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Sample records for nigeria assessing progress

  1. Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofola Olayemi T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and children under five years of age since 2000. The survey was the first nationally representative study of ITN use assessing progress towards the Abuja target amongst vulnerable groups. Population and Method A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 7,200 households, selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique from 12 randomly selected states from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data collection was done during the malarious rainy season (October 2005 using a modified WHO Malaria Indicator Survey structured questionnaire about household ownership and utilization of mosquito nets (treated or untreated from household heads. Results Household ownership of any net was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%–25.1% and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%–10.9%. Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%–12.6% and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2% for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion, presence of health facility and wealth index by caregiver's education predicted the use of ITN among this group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the substantial increase in ITN utilization among children under five years of age in Nigeria is still far from the Abuja targets.

  2. Nigeria's environmental impact assessment laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency, NESREA, established in November, 2006 with the mission to ensure a cleaner and healthy environment for Nigerians and to inspire personal and collective responsibility in building an environmentally conscious society for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. Nigeria has put in place appropriate institutional mechanism including legal framework for environmental management in collaboration with NESREA to work closely with all stake holders to facilitate the EIA process in the nuclear industry in Nigeria and ensure that the Nigerian environment and its people benefit maximally from nuclear power generation development

  3. The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olusegun Ayodele, Akanbi.

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The [...] study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to determine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

  4. Planning law versus the right of the poor to adequate housing: A progressive assessment of the Lagos State of Nigeria's Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law of 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Akinola E, Akintayo.

    Full Text Available The notion of the neutral application of law is the very foundation of liberal societies, in spite of the fact that this notion has been debunked as a myth by a large body of scholarship. This notion continues to pervade liberal societies, operates discriminately against the poor and less privileged [...] members of society and impedes poverty reduction efforts. The article demonstrates the exclusionary and discriminatory operation and impact of the myth of the neutral application of law on the right of the poor to adequate housing through a progressive assessment of the Lagos State of Nigeria's Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law, 2010, a supposedly neutral planning statute. It concludes that, for the fight against poverty to make any headway in Africa, poverty reduction must continually be mainstreamed. There must constantly be a pro-poor approach to laws and policies.

  5. The 50th anniversary of Nigeria’s Independence, political leadership and poverty in the midst of Plenty: problems, priorities, progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulazeez, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Since 1st October 1960 that Nigeria got independence from the United Kingdom, she has experimented with diverse political systems - parliamentary, unitary, military, presidential and diarchal styles to boost peoples’ welfare, still majority are poor. This paper examines Nigeria’s income and human poverty, while indicating her citizens’ priorities that political leaders failed to address. It accounts for the progress achieved and the prospects in fighting poverty in Nigeria. The country’s grow...

  6. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

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    Nkechi M. Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

  7. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria is the eighth world oil producer but is obliged to import motor fuel. Nigeria will be soon an important gas producer and its oil production could pass from 2.05 106 barrels a day today to 5 106 barrels in 2010 owing to the intense development of offshore exploration. France ranks fourth in the suppliers of Nigeria behind Usa, United-Kingdom and Germany. A total of 2.5 milliards of dollars have been invested in Nigerian Economy by French firms, 60% of this amount concerns the oil-gas sector. One year after the election of a new president, Nigeria has still difficulties to emerge from a tense social and economic situation but its future seems promising. (A.C.)

  8. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola; Adebiyi Kazeem Adekunle

    2015-01-01

    Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabi...

  9. Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaz Madadi; Adebukola A. Sounyo; Ehijie F.O. Enato

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 ...

  10. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  12. Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Nigeria's 1980 population size is 77,082,000 with a midestimate of 149,965,000 by the year 2000. Population growth is estimated at 3% and the government believes that this rate is satisfactory given a longrun perspective even though problems such as pressure on resources and unemployment do exist. Life expectancy is 47.5 years and morbidity and mortality trends are considered unacceptable; there is a policy to reduce mortality through primary health care. The crude birth rate is 49.8% which is deemed satisfactory while admitting such problems as low levels of maternal and child health, short birth intervals, and malnutrition. Integration of family planning within a maternal health policy is the current practice while abortion is restricted and contraceptives are available only through the government. 20.4% of the population live in urban areas and the rate of urban growth is 5.5%. Policies exist to encourage rural-urban migration and to slow down the growth of Greater Lagos by developing a new national capital. The government of Nigeria approaches population as a quality of life matter; policies emphasize lowering morbidity and mortality and keeping urbanization within manageable proportions. Censuses have been conducted since 1866 although the 1st modern census was in 1952/53, and the latest is the 1962 census. The National Population Commission which implements population policy and coordinates external support for family planning is located within the Central Planning Office. The government plans to establish a federal population unit attached to the Central Planning Office, as well as to develop state units. PMID:12311800

  13. An Assessment of Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP in Nigeria

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    Adam Adem ANYEBE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty situation in Nigeria has become so serious that in 2013 there were as many as 112 million or 70.0% of the country’s population was living below poverty line. It has realized that poverty anywhere is a threat to peace, security and prosperity everywhere hence the conscious efforts by successive administrations in Nigeria to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty and hunger in a country. In spite of these efforts to eradicate absolute poverty in the country, poverty incidence has been on the rise. This study, therefore, attempted to assess NAPEP as a programme to eradicate extreme poverty in the country. Personal interviews and documents were employed in data collection. The data were analyzed using tables, simple percentages and spearman rank correlation. The study showed among others, that NAPEP as a programme targeted at eradicating extreme poverty has not been effective leading to a mixed bag of limited success and continuing challenges. It was therefore, recommended that the programme should be re-examined and possibly re-designed for effective performance instead of scrapping it.

  14. Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Obe Bernardine Wuraola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

  15. Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria

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    A. Uzairu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations. The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations.

  16. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  17. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijani, M.'n.

    1994-11-01

    Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

  18. Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact

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    Omalu ICJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaire’s disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled water became a major source of drinking water. Although, portable and affordable, the problems of its purity and other health concerns have begun to manifest. Sachet water have been reported to contain bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidia sp. Apart from environmental contaminants, improper storage and handling by vendors also poses a serious threat to the health of the ignorant consumers. This paper tends to review the quality of these ‘pure water’; its physical examination, microbial assessments, its impacts on health, and the various strategies adopted by the concerned authorities to regulate this thriving industry.

  19. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

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    Butu, A.W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  20. Validation of Modified Soft Skills Assessment Instrument (MOSSAI) for Use in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworanti, O. A.; Taiwo, M. B.; Iluobe, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, it has become an accepted norm nearly all over the globe to teach and assess soft skills. However, in Nigeria, it is an emerging area of interest that needs to be addressed squarely. In the light of the fore-going, this study validated a modified version of Measuring and Assessment Soft Skills (MASS) (an instrument developed and used by…

  1. Client and Contractor Organisations’ Assessment of Design-Bid-Build Procurement Practice in Nigeria

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    Dada, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the assessment of client and contractor organizations on the use of the design-bid-build method for project delivery in Nigeria. One hundred fifty seven questionnaires were administered purposively on contracting and client organizations in Nigeria. Sixty seven organisations responded to the questionnaire. The responses were analysed through the use of descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Of the twenty issues used for the assessment, ‘individual participants are exploitative of loopholes in contract documents’ ranked first on aggregation for the two groups. ‘Relationships among participants breed mistrust’ ranked least. On the average, contractors and clients disagree with the twenty issues or criticisms about the traditional procurement practice. The results of the analysis further indicate that there are no significant differences in perceptions on the issues between the two groups. It is recommended that the homogeneity of perceptions can be a launching pad for further investigation and intervention efforts for procurement improvement in Nigeria.

