localized deforestation hot spots for Nigeria.

Ike, F.; Aragao, L.; Mercado, L.

2013-12-01

219

Manganese as a Reference Element for the Assessment of Zinc Enrichment and Depletion in Selected Farming Soils of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Zinc (Zn content was evaluated of the arable soils in the vicinity of mining and dumping sites in Nigeria. Its content the arable soils assayed by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS ranged from 48.3 to 280.4 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF calculated by using manganese as a crustal reference element fell within a range of 16.3-161.2. The mean values of the enrichment factor of 59.41 classified the soil as extremely high enrichment with zinc. Anthropogenic activities contribute significantly to the elevated level of zinc in the studied areas.

A.U. Uduma

2013-09-01

220

Quantitative assessment of heavy metals in some tea marketed in Nigeria ——Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea  

OpenAIRE

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea marketed in Nigeria was investigated. Four major and most consumed brand of tea were selected for the present study. Both aqueous and dry methods were used. Total contents of metal were determined by digesting 1g of each brand using a mixture (3:1) concentrated nitric acid (NNO3) and hypochlorous acid (HCLO4). The second method involved hot water extract of tea samples. After boiling and filtration, the residue was evaporated to near dryness and digested...

Albert Cosmas Achudume; Dayo Owoeye

2010-01-01

221

Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. ? Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. ? Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

222

Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

2014-02-01

223

Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

Babagana, S. A.

2010-04-01

224

Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach  

OpenAIRE

This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all...

Michael Olusesan Awoleye; Willie Owolabi Siyanbola; Onaolapo Francisca Oladipupo

2008-01-01

225

Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women of northeast Nigeria on risk factors associated with cancer of the Cervix  

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Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.

John S. Bimba

2013-08-01

226

Nigeria in Space  

Science.gov (United States)

On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

Chizea, F. D.

227

Is Nigeria’s Unemployment Problem Unsolvable?  

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Full Text Available Unemployment in Nigeria is alarming. Its measurement by statistical authorities does not pose red alert. It has been discovered that the observed situation of unemployment is more serious than what official statistics want us to believe. The aim of this study is to examine unacceptable unemployment rate in Nigeria. Our findings show that labor force in Nigeria grows at more or less a steady rate of 0.3% every year while GDP growth rate at 1984 factor cost grows at 3.5% over a period of 33 years which implies that Nigeria experiences a jobless growth. The causes of unemployment in Nigeria include poor infrastructure, insecurity and non-diversification of the economy and poor educational system that does not readily produce employable graduates. Among other things we have recommended that governments at all levels should partner with the private sector and diversify the economy in order to create jobs.

M.A. Adawo

2012-11-01

228

Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10 vertical electricity soundings (VES was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands from boreholes within three (3 communities and ten (10 water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3 aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m, middle (82m and lower (102 to 115m aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3 fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984 standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of screen. The middle and lower aquifers are preferable. The middle aquifer is ideal for domestic boreholes while the lower aquifer should be developed for community and industrial boreholes.

Onunkwo – A, A

2012-06-01

229

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973 definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986 is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991. Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999. The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999. They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999. For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP. The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on crop yields a

Joseph Gambo Akpoko

2007-01-01

230

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

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Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

J.S.C. Mbagwu

1995-06-01

231

Natural radionuclide content and radiological assessment of clay soils collected from different sites in Ekiti State, southwestern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clay soil samples collected from different sites in Ekiti State, southwestern Nigeria were analysed for their natural radionuclide contents, using the gamma ray spectrometric method. The overall mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K obtained in this study were, respectively, 33.6 ± 5.3, 20.1 ± 3.3 and 207.2 ± 113.0 Bq kg-1. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of the clay soil as a component of building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The results indicate that the values obtained fall below the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of clay as a building material does not pose any significant radiation hazard to individuals in the study area. (authors)

232

A Sociological Assessment of the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency’s (Ndlea Strategies of Arrest and Detention in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Arrest sand detentions are two operational strategies provided by law and often used by the NDLEAin its daily operations. A critical evaluation of the effectiveness of these strategies provides the needed periodicassessment of the nation’s drug control measures. In this study, 99 detained drug suspects drawn from Lagosand Kano State Command’s cells were surveyed. This enabled us to explore the NDLEA’s ideology, policies,strategies and practices of arrest and detention. The data revealed that although NDLEA statistics of arrestindicate a consistent increase over the years, most of the arrested suspects are either users and or street leveldealers. This leaves intact the barons and their structure of illicit dealings in narcotic drugs. Of equal concernis the revelation of gross violation of suspect’s human right. Most detained respondents opined that theNDLEA’s arrest and detention strategies are ineffective for any meaningful narcotic drug control in Nigeria.

J.E. Gyong

2010-06-01

233

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other details supported by GPS locations was carried out. Seven dominant classes of feature: agro-forest/light forest, built-up area, exposed rock surfaces/bare land, forest reserve, shrub and arable land, ridge forest and water body were identified. A time series analysis of the LULC changes was carried out to provide the necessary understanding of the changes required for policy formulation and decision-making with respect to cocoa production, forest reserve management and landuse planning, control, coordination and budgeting while being mindful of environmental conservation. This indispensable geo-information is yet lacking in the cocoa growing belt of southwestern Nigeria. ArcView software was used to prepare the corresponding time series LULC maps of the study area. The study showed that the forest reserves within the study area reduced at an average rate of 2.78% per year while agro-forest/light forest reduced to 46.39% (i.e., at an average rate of 1.55% per year and, shrub and arable land increased by 323.06% (i.e., at an average rate of 10.77% per year for food production farming to feed the rapidly increasing population between 1972 and 2002.

R.O. Oyinloye

2012-07-01

234

Review of prostate cancer research in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Prostate cancer (CaP) disparities in the black man calls for concerted research efforts. This review explores the trend and focus of CaP research activities in Nigeria, one of the ancestral nations for black men. It seeks to locate the place of the Nigerian research environment in the global progress on CaP disparities. Literature was reviewed mainly through a Pubmed search with the terms “prostate cancer”and “Nigeria”, as well as from internet and hard copies of journal page...

Ogo Chidiebere N; Akinremi Titilola O; Olutunde Ayodeji O

2011-01-01

235

Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

Furtak, Erin Marie

2012-01-01

236

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

1993-08-01

237

Is Nigeria’s Unemployment Problem Unsolvable?  

OpenAIRE

Unemployment in Nigeria is alarming. Its measurement by statistical authorities does not pose red alert. It has been discovered that the observed situation of unemployment is more serious than what official statistics want us to believe. The aim of this study is to examine unacceptable unemployment rate in Nigeria. Our findings show that labor force in Nigeria grows at more or less a steady rate of 0.3% every year while GDP growth rate at 1984 factor cost grows at 3.5% over a period of 33 yea...

Adawo, M. A.; Essien, E. B.; Ekpo, N. U.

2012-01-01

238

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

239

Linking the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading to the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a statistical linking between the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 4 reading and the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) in Grade 4 reading. The primary purpose of the linking study is to obtain a statistical comparison between NAEP (a national assessment) and PIRLS (an…

Phillips, Gary W.

2014-01-01

240

Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0?µg/dL than the roadside 43.5?µg/dL (P Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

2015-01-01

241

Micronutrient Assessment of Cocoa, Kola, Cashew and Coffee Plantations for Sustainable Production at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The micronutrient status of the soils and leaf of cocoa, kola, cashew and coffee plantations to study the soil-plant micronutrient content relationship in the plantation soils for proper management towards optimum production of the crops was investigated at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria. Soil and leaf samples were collected from these plantations and analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. The soil samples were analyzed for the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe and in addition pH, organic carbon, sand, silt and clay contents, while the leaves were analyzed for only the micronutrient contents. Results indicated that the soils were sandy loam, acidic, low in organic carbon, deficient in Cu and Mn but very high in Fe and Zn contents. This probably resulted in nutrient imbalance in the soils and the deficiency of the nutrients in the crops. The plantations therefore require application of organic manures and micronutrient fertilizers to rectify the inadequate soil organic matter and to supply sufficient amount of Cu and Mn in the soils, to obtain quality fruit yield at optimum level from the plantations.

Joseph Sunday Ogeh

2014-06-01

242

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

2005-09-01

243

Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured questionnaire used as instrument for data collection. The study showed that Microfinance service, particularly, those sponsored by government, have resulted in an increased level of credit disbursement and gains in agricultural production and other activities, the effects were short- lived, due to the unsustainable nature of the programme. Microfinance banks should increase the interval between asking for loans repayment and the time of granting the loans as this renders useless the study or verification of the borrower feasibility study, more especially under an inflationary period.

Edafiaje, A. L.

2011-12-01

244

Quantitative assessment of heavy metals in some tea marketed in Nigeria ——Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea  

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Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea marketed in Nigeria was investigated. Four major and most consumed brand of tea were selected for the present study. Both aqueous and dry methods were used. Total contents of metal were determined by digesting 1g of each brand using a mixture (3:1 concentrated nitric acid (NNO3 and hypochlorous acid (HCLO4. The second method involved hot water extract of tea samples. After boiling and filtration, the residue was evaporated to near dryness and digested with concentrated HNO3 and HCLO4 as described above. Results indicate that Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb were present in lowest concentrations in ascending order for which there were two significant differences between the four sources of samples. The general characteristics of heavy metal concentrations in aqueous extract showed high level of Fe and Mg in a descending order. Going by the correlation study of our result indicates that there is no significant relationship between the two elements of Fe and Mg, though, the numerical values of the two elements varied widely among the samples. These differences may have major impact on human health. However, the beneficial effects of tea are in a fairly narrow concentration range between the essential and the toxic level. In conclusion, the variations in heavy metals content of tea brands may be due to geographical, seasonal changes and the chemical characteristics of the growing regions.

Albert Cosmas Achudume

2010-09-01

245

Assessment of Clinical Diagnosis, Microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests, and Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the performance of clinical diagnosis and three laboratory diagnostic methods (thick film microscopy (TFM), rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Using clinical criteria, 217 children were recruited into the study out of which 106 (48.8%) were positive by TFM, 84 (38.7%) by RDT, and 125 (57.6%) by PCR. Using a composite reference method generated from the three diagnostic methods, 71 (32.7%) patients were found to be truly infected and 90 (41.5%) truly uninfected, while 56 (25.8%) were misidentified as infected or noninfected. When each of the 3 diagnostic methods was compared with the composite reference, PCR had sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 62.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 56.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.8%; microscopy had sensitivity of 77.2%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 66.9%, and NPV of 81.1%, while RDT had sensitivity of 62.3%, specificity of 87.4%, PPV of 67.7%, and NPV of 84.5%. PCR test performed best among the three methods followed by TFM and RDT in that order. The result of this study shows that clinical diagnosis cannot be relied upon for accurate diagnosis of P. falciparum in endemic areas. PMID:24371538

Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbosin, Olunike Olayeni; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

2013-01-01

246

Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

2015-01-01

247

Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

248

Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg-1, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg-1 and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg-1, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg-1, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg-1 and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

249

Assessment of hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater quality in the vicinity of Okpara coal and Obwetti fireclay mines, near Enugu town, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogeochemical assessments were carried out in the vicinity of Okpara coal and Obwetti fireclay mines, Enugu, Nigeria to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics and constituents of shallow groundwater. A total of 12 representative shallow groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions as well as trace metals like Fe and Mn. Distribution of major ions in these groundwater samples was calculated and the general trend among cations and anions was found to be Ca ? Na ? Mg ? K and SO4 ? NO3 ? Cl ? HCO3, respectively. This means that water moving through the ground will react to varying degrees with the surrounding minerals (and other components), and it is these rock-water interactions that give the water its characteristic chemistry. Piper trilinear diagrams classified the hydrogeochemical facies into Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-Fe-Mg-SO4 and Ca-Mg-Na-K-Cl-SO4 water types. Ratios of Cl to Na, K and Mg generally increased compared to those of Cl to Ca and SO4 which decreased indicating ion adsorption/exchange processes due to the dissolution of drainage materials. The aquiferous units mainly in the northwestern region of the study area yield water of better quality than those toward the southeastern region.

Utom, Ahamefula U.; Odoh, Benard I.; Egboka, Boniface C. E.