  2. Assessment of Child Progress. Monograph Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Joan, Ed.

    Four author-contributed papers examine issues in assessing child progress in early childhood special education. D. Bricker and S. Gumerlock present "A Three-Level Strategy" which features analysis of daily or weekly progress, analysis of progress toward long- and short-term objectives, and analysis of progress toward program goals. C. Dunst…

  3. Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory framework for securities markets in Nigeria has improved markedly since the 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), and particularly in the last five years. Since the adoption of the Investments and Securities Act 2007 (ISA) and the first set of rules and regulations of the Nigerian Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the regulatory framework has been further ...

  4. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  5. Employers Assessment of Work Ethics Required of University Business Education Graduates in South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the employers assessment of work ethics required of university Business Education graduates in south south Nigeria. One research question and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 318 identified employers of Business Education graduates in…

  6. Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Omalu ICJ; Eze GC; Olayemi IK; Gbesi S; Adeniran LA; Ayanwale AV; Mohammed AZ; Chukwuemeka V

    2011-01-01

    Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaire’s disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled wate...

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Longe

    2010-01-01

    The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals) of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration valu...

  8. An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    I.T. Oteku; J.O. Igene; I.M. Yessuf

    2006-01-01

    Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken...

  9. The Health Profile and Impact Assessment of Waste Scavengers (Rag Pickers) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    C.K. Wachukwu; C.A. Mbata; C.U. Nyenke

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the health profile and impact assessment of waste scavengers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To isolate and identify the potential pathogens that degrade the waste, samples were collected from 7 dumpsites and one control site. Serial dilutions of the samples were carried out and aliquots (0.1 mL) of the diluted samples were inoculated into appropriate media. Similarly, blood, stool, urine and nasal swabs were collected from 80 waste scavengers and 20 co...

  10. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globa...

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Anthropogenic Impact on Some Ecological Components of Abesan River, Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Julius I. Agboola; Abiodun A. B. Denloye

    2011-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic disturbances on water quality parameters, diversity of macrophytes and benthic macro fauna of Abesan River, Lagos, Nigeria is reported. Some Physico-chemical and biological assessment were carried out at three sampling stations located at downstream (AR-1), midstream (AR-2) and upstream (AR-3) with different levels of disturbance. Results of measured physico-chemical parameters showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in temperature, total acid...

  12. Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayemi Soladoye; Oluwafemi O. Oromakinde

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to properl...

  13. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.D. Ojo; O.S. Adebayo; O. Olaleye; U. Orkpeh

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute...

  14. Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ugumanim Bassey Obo; Felix Onen Eteng; Maurice Ayodele Coker

    2014-01-01

    The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, i...

  15. Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: ?The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. ?Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Government's plans. ?These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. ?The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. ?Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

  16. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

  17. An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Ntiwunka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples’ Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.

    Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political development

    Résumé Cet article a évalué la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitulé “Le militaire à la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance émergente au Nigeria” pour le Nigéria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examiné le pouvoir et l’influence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers à la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de l’économie en raison de leur richesse,l’ex-militaire de connexion, la compétence, le prestige et l’expérience. Il pose en principe que les retraités militaires sont regroupés en deux catégories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retraité militaire a été en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraités se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de l’activité humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scène politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle élite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considérable dans la prise de décision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothèses étaient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraités militaires ont émergé depuis 1999 que l’élite dirigeante et même si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure déterminée qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples «Parti démocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont été fortement influencés par ces riches et influents officiers à la retraite qui, à tout prix veiller à ce que leurs candidats à remporter les élections. Avec la nomination d’un nouveau président CENI, la révision de la loi électorale, et la campagne pour l’élection libre et équitable, il est estimé que d’un nouvel ensemble de l’élite émergera qui va réveiller le développement politique au Nigeria.

    Mots clés: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire à la retraire comme puissance émergente au Nigeria; développement politique

  18. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  19. Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Ogunsumi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

  20. Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis

  1. An Assessment of Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Federal Mortgage Bank Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Ukwayi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the federal mortgage bank spite of it role in housing delivery has recorded little or no success which is the major concern of this paper to critically assess the extent to which the federal mortgage bank has recorded success in housing delivery in Nigeria. Information on the extent of housing delivery was obtained from federal ministry of statistic and federal mortgage banks. However, findings indicate that in 2002 to 2005, the mortgage finance bank was able to mobilized N19.175 billion compared to 1992 to 2002 with a value of N11.451 billion showing a growth rate of 82%. It was discovered that the bank granted loan value of N4.531 billion to 4,151 national housing fund to contributors to either build or renovate their houses. Nevertheless, the mortgage finance bank has recorded little or no success but has appreciably improved in terms of fund mobilization which has aided increase in housing delivery in Nigeria.Key words: Housing delivery; Mortgage bank; Finance; Nigeria; Government

  2. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Benedict Taiwo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty water samples were obtained in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria in order to determine the groundwater quality in the area. Thirteen samples were obtained from hand-dug wells, two samples were obtained from a spring while the remaining five samples were collected from boreholes. These samples were subjected to both physical and chemical analyses with a view to comparing the results obtained with the World Health Organization’s (WHO standard for quality drinking water. The results of the physical parameters measured shows that the colour ranges from 5°H to 50°H, turbidity ranges from 2NTU to 40NTU and the electrical conductivity ranges from 2.2×102 mho/cm to 1.4×103 mho/cm. Chemical analysis results on the other hand show that all the samples have pH within the weakly acidic range except for sample HDW 3 that falls within the weakly alkaline range. Furthermore, the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS range from 154 to 980 mg/L while the Total Hardness of the water samples range from 24 to 280 mg/L. Ionic studies show that the Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Mg2+ occur in order of decreasing abundance in the samples with the concentrations ranging from 10 to 160 mg/L, 20 to 90 mg/L, 10 to 90 mg/L and 14 to 150 mg/L, respectively. The anions present in the water samples in order of decreasing abundance are HCO3-, Cl-, SO2-4 and NO-3 with their concentrations ranging from 44 to 292 mg/L, 10 to 77 mg/L, 0.01 to 50 mg/L and 0.01 to 4.0 mg/L, respectively. It has been shown that anthropogenic inputs can continually ruin the suitability of the water for safe drinking purpose. Therefore, the ability to quickly control the anthropogenic inputs to the groundwater system in Akungba Akoko area will assist in keeping the quality of groundwater in Akungba Akoko to be maintained.

  3. Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3-84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

  4. Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended

  5. Multi-Dimensional Approach to Environmental Quality Assessment of life Central Local Government Area in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality of water samples from various sources in Ife Central Local Government Area in Nigeria has been assessed using standard analytical techniques. 300 water samples of 2 litres each were collected. Some were analysed for trace elements using AAS, nitrate using UV Spectrometry and bacteriological content. The specific radioactivity of 100 soil samples were determined using a Gamma Spectrometer. Most of the sources of drinking water were polluted. Iron contents were found to be very high in most of the samples. In general, radioactivity levels from natural and artificial are relatively low in soil samples except at three sample sites

  6. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  7. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

  8. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ? Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ? The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ? Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ? Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  9. Assessment of wind energy potential of two sites in North-East, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagbenle, R.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Katende, J. [Electrical and Information Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Ajayi, O.O.; Okeniyi, J.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2011-04-15

    The study is used to assess the wind energy potential of Maiduguri and Potiskum, two sites in North-East, Nigeria. 21 years (1987-2007) monthly mean wind data at 10 m height were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological department and subjected to 2-parameter Weibull and other statistical analyzes. The result showed that average monthly mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 3.90 to 5.85 m/s, while for Maiduguri, it ranged from 4.35 to 6.33 m/s. Seasonally, data variation between the dry and wet seasons revealed that, the mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 4.46 (for dry) to 5.16 m/s (for wet), while for Maiduguri it ranged from 5.10 (dry) to 5.59 m/s (wet). The wind power density variation based on the Weibull analysis ranged from 102.54 to 300.15 W/m{sup 2} for Potiskum and it ranged from 114.77 to 360.04 W/m{sup 2} for Maiduguri respectively. Moreover, Maiduguri was found to be the better of the sites in terms of monthly and seasonal variation of mean wind speed, but they both can be suitable for stand alone and medium scale wind power generation. (author)

  10. Elusive Justice? An Assessment of Child Justice in the Tripartite Court System in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode OGUNNIRAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are three courts with different theoretical underpinning administering child justice in Nigeria. The Juvenile Court is premised on the rehabilitative ideal but researches have shown that the apparatus to fulfill this ideal is non-existent. The Sharia Court composition is radically different and the procedure used in such courts follow strict Islamic legal precepts. Invariably, child offenders are not given adequate protection guaranteeing justice. Prior Work: This article assesses child justice in these courts to determine the extent of protection of child offenders. They are young, immature and very vulnerable. Over the years, various studies have demonstrated the need for change in the above courts. Value: Based on law, the article examines the provisions creating the new Family Courts. These provisions accord with international juvenile justice standards established to grant justice to such offenders. The Family Court, just as it is being used for several purposes in other jurisdictions, is a recent development in Nigeria. Implications: This article assesses the structure and procedure of this new court and proposes it as being best suited for child offenders.