2013-03-01

250

Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

2014-07-01

251

ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS  

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Full Text Available As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and predictive equations were developed. Result showed that Ecorem increased SEC by 13.43 to 23.03%, improved the original soil status (159.25 ?9.25 µScm-1 by 8.63 to 52.94% and did not render the treated soil saline. The effect also varied with Ecorem – soil weight ratio, giving positive correlations with coefficients of up to 0.967 (p = 0.01; which is a function of petroleum product type. Predictive equations developed showed that for planning remediation project execution using Ecorem; for soil contaminated by petroleum products such as spent engine oil and crude oil, marginal negative errors of 9% and positive error of 2 to 17% should be taken into consideration.

ADEBOLA A. ADEKUNLE

2012-07-01

252

Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200 pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual to collaborative learning combined to indicate three notable changes resulting from the strategy: (1) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT applied in education to address future augmented teacher - students' liaisons.

Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva

2008-01-01

253

Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of south-east Nigeria using isotope techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the state capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. An inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three (33) water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydrochemical analysis, which results, when available would lie interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. ifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydrochemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to water resources managers and decision-makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

254

Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity measurements have been carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the radionuclide concentrations in soil samples in the premises of the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and also in communities around it. The radionuclide contents of the crude oil and petroleum additives were also similarly determined. Results indicate that on the premises used by the company, the ranges of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Th in the soil samples were 261.3-932.3 Bq kg-1,-1 and-1, respectively. For the 13 villages studied, activity concentrations ranged from -1,-1 and-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 228Th. The lowest radionuclide concentrations were found in the crude oil relative to the petroleum additives. The highest outdoor effective dose rate obtained in the study was 47.5 ?Sv y-1 for the villages and 35.2 ?Sv y-1 within the company premises. These values are less than the world average outdoor value of 70 ?Sv y-1 given by UNSCEAR. Overall, it can be concluded that the long duration of refining activities does not seem to have affected radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Measurements also showed that the observed radiation dose rates dhat the observed radiation dose rates did not vary significantly from the previously determined Warri City outdoor gamma radiation dose rates, for which the probability of occurrence of any health effects of radiation was judged low. The measurements, therefore, are interpreted to represent baseline radiometric data for future reference and research in the area

255

An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

Kola Adeyemi

2005-07-01

256

Assessing the Restructuring of SADC - Positions, Policies and Progress  

OpenAIRE

This study was commissioned by Norad. The Report provides an assessment of the institutional restructuring of SADC and an input to the planning of future Norwegian assistance to regional co-operation in Southern Africa. The institutional reforms mainly revolve around the changing role and functions of the SADC Secretariat but also include the sector co-ordinating units in member states which have been found highly uneven in their ability to pursue and implement policies; the establishment of ...

Isaksen, Jan; Tjønneland, Elling N.

2001-01-01

257

Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in Parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: The Case of Imo Shale and Ameki Formations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydro-geochemical survey is undertaken in parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria, particularly in the geologic formations of Imo Shale and Ameki, to assess the quality of groundwater. Eleven samples of groundwater are obtained from various boreholes in the study area and subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques. The study is aimed at the assessment of the groundwater quality indicators namely: pH, electrical conductivity (N, phosphate (PO4, sulphate (SO4, nitrate(NO3- and total dissolved solids (TDS. The result shows that the water from boreholes in Umuahia has low pH, and is therefore acidic. The pH values range between 4.40 and 5.60, which is below the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5. The acidity probably results from carbonic acid derived from the solution of CO2 from both the atmosphere and the decomposition of plant materials in the soil zone. The acidity of the groundwater gives slight sour taste to drinking water, due to the mobilization of trace metals from the aquifer material into the groundwater system, because of the corrosive effect of acidic water. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace metals end up in domestic supplies resulting in health implications and complaints. Acidic waters are typically low in buffering calcium minerals, but are high in dissolved carbon dioxide gas, which can cause the low pH or acidity. Calcite neutralizer tanks with natural crushed and screened pure calcium carbonate easily neutralize acidic water from 6.0 to 6.9. Below 6.0 a blend of calcite and Corosex is recommended. Common systems used to treat low pH: Calcite Neutralizer, calcite & Corosex Blend Neutralizer, pflow Neutralizer, Soda Ash Feed Pump Injection System.

Ifiok E. Udoinyang

2013-06-01

258

Reliability of the Mid Upper Arm Circumference for the Assessment of Wasting among Children Aged 12-59 Months in Urban Ibadan, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, length and MUAC, were obtained from the school children who were selected through total sampling. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the MUAC were determined using weight for age as gold standard (underweight). Z-Scores for anthropometric indicators were calculated using EPI-NUT programme. Receivers operating curve was prepared to determine the optimal cut off of MUAC for the sensitivity and specificity. The overall prevalence of under nutrition among the respondents was 5.6%. The mean mid upper arm circumference was 15.47 ± 1.4 cm and appears to increase with age from 11.49 ± 3.0 at 12-23 months and peaks at age five with a value of 18.05 ± 3.5. At 13.5 cm cut off, the sensitivity of MUAC is 20%, and the specificity is 95.3%, with a Kappa of 16.7%. The receivers operating curve reveals an optimum cut off of 15.5 cm with optimal but improved MUAC sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 53.5%. Thus MUAC was a poorly sensitive indicator of under nutrition at a cut-off below 13.5 cm but highly sensitive at 15.5 cm. A higher cut off value is therefore for recommended for screening for acute malnutrition among under five children. PMID:23675266

Dairo, M D; Fatokun, Modupeoluwa E; Kuti, Modupeoluwa

2012-06-01

259

Relevance of T2 signal changes in the assessment of progression of glioblastoma according to the Response Assessment in Neurooncology criteria  

OpenAIRE

Background: According to the Response Assessment in Neurooncology (RANO) criteria, significant nonenhancing signal increase in T2-weighted images qualifies for progression in high-grade glioma (T2-progress), even if there is no change in the contrast-enhancing tumor portion. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the frequency of isolated T2-progress and its predictive value on subsequent T1-progress, as determined by a T2 signal increase of 15% or 25%, respectively. The freque...

Radbruch, Alexander; Lutz, Kira; Wiestler, Benedikt; Ba?umer, Philipp; Heiland, Sabine; Wick, Wolfgang; Bendszus, Martin

2011-01-01

260

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

261

Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils from 12 sites in Lagos area, Nigeria impacted by anthropogenic activities were extracted by ultrasonication and analysed for the concentration of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The concentration of the sum of PAHs ranged from 0.2 to 254 ?g/g at these sites. The sum benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent dose (BaPeq) at the sites ranged from 0.0 (K, forest soil) to 16.7 ?g/g (C, the lubricating oil depot soil). Mean daily intake (MDI) for the composite soils samples when compared that of food revealed that some of the individual PAH in samples from sites A (Dump site), C (Depot and loading point for used for black oil), F (Dump site), G(petroleum depot), H (Roadside) and L (Car park) exceeded the recommended the recommended MDI threshold for food, indicating some risk associated with activities on these sites based on this ingestion estimate exceeded value. 8.2 × 10(-6), 7.1 × 10(-7), 1.2 × 10(-4), 4.9 × 10(-7), 7.3 × 10(-7), 1.4 × 10(-5), 7.9 × 10(-5), 4.6 × 10(-6), 3.4 × 10(-7), 2.4 × 10(-7), 2.2 × 10(-7) and 1.1 × 10(-4) estimated theoretical cancer risk (ER) for an adult with a body weight of 70 kg working on sites were composite soil samples A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L respectively were sampled. The ER from occupational exposure to surface soil based on oral ingestion were all higher than the target risk of 1 × 10(-6) for normal exposure but were all within the 1 × 10(-4) for extreme exposure for most of the sites except for site C and L. The differences in concentration and risk were related to the different activities (e.g., handling of petroleum products, open burning, bush burning) undertaken at these locations. However, it should be noted here that the resultant risk could be overestimated, since these calculations were based on an exhaustive extraction technique which may be different from uptake by the human guts (bioavailability study). PMID:25320853

Adetunde, Oluwatoyin T; Mills, Graham A; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

2014-01-01

262

Study of Exclusion and Assessibility of Students with Disabilities in the 1994 Trial State Assessment (TSA) of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a survey of national trends in educational achievement, is attempting to expand its inclusion of students with disabilities or limitations that have previously caused them to be excluded from the assessment. The study described was a precursor to the 1996 changes in NAEP inclusion procedures.…

Stancavage, Fran; And Others

263

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and strengths in the HIV research output from Nigeria, it is difficult to plan substantial improvements in H...

Uthman Olalekan A

2008-01-01

264

Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

2012-08-01

265

Post-impact assessment of oil pollution in Agbada west plain of Niger Delta, Nigeria: field reconnaissance and total extractable hydrocarbon content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical post-impact assessment of an oil-spill-impacted site in Agbada west plain of the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria was carried out 13 months after recorded incidence of spillage, using empirical indices of reconnaissance and extractable hydrocarbon content. Field-reconnaissance surveys revealed lower species' numbers and diversity of surface and subterranean flora and fauna. The presence and absence of such plant species as Elaeis guineensis, Musanga cecropiodes, and Andropogon gayanus, as well as animal species like earthworms and nematodes in sampled plots, corroborated the evidence provided by the total extractable hydrocarbon content (of (2.53+/-0.43)x10(2) mg/kg and (2.00+/-0.76)x10(2) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths, resp.) on the level of degradation and/or regeneration at the polluted site. The most important evidence that oiling must have been responsible, at least in part, for the reduction in species' number and diversity was provided by the plant cover, Andropogan gayanus, which occurred at a lower density of 0.9 plants/m2 in the oil-impacted plots and 14.00 plants/m2 in the unimpacted reference plots of an adjacent, geographically similar area. The presence of this species on site thus presented a significant difference (P<0.05) of over 85%, and indicated exhaustion or impoverishment of impacted soils. Elaeis guineensis, with a population density of 0.1 stands/m2, provided evidence of past cultivation on site, while species like Musanga cecropioides, with a density of 0.5 stands/m2, at the unimpacted site, confirmed the abandonment of the farmstead over a long period of time. For the fauna, the most sensitive indicator of hydrocarbon toxicity was provided by nematode Xiphinema sp. that were completely absent in the oil-impacted site. PMID:17191800

Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, S O; Obute, G C

2004-10-01

266

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of lead and cadmium via consumption of cow meat for an urban population in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087

Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B

2013-07-01

267

Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226Ra and 232Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 ?Sv, 8.1 ?Sv and 8.8 ?Sv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 ?Sv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

268

Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20?Sv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtainedh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

269

Exchange Rate Volatility and Export Trade in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation  

OpenAIRE

The paper seeks to quantitatively assess the impact of exchange rate volatility on non oil export flows in Nigeria. Theoretically, volatility-trade link is ambiguous, although a strand of studies reported inverse link between export flow and volatility. The paper employed fundamental analysis where the flow of non oil exports from the Nigerian economy is assumed to be predicated on fundamental variables: the naira exchange rate volatility, the US dollar volatility, Nigeria’s terms of trade ...

Aliyu, Shehu Usman Rano

2008-01-01

270

Adequacy of Dietary Iodine in Two Local Government Areas of Cross River State in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The Cross River State of Nigeria was in the goiter-endemic or goiter belt of Nigeria before the introduction of Universal Salt Iodization (USI) in 1996. After several years of availability and consumption of iodized salt in Nigeria, it has become necessary to revisit some of these previously goiter endemic areas so as to measure the effect of USI on the iodine nutriture, especially since goiter has not completely disappeared. This study was therefore initiated to assess the current iod...

Abua, Sabina N.; Ajayi, Olufunmike A.; Sanusi, Rasaki A.

2008-01-01

271

The National Assessment of Educational Progress in Economics: Test Framework, Content Specifications, and Results  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant event for the advancement of economic education in the schools is the development of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in economics. For the first time, national data from a representative sample of students are available to measure the achievement of high school students in economics. The achievement results are…

Buckles, Stephen; Walstad, William B.

2008-01-01

272

On whether foreign direct investment catalyzes economic development in Nigeria.  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigated the impact of Foreign Direct Investment on some selected macro-economic variables such as real GDP, gross fixed capital formation and unemployment. Data for the variables were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Statistical Bulletin. For the assessment of this impact, the author used co-integration and error correction model to arrive at a parsimonious result which revealed that foreign direct investment though impacts positively and significantly on the gross...