  11. Assessing E-Government Implementation in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Wole Michael Olatokun; Busola M. Adebayo

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed e-Government adoption in Ekiti state government ministries, agencies and departments. It determined the availability of e-Government resources and infrastructure, the stage of e-government implementation and the challenges. Gartner’s four phase of e-Government model was used for analysis. Social sur vey design approach was adopted. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire administered to the Director of IT and administration in the 29 ministries, agencies ...

  12. An expost economic assessment of the intervention against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadou L. Fadiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the intervention against avian influenza in Nigeria. It applied a simple compartmental model to define endemic and burn-out scenarios for the risk of spread of HPAI in Nigeria. It followed with the derivation of low and high mortality risks associated to each scenario. The estimated risk parameters were subsequently used to stochastically simulate the trajectory of the disease, had no intervention been carried out. Overall, the intervention costs US$ 41 million, which was yearly dis- bursed in various amounts over the 2006-2010 period. The key output variables (incremental net benefit, disease cost, and benefit cost ratio were estimated for each randomly drawn risk parameter. With a 12% annual discount rate, the results show that the intervention was economically justified under the endemic scenario with high mortality risk. On average, incremental benefit under this scenario amounted to US$ 63.7 million, incremental net benefit to US$27.2 million, and benefit cost ratio estimated to 1.75.

  13. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  14. Impact Assessment of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edirin Jeroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an impact assessment of the consolidation exercise on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. While prior studies focused on the financial performance of banks (with emphasis on profitability, the main thrust of this study was on how the consolidation exercise had affected different areas of commercial banks in Nigeria other than profitability. Secondary data were sourced from the annual accounts and statistical bulletins of the CBN and SEC respectively for the relevant years. The data obtained were analysed by means of sensitivity analysis, in addition to the correlation and regression analyses. The results obtained show that the consolidation exercise had positive impact on the selected variables (Non Performing Loans, Liquidity Ratio, Bank Credit to Private Sector and Bank Capital To Asset Ratio for this study. Based on the above findings, we recommend among others that while efforts are made by the CBN to sustain the increased capital base of banks, a very sound corporate governance framework and effective risk management systems must be put in place to check the level of non-performing loans which seem to be predominant in the industry. The quality of bank credit to private sector and their recovery procedures should also be improved upon.

  15. An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effects of SAP on poultry production in Nigeria between 1985 - 1990. It was observed that the Structural Adjustment Programme has had tremendous effects on poultry industry in Nigeria. The farmers have not adjusted favourably to the effect of SAP with 75 % of them operating between 20 - 50 % and 19 % below 20 % of production capacity. Currently the industry is being operated below 30 % mainly due to the high cost of chicks and inputs some of which have risen to over 1000 %. Productivity of the birds has also been affected with about 30 % reduction in the number of eggs laid per bird per year. Age at maturity has also increased to about 30 % among broilers. Farmers found it difficult to buy feed and drug resulting in increased mortality of about 80 % among broilers. The rise in the prices of product of about 500 % does not match the increase cost of production. Recommendations are therefore made to help stabilise the poultry industry.

  16. Assessment of the Impact of Extension Services on Fish Farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the impact of access to extension services on fish farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio – economic characteristics of fish farmers, information disseminated to fish farmers, attributes of extension agents, and farmers’ access to extension services and farmers profitability. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the farmers and a sample size of 90 fish farmers was selected from the six local government selected. Analysis of data was carried out using frequency and percentage tables and Gross Margin analysis was used to determine the profitability of the farmers. There was relationship between farmers’ access to extension services and their profitability. It was recommended that extension agents should intensify their efforts in reaching farmers and passing useful information to them in order to increase farmers’ profitability.

  17. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from protected areas to >2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested. PMID:25736831

  18. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  19. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  20. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health of journalists in South-South, Nigeria

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    Ofili A.N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in Benin city, the capital of Edo state in Nigeria. Three hundred and twenty consenting journalists from 5 media corporations in the city were interviewed using structured pre-tested questionnaires. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: Eight (2.5% respondents had no job stress, 124 (38.8 % had mild job stress with 166 (51.9 % having moderate job stress and 22 (6.95% having high job stress. Job title [OR 2.99; p = 0.00, 95% CI (1.31, 6.84], and gender [ OR 0.11, p = 0.02; 95% CI (0.02, 0.68] were significantly associated with the experience of job stress. One hundred and ninety four (60.6% respondents expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs. Respondents who had been in employment for < 15 years and those who experienced high job stress, 22 (6.95% were significantly (P< 0.00 respectively more dissatisfied than others. Psychological morbidity was present in 44 (13.8% respondents, with job title as the only single predictor of psychological morbidity [odds ratio 0.57, 95% CI (0.42 – 0.78, P= 0.00]. Conclusion: Management of media organisations in the state should put in place interventions to reduce identified stressors in the work environment targeted at identified high risk groups.

  1. An Assessment of the Impact of Abattoir Effluents on River Illo, Ota, Nigeria

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    D.O. Omole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective seven sampling locations were chosen along the river course. The choice of locations was to reflect the variations in concentrations of the following important parameters of water quality issue: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrate among others. The choice of these parameters was based on their relative importance in abattoir effluents composition. Results of analyses revealed impairment in the quality of River Illo by the wash down from the abattoir activities. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 4.6 mg L-1 while the highest concentrations of TSS and TS of 1026 and 1071.5 mg L-1, respectively were obtained at the point of abattoir effluents discharge. The BOD mean value of 312.9 mg L-1 obtained for the river water is far above the highest permissible value of 30 mg L-1 allowed by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for discharge into receiving water bodies in Nigeria. The mean value of 783 mg L-1 obtained for the COD of the river body corroborates the pollution of the water body. The current water quality status of River Illo from the discharge of abattoir effluents therefore poses both environmental and health hazards to users. In order to redress this and ensure public health safety, River Illo needs adequate treatment before use.

  2. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    OpenAIRE

    Adewuyi Alfred; Meekers Dominique; Keating Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based ...

  3. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Orisakwe Orish; Nduka John; Amadi Cecilia; Dike Daniel; Bede Onyinyechi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowa...

  4. Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    James Okoro

    2013-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the study...

  5. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.T. Youngu; Y.A. Aliyu; J.O. Sule

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) providing information about primary and secondary schools, ...

  6. Assessment of Veterinary Extension Services Rendered to Poultry Farmers by the Agricultural Development Project, Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Matanmi B. M.; Omotesho K. F.; Obaniyi K. S.; Adisa R. S.; Ogunsola J. D.

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed the veterinary extension services rendered by the Kwara State Agricultural Development Project (KWADP) to poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure produced the sample size of 110 from five villages in the study area. A well structured interview schedule was administered to the respondents to produce data which was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that majority of the poultry farmers in the s...

  7. Assessment of Use of Selected Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Extension Service Delivery: Implication for Agricultural Development in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adetumbi, Saheed.Ige, Olaniyi, Olumuyiwa.,Akin; Adewale, Jacob.,Gbemiga

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the implication of the useof selected Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs) for extension service delivery in Nigeria. The simplerandom technique was used to select fifty percent of the total extensionagents which equivalent to forty-two respondents assample size for the study. Frequency counts, percentages, meanand standard deviation were used as descriptive statistic. Also,Chi-Square test and Spearman’s rho correlation were employedas inferenti...

  8. The Relevance of Feasibility study in Assessing the Economic Viability of Dried-sachet Tomato Production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Haruna, A. S.; Mohammed, K; Adebayo, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study, “the relevance of feasibility study in assessing the economic viability of dried-sachet tomato production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria” is carried out using the survey research design. The aim is to find out whether dried-sachet tomato production can be done, profitably and successfully in Kano metropolis. Focus group discussion is used to select some dealers on dried sachet tomato production to determine the viability of tomato business in the study area. Data presentation and...

  9. Assessment of the Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment of Selected Communities in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Christiana Kayinwaye Omorede

    2014-01-01

    This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growt...

  10. Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.M.Ogaboh Agba; W. A. Mboto; M. S. Agba

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The stud...

  11. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Erim Daniel O; Resch Stephen C; Goldie Sue J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based...

  12. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  13. Geological and Geotechnical Assessment of Selected Gully Sites in Wuro Bayare Area NE Nigeria

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    Gabriel Ike Obiefuna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the geological and geotechnical parameters as causative agents in the formation of gullies in Wuro Bayare area of northeastern Nigeria is presented. Field geological study of the study area revealed that the area is underlain by basement rocks. The soils in the area are product of in-situ weathering of the underlying basement rocks. The results of sieve analysis shows that the soils at the gully sites have sorting values ranging between 0.42 and 2.3, coefficient of uniformity values ranging between 0.02 and 200, coefficient of curvature values ranging between 0.0125 and 0.23 and also the constanthydraulic values (Kvalues is use to know the bottom erosion ranges. These indicate that the soils are poorly to well-sorted in places. The plasticity indices values ranges between 9.9 and 5.5 with a mean value of about 20 indicates soils of moderate to highly plasticity, slight dry strength and easily friable. Values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD ranging between 2.15 and1.83 g/cm3 at Optimum Moisture Contents (OMC of between 12.4 and 6.4% reveals that the soils were generally lose. From the geotechnical analysis results, commendations for erosions control such as; construction of drainages, grouting concrete rip-raps and afforestation were suggested.

  14. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N.; Olomide, Adebowale A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions. PMID:26150688

  15. Assessment of Farm Household Food Security and Consumption Indices in Nigeria

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    Ojeleye, O. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess farm households’ food security and consumption indices. The study was conducted in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Data used for this study was collected from a total of 244 farm households with the use of structured questionnaire using a multistage random and purposive sampling technique. The main tools of analysis for this study include descriptive statistics and food security index. The study shows that about one third of the rural farm households sampled was food insecure and that the average farm size of the farm households was 2.05ha as food secure and insecure households cultivate 2.09ha and 1.96ha respectively. Average farm and non-farm income were $1,130.7 and $810.3 per annum respectively as household daily calorie consumed was found to exceed household daily calorie requirement. The food security indices for the food secure and insecure households were found to be 1.462 and 0.852 respectively. Large family size was found to lower available calorie intake of households. The study recommends the need for family planning education and policy frames to increase household farm size.

  16. Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in anambra state, Nigeria

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    E.N. Ajani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected by the use of interview schedule from a sample of 60 respondents. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Results revealed that the farmers were using indigenous technologies such as baskets, aerial (over fire in the kitchen, bare floors, among others in storing maize. The respondents indicated that they stored maize cobs undehusked in order to overcome wastage and obtained information about indigenous storage of maize from parents and fellow farmers. Major problems militating against effective storage of maize include: attack of pests such as rodents and weevils, diseases, termite attack and use of poor quality storage materials. The respondents indicated that use of materials free from termite, clearing of surroundings against fire disaster; use of durable materials treated with insecticides will help to solve the problems. The study recommends that provision of appropriate and affordable storage structures should be made available to the maize farmers in order to avoid wasting of the produce under storage. This will help to ensure food security among rural farm households.

  17. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Selected Inland Valley Agro-ecosystems for Irrigation in Southwest Nigeria

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    Olatunji S Aboyeji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the quality of groundwater of 6 inland valley (IV agro-ecosystems with a view to establishing their characteristics for cropping in the derived savannah of southwest Nigeria. Water samples were collected in piezometers during the rainy and dry seasons and analysed for physicochemical and heavy metal properties. Major water quality indices and comparison with stipulated standards were used to determine the usability of the waters for irrigation. The study showed that the waters were generally neutral to slightly alkaline, with the dominance structure of the major cations and anions in the order of Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > CO3. The concentration of heavy metals was generally within the recommended limits for most crops grown in the study area. Major water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids, permeability index, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s ratio and residual sodium bicarbonate are generally within the levels acceptable for crop irrigation. Kruskal-Wallis H test (two-tailed showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the water quality parameters/indices between the inland valley sites, P = 0.935. The groundwater of inland valley agro-ecosystems of the study area is generally suitable for agricultural utilisation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.2.10802

  18. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

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    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  19. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

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    Ofide Blessing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only receive top management attention when there is a problem. Hence, the paper assessed the building maintenance management practices of 6 higher institutions available (2 universities, 2 polytechnics and 2 colleges of education in Niger State. This was done by interviewing the Directors of Works of the 6 institutions using a structured interview method. The study revealed that there was no maintenance manual in any of the Works Department of the higher education institution, no user satisfaction survey has ever been conducted and none of the institutions had a computerised maintenance management system (CMMS in place. In addition to these, corrective maintenance was mostly adopted and there was inadequate staffing of the field operatives. All these shortcomings might be responsible for the backlog of maintenance work experienced in the institutions studied. A proactive maintenance system should be put in place, CMMS should be adopted to enhance effective maintenance work, and top management should be enlightened on the imperative of maintenance among other issues competing for funds within the institutions and be more flexible in allocation of resources to enhance maintenance works.

  20. Assessment of Utilization of Internet Facilities Among Pre-Service Teachers in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Oyeronke Olufunmilola OGUNLADE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Internet can further equip teachers by providing them with the latest information on their discipline. The purpose of technology in teacher training is to provide pre-service teachers with the capability of integrating computer technologies into curriculum and instructional activities.This study therefore assessed the internet facilities among pre-service teachers in the University of Ilorin in Nigeria. The use of internet facilities based on gender was also examined. The instrument used was a questionnaire. All pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin were the population for the study. Some 150 students in 400 level were randomly sampled (89 males, 61 females. Frequency counts and percentage were used to answer three research questions while the independent t-test statistic was used to test the hypothesis. The results show that: 80% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward the use of internet facilities, 62% agreed that males were more internet literate; and there was no significant difference between male and female in the use of internet facilities. Based on the findings, it was recommended that training should be emphasized for pre-service teachers, female pre-service teachers should be encouraged to be part of change and pre-service teachers should learn to balance their time.

  1. Basil (Ocimum basilicum Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria

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    O.D. Ojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT seed collection survey to expand NIHORT basil genetic base. The field layout was completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were: O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and the local basil. Treatments were randomly allocated per replication. There were significant phenotypic differences in the O. basilicum variety. These differences were observed in the plant coloration ranging from deep to light purple coloration of stem, leaf, leaf vein and petiole. Our observations also revealed for the first time significant tolerance to Venial Mottle Mosaic Virus (VMMV in the purple colored compared to the green O. basilicum in the early stages of growth till 50% anthesis. This is the first report of this observation in the African continent. Tolerance to VMMV symptoms increased significantly (LSD 5% with purplish coloration. We concluded that inducement of purplish coloration in Basil through breeding might improve tolerance to VMMV and thereby increase market value of Basil with sustainable pathological interventions.