Okpara, Godwin Chigozie

2012-01-01

273

Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all the defined boundaries. This ensures the accuracy of the classification. Third, when item threshold parameters vary a bit, the scoring rubrics and the items need to be reviewed to make the threshold parameters similar across items. This is because one important design criterion of the learning progression-based items is that ideally, a student should be at the same level across items, which means that the item threshold parameters (d1, d 2 and d3) should be similar across items. To design a learning progression-based science assessment, we need to understand whether the assessment measures a single construct or several constructs and how items are associated with the constructs being measured. Results from dimension analyses indicate that items of different carbon transforming processes measure different aspects of the carbon cycle construct. However, items of different practices assess the same construct. In general, there are high correlations among different processes or practices. It is not clear whether the strong correlations are due to the inherent links among these process/practice dimensions or due to the fact that the student sample does not show much variation in these process/practice dimensions. Future data are needed to examine the dimensionalities in terms of process/practice in detail. Finally, based on item characteristics analysis, recommendations are made to write more discriminative CR items and better OMC, MTF options. Item writers can follow these recommendations to write better learning progression-based items.

Chen, Jing

274

Piloting Laboratory Quality System Management in Six Health Facilities in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Achieving accreditation in laboratories is a challenge in Nigeria like in most African countries. Nigeria adopted the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA) in 2010. We report on FHI360 effort and progress in piloting WHO-AFRO recognition and accreditation preparedness in six health facility laboratories in five different states of Nigeria. Method Laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline, follow up and exit using the WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA checklist. From the total percentage score obtained, the quality status of laboratories were classified using a zero to five star rating, based on the WHO/AFRO quality improvement stepwise approach. Major interventions include advocacy, capacity building, mentorship and quality improvement projects. Results At baseline audit, two of the laboratories attained 1- star while the remaining four were at 0- star. At follow up audit one lab was at 1- star, two at 3-star and three at 4-star. At exit audit, four labs were at 4- star, one at 3-star and one at 2-star rating. One laboratory dropped a ‘star’ at exit audit, while others consistently improved. The two weakest elements at baseline; internal audit (4%) and occurrence/incidence management (15%) improved significantly, with an exit score of 76% and 81% respectively. The elements facility and safety was the major strength across board throughout the audit exercise. Conclusion This effort resulted in measurable and positive impact on the laboratories. We recommend further improvement towards a formal international accreditation status and scale up of WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA implementation in Nigeria. PMID:25542022

Mbah, Henry; Ojo, Emmanuel; Ameh, James; Musuluma, Humphrey; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Jegede, Feyisayo; Ojo, Olufunmilayo; Uwakwe, Nkem; Ochei, Kingsley; Dada, Michael; Udah, Donald; Chiegil, Robert; Torpey, Kwasi

2014-01-01

275

Using aromatic biological markers as a tool for assessing thermal maturity of source rocks in the Campano-Maastrichtian Mamu Formation, southeastern Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La concentración y distribución de biomarcadores aromáticos en carbones y esquistos de cinco perforaciones en la formación Maastrichtian Mamu de la cuenca de Anambra, en el sureste de Nigeria, fueron analizados a través de un estudio de espectometría cromatográfico y de masa del gas para medir la ma [...] durez termal y la entrada de material orgánico. El estudio está enfocado en las variaciones de la abundancia relativa de naftalinas y fenantrenos, y en los esteroides monoaromáticos y triaromáticos identificados en los fragmentogramas de masas. La trimetinaftalina (TMN) es la más abundante de la familia de las naftalinas mientras el metilfenantreno (MP) es el más abundante de los fenantrenos. El tota de los fenantrenos y sus isómeros fue mayor que el de las naftalinas. La distribución de estos hidrocarbones aromáticos y sus alquilos derivados fue controlada ampliamente por un mecanismo de expulsión selectiva y de la maduración térmica de material orgánico. La baja proporción dibenziotofeno/fenantreno (DBT/PHEN) (0.01-0.06), al igual que las concentraciones mejoradas de 1,2,5-TMN relativas de 1,2,7-TMN indican que la materia orgánica se deriva principalmente de plantas mayores, y del diagrama terniario de los esteroides monoaromáticos C27, C28 y C29 sugiere un tipo III mezclado con tipos II/III de querógenos. El valor calculado de la reflectancia de vitrinita (%Rm) determinado de la proporción de isómeros de metildibenziotofeno (MDR) en los extractos rocosos oscila de 0.51 a 1.43. Estos valores de madurez indican que los extractos de carbones y esquistos son marginalmente maduros para la generación de hidrocarbono. Abstract in english The concentration and distribution of aromatic biomarkers in coals and shales from five boreholes penetrating the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess the thermal maturity and organic matter input [...] . The study focused on the variations of the relative abundances of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and monaromatic and triaromatic steroids identified on the mass fragmentograms. Trimethylnaphthalene (TMN) is the most abundant member of the naphthalene family while methylphenanthrene (MP) is the most abundant phenanthrene family member. The total of phenanthrenes and their isomers was greater than that of naphthalenes. The distribution of these aromatic hydrocarbons and their akyl derivatives was strongly controlled by a selective expulsion mechanism and thermal maturation of organic matter. The low dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene (DBT/PHEN) ratios (0.01-0.06), as well as the enhanced concentrations of 1,2,5-TMN relative to 1,2,7- TMN, indicates organic matter derived mainly from higher plants, and the extract ternary plot of C27, C28 and C29 monoaromatic steroids suggests a Type III and mixed Type II/III kerogen. The calculated mean vitrinite reflectance (%Rm), determined from the distributions of the isomers of methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR) in the rock extracts, ranged from 0.51 to 1.43. These maturity values indicate that the coal and shale extracts are marginally mature for hydrocarbon generation.

Jude E, Ogala; Mike I, Akaegbobi.

2014-01-01

276

Capital Flight and Nigeria Economic Growth  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides evidence on the negative impact of the assessment of capital flight on economic growth of Nigeria for 40 years (1970-2009). It provides a comprehensive analysis of capital flight and its resultant impact on domestic investment and the growth rate of the economy. The study used cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) as its main estimation techniques. It was discovered that capital flight and its assessments are significant factors for explaining economi...

AJAYI LAWRENCE BOBOYE

2012-01-01

277

Rules of Origin in the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement and Nigeria’s international trade  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the key issues and assesses the impact of the rules of origin (RoO) and cumulation on Nigeria’s international trade within the context of Africa-EU partnerships agreements. The review of literatures shows that RoO are an important element in determining the final benefit associated with the bilateral trade relationship under preferential trade agreements. It notes that Africa-EU bilateral trade relations dates back to the Lome Conventions that gave preferential entry ...

Balogun, Emmanuel Dele

2010-01-01

278

Cybercrime in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of some key organizations. We investigated these crimes and noted some useful observations. From our observ...

Okonigene Robert Ehimen, Adekanle Bola

2010-01-01

279

A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

2013-01-01

280

Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally expo...

Jibiri Nnamdi N.; Oguntade Grace T.

2007-01-01

281

Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water a...

Tijani, Moshood N.; Onodera, Shinichi

2009-01-01

282

An Assessment of Beneficiaries’ Satisfaction of the Management of Loan Contract Components by Farmer Cooperative Societies in Edo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study assessed beneficiaries’ satisfaction in the managementof loag-contract components by cooperatives involved inthe farm credit delivery in Edo State. The objective was toidentify the components of the farm loan contract, examine themanagement strategies and rate the beneficiaries’ satisfaction ofsuch management strategies. This was done by purposivelyselecting 40 cooperatives involved in farm credit delivery inOredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha LGAs of Edo State where thereis a prolifera...

Grace Oghenerobor Alufohai; Tosan Jolomi Okorosobo

2013-01-01

283

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR AQUACULTURE USES IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

The physicochemical studies were conducted to assess water resources in Abeokuta NorthLocal Government Area, Ogun State in relation to their potential for aquaculture uses. Watersamples were collected from both surface and groundwater sources and analyzed for pH,colour, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, BOD, carbonate, iron, lead andcopper. The results revealed a fluctuating behaviour of different parameters throughout thestudy correlations between the physiochemical studied,...

Olaniyi Olopade

2013-01-01

284

The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Udeme Asibong,1 Ita B Okokon,1 Thomas U Agan,2 Affiong Oku,3 Margaret Opiah,4 E James Essien,5 Emmanuel Monjok1,5 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 4Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 5Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA Background: Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology: Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results: The majority of the respondents (70.8% had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (?2=12.05, P=0.0001 and partograph availability (?2=56.5, P=0.0001 had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (?2=9.43, P=0.002 was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%, nonavailability (70%, shortage of staff (61.5%, and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%. Conclusion: Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. Keywords: knowledge, utilization, partograph, obstetric caregivers, labor monitoring, Nigeria

Asibong U

2014-10-01

285

Assessing market for multi-national corporations at Nigeria's bottom of the pyramid: Hints from consumer behaviour  

OpenAIRE

Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs ...

Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

2013-01-01

286

Assessment on the Effect of pH on the Soil of Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research work is to assess the level of pH in the soil of irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis using PH meter. It was found that Samples obtained from Nasarawa and Kawo ( pH = 5.8) were the lowest pH in the samples analyzed. These were similar to the pH of the control site Rigachikun with pH = 5.8 (acidic). Sample from Kurmin mashi had the highest pH value (pH = 8.5) and is alkaline. This revealed that most of the soils from the irrigation sites were acidic...

Jimoh, W. L. O.; Mahmud Imam Mohammed

2014-01-01

287

Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g) of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>C...

Owamah, H. I.

2013-01-01

288

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR AQUACULTURE USES IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The physicochemical studies were conducted to assess water resources in Abeokuta NorthLocal Government Area, Ogun State in relation to their potential for aquaculture uses. Watersamples were collected from both surface and groundwater sources and analyzed for pH,colour, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, BOD, carbonate, iron, lead andcopper. The results revealed a fluctuating behaviour of different parameters throughout thestudy correlations between the physiochemical studied, the result revealed thatphysicochemical variables were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by site but there were nosignificant difference in the values of Pb and Fe in all the station (P<0.05.

Olaniyi Olopade

2013-01-01

289

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

1993-08-01

290

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

291

GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

Edmund C. Merem

2006-03-01

292

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna

2011-03-01

293

Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

294

Progress with situation assessment and risk prediction in advanced driver assistance systems: A survey:  

OpenAIRE

In the field of automotive safety, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are receiving growing attention. Effective ADAS requires awareness of the actual driving situation, a reliable assessment of the risks, and making rapid decisions on assisting actions. This paper reviews the current progress in these complementing subfields. The goal is to explore and critically analyze the most promising technological solutions and system application concepts. In order to systematize our study, firs...

Rendon-velez, E.; Horva?th, I.; Opiyo, E. Z.

2009-01-01

295

An Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Potential of the Gombe Formation, Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria: Organic Geochemical Point of View  

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Full Text Available Gombe Formation is a heterogeneous sequence within the Upper Benue Trough consisting principally of shales with sands, clays and intercalations of coal. It is over 600 m thick maximally in some parts of the sub-basin and has been dated Maastritchtian. Fifteen (15 core samples from 3 boreholes (BA-7, BA-16 and BA-17 dug around the Maiganga Coal Mine have been studied geochemically using the Rock-Eval 6 method with the principal aim of evaluating their potential as possible source rocks for petroleum. The results of the Rock-Eval analysis for analyzed core samples from these boreholes within Gombe Formation shows that the samples in boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 contain Type II kerogen while those from borehole BA-17 contain Type III kerogen, and that the samples from boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 have very good generative potential while those from borehole BA-17 have good to very good potential. This study also reveals that the analyzed samples especially those from boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 may constitute good source rocks if the burial depth is sufficient. The Rock-Eval Tmax data available for thermal maturity assessment of the samples suggest that the analyzed samples from the three boreholes are thermally immature. This assessment is consistent with the immaturity status of their coeval Formations (Pindiga and Gongila Formations in other part of the Benue Trough, suggesting that these contemporaneous Formations may be related in depth and/or have experienced similar geothermal gradient. It is therefore recommended that the thermal maturity of the analyzed samples from the three boreholes be re-evaluated by other thermal maturity indices such as vitrinite reflectance measurement and biomarker evaluation in order to further authenticate the maturity status of the Formation.

U. S. Onoduku

2012-12-01

296

Nigeria: too many children?  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D

1987-04-01

297

Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria  

CERN Document Server

The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

2012-01-01

298

Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302 between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230, size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245, hour spent on farm (b = 1.469 and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567 were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

S.A. Adesoji

2006-01-01

299

An Assessment of Beneficiaries’ Satisfaction of the Management of Loan Contract Components by Farmer Cooperative Societies in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed beneficiaries’ satisfaction in the managementof loag-contract components by cooperatives involved inthe farm credit delivery in Edo State. The objective was toidentify the components of the farm loan contract, examine themanagement strategies and rate the beneficiaries’ satisfaction ofsuch management strategies. This was done by purposivelyselecting 40 cooperatives involved in farm credit delivery inOredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha LGAs of Edo State where thereis a proliferation of cooperatives who are actively involved infarm credit delivery. Data were analyzed using descriptivestatistics, queuing model and satisfaction indices.Results showedthe main loan-contract components to be loan volume, repaymentregime, interest rates charged, default management, collateralrequired, timeliness and loan monitoring. Average beneficiaries’index was 4.28 out of 5 indicating high satisfaction originatingfrom good queue management with traffic density of 1.12,moderate interest rate of 9% p.a, active loan monitoring, nophysical collateral, timely disbursement of loan and accommodativerepayment regime. Only individual loan volumes were low as aresult of inadequate loanable fund. Study recommends that cooperativesocieties should take advantage of external sources offunds to boost the volume of their loanable funds.

Grace Oghenerobor Alufohai

2013-03-01

300

A Comparative Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water quality monitoring at five (5 different gauge stations on the course of Njaba River was undertaken to understand the variability of the physico-chemical and microbial contents of the river water within a specified period of time (2003-2008. Collected water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Digital Meters and Standard Plate Counts. Results of the analyses indicated that average pH, electrical conductivity and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS of the Njaba River in 2003 were 6.3, 22 µS/cm and 13.5 mg/l, respectively. Mean values in 2008 for the same parameters were 6.4, 24.4µS/cm and 14.7 mg/l, respectively. Mean concentrations of analyzed cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ in 2003 were 4.10, 0.15, 5.00 and 1.20 mg/l, respectively, and that obtained for same parameters in 2008 were 4.40, 0.18, 6.40 and 1.30 mg/l, respectively. The mean concentrations of analyzed anions (HCO3 - , SO4 2-, Cl- and NO3 - in 2003 were 20.0, 4.0, 1.30 and 0.20 mg/l, respectively and in 2008 the mean concentrations were 24.5, 4.20, 1.60 and 0.22 mg/l, respectively. Characterization of the river water followed the trend: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ (for the cations and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > NO3 - (for anions, showing the Njaba River is NaHCO3 water. Mean concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD of the river water were 7.2 and 2.2 mg/l, respectively in 2003, and 8.0 and 4.0 mg/l respectively, in 2008. Total Coliform Counts of the river water in 2003 ranged from 70 - 90 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 80 cfu/100ml, while the counts in 2008 ranged from 100 - 120 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 110 cfu/100 ml. Calculated Pollution Index (PI slightly increased from 0.72 in 2003 to 0.73 in 2008. These water quality determinants revealed gradual rise in the concentrations of the respective physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological constituents of the Njaba River water. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR of 1.37 in 2003 and 1.54 in 2008, however, indicated that the river remained excellent for irrigation purposes. Except for the observed low pH and poor bacteriological quality, all other measured parameters of the Njaba River water conformed to the World Health Organization (WHO standards for safe drinking water. The generally decreasing low pH value and progressively increasing Coliform Counts and nutrient contents (although still low were the major environmental problems observed in the Njaba River water. These problems are essentially associated with increased anthropogenic activities on the Njaba River Watershed within the period in focus.

Cosmas Ahamefula Ahiarakwem

2011-09-01

301

Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

2012-02-01

302

Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

Mmom Prince Chinedu

2010-10-01

303

An Assessment of the Trend and Projected Future Values of Climatic Variables in Niger Delta Region, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the trend and projected future values of climatic variables in the Niger Delta Region. Annual mean time series data of climatic variables from 1971 to December 2007 were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET for the study. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the random selection of states, local government, communities and rural farming households. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the rural farming households in the region. Line graph was used to determine the trend of the climatic variables (temperature, and rainfall and Growth model was used to predict the future values of climatic variables (temperature, and rainfall in the Niger Delta Region. Most rural farming households were married and headed by male with a mean household size of 10 persons. Primary school level of education dominated rural farming households with a low annual income of N73, 896 ($480 per annum. There was an increasing trend in mean annual temperature but a decreasing and increasing trend in mean annual rainfall values. The statistical projected future values of mean annual temperature and mean annual rainfall show an increasing trend in the Region. It is recommended that Meteorological station units should be established in the rural farming area especially in the Niger Delta region where accessibility is extremely difficult. This will make available meteorological data (information to the reach of the poor rural farming household for their Agricultural production and for the attainment of food security status in the Region.

P.O. Emaziye

2012-03-01

304

Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to a...

Olusegun Olowe, Ph D.

2012-01-01

305

Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State) at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership). The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducte...

Meurice Francois P; Alufohai Ewan F; Odusanya Olumuyiwa O; Ahonkhai Vincent I

2008-01-01

306

Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water, in and around Imirigin oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alpha and beta activity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water in and around Imirigin oil field has been carried out. Study area was subdivided into five locations, soil and water samples were collected from field undisturbed environment and oil spilled areas. Sample collection and preparation follows standard procedures. Insitu measurement was conducted for pH and electrical conductivity, heavy metal analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and gross alpha and beta activity concentration was carried out by using Gas Filled Proportional Counter. Average value for pH and electrical conductivity are 6.5±00.2 and 46.8±1.0?S/cm respectively for soil and 6.4±0.5 and 406.1±5.2?S/cm respectively for water. The mean values obtained for AAS analysis for soil are (11.9±1.0, 3.3±0.4, 1.7±0.7, 8.1±0.5, 42.5±1.9, 3.3±0.5, 8.0±0.6, 0.08±0.02 and 79.5±2.2)mg/kg. For Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr respectively. For water, mean value obtained are (8.3±0.5, 4.2±0.4, 1.6±0.4, 1.5±0.3, 1.3±0.2, 0.±0.004, 0.07±0.003, 0.05±0.01 and ND)mg/l for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Pb, Cd, Hg and As respectively. Gross alpha and beta activities mean concentrations for soil are 0.53±0.02Bq/g and 29.29±0.17Bq/g respectively, and 4.02±0.01Bq/l and 54.23±1.76Bq/l respectively for water. The results show that the level of the various metals obtained differs from location to location. Values obtained in soil are within reporte within reported values in the Niger Delta region except iron level. Heavy metals such as Ca, Fe and Cd exceed the WHO limits for drinking water. The mean values for alpha and beta activity in soil are above reported values in similar environment while mean values obtained in water samples are above WHO recommended maximum permissible limit for drinking water. These values obtained suggested that drinking water from sampled locations may pose some health hazards to the public users but soil from the area is safe as construction material for buildings.

307

Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

308

In-Season Assessment of Rabi Crop Progression and Condition from Multi Source Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Timely and accurate information on periodic crop progress and condition is essential to an agricultural country like India. The current study has been carried out with the objective of monitoring the timelines of the sowing of rabi crops viz. wheat and mustard, their progression and condition assessment using data from multiple sources viz. a set of indices derived from remote sensing, meteorological parameters and crop simulation modeling. The study area consists of six districts with significant wheat and mustard crops namely Patiala, Bhiwani, Agra, Bharatpur, Morena and Rohtas, and has been done for three years (2008-09, 2012-13 and 2013-14). The methodology consists of analysis of multi-temporal AWiFS and MODIS datasets of historical and current seasons for the period October to March covering rabi season. Crop simulation for wheat was carried out using DSSAT-CERES crop growth model for assessing crop growth. The results were discussed in terms of crop progression, start-of-the-season and crop condition. As a future scope of this study, thermal indices can be incorporated for further refinement and the same can be extended to larger areas.

Sahay, B.; Ramana, K. V.; Chandrsekar, K.; Biswal, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Rao, S. V. C. K.

2014-11-01

309

Numerical Assessment of the Progressive Rock Fracture Mechanism of Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc Specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) suggested cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc method falls into a major testing category of rock fracture toughness measurement by virtue of chevron notched rock samples. A straight through crack front during the whole fracturing process is assumed in the testing principle but is never assessed. In this study, the progressive rock fracture mechanism of cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc rock specimens is numerically simulated for the first time. Two representative sample types with distinct geometry of notch ligaments are modelled. The assumption of a straight through crack front for chevron notched fracture samples is critically assessed. The results show that not only the notch tip but also the saw-cut chevron notch cracks during the experiments. The straight through crack front assumption is never satisfied in the realistic rock fracture progress of chevron notched disc samples. In addition, the crack features prominent curved front, far from being straight. In contrast to the sample type with narrow notch ligament, the acoustic emission (AE) of the simulation on the sample with wide notch ligament depicts obvious biased fracturing of the prescript fracturing route of the notch. The numerically observed progressive fracture mechanism calls for more attention on how to accurately calibrate the critical dimensionless stress intensity factor for a better measurement of Mode I fracture toughness via chevron notched samples.

Dai, F.; Wei, M. D.; Xu, N. W.; Ma, Y.; Yang, D. S.

2015-03-01

310

Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products  

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Full Text Available This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with product made-in-Nigeria. Survey study was carried out through questionnaire administration on 120 respondents; using purposive sampling technique to select the three popular markets in Lagos (Yaba, Oshodi and Eko to gather the required data for empirical analysis. The population of this study were the textile products consumers in Lagos State where Textiles customers were randomly sampled in each of these markets. Ordinary Least Square method (OLS, t-test, f-statistics, coefficient of determination (R2 and Durbin Watson Statistics were used to estimate the data. The results showed: (a significant relationship between product quality and desire to buy made-in-Nigeria at 0.05 level (r = .984, P<0.05; (b a significant, high positive relationship between the perceived cost of individual purchases and the satisfaction derived from made -in-Nigeria goods ( r = .961 and (c a correlation coefficient of 0.979, for cultural believes and buying behaviour of Nigerians. The results necessitated the formulation of required strategies for implementation in concluding the study

Ph. D. Sunday Abayomi Adebisi

2011-05-01

311

Validity Evidence for Learning Progression-Based Assessment Items That Fuse Core Disciplinary Ideas and Science Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

This article evaluates a validity argument for the degree to which assessment tasks are able to provide evidence about knowledge that fuses information from a progression of core disciplinary ideas in ecology and a progression for the scientific practice of developing evidence-based explanations. The article describes the interpretive framework…

Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Songer, Nancy Butler

2013-01-01

312

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM): AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR BUSINESS PERFORMANCE ON MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK (MTN) IN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN), one of the global cellular providers headquartered in South Africa and owned by corporate investors outside Nigeria. Nigeria, been a readymade market with about 140 millions of people, hence MTN has over 35 million subscribers. The objective of this paper is to assess the Effect of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on Business Performance on Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) in Nigeria. 200 questionnaires were administered and the statistical ...

Daramola, Gloria Chiadika; Adekunle, Joel Adeleke

2013-01-01

313

High prevalence of hepatitis B virus among female sex workers in Nigeria Alta prevalência de hepatite pelo vírus B entre trabalhadoras do sexo feminino na Nigéria  

OpenAIRE

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and constitutes a public health menace. The prevalence of HBV infection in many professional groups has been described in Nigeria. However, literature on HBV infection among female sex workers (FSW) in Nigeria is scanty. FSW in Nigeria are not subjected to a preventive control of HBV infection. This study assesses the extent of spread of HBV among FSW in Nigeria. Seven hundred and twenty (n = 720) FSW (mean age = 26.7 years) were tested ...

Forbi, J. C.; Onyemauwa, N.; Gyar, S. D.; Oyeleye, A. O.; Entonu, P.; Agwale, S. M.