  2. Radiological assessment of sediment samples from Oporoma oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out on sediment samples collected from an oil producing field in Oporoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, using HPGe detector with the aim of assessing radiological exposure and doses to workers and general public. The activity concentration of 40K varied from (58.21±4.95 - 127.07±10.90) Bq/kg whereas that of 238U varied from (5.67±0.72 - 26.46±2.21) Bq/kg and that of 232Th varied from (5.88±0.61 - 68.51±5.10) Bq/kg. The radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from radium equivalent activities which ranges between (22.68 - 133.64) Bq/kg, internal and external indices ranges from (0.08 - 0.43) Bq/kg and (0.06 - 0.36) Bq/kg respectively, and effective dose rate from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides (40K, 238Uand 232Th ) ranges from (0.01 - 0.38) mSv/y. The values obtained are lower than the internationally recommended limits. The values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the communities within this environment.

  3. Assessment of Adoption Status of Management Practices for West African Dwarf Goat Production in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeyinka, SM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Obafemi Awolowo University Rural Development Project communities in Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the adoption status of West African Dwarf Goat (WADG management practices among the seventy (70 project participants purposively considered for the study. A structured interview was used to elicit quantitative data which was subjected to descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were also collected using focus group discussion (FGD, key informants interviews and onthe- spot assessment, which were conducted in seven rural communities. The study revealed, among others, that the farmers adopted the WADG management practices introduced to them at one point in time or the other during the project implementation, from which they derived a lot of socio-economic benefits. However, over 50 percent of the participants were no more involved in goat rearing since the project has stopped. Reasons attributed to this vary from community to community. Management practices like regular feeding (cut and carry system and washing were claimed to be labour intensive and a little bit difficult. All (100% respondents overwhelmingly expressed their desire for continuation and sustainability of the services provided by the project.

  4. Assessing Interventions Available to Internally Displaced Persons in Abia State, Nigeria

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    Enwereji EE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68% organizations to 43 (78.2% of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12% included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, I M; Adetunji, M T; Gbadebo, A M; Banjoko, O P

    2007-12-01

    In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand - dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended. PMID:18180542

  6.  Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment

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    Mohammed Sirajo Aminu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4?0were females; while of the 20 controls,50?0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4?20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05?20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31?20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

  7. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  8. Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Berkley

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative Adaptive Management (CAM) program stakeholders informally assess program progress through subjective assessments regularly. Each stakeholder does this by individually selecting objective progress indicators based on their needs, values, and preferences. They do this even though there may be a stakeholder group agreed-on set of progress objectives. Individual stakeholder indicators may be a subset of the group set or outside of the agreed-on set. This is because many factors infl...

  9. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  10. GIS Based Assessment of Flood Risk and Vulnerability of Communities in the Benue Floodplains, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikusemoran Mayomi; Anthony Dami; Maryah U. M

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study is to assess the 2012 floods incidence that swept the communities along the coastal areas of Nigeria as well as those along the valleys of the major rivers in the country. It was observed in the study that the floods at the valleys and downstream of River Benue were seriously devastating following the release of water from the Lagdo dam that was located at the upstream of River Benue in the Republic of Cameroon. The method of data collection employed in this study is t...

  11. The Health Profile and Impact Assessment of Waste Scavengers (Rag Pickers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Wachukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the health profile and impact assessment of waste scavengers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To isolate and identify the potential pathogens that degrade the waste, samples were collected from 7 dumpsites and one control site. Serial dilutions of the samples were carried out and aliquots (0.1 mL of the diluted samples were inoculated into appropriate media. Similarly, blood, stool, urine and nasal swabs were collected from 80 waste scavengers and 20 control subjects. The blood samples were used for the determination of haematological parameters and widal test, while urine, stool and nasal swabs were used for microbiological analysis. Five genera of bacteria were isolated from the waste dumpsites, which include Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. while the control sites showed growth of Bacillus sp., only. The culture result from waste scavengers also showed similar organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Salmonella sp. There was significant decrease in the haemoglobin levels, haematocrit and Neutrophil counts of rag pickers as compared with the control subjects (p-1, HCT 36.33±16.7% and Neutrophil 33.33±14.06%, while control subjects were Hb 14.48±04 g dL-1, HCT 42.66±9.47% and Neutrophil 56.55±16.83%. The AST for waste scavengers was slightly increased, while the other LFT values were decreased compared to the control subjects. It can be inferred that waste scavengers serve as vehicles for the transmission of certain pathogens that degrade waste, thereby, constituting some public health hazards.

  12. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  13. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban–rural dichotomy. - Highlights: • Urban improved sources of a given type are no more contaminated than rural ones. • Fecal contamination is 1.6–2.3 times more likely in rural areas, combining sources. • We find no evidence to justify different urban and rural water quality standards. • Comparisons of urban and rural areas are sensitive to definitions of urban extent

  14. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achor Justin U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of the nurses (t = -2.23, df = 78, p = 0.03 and there was also significant relationship between previous involvement in managing children with childhood autism as a specialist paediatric or psychiatric nurse and the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire (t = 6.90, df = 78, p = 0.00. Conclusion The scores reflect deficits in knowledge about childhood autism among the study cohorts. Paediatric and psychiatric nurses as members of multidisciplinary teams that care for children with childhood autism are expected to provide holistic care and adequate counselling to the families of these children. Unfortunately in this environment, they are not fully equipped with enough knowledge about childhood autism. Education on childhood autism is therefore needed and can be provided through continuing medical education and emphasizing childhood autism in their training curriculum. This will enhance early identification and diagnosis of childhood autism with early interventions that are known to improve prognosis.

  15. A Study of E-Readiness Assessment: The Case of Three Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweni, Samuel O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness of three higher educational institutions in Nigeria in their attempt to introduce and maintain technology-driven services to students, faculty, and support staff. The prerequisites for participation in the digital, networked economy include the affordable ICT, reliable electric supply, reliable and up-to-date…

  16. PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE ASSESSMENT OF TALL BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vlassis, Anastasios G

    2007-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 have instigated a comprehensive debate among the structural engineering community regarding the performance of tall buildings under extreme loading conditions such as blast, impact or fire. The main issues that have been identified include the dynamic robustness of such buildings, the parameters that could possibly initiate progressive collapse following the extreme event, and the design guidance that needs to be introduced in order for buildings to survive suc...

  17. Comparative assessment of two Artemisinin based combination Therapies in the treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria among University students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonta Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In line with the recommendation of artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT by WHO in the effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria, African nations including Nigeria changed their malaria treatment policy to combination therapies. To date, about 15 African nations adopted artesunate /amodiaquine (AA as their first line agent while Nigeria adopted artemether /lumefantrine (AL. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the treatment outcome among patients treated with AA to those treated with AL for acute uncomplicated malaria. Method: The study was conducted at Nnamdi Azikiwe University campuses using quantitative methods. Two hundered and ninety six patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment group- AA and AL with 148 patients per group. All the patients were educated about the drugs and adherence. Adherence and treatment outcomes including parasite clearance and the drugs’ effects on biochemical parameters among others were assessed by follow up visits on third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth-day post treatment. Data were analysed using Cox Regression model on SPSS 17.0. Result: Both drugs were well adhered to and tolerated. One case of Steven Johnson-like reaction was observed with AL. Fever resolution and parasite clearance was similar in both groups with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR by day 28 for AL and AA being 70.3% and 85.1% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings is in favour of higher efficacy of AA with respect to their ACPR. More controlled studies will be needed to ascertain the adoption of AL as first line drug in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

  18. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  19. Assessment Plan/Progress Report for Curriculum Outcomes Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Nancy H., Comp.

    This report describes assessment and outcomes at Isothermal Community College (ICC) (North Carolina), focusing on four areas: institutional assessment, program assessment, classroom (course) assessment, and individual student assessment. Competencies and their criteria are outlined and include: (1) communications--upon completion of an associate's…

  20. Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olusesan Awoleye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.