2008-01-01

314

Risk biomarker assessment for breast cancer progression: replication precision of nuclear morphometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear morphometry is a method for quantitative measurement of histopathologic changes in the appearance of stained cell nuclei. Numerous studies have indicated that these assessments may provide clinically relevant information related to the degree of progression and malignant potential of breast neoplasia. Nuclear features are derived from computerized analysis of digitized microscope images, and a quantitative Feulgen stain for DNA was used. Features analyzed included: (1) DNA content; (2) nuclear size and shape; and (3) texture features, describing spatial features of chromatin distribution. In this study replicated measurements are described on a series of 54 breast carcinoma specimens of differing pathologic grades. Duplicate measurements were performed using two serial sections, which were processed and analyzed separately. The value of a single feature measurement, the nuclear area profile, was shown to be the strongest indicator of progression. A quantitative nuclear grade was derived and shown to be strongly correlated with not only the pathologic nuclear grade, but also with tubule formation, mitotic grade, and with the overall histopathologic grade. Analysis of replication precision showed that the standard methods of the histopathology laboratory, if practiced in a uniform manner, are sufficient to ensure reproducibility of these assessments. We argue that nuclear morphometry provides a standardized and reproducible framework for quantitative pathologic assessments. PMID:12775917

Poulin, N; Frost, A; Carraro, A; Mommers, E; Guillaud, M; Van Diest, P J; Grizzle, W; Beenken, S

2003-01-01

315

What is wrong in Nigeria?; Security Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite massive government efforts at putting an end to crime and militancy targeting its petroleum industry, Nigeria's oil production is still falling. Daily crude output now hovers around the 1.7 million barrels per day mark, perhaps even lower, as MEND - a network of militant groups saying they are fighting for the rights of the Niger Delta's people - has picked up hatchet. Again. The government's declared ambition of pumping 4 million barrels by next year is not only a distant dream, it is a delirious illusion. (Author)

Nodland, Arild

2009-07-01

316

Radiological assessment of the alpha and beta content of water resources of Ogba industrial area (OML- 58 and OML - 61) of Rivers State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of the alpha and beta content of water resources of Ogba industrial areas (OML-58 and 61) of River State, Nigeria were done using gas-flow proportional counter (EURlSYS MEASURE IN 20 low background multiple channel alpha/beta counter). Background measurement and plateau test was done to determine the background radioactivity and optimal operational voltage and frequencies. The alpha activity concentration in well water ranges from 0.012±0.001 to 5.140±0.083Bq/l with a mean value of 0.987±0.035Bq/l. Similarly, the range of gross beta activity concentration spanned from 0.340±0.046 to 16.196±0.126 Bq/l with a mean value of 4.585±0.211Bq/l. For tap water, the gross alpha and beta activity concentration ranges from 0.022±0.001 to 2.300±0.040Bq/l and 0.00 to 5.890±0.025Bq/l respectively. Their mean values are 0.379±0.012Bq/l and 2.815±0.32Bq/l respectively. The gross alpha activity concentration of river water ranges from 0.016±0.001 to 10.064±0.230Bq/l with a mean value of 1.284±0.102Bq/l while the gross beta activity ranges from 2.090±0.019Bq/l to 15.800±0.325Bq/l with a mean value of 7.033±1.020Bq/l. Comparing the results with the WHO safe limit of 0.1Bq/l and 1.0Bq/l for alpha and beta activity in drinking water respectively, the obtained values of all the water sources (well, tap and river) exceeded the maximum permissible limit. Also the control values were lower than the obtained activities. The effective equivalent dose calculated frvalent dose calculated from gross alpha activity for adult and infant to ascertain the health implication of the elevated alpha activity concentration was found to be higher than ICRP limit of 0.1mSvyr-1 in well and river water but the dose equivalent for tap water in infants is lower than the safe limit. However, oil and gas production in the area has contributed to increased activity concentration of alpha and beta in water bodies in the area and therefore may pose serious detrimental health side effects to the public users of these water bodies. Therefore, companies operating in the area should reduce the use of radionuclide in their operations and provide remedial measure to improve the quality of water and reduce the risk of cancer and other related ailments.

317

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

318

Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

J. K. Yohanna.

2012-03-01

319

Assessment of Radionuclide Concentrations and Absorbed Dose from Consumption of Community Water Supplies in Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were c...

Pascal Tchokossa; James Bolarinwa Olomo; Fatai Akintunde Balogun

2011-01-01

320

Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

321

PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recover...

Ingwe, Richard; Mboto, Walter A.

2012-01-01

322

Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope

2010-12-01

323

TRADE OPENNESS AND ITS IMPACT ON NIGERIA’S NON-OIL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: 1979-2009  

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Full Text Available The growth of the industrial sector and the resultant export witnessed in Nigeria in the 1960s and 1970s was largely the outcome of a policy of import substitution which precipitated the overvaluation of the domestic currency partly through the encouragement of low return investments by preferential credit policies and direct public investment in industrial ventures. The ‘fait accompli’ adoption of the IMF – induced structural economic reforms whose main trust is trade openness among others was targeted at restructuring the economy away from over dependence on the oil sector. This study focused on the impact of trade openness on Nigeria’s industrial performance with a view to determining the spill over effect of the policy on the major contending sectors in the economy. This study therefore examined the relationship between trade openness and industrial performance,armed with secondary time series data and using an ordinary least square multiple regression analytical method. The study found that the unilateral trade openness of 1986 produced the sustainable impact on the nonoil industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. It was observed that Public domestic investment, saving rate, capacity utilization and infrastructure has negative impacts on Nigeria’s industrial performance. Our findings and conclusion support the need for the government to consolidate and maintain the credibility of the trade policies for sustainable growth and development. More progress will be achieved if the conditions needed for a deregulated trade system to work properly are set in place.

Bakare A.S Ph.D

2011-10-01

324

Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

1979-07-01

325

Science and fourth grade students: An analysis of California's fourth National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine science assessment data as generated by the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and through the analysis of four research variables: teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, and student characteristics, determine their relationship to science achievement of fourth grade students (Cavanagh, 2006) in the state of California. All children are born ready and willing to learn but as they progress to and through the primary grades, many lose their natural curiosity and enthusiasm for learning (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994). By the fourth grade, the performance of most children in the United States (U.S. Department of Education, 2004b) is below what it should be for the nation and is below the achievement levels of children in competing countries (Carnegie Corporation of New York). We must trust children to learn if given the chance (Bush, 2008). The analysis of these research variables found that there are relationships between teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, student characteristics and science achievement of fourth grade students in the state of California. Revelation of these relationships provide a deeper understanding of the science achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged school children. The utilization of these findings in the classroom will lead to increasing science achievement in all student groups and notably help to decrease the achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged students. Policy changes are suggested at the district, regional, and national levels to close the international achievement gap.

Bowman, Cecelia Francisco

326

Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government embarked on a number of public sector reform programmes aimed at blocking leakages of all sorts in public sector service delivery and transactions. The official instrument designed to achieve this much desired honesty, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business especially in the award of contracts and procurement in the ministries, parastatals and departments in Nigeria is the introduction of the Due Process Policy.


Key words: Due process; Public procurement; Administration

Stephen Ocheni

2012-09-01

327

Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

2008-01-01

328

Rural Poverty Alleviation and Democracy in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic (1999-2009)  

OpenAIRE

This study assesses the impact of poverty alleviation programmes of government on the ruraldwellers in Nigeria from 1999 to 2009. It argues that the various poverty alleviation programmes put in placeby government have not made any meaningful impact on the lives of majority of rural people who are livingbelow poverty line. A lthough poverty is a universal phenomenon that affect the socio-economic and politicalwell being of its victims whether in a developed or underdeveloped country, however,...

Aderonmu, Jonathan A.

2010-01-01

329

Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology  

OpenAIRE

The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI), which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to forei...

Dutse, A. Y.

2008-01-01

330

Seismicity in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismicity is the likelihood of an area being subject to natural earthquakes. Natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and earth tremors have manifested through fractures. Thus monitoring and prediction of these hazards could begin by a proper documentation of the pathways through which they emanate, using geophysical methods, and these could be useful in planning and in population control in a suspected hazard-ridden environments.This work has reviewed seismicity in Nigeria and has been able to show that Nigeria may not be aseismic as has hitherto been believed.Therefore, henceforth it is necessary to incorporate seismic criteria in the site investigations for design and construction of major and sensitive structures whose sudden damage can lead to disruption of major essential services, loss of lives and property and general degradation of the environment. A geophysical survey of the site for the nuclear power plant is mandatory

331

Fish Breeding in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This...

Akankali, J. A.; Seighabo, E. I.; Abowei, J. F. N.

2011-01-01

332

Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY 04 Year-end Progress Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL), along with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), are developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology for the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This CY04 report describes the latest developments and progress with the development of the Pulsed, Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) nuclear material inspection ystem, such as: (1) the identification of an optimal range of electron beam energies for interrogation applications, (2) the development of a new “cabinet safe” electron accelerator (i.e., Varitron II) to assess “cabinet safe-type” operations, (3) the numerical and experimental validation responses of nuclear materials placed within selected cargo configurations, 4) the fabrication and utilization of Calibration Pallets for inspection technology performance verification, 5) the initial technology integration of basic radiographic “imaging/mapping” with induced neutron and gamma-ray detection, 6) the characterization of electron beam-generated photon sources for optimal performance, 7) the development of experimentallydetermined Receiver-Operator-Characterization curves, and 8) several other system component assessments. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security and is a technology component of the Science & Technology Active Interrogation Portfolio entitled “Photofission-based Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization.”

J.L. Jones; W.Y. Yoon; K.J. Haskell; D.R. Norman; J.M. Zabriskie; J.W. Sterbentz; S.M. Watson; J.T. Johnson; B.D. Bennett; R.W. Watson; K. L. Folkman

2005-05-01

333

Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

Yohanna, J. K.

2010-12-01

334

Could fuelwood use contribute to household poverty in Nigeria?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To show whether fuelwood use could contribute to household poverty in Nigeria, the paper has used the discounted cash flow microeconomic assessment to evaluate the annual worth cost of harnessing fuel wood for cooking and water heating in Nigerian households, for an average household size of five persons per day. Findings indicate that 9786 Naira is being expended on cooking and water heating activities at the household level in Nigeria which is much greater than the mean national household income of about 5150 Naira a year. The study has shown that households using fuelwood are made poorer and left with no savings. (Author)

Adeoti, O.; Idowu, D.O.O.; Falegan, T. [Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Dept.

2001-07-01

335

Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

336

Exposure of Dentists to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ibadan, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among dental patients and to assess dentists’ risk for exposure, we conducted a study among dental patients at a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a country where tuberculosis is endemic. Ten (13%) of 78 sputum samples obtained were positive for M. tuberculosis.

Cadmus, Simeon I.; Okoje, Victoria N.; Taiwo, Babafemi O.; Soolingen, Dick

2010-01-01

337

Progress report: Chile's primary health care quality assessment and improvement program.  

Science.gov (United States)

A progress report on the primary health care quality assessment and improvement program in Chile is presented. In March 1991, the Quality Assurance Project (QAP) and the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health of Chile initiated a collaborative effort to improve the quality of primary health care services. During the first year of the project, significant progress has been made. Over 400 health professionals nationwide have received basic training in quality assurance, and over 30 quality improvement activities are underway. The project started by raising awareness among top-level managers. Next, reflecting the decentralized focus of Chile's health system, training and technical assistance were provided to managers and supervisors at the district level. Chilean health professionals trained by QAP are encouraged to meet with their clinic staffs to identify problems that affect the quality of their services, and determine the causes of these problems. While the project focuses on primary health care clinics in the public sector, QAP is also working with universities, professional associations, and nongovernmental organizations. Because of their expertise and influence in primary health care, these entities have been an integral part of the effort from the outset. Included in this paper are the three main components of the quality assurance (QA) effort in Chile: training, application of QA methods, and institutionalization. PMID:12295541

1992-05-01

338

Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24740707

Joe, William

2015-05-01

339

The search for underlying principles of health impact assessment: progress and prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA PMID:25114950

Winkler, Mirko S.; Utzinger, Jürg

2014-01-01

340

Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in the rheumatic diseases: assessing the risks of biological immunosuppressive therapies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and often fatal opportunistic infection that has been well reported in patients with rheumatic diseases. The contributions of predisposing factors such as underlying disease and immunosuppressive drug selection are incompletely understood but it would appear that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus may be at highest risk. Natalizumab, a biological agent approved for multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease has the clearest pattern of small but definite risk. Although the risk due to rituximab is difficult to assess given the multiple confounders, continued vigilance is warranted. Rheumatologists need to become familiar with PML and feel able to help patients make shared and informed decisions about the risks when starting treatment with immunosuppressive therapies. In particular, rheumatologists need to be vigilant and pursue the diagnosis of PML in all patients with unexplained neurological signs or symptoms with clinical and MRI findings compatible with the diagnosis. PMID:19022817

Calabrese, L H; Molloy, E S

2008-12-01

341

LINGUISTIC HEGEMONY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NIGERIA / HÉGÉMONIE LINGUISTIQUE DE L'ANGLAIS AU NIGERIA / HEGEMONÍA LINGÜÍSTICA DE LA LENGUA INGLESA EN NIGERIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish el asunto de la hegemonía y predominancia lingüística se ha discutido en muchos estudios desde los inicios del siglo XX. El común denominador entre tales estudios parece ser la hegemonía lingüística del inglés como idioma global y la supervivencia de los otros idiomas del mundo. Este artículo revisa [...] de manera crítica la tendencia que se ha reportado en Nigeria y reevalúa algunos de los mecanismos de resistencia propuestos en la literatura. El propósito es ofrecer soluciones al mencionado dominio del inglés y sus efectos en los idiomas locales de Nigeria. El autor considera que algunas miradas, a propósito de la hegemonía del inglés, pueden haberse exagerado, influenciando así algunos mecanismos de resistencia sugeridos. Así, este artículo propone un mecanismo de resistencia pragmático y ajustado al contexto que podría poner la hegemonía del inglés en la perspectiva adecuada y por lo tanto, preservar los idiomas locales en las sociedades multilingües, especialmente en Nigeria. Abstract in english the subject of linguistic hegemony and language dominance has been taken up in many studies since the wake of the twentieth century. The common denominator among these studies appears to be the linguistic hegemony of the English language as a global language and the survival of the other languages o [...] f the world. This paper critically reviews the trend that has been reported in Nigeria and re-assesses some of the proposed resistance mechanisms in literature. The aim is to proffer solutions to the reported domination of English and its effect on Nigeria's local languages. The author believes that some views about the linguistic hegemony of English might have been exaggerated thereby influencing some suggested resistance mechanisms. Thus, this paper proposes a context-sensitive and pragmatic resistant mechanism that might place the hegemony of English in the right perspective and thus conserve local languages in multilingual societies, especially in Nigeria.