  1. Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Kamalu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

  2. Assessment of Office Education Operating Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okoro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the office education operating competencies possessed by the university postgraduate business education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population and sample consisted of 388 business education graduates who are postgraduate students in universities in Nigeria. A 31-item structured questionnaire was validated and was also subjected to reliability which had internal consistency of 0.96 was used for data collection. The mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions while Z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that the respondents are competent in office education operating skills such as ability to file documents properly, knowledge handling office machines, ability to take minutes during meeting, among others. However, the respondents are not competent in knowledge of insurance policy and can do approach.

  3. Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. AKAN; E.A. Moses; V. O. OGUGBUAJA; J. ABAH

    2007-01-01

    The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results ...

  4. Seasonal Biodiversity Assessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrate of Asejire Reservoir, Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin Irabor Asibor

    2015-01-01

    The benthic macro-invertebrate fauna of Asejire Reservoir, Southwest Nigeria were investigated for two years (2004 – 2006) covering both the rainy and dry seasons. The major objective of the study was to provide baseline information on aspects of the biology (taxonomic composition, occurrence, distribution and abundance) of the benthic macro-invertebrates, characteristics of the reservoir sediment. A total of twenty sampling stations were established to represent the various sections and regi...

  5. Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna Irimiya,

    2013-01-01

    - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional) and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Co...

  6. Assessment of the Water Quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria, Using Selected Physico-Chemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAPHA, Moshood Keke

    2008-01-01

    The variations in selected physico-chemical factors were investigated for two years to determine the water quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria for drinking and fish production. Three stations were chosen on the reservoir to reflect the effect of human activities, lacustrine and lotic habitats. Temperature, transparency, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium,...

  7. Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish) in Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in ...

  8. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofide Blessing; Jimoh Richard; Achuenu Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only ...

  9. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju; Oludare Tolulope Adeyemi; Mustapha Abiodun Okunnu

    2009-01-01

    The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manif...

  10. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erim Daniel O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

  11. On the Assessment of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Arimieari, L.W.; , Sangodoyin, A. Y

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the management of both solid and hazardous waste constituents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. For this purpose, the study area was divided into four zones and were further classified into low, medium and high income groups. For effective analysis, the frequency of refuse collection from various location and waste disposal methods were also considered. Results in general indicate that there are no organized pattern of wastes disposal. Indiscriminate dumping of wa...

  12. Assessment of Adoption Status of Management Practices for West African Dwarf Goat Production in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odeyinka, SM.; Torimiro, DO.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Obafemi Awolowo University Rural Development Project communities in Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the adoption status of West African Dwarf Goat (WADG) management practices among the seventy (70) project participants purposively considered for the study. A structured interview was used to elicit quantitative data which was subjected to descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were also collected using focus group discussion (FGD), key informants interview...

  13. Assessment of groundwater recharge in semi-arid region of northern nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average annual groundwater recharge value of three sites, representing the major geological basins of Northern Nigeria, ranged from 169 mm for Maiduguri to 837 mm in Kano area and the recharge coefficient for the zone ranged from 0.26 to 0.56. The month of August accounted for about 53% of the average annual estimate. About 69 mm (70%) of average annual potential natural groundwater recharge was lost, as a result. (author)

  14. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

  15. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

  16. Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ogaboh Agba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The study attempt to compare the influence of wages and other conditions service on employees’ performance. To achieve this objective, we elicited information from 300 respondents who were purposively sample from four organizations in some selected geo-political zones in Nigeria. Data collected were presented in graph, pie chart and bar chart. Findings reveal that, employee job performance are greatly influenced by regular and good wages; followed by conducive work environment, availability of internet facilities, good library, recognition/award, regular promotion, training opportunities, access to medical care and communication flow. We made the following recommendations among others, that managers of formal organizations should properly remunerate workers as well as provide conducive work environment for their employees. We posit that other least motivating factors as identified in this study should not ignore by managers, since each provide workers with a level of stimulant that propel them into maximum performance in work organization.

  17. 75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels...

  18. The international arctic seas assessment project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article provides some background information on wastes dumped into the Arctic Seas and describes the progress made within the framework of International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) lunched to assess the health and environmental implications of the dumping. 1 tab

  19. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  20. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  1. Assessment of attitudes of University of Nigeria pharmacy students toward pharmaceutical care / Evaluación de las actitudes de los estudiantes de farmacia de la Universidad de Nigeria hacia la atención farmacéutica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrick O., Udeogaranya; Chinwe V., Ukwe; Obinna I., Ekwunife.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue describir las actitudes de los estudiantes de farmacia de la Universidad de Nigeria hacia la atención farmacéutica. Método: Se realizó una encuesta a estudiantes de farmacia entre segundo y quinto año. Se utilizó para el estudio una versión modificada de 13 [...] ítems del Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey (PCAS). Se evaluaron la fiabilidad y la validez factorial del instrumento modificado. Resultados: La modificación del instrumento no afectó a su validez. Los estudiantes de la Universidad de Nigeria tienen una actitud positiva hacia la atención farmacéutica porque las puntuaciones de los ítems de actitud estaban todas por encima del valor medio de 2,5. La media de la escala para los estudiantes de segundo y tercer año era significativamente más baja que los de quinto año (Oneway ANOVA, p Abstract in english Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the attitude of University of Nigeria pharmacy students towards pharmaceutical care. Method: A survey of pharmacy students in their second to fifth year was conducted. A modified 13-item standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey (PCAS) was use [...] d for the study. Reliability and factorial validity of the modified instrument were assessed. Results: Modification of the instrument did not alter its validity. Students of the University of Nigeria had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care as attitude score of all the items were above the midpoint score of 2.5. The mean scale score of second and third year students were significantly lower than that of the fifth year's (Oneway ANOVA, p

  2. Habitat assessment for seasonal variation of river pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria, in a geographic information systems interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanike K. Adeyemo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposure in environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management authorities. Using habitat assessment protocol, the author assesses the pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data used include hydrographic feature data and habitat assessment data. These basic environmental components are the result of the integration of a wide range of relatively independent factors which enable a more complex analysis of the environment in urban areas. Geographic information systems were used for data management, input and output of data and visualisation. The pollution status of the inland rivers assessed during the rainy season (July to September and dry season (October to March in the eleven local government areas in Ibadan suggested that out of the twenty-two sample points, seven (31.8% and six (27.3% were slightly polluted and nine (40.9% and ten (45.4% were moderately polluted during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The environmental models are focused on the assessment of surface-water quality of habitat in relation to human activities. Although the models are calibrated and tested by application in the metropolitan area of Ibadan, the structure of this project is applicable to other similar areas.

  3. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y-1) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy-1 and 93.60±14.4 nGyh-1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

  4. Water Quality Assessment of Ake Stream, Near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Aho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the physico-chemical and biological quality of Ake stream located near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria was examined over duration of 7 months. The survey was conducted in the period between April and September based on random sampling with a view to ascertaining the impurity level of the stream. The physico-chemical analysis gave average results for Temperature, Turbidity, Iron, Chromium and Sulphate as 28.70C, 200.5NTU, 2.0, 0.2 and 44.3m...

  5. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Arabi,; M. Y. Kwaya,; J. Iliyasu; A. A. Jaoji

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture) has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have a...

  6. Dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ gamma spectroscopy has been employed to characterise natural radiation in the soil at 32 locations in the Delta region of Nigeria. The outdoor gamma dose rates in the air due to 40K, 238U and 232Th in the soil were 1.5 ± 0.9 nGy h-1, 6.9 ± 1.6 nGy h-1 and 16.3 ± 3.1 nGy h-1 respectively. The estimated total annual outdoor effective dose to the people in the region was 31.6 ?Sv y-1. (authors)

  7. Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

  8. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

  9. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.

  10. Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Olaniyi O; Kass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3). The sample was predominantly male (69.9%) and married (64.6%). There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher. Conclusion The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics. PMID:19646279

  11. Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kass Nancy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3. The sample was predominantly male (69.9% and married (64.6%. There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher. Conclusion The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics.