Abolaji Samuel, Mustapha.

2014-04-01

342

Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) accordingP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

343

Fun, Fizzy and Formative Approaches to Assessment: Using Rapid Digital Feedback to Aid Learners' Progression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the early observations and findings from a small-scale exploratory project titled e-scape scotland. This project builds on earlier research into the use of mobile devices to enable learners to create authentic, real-time e-portfolios which allowed for summative assessment. The e-scape scotland project explores the feasibility of using e-portfolios for evidence collection and a range of formative assessment purposes during design and technology activities. It examines the responses of teachers and learners and the technical issues in implementation. Four schools are participating. Data are being collected through observation, learner and teacher responses, and evaluation. The preliminary results from this study indicate that learners respond positively to using mobile devices to support their learning activity. The e-portfolios being constructed offer high quality insight into the learners' approach to the design projects tackled. Teachers are delighted by the potential immediacy of the system in offering timely feedback to aid progression.

Rowena Blair

2010-04-01

344

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

345

Practice, Trends and Challenges of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications in Nigeria. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure. Now that our daily transactions have gone mobile, E-commerce has also joined the band wagon, resulting in the ability to carry out commerce while on the move via mobile devices (phones, PDA`s etc.). This is refer...

Obe, O. O.; Balogun, V. F.

2007-01-01

346

Recent progress in structural integrity assessment techniques for components subject to service-induced degradation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant components are exposed to a wide range of environmental and loading conditions which can cause degradation over time. Aging embrittlement, erosion-corrosion, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue are examples of aging mechanisms which could reduce structural margins in reactor components. The degradation effects from these mechanisms have been seen more frequently with the aging of the early nuclear plants. Since there is a strong incentive for keeping these older plants running for longer periods of time without compromising safety, proper plant management to minimize damage from degradation mechanisms is extremely important. Structural margin assessment, monitoring, and maintenance are important elements of such a management plan. Significant progress has been recently made in the understanding, evaluation and monitoring of these degradation mechanisms. This has led also to new requirements in the ASME Code design basis for nuclear plants. Current state of understanding and new developments in the ASME Code to address some of these degradation mechanisms are covered in this paper. Cast stainless steels used in pump casings and valve bodies have been known to experience thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperatures. Recent predictive models of thermal aging effects on material toughness, developed at Argonne National Lab are reviewed and applied to assess ASME Code structural margins of a reactss ASME Code structural margins of a reactor pump casing. A recent ASME Code Case provides methods for the evaluation and acceptance criteria for reactor pressure vessels having ductile fracture toughness values reduced below the requirements of 10CFR50 due to irradiation embrittlement. Background and application of this code case to an older BWR vessel is described. The occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel piping highlighted the need for evaluation methods for structural margin assessment in piping

347

Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index  

OpenAIRE

Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective improvement that asks clients with social anxiety disorder how much they have changed since the beginning of therapy. Change on the SASCI was related to cha...

Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

2008-01-01

348

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

OpenAIRE

Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview st...

Oladele, A. O.; Olabanji, J. K.

2010-01-01

349

Anthropometrically determined nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren in Makurdi, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background No information exists on the nutritional status of primary school children residing in Makurdi, Nigeria. It is envisaged that the data could serve as baseline data for future studies, as well as inform public health policy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among urban school children in Makurdi, Nigeria. Methods Height and weight of 2015 (979 boys and 1036 girls), aged 9-12 years, attending public primary school in Makurdi were measured an...

Monyeki Makama A; Amusa Lateef O; Shaw Brandon S; Toriola Abel L; Goon Daniel T; Akinyemi Oluwadare; Alabi Olubola A

2011-01-01

350

Community Perception of Afforestation Programme in Desert Encroach Area Toshia, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Desert encroachment, a global problem, is serious in Nigeria especially in the northern part. To assess the community perception towards afforestation programs and desert encroachment, a survey was conducted in Toshia northern Nigeria; the objective of this study was to determined factors that influence rural community’s perception towards desert encroachment. A self design questionnaire was used for the data collection from the participants of the study comprised 60 residents selected acro...

Alhaji Abdu Geidam; Marof Rudzwan; Asnarulkhadi Abusamad

2012-01-01

351

Investigations into Aesthetic Properties of Selected Granites in South Western Nigeria as Dimension Stones  

OpenAIRE

The visual and aesthetic features of dimension stones affect both their marketability and applications in the construction industry. Assessment or evaluation of the aesthetic features is done by using the colour, texture and grain size, flaws and irregularities. South western Nigeria falls within the basement complex of Nigeria with abundant granites of various colours. Despite this, little exploitation has been undertaken. This study is carried out to determine some granite rocks’ suitabil...

Saliu Muyideen Alade; Haleem Jeleel Olayinka

2012-01-01

352

The impact of recycled neonatal incubators in Nigeria: a 6-year follow-up study.  

OpenAIRE

Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted...

Hippolite Onyejiaka Amadi; Azubuike, Jonathan C.; Etawo, Uriah S.; Offiong, Uduak R.; Chinyere Ezeaka; Eyinade Olateju; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Akin Osibogun; Ngozi Ibeziako; Iroha, Edna O.; Dutse, Abdulhameed I.; Chukwu, Christian O.; Okpere, Eugene E.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; El-nafaty, Aliyu U.

2010-01-01

353

Analysis of Households’ Demand for Alternative Power Supply in Lagos State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Epileptic public power supply and household quest to obtain power from alternative sources has become a daily occurrence in Nigeria. Meanwhile, little is known about household expenditure and demand pattern for these alternative sources. This study therefore assessed the demand for various sources of alternative power supply to households in Lagos state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a total of five hundred and ninety-one households who were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique...

Akinbode, S. O.; Olaleye, S. O.

2012-01-01

354

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; Madueme, Dr I. S.

2012-01-01

355

A programme evaluation of pre-primary education reform, and policy, in Plateau State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State i...

Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza

2006-01-01

356

Efficiency Profiles of Vegetable Producers in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Vegetables are among the major staple foods in Southern Nigeria. This study assessed the efficiency profiles of vegetable producers in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria with specific focus on farm level technical efficiency. One hundred and twenty (120) vegetable producers were randomly selected from three agricultural zones in the State. The Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLEs) indicate positive relationships between input variables used by farmers and farm outputs. The Generalized Likelihood...

Idiong Christopher Idiong; Inibehe George Ukpong; Etim Okon Effiong

2013-01-01

357

CLAPPING WITH ONE HAND: THE CASE OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES IN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

This paper expounded the relevance of community participation in the achievement of sustainable urban environmental sanitation in Nigeria. Conceptually, it discussed community participation and urban environmental sanitation and expressed the interface between the two. The paper also discussed the evolution of environmental sanitation practices in Nigeria before, during and after the colonial era. It went further to assess the situation of community participation in urban environmental sanita...

OLUWOLE DARAMOLA

2012-01-01

358

Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40K, 238U and 232Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 ?Sv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 ?Sv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

359

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 ?g/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

360

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in the work environments of a secondary iron and steel smelting and a paint industry in Lagos, Nigeria, were investigated using gravimetric sampling techniques and TXRF spectrometric analysis. The TXRF was used to analyse the concentration of toxic trace elements and heavy metals in the air-borne particulate. The elements detected included Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. Toxicity potentials of PM10 and PM2.5 suspended particulate matter and that of Pb were determined using USEPA national ambient air quality standards. Results were used to evaluate the possible occupational exposure for workers in the sampling areas, as well as those of the general public. These indicate that the concentrations of respirations dust and heavy metals in the work environments, especially the iron and steel smelter are high enough to affect the health of workers and the general public who reside in the neighbourhood. If combined with the effect of traffic pollution in this areas, the total air pollution load may be much higher than values recommended by WHO for general public protection. The need to investigate the options for emission reduction and the management of occupational and general public exposure was highlighted. (author)

361

Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

362

Assessment of Women’s Participation in Cooperative Societies and its Determinants in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooperatives have been regarded as one of the main institutional machineries for empowering the economically weak members of the society. Despite the availability of cooperative societies, it appears that a significant proportion of rural women are either unaware of the existence of such co-operative societies or are lacking in the basic socioeconomic characteristics that form the prerequisite for participation in such activities. The study therefore examined the level of participation of women in cooperative organization and its determinants in the study area. The study was conducted in Yewa North Local Government area of Ogun State, south-west rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2011 using two stage sampling techniques to select 180 respondents. Descriptive statistics and Logit regression analysis were used to analyze the data generated. The results showed that pressure from household head, insufficient fund and low membership were found to be the major problems militating against women participation in cooperatives. Logit regression analysis revealed positive and significant relationships between variables such as education, years of business experience and forms of cooperative (producers and credit and thrift and these variables were the major determinants of participation in cooperative society. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that any policy that will further increase the level of education of women would increase their participation in cooperative society.

Awotide, Diran Olawale

2012-09-01

363

Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI, which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigeria’s domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

A Y Dutse

2008-09-01

364

Compliance with topical glaucoma medications in Owo, Nigeria.  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Poor compliance with medications is a major challenge in the management of primary open angle glaucoma as it can lead to deterioration of eyesight. This study assessed the compliance with glaucoma medications among patients attending an Eye Clinic in Nigeria. We also assessed the problems encountered during the applications of topical medications. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of one year (October 2011 to October 2012) at the Eye Clinic of the Fed...

BO OMOLASE; OA ADEOSUN; AK AKINWALERE; OA SOTILOYE; OT OGUNLEYE; CO OMOLASE

2013-01-01

365

Gender Perspectives in Self-Assessment of Quality of Life of the Elderly in South-Western Nigeria. Are there variations in quality of life among ageing men and women?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined gender variations in self reported quality of life among randomly selectedelderly populations in selected Yoruba communities in three local government areas of Osun StateNigeria. Data was generated through cross-sectional survey of 947 elderly population aged 60 yearsand above. Two internationally tested instruments were used to assess quality of life status amongthe respondents- Activities of Daily Life (with 14 items scales (ADL and Aging Male Symptoms(AMS (with 17 items scales and adapted for both males and females. Findings showed that elderlyfemale fared better than the male counterparts on some of the measures. Also, females were morelikely than their spouse to be able to cope without any assistance. Results from males with a livingspouse showed that majority of the spouse (females were more likely to need assistance for usualdaily activities compared with the male (husband. This trend was also confirmed among femalerespondents as a fewer proportion of spouse (male can cope without any help compared withfemales. The AMS showed that male reported a better health status in the domains of sexual,psychosocial and somatic measures. The study concluded that measures of quality of life were likelyto favour elderly females than males because of many challenges and responsibilities of males. Thestudy raised the need for more in-depth studies to investigate the role of social –cultural factors ofmale dominance and patriarchal system on quality of life of the elderly from the gender lens.