  12. Assessing the knowledge and skills in clinical ophthalmology of medical interns: Survey results from Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface I Eze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the skills and knowledge of clinical ophthalmology among medical interns in Enugu, Nigeria, to the recommendations of the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted of Medical Interns attending the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, from April 2010 to June 2010. Data on cohort demographics, undergraduate ophthalmology exposure, clinical skills and diagnostic competencies were collected and analyzed. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: The cohort comprised 81 males and 48 females (sex ratio = 1.7 : 1, aged 21-35 years (mean: 26.8 ± 2.4 years. The gender difference was significant ( P < 0.05. The response rate was 88.7%. The duration of undergraduate ophthalmology exposure ranged from 1 to 4 weeks. Exposure was often adequate in cornea/external eye (95.3%, lens/cataract (95.3% and glaucoma (92.2%; but not in vitreo-retinal disease (47.3%, neuro-ophthalmology (45.7% and refractive surgery (0.0. The majority were competent at visual acuity testing (97.7% and visual field examination (93.0%. There was lower competency at anterior chamber assessment (49.6% and slit-lamp examination (39.5%. The majority could confidently diagnose conjunctivitis (96.1% and cataract (90.7%, but not strabismus (42.6% or macular degeneration (20.2%. Conclusions: Medical interns in Enugu displayed gaps in their undergraduate ophthalmology exposure, clinical knowledge and skills. This has implications for stakeholders in medical education and eye care delivery. Review of the curriculum, provision of training resources and compliance with ICO guidelines could address the deficiencies.

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSUJI, U. S. A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.

  14. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (?g/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (?g/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd?> As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health. PMID:25971518

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Quality in the Lake Chad Basin in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Chad holds great importance in Africa. It is a life and income source for millions of people. In Nigeria, Lake Chad gives support for the three largest economic sectors: fishing, farming, and herding. For many centuries, there has been an equitable balance between these sectors and their survival; with the shrinking of the Lake since the 1960’s though, there has been a struggle for these sectors to all maintain a status quo. By performing water quality testing on the streams and rivers that connect with Lake Chad, one is able to determine the health and vitality of the water. Mainly, it has a direct correlation with what the water is providing the land and villages of the area and what the soil and ground are providing to the water. By looking into the conditions of the water which is sourcing a large part of Nigeria, it gives the ability to directly identify actions that are occurring above and below the ground. This gives great support when investigating the shrinking of the Lake. Areas visited and tested in Nigeria include: Kano, Hadejia, Nguru, and Maiduguri. 15 stream regions were visited and tested. In addition to this, 70 villages were visited in which over a hundred well samples were taken. In determining water quality of a sample, specific parameters were tested, these included: nitrate, nitrite, total chlorine, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. These tests determined the presence of nitrogen, the hardness, and the acidity/neutrality of the water; all which prove important in helping support and maintain healthy growth and life for those who use and consume it. The information gathered thus far is just a base for future research. Although there are little permanent conclusions drawn from the information gathered, it provides great benefits for future research. Given that this is the first time water quality testing has ever been performed in the area, it gives great foundation for additional water quality testing performed in other regions that sync up to the Lake. Comparisons could then be made thus creating more understanding of the hydrologic functions that occur in the area.

  16. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion: The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities. Keywords: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptives, patent medicine vendors, mystery client, PPMV, quality of care, Nigeria

  17. Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Berkley

    2013-12-01

    There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

  18. Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in the business, majority of them are retailers selling less than four cartons of fish on daily basis and most of them have formal education. From the gross margin analysis and t-test, marketing of frozen fish is profitable in the area. However, it was recommended that major constraints like poor storage/preservation, inadequate capital and marketing costs should be tackled to improve the efficiency of marketing system of frozen fish in the State.

  19. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  20. Assessment of Chemical/phytotoxin and Microbial Contamination of Pasta Foods Marketed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Okafor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible chemical/phytotoxin and microbial contamination of nine brands of pasta foods (macaroni, spaghetti and noodles commonly consumed in Nigeria were investigated following identification of pesticide residues in Indomie noodles (a brand of pasta food and contamination of baby foods (SMA with some poisonous cassava materials. Enzymatic and spectrophotometric analysis of these foods for cyanide content indicate the presence of this compound ranging from 7.60-70.65 mg CN-kg-1. Chemical analysis of these foods showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and saponins while microbial quality test indicated the presence of Salmonella sp., Rhizopus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus in three food samples. The implications of these findings are discussed from toxicological and food bioterrorism points of view.

  1. Assessment of some physico-chemical parameters of River Ogun (Abeokuta, Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria) in comparison with national and international standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimowo, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the physico-chemical quality of River Ogun, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria. Four locations were chosen spatially along the water course to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities that are capable of changing the quality of river water. The water samples were collected monthly for seven consecutive months (December 2011 – June 2012) at the four sampling stations. pH, air temperature (?), water temperature (?), conductivity (µs/cm) and total diss...

  2. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    ADEBOLA A. ADEKUNLE; Adekunle, Iheoma M.; IGBA U. TOBIT

    2012-01-01

    As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem) was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC) as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and pre...

  3. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arabi,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

  4. Geospatial Assessment and Monitoring of the Dynamics of Urban Expansion of Ogbomoso, South-Western Nigeria

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    I.A. Jesuleye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the dynamics of urban expansion along with the Landuse/Landcover changes in Ogbomoso North and South LGAs, Oyo State, Nigeria, using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Technology. Ogbomoso has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development of large infrastructural facilities such as highway/expressway, power stations as well as the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, the University Teaching Hospital Complex, modern markets, very many schools, a number of low cost housing estates, local authority offices, etc. This has therefore, resulted in loss of agricultural land, modification and alterations in the land use/land cover over time without any detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the changes. There is therefore, need for synoptic analyses of patterning, change and expansion at regional scales over time in the environment. LandSat imageries of 1990, 2000 and NigeriaSat-1 imagery of 2007 of the environment were subjected to supervised image classification using IDRISI Selva 17.0 software. Results obtained from classifications were cross-tabulated for change detection. The results reveal that water body appreciated from 1.2% (1990, 3.1% (2000 to 3.7% (2007. Built-up area appreciated from 6.4 to 20.3% (1990-2007. Arable land remained the largest land cover, with the value of 57.8% in 1990, 47.8% in 2000 and 62% in 2007. Compound Interest formula was used to determine the rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso town and the expansion of the town was projected for the year 2020 and 2025. The average rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso was found to be significantly high with a value of 8.92%.

  5. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% t...

  6. Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues

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    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, especially in the oil and gas sector, accelerate the loss of topsoil and deforestation, loss of habitat, loss of species and loss of biodiversity, as well as degeneration of wetlands. Water shortages and floods lead to deterioration of urban environmental quality and play a major role in transmission of communicable diseases. Corruption in the water sector is another major player in environmental degradation worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Weak implementation has rendered EIA Act a paper Tiger.

  7. An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

  8. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  9. Assessing and monitoring student progress in e-learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Meyen, Edward L.; Aust, Ronald J.; Bui, Yvonne N.; Isaacson, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    E-learning has emerged as a form of pedagogy and as a delivery system with broad implications for meeting personnel needs nationally in special education. At present, it is important to make investments in research and development to ensure that this new pedagogy becomes fully developed and is appropriately applied. Assessment and monitoring of student progress in e-learning environments is an important element of this new form of pedagogy that requires research attention to ma...

  10. CONCAWE's market fuel survey. Assessing progress in biofuel blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the coming decade, more bio-components, especially ethanol and ethers in gasoline and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in diesel fuel, will be blended into transport fuels in order to meet the EU's 2020 mandate for renewable energy. This survey of gasoline and diesel market fuels from 17 countries evaluates the oxygenate concentrations in service station fuels from the winter of 2010-11 in order to assess progress toward meeting the EU's objective.