Akanni Akinyemi

2010-03-01

366

Nuclear energy of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1960 and 1980 Nigeria's per capita energy consumption rose from 0.28 Jx 1018 to 50.6Jx 1018. Between 1970 and 1980 per capita energy use increased by 570% and total energy consumption rose by 760% while the population over the same period rose by 28.4% showing that Nigeria's energy demand has increased much more rapidly than its population. There are presently six potential energy types, i.e. oil, gas, solar fire wood, coal and lignite and hydro of this oil is the most dominant in terms of its contribution to the country's foreign exchange earnings. The weight of the argument in favour of acquiring nuclear energy in the country rests on the belief that the country needs are far from being satisfied by the available operating source. The inclusion of nuclear energy in the country's new diversified energy roster will require the integration of its implication not only in country energy policy but also in its development plan. (A.S.)

367

A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects. PMID:25462937

Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke

2015-04-01

368

Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

1995-12-31

369

Assessing carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of diesel fuel n-alkanes during progressive evaporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis offers potential for fingerprinting of diesel fuels, however, possible confounding effects of isotopic fractionation due to evaporation need to be assessed. This study measured the fractionation of the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes in n-alkane compounds in neat diesel fuel during evaporation. Isotope ratios were measured using a continuous flow gas chromatograph/isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Diesel samples were progressively evaporated at 24 ± 2°C for 21 days. Increasing depletion of deuterium in nC12-nC17 alkanes in the remaining liquid with increasing carbon chain length was observed. Negligible carbon isotope fractionation was observed. Preferential vaporization was measured for the shorter chain n-alkanes and the trend decreased with increasing chain length. The decrease in ?(2) H values indicates the preferential vaporization of the isotopically heavier species consistent with available quantitative data for hydrocarbons. These results are most important in the application of stable isotope technology to forensic analysis of diesel. PMID:25131396

Muhammad, Syahidah A; Hayman, Alan R; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D

2015-01-01

370

Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success. PMID:22118149

Klugman, Barbara

2011-11-01

371

Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland's low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the reposito the unsaturated zone beneath the repository

372

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-07-15

373

Improving energy efficiency in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite its huge population of about 100 million people, Nigeria consumes a relatively small share of the world's energy. GDP per capita equaled about US$ 800 in 1985. Agriculture accounts for the largest portion of GDP, at around 40%, followed by services with 31%, industry with 25% and transport with 4$. Unlike most other African nations, Nigeria has abundant energy sources. Recent estimates assumed that Nigeria has about 16 billion barrels of oil, 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe) of gas and 3 billion boe of coal. The results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Nigeria indicate that between 1985 and 2025, Nigeria's energy consumption will rise substantially as both population and economic growth rates soar. While biomass consumption drops markedly over the observed time period, gas and oil consumption witness significant increases. Coal and solar power also account for increasing shares of Nigeria's energy supply in the coming four decades. Hydro's share in energy use remains stable

374

Diet-induced mouse model of fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis reflecting clinical disease progression and methods of assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shortcomings of previously reported preclinical models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) include inadequate methods used to induce disease and assess liver pathology. We have developed a dietary model of NASH displaying features observed clinically and methods for objectively assessing disease progression. Mice fed a diet containing 40% fat (of which ?18% was trans fat), 22% fructose, and 2% cholesterol developed three stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatosis, steatohepatitis with fibrosis, and cirrhosis) as assessed by histological and biochemical methods. Using digital pathology to reconstruct the left lateral and right medial lobes of the liver, we made comparisons between and within lobes to determine the uniformity of collagen deposition, which in turn informed experimental sampling methods for histological, biochemical, and gene expression analyses. Gene expression analyses conducted with animals stratified by disease severity led to the identification of several genes for which expression highly correlated with the histological assessment of fibrosis. Importantly, we have established a biopsy method allowing assessment of disease progression. Mice subjected to liver biopsy recovered well from the procedure compared with sham-operated controls with no apparent effect on liver function. Tissue obtained by biopsy was sufficient for gene and protein expression analyses, providing the opportunity to establish an objective method of assessing liver pathology before subjecting animals to treatment. The improved assessment techniques and the observation that mice fed the high-fat diet exhibit many clinically relevant characteristics of NASH establish a preclinical model for identifying pharmacological interventions with greater likelihood of translating to the clinic. PMID:23886860

Clapper, Jason R; Hendricks, Michelle D; Gu, Guibao; Wittmer, Carrie; Dolman, Carrie S; Herich, John; Athanacio, Jennifer; Villescaz, Christiane; Ghosh, Soumitra S; Heilig, Joseph S; Lowe, Carolyn; Roth, Jonathan D

2013-10-01

375

Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

376

Wind Energy Potential In Eastern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria are presented. Monthly mean wind speeds throughout the year have been processed, analysed and presented for Eastern Nigeria. From these values, the wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria were estimated using three different methods. In view of this analysis, Enugu can be considered as the most suitable site for the installation of wind energy conversion system (WESC) in Eastern Nigeria

377

Assessment of Radionuclide Concentrations and Absorbed Dose from Consumption of Community Water Supplies in Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCl per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photopeaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49 ± 15 Bq L–1 with a range of 6 - 177 Bq L–1 while for 238U, the mean specific activity was 3 ± 1 Bq L–1 with a range of 1 - 12 Bq L–1 and the mean specific activity for 232Th was 3 ± 2 Bq L–1 with a range of 2 - 10 Bq L–1 and the total annual effective dose, which vary between 0 - 2 ?Sv y–1, did not show any significant health impact.

Pascal Tchokossa

2011-10-01

378

Non-invasive diagnostic methods for atherosclerosis and use in assessing progression and regression in hypercholesterolemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the wall thickening and stenosis rate (ASI), the calcification rate (ACI), and the wall thickening and calcification stenosis rate (SCI) of the lower abdominal aorta calculated by the 12 sector method from simple or enhanced computed tomography. The intra-observer variation of the calculation of ASI was 5.7% and that of ACI was 2.4%. In 9 patients who underwent an autopsy examination, ACI was significantly correlated with the rate of the calcification dimension to the whole objective area of the abdominal aorta (r=0.856, p<0.01). However, there were no correlations between ASI and the surface involvement or the atherosclerotic index obtained by the point-counting method of the autopsy materials. In the analysis of 40 patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases, ASI and ACI were also highly correlated with the percentage volume of the arterial wall in relation to the whole volume of the observed artery (r=0.852, p<0.0001) and also the percentage calcification volume (r=0.913, p<0.0001) calculated by the computed method, respectively. The percentage of atherosclerotic vascular diseases increased in the group of both high ASI (over 10%) and high ACI (over 20%). We used SCI as a reliable index when the progression and regression of atherosclerosis was considered. Among patients of hypercholesterolemia consisting of 15 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 6 non-FH patients, the change of SCI (d-SCI) was significantly correlated with the change of toificantly correlated with the change of total cholesterol concentration (d-TC) after the treatment (r=0.466, p<0.05) and the change of the right Achilles' tendon thickening (d-ATT) was also correlated with d-TC (r=0.634, p<0.005). However, no correlation between d-SCI and d-ATT was observed. In conclusion, CT indices of atherosclerosis were useful as a noninvasive quantitative diagnostic method and we were able to use them to assess the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. (author)

379

Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early d...

Oladepo Oladimeji; Abimbola, Oluwatosin O.

2006-01-01

380

Nigeria's energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study critically assessed the various policy issues of sustainable energy development in Nigeria. The basic focus was to discuss and analyze some of the laws of the federation as it relates to the development of Renewable Energy in Nigeria. It surveyed the nation's energy policy statement and the vision 20:2020 of the federal government. The Renewable Energy Master Plan developed by the joint efforts of the Energy Commission of Nigeria and United Nations Development Programs were also appraised. The level of development and the index of renewable energy production as stated by the policy statement, the vision 20:2020 and the Renewable Energy Master Plan were highlighted. The study found some policy challenges which include weak government motivation, lack of economic incentives, multiple taxations, non-existent favorable customs and excise duty act to promote renewable energy technologies. Further to this, some legal reforms which may aid the promotion of renewable energy development in Nigeria and also make robust the nation's energy policy were proposed. Some of the laws that require amendment to promote renewable energy include the land use act, environmental impact assessment decree and the investment laws of the federation of Nigeria. - Highlights: • The study exposed the energy policy issues of Nigeria. • The various policy documents and the energy statement of vision 20:2020 were surveyed. • Various challenges impinging growth or renewable energy were highlighted. • Some suggestions for policy reformation were proposed

381

A Functioning Approach to Well Being Analysis in Rural Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Nigerian rural population is described by low productivity, little formal education and poverty. The need for more studies on the issue of wellbeing of rural population is hinged on the continued development of approaches that give better understanding of the phenomenon. This paper attempted to use Amartya Sen’s capability approach to assess multidimensional well being in rural Nigeria in six functioning dimensions obtained from the Nigerian Core Welfare Indices Survey using the fuzzy set theory. A binary logistic regression was also carried out to isolate the factors that determine the attainment of a pre determined level of well being after computation with the fuzzy set analysis. The results showed that rural Nigeria is an agrarian society; the functioning with the highest level of achievement out of the six dimensions studied was Housing, while asset ownership/income was the least achieved dimension in rural Nigeria. Results further revealed that belonging to female headed households, increasing age and being employed in the private (formal sector as well as having some form of post secondary education enhances well being while being employed within the agricultural sector significantly reduced the well being of rural households in Nigeria.

Temitayo Adenike Adeyemo

2012-08-01

382

Health Assessment Questionnaire disability progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and analysis of two inception cohorts  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The Health Assessment Questionnaire is widely used for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and its subset, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the progression of HAQ scores in RA (i) by systematically reviewing the published literature on the methods used to assess changes in functional disability over time and (ii) to study in detail HAQ progression in two large prospective observational studies from the UK. Methods Data from two large inception cohorts, ERAS and NOAR, were studied to determine trajectories of HAQ progression over time by applying latent class growth models (LCGMs) to each dataset separately. Age, sex, baseline DAS28, symptom duration, rheumatoid factor, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria and socio-economic status (SES) were included as potential predictors of HAQ trajectory subgroup membership. Results The literature search identified 49 studies showing that HAQ progression has mainly been based on average changes in the total study population. In the HAQ progression study, a LCGM with four HAQ trajectory subgroups was selected as providing the best fit in both cohorts. In both the cohorts, older age, female sex, longer symptom duration, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria, higher DAS28 and lower SES were associated with increased likelihood of membership of subgroups with worse HAQ progression. Conclusion Four distinct HAQ trajectory subgroups were derived from the ERAS and NOAR cohorts. The fact that the subgroups identified were nearly identical supports their validity. Identifying distinct groups of patients who are at risk of poor functional outcome may help to target therapy to those who are most likely to benefit. PMID:24925692

Norton, Sam; Fu, Bo; Scott, David L.; Deighton, Chris; Symmons, Deborah P.M.; Wailoo, Allan J.; Tosh, Jonathan; Lunt, Mark; Davies, Rebecca; Young, Adam; Verstappen, Suzanne M.M

2014-01-01

383

Fish Breeding in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

J.A. Akankali

2011-06-01

384

Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

385

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2? × 2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6 Bqkg?1 to 94.2 ± 7.7 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0 Bqkg?1 for 226Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0 Bqkg?1 to 47.5 ± 5.3 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 29.7 ± 4 Bqkg?1 for 232Th and 107.0 ± 10.2 Bqkg?1 to 712.4 ± 38.9 Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0 Bqkg?1 for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3 Bq.kg?1, 0.8 Bqkg?1, 54.6 ?Gyh?1, 0.07 ?Svy?1, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the pontial radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. - Highlights: ? The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, Th and 40K) in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state. ? Gamma spectroscopy operated on a 2” × 2” NaI(TI) detector was used and the values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries. ? The calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. ? The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public.

386

An assessment of the disease burden of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus attending a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major part of the burden of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) is their impaired quantity and quality of life. This is due to acute and chronic complications of which diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) takes the greatest toll. Most studies on the disease burden of DFU were carried out in developed countries, and to date, no indigenous study has addressed the burden of foot ulceration in Nigerians with DM. This study attempted to determine the disease burden of this important DM complication. The study was carried out at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. The working definition of disease burden encompassed prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the direct economic costs of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS). For determination of the estimates of prevalence, the "capture-recapture" and intensive case-counting methods were used, mortality and morbidity were determined from records of admissions, and associated deaths over a 3-year period (1998-2000). The direct economic costs of foot ulceration were derived from the costs incurred from in-patient days, tests, drugs/medications, surgery, and other miscellaneous units of services. The total number of people with DM seen in LUTH from 1998 to 2000 was 1500, the hospital prevalence of DFU using the capture-recapture method being 9.5%. A total of 7253 medical admissions were made in this 3-year period, and of this number 827 (11.4%) were DM related. DFU-related admissions were 97 in number, and this made up 1.3% and 11.7% of the total medical and diabetes admissions, respectively. During this period, a total of 61 lower limb amputations were carried out and 26 (42.6%) of these were DM related. The proportion of medical deaths due to DMFS deaths was greater than the proportion of medical admissions due to DFU (P = .007). The case fatality of individuals with DFU was approximately 53%. A total number of 20 patients with DM foot ulcers were hospitalized during a 1-year period of the study (2003-2004). The majority had type 2 DM. A large majority (65%) of these patients had some form of surgery in addition to medical management of their condition. Mean costs for successfully treating a patient with DMFS was Nigerian Naira (NGN) 180,581.60. The total costs incurred ranged from NGN 20,400.00 to NGN 278,029.00. Drugs or medications accounted for the majority of the total costs incurred by the patients (46.9%). PMID:17088600

Ogbera, A O; Fasanmade, O; Ohwovoriole, A E; Adediran, O

2006-12-01

387

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1 in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations. Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

Mendell Nancy R

2010-03-01

388

Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

2006-04-01

389

Gamma spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K ) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta State, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2'x2' NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2±5.6Bq/kg to 94.2±7.7Bq/kg with mean value of 41±5Bq/kg for 226Ra, 17.1±3Bq/kg to 47.5±5.3Bq/kg with mean value of 29.7±4Bq/kg for 232Th and 107±10.2Bq/kg to 712.4±38.9 Bq/kg with a mean value of 412.5±20 Bq/kg for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5±12.3Bq/kg, 0.8 Bq/kg, 54.6nGy/h, 0.07?Sv/y, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as consbitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excessive exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area.

390

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

2012-07-01

391

Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

2012-05-01

392

Incorporating Risk Factors to Improve the Assessment of Rates of Glaucomatous Progression  

OpenAIRE

A Bayesian regression model incorporating structural and risk factor information into the estimation of glaucomatous visual field progression resulted in more accurate and precise estimates of rates of functional change compared to the conventional method of ordinary least squares regression.

Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Mansouri, Kaweh; Lisboa, Renato; Tafreshi, Ali; Weinreb, Robert N.

2012-01-01

393

Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse  

OpenAIRE

Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will com...

Azlan Bin Adnan; Iman Faridmehr; Babak Faramanbordar; Reza Hodjati; Mohammad Gharehzadeh Shirazi; Rahman, A. B. A.

2014-01-01

394

Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p

S O Sam-wobo, M. A. Adeleke

2012-01-01

395

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured...

Oreagba Ibrahim; Oshikoya Kazeem; Amachree Mercy

2011-01-01

396

Challenges of Women in Urban Agriculture in Kwara State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Women play significant roles generally in urban agricultural production. In spite of their roles, women farmers are faced with myriads of challenges that affect their increased production in the urban areas. This study assessed the challenges of women farming in urban areas with reference to Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 1,801 women farmers were sampled from different urban areas in the state. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were organized for them in order to explore their minds on the cha...

Adedayo A; Tunde A. M.

2013-01-01

397

The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

Ling W

2012-12-01

398

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

399

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ondo State being the highest producer of Cocoa in Nigeria constitutes the most probable area with the highest use of chemical pesticides to enhance cocoa production. As effective as these chemicals may be in achieving this goal, the incidence of their residues on non-targeted substances and the total environment, with the attendant adverse effects have being of serious concerns. Our objective in this paper is to assess contamination of farm soils by organochlorine pesticides applied on cocoa farms within the Central Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from selected cocoa farms and analysed for organochlorine pesticides residues using GC-MS. Some soil physicochemical properties including pH, particle size and organic matter that may influence the dynamics of the pollutants were also determined. Organochlorine compounds detected at varied concentrations include Endosulfan I and Endosulfan II occurring most frequently with highest concentrations of 350.10 mg/kg and 3.55 mg/kg respectively. Other organochlorine compounds detected were Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Aldrin, Deldrin,, isomers of Benzene hexachloride: ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, and ?-BHC (lindane. The concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (mg/kg measured in the soil samples showed significant (p<0.05 correlation with the total organic matter contents of the soil. Findings from this research thus, provide information on the current and health risk residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in soil from this region with which future environmental performance on the use of pesticides on cocoa farms could be progressively monitored.

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi

2012-05-01

400

The Nigeria Independent Accountability Mechanism for maternal, newborn, and child health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 2010 launch of the UN Secretary-General's Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, worldwide political energy coalesced around improving the health of women and children. Nigeria acted on a key recommendation emerging from the Global Strategy and became one of the first countries to establish an independent group known as the Nigeria Independent Accountability Mechanism (NIAM). NIAM aims to track efforts on progress related to Nigeria's roadmap for the health of women and children. It includes eminent people from outside government to ensure independence, and is recognized within government to analyze and report on progress. The concept of NIAM received approval at various national and international forums, as well as from the Nigeria Federal Ministry of Health. This experience provides an example of connecting expertise and groups with the government to influence and accelerate progress in maternal, newborn, and child health. Engagement between government and civil society should become the norm rather than the exception to achieve national goals. PMID:25179169

Garba, Aminu Magashi; Bandali, Sarah

2014-10-01

401

Assessing the lifetime performance index of products with the exponential distribution under progressively type II right censored samples  

Science.gov (United States)

In practice, lifetime performance index CL is used to measure the potential and performance of a process, where L is the lower specification limit. Progressive censoring scheme is quite useful in many practical situations where budget constraints are in place or there is a demand for rapid testing. In this paper, under the assumption of exponential distribution, this study constructs a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of CL based on the progressively type II right censored sample. The MLE of CL is then utilized to develop the hypothesis testing procedure in the condition of known L. The new testing procedure can be employed by product managers to assess whether the lifetime of products (or items) adheres to the required level in the condition of known L. Finally, we give one example to illustrate the use of the testing algorithmic procedure under given significance level.

Lee, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Jong-Wuu; Hong, Ching-Wen

2009-09-01

402

Nigeria: An Opportunity for Civilian Rule?  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News discusses the current political situation in Nigeria. The nine resources discussed offer breaking news, commentary, and analysis. The next few weeks may prove crucial for Nigeria, which is beginning to see some signs of calm and civil order after a week of rioting and violence. The rioting erupted after opposition leader Moshood Abiola died of a heart attack on July 7 after four years in custody. In 1993 Abiola was poised to win a presidential election when the military annulled the poll and Infantry General Sani Abacha seized power. In June 1994 Abiola defiantly declared himself president and was quickly arrested and detained. After General Abacha's sudden death on June 8, his successor General Abdulsalam Abubakar immediately set out a course of modest reform, freeing a number of prominent political detainees. Abiola's release also appeared imminent when he suddenly died. Despite the unrest that followed, some analysts see the deaths of Abiola and Abacha as an opportunity for political progress in Africa's most populous country. Abubakar, some say, can now move forward and implement political reforms without fear of making the supporters or Abiola or Abacha lose face. In fact, the General is widely expected to announce a plan to ease the military out of power by October 1, independence day. This plan will likely center around the creation of a government of national unity, which will sit for four or five years and consist of four representatives from each of the nation's six main regions. Regardless if this or another plan is implemented, the transition from military to civilian rule will prove, as in almost every other nation making this tremendous leap, a painful and gradual process.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1998-01-01

403

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784

Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J

2013-07-01

404

Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

405

High rate of injuries among students in Southern Nigeria: An urgent call to action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Addressing injury and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that injury is a significant public health problem capable of affecting the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take actions to avert its rate of occurrence particularly in developed nations. While in low-income countries, despite the growing burden of injury, there are few school-based studies from which to develop prevention initiatives. Thus this study describes the cause, nature and types and prevalence of injuries in a cross sectional population of students in Southern Nigeria, in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. An interviewer-administered school-based survey of students attending schools in Southern Nigeria was conducted in 2013. The study sample involved 585 students (60.9% male, 39.2% female and overall mean age of 15 years. We inquired about participants self-reported injuries in the past one year (all injury inclusive. When reported, injuries were further assessed according to cause, intent, nature, type, place, and number of days absent from school due to injury. Overall, there were 549 self-reported injuries in the past one year (93.8% among the respondents (95.5% for males and 90.8% for females, p = 0.6696. Sex wise, prevalence of injury differ by age, school setting and parents’ occupation (p higher in males compared to females [206 (60.4% vs 87 (41.8% p = 0.002, and 10 (2.9% vs 0 (0.0 p = 0.016] respectively. Traffic injuries and falls decrease progressively with age. Homes and schools were settings injuries occurred mostly. Over 68% of the reported injuries were unintentional. On the average, 2 days of normal school activity were lost per injured persons because of an injury. Given the high prevalence of injury reported in this study, injury like tropical diseases, should be considered a significant public health problem in Nigeria. We expect that this school-based information will be useful in establishing rational priorities for prevention, and the targeting of interventions toward responsible authorities. Also, there is a high need for safety education aiming to educate this young population on how to prevent injury.  

Jephtha C. Nmor

2013-12-01

406

Characterization of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci in the clinical setting: a multicentre study in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The staphylococci are implicated in a variety of human infections; however, many clinical microbiology laboratories in Nigeria do not identify staphylococci (in particular coagulase negative staphylococci - CNS) to the species level. Moreover, data from multi-centre assessment on antibiotic resistance and epidemiology of the staphylococci are not available in Nigeria. This study investigated 91 non-duplicate staphylococcal isolates obtained from the microbiology laboratori...

Shittu Adebayo; Oyedara Omotayo; Abegunrin Fadekemi; Okon Kenneth; Raji Adeola; Taiwo Samuel; Ogunsola Folasade; Onyedibe Kenneth; Elisha Gay

2012-01-01

407

Knowledge, attitudes and compliance of poultry workers with preventive measures for avian influenza in Lagelu, Oyo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Background: Approximately 1.5 million birds have died or been depopulated as a result of avian influenza infection among poultry in Nigeria. In addition, one human fatal case has been reported in the country. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of, attitudes to, and compliance with preventive practices for avian influenza infection among poultry workers in a district in Nigeria.Methodology: A cross-sectional epidemiological study design was conducted using a semi-structured questi...

Akinola A Fatiregun, Mobolaji M. Saani

2008-01-01

408

Longitudinal Assessment of Progress in Reasoning Capacity and Relation with Self-Estimation of Knowledge Base  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally…

Collard, Anne; Mélot, France; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

2015-01-01

409

Hope and violence in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

Cragg, Chris

1998-07-01

410

Solar energy applications in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

2010-09-15

411

Hope and violence in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

412

Collecting Folktales in Northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relates experiences of teacher of children's literature at West Virginia University in collecting folklore in northeastern Nigeria. Highlights include travels to village of Dalori; the Kanuri culture (in northeast area of Borno); tales recalled by employees of the Borno State Library; and a visit to the district head of Konduga. (EJS)

Howard, Elizabeth Fitzgerald

1984-01-01

413

TQM STRATEGIES AND HEALTH CARE DELIVERIES: LESSONS FROM NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examine the TQM Strategies and health care delivery in Nigeria, and the various means of measuring service quality. Nigeria continues to suffer outbreaks of various diseases cholera, malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis, measles, yellow fever, Bird flu e.t.c., all these diseases combine to cause high morbidity and mortality in the population. To assess the situation this paper looks at the relevant indicators like Annual Budgets by Government, Individual’s income, the role of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA and various health care agencies vested with the sole responsibility for elaborating standards for products and processes in Health care Delivery.The paper also examines the implication of Government Budget estimates on the Life expectancy of an average Nigerian. The findings necessitated the need for the government to seek support from WHO to assist in strengthening the health care system by advocating and providing technical support to health sector reforms.

Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

2007-10-01

414

Energy Planning Policies With Environmental Considerations In Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria. It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development. From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions. The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process. The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.

C. U. Ike, and S. S. N. Okeke

2013-05-01

415

Millennium development goal 7: An assessment of progress with respect to water and sanitation ; legacy, synergy, complacency or policy?  

OpenAIRE

Access to water and sanitation (target 10) is an important ingredient of quality of life. As per WHO-UNICEF assessments, globally, 77 per cent of population had access to water in 1990. This proportion has increased to 83 per cent in 2002, thus, on track to achieve the target of halvin