  11. Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanna Irimiya,

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Conventional and Green features in the six study areas. From the study, the annual energy intensity of Kaduna for conventional buildings is 25.24 kwh/m2. With the introduction of green appliances, a drastic reduction in the buildings annual energy consumption was recorded which stood at 20.57 kwh/m2representing about 18.26% reduction in annual energy consumption which indicates a significant energy saving. In Kano VAC consumed the highest energy 12.49 kwh/m2of the total consumption of all end-users. When replaced with energy efficient appliances the consumption dropped to 7.95 kwh/m2representing 34.14% reduction. The use of energy efficient appliances is recommended.

  12. Assessment of Water Quality in Asa River (Nigeria and Its Indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish

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    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

  13. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of bituminous soil in Agbabu, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, M. Omoniyi [Department of Physics, University of Ado Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria)], E-mail: niyikaye2002@yahoo.com

    2008-01-15

    Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) in bituminous soil samples and viscous bitumen sample from Agbabu bitumen deposit, southwest Nigeria, has been measured using a high-resolution (HpGe detector) {gamma}-spectrometry. The average values of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K obtained are lower than the global average values. The Th/U activity ratio is comparable to values reported in literature. The average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was found to be 12.65{+-}3.19nGyh{sup -1}, which is below the corresponding worldwide population weighted average value of 60nGyh{sup -1}. Both radium equivalent and representative level index values measured are lower than the internationally accepted limits for building and road construction materials. The results of the study indicate that the area has low background radiation level; as such no significant radiological hazard is expected in the area.

  14. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of bituminous soil in Agbabu, southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in bituminous soil samples and viscous bitumen sample from Agbabu bitumen deposit, southwest Nigeria, has been measured using a high-resolution (HpGe detector) ?-spectrometry. The average values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K obtained are lower than the global average values. The Th/U activity ratio is comparable to values reported in literature. The average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was found to be 12.65±3.19nGyh-1, which is below the corresponding worldwide population weighted average value of 60nGyh-1. Both radium equivalent and representative level index values measured are lower than the internationally accepted limits for building and road construction materials. The results of the study indicate that the area has low background radiation level; as such no significant radiological hazard is expected in the area

  15. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Hedberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  16. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Gujba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources.

  17. Water Quality Assessment of Ake Stream, Near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Aho, I.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the physico-chemical and biological quality of Ake stream located near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria was examined over duration of 7 months. The survey was conducted in the period between April and September based on random sampling with a view to ascertaining the impurity level of the stream. The physico-chemical analysis gave average results for Temperature, Turbidity, Iron, Chromium and Sulphate as 28.70C, 200.5NTU, 2.0, 0.2 and 44.3mg/l respectively. The Bacterial load per 100ml of water ranged between 978 – 1800 giving average value of 1389. The overall results revealed that the stream is heavily stagnated, especially in terms of microbial load, which is an indication of human and feacal contamination. Most of the physical and chemical perimeters were above the maximum permissible levels, indicating that treatment is required before water from the source can be used for domestic applications.

  18. Performance Assessment of Lokoja Confluence Beach as a Tourist Site in Kogi State, Nigeria

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    Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  19. Assessing the prevalence and determinants of adolescents' unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Chukwunenye Iheanacho

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the prevalence and determinants of adolescents' unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in Owerri, Nigeria. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to obtain information from 540 female adolescents of mean age 15.8 years. In addition, four FGDs were held with female adolescents in selected localities and in-depth interviews held with fifteen health-care service providers. Almost all the adolescents (99.8%) were Christians, with 70.3% being Catholics and 68.2% living with their parents. Over half (57.2%) of the adolescents had had sex. Contraceptives were rarely used owing to deep-seated cultural values. The data show that 31.6% of those who had ever had sex had an unintended pregnancy. Of these, 78.9% had recurrent pregnancies and 20.2% had an abortion. Of the latter, 41.8% had a recurrent abortion and 72.7% a post-abortion problem, for which 70.2% never sought treatment, increasing the risk of infertility in later life. The abortion seekers mostly went to patent medicine operators. A more acceptable and cost-effective contraceptive campaign involving use of local vernacular and traditional/local opinion leaders should be explored. PMID:20522271

  20. Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Akan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02±0.13 to 1.56±0.06 mg L-1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg L-1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

  1. Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m?3 and 117 Bq m?3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m?3. - Highlights: ? Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ? The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m?3. ? The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ? This value is elevated though below the action level. ? Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

  2. Radioactivity and dose assessment of marble samples from Igbeti mines (Nigeria))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and distribution of natural radionuclides in marble around Igbeti marble mines (Nigeria)), were measured to evaluate the environmental radioactivity and health effects which the marble samples may posses. The concentration of radionuclides was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl) detector. The measured values of the activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the marble samples were found to lie in the ranges 2.0-2.7, 0.3-1.2 and 5.7-7.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The samples were also found to have radium equivalent activity in the range 3.4-4.6 Bq kg-1, external hazard indices of 0.009-0.012 and internal hazard indices of 0.014-0.019. The estimated representative (I ?r) hazard index is 0.028. The measurements show that marble samples from Igbeti mine have low level of natural radioactivity and therefore the use of these types of marble in construction of dwellings is safe for inhabitants. (authors)

  3. A baseline investigation and safety assessment of dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced. A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of 40K found in soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.6±17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0±16.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of 238U ranged from 0.10±17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1±64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from 1.8±17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7±17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of 232Th was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba eku). The average value of the total absorbed dose rates for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.0±44.0nGy/h and 32.0±36.3nGy/h respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety recommended world mean by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

  4. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwoche J. Ode

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05 higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

  5. Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria

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    E.U. Etim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L, BOD (167±53 mg/L, COD (329±106 mg/L, NO3 - (28.3±3.67 mg/L, NH3 (22.3±4.8 mg/L and (Pb 0.23±0.02 mg/L levels indicated gross organic and metal pollution. Ground water similarly, showed elevated levels of BOD (12.9±0.7 mg/L, nitrate (36.1±5.35 mg/L and ammonia (13.7±2.6 mg/L. Metal levels in surface water and sediment was strongly correlated (r=0.89. Topsoil and vegetation samples around the vicinity of the creek did not show any significant level of contamination. There was no significant differences (p=0.05 in surface and ground water quality among the sampling points. The creek water was classified as heavily polluted. This could affect the aquatic flora and fauna of the creek ecosystem. Remediation measures should be employed to clean up the water way system and the environment.

  6. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

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    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

  7. Mathematically aided risk assessment of crude oil contamination in Ogoni, Nigeria. Pt. 1. Geo-ecological characterization of the pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2011-09-15

    Mathematical modeling can support the environmental risk assessment and decision making processes. Soil contamination caused by crude oil in the Ogoni region, Nigeria, is qualitatively described in part 1 to understand expected mathematical results. A mathematical-statistical analysis following in part 2 characterizes quantitatively the 33 contaminated sites as entire ecological complex. The single sites are studied in part 3 by classifying multivariate mathematical models to derive precise information about kind and degree of contamination at every surveyed spill site. The geological structure of the Ogoni subsoil and the composition of the upper soil layers are summarized. In this context, the unprotected aquifers are discussed which are essential for the supply of the local population with potable water. The crude oil exploited within and transported through this region for decades will be characterized to understand and interpret results of data processing. Reference will be taken also to the extensive research about negative effects of crude oil contamination on people, fauna and flora. Oil companies have carried out environmental remediation measures, mainly by land farming. These activities are partly unfinished. Therefore, numerous oil spills are still an environmental hazard. In 2007, the Nigerian Federal Government has invited the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to explore the remaining crude oil contaminations in the compartments soil and groundwater to prepare final clean-up measures. This project is finished now. The mathematical data processing presented within this three-part contribution will be understood as part of this survey. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of Safety Management System Implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization: A Case Study of Nigeria Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Osaretin Uhuegho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study survey data was used to assess employees’ perceptions of Safety Management System (SMS implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO in the aviation industry. AMOs in Nigeria were used as a case study. Results show that over 80% of the population used for this study accord to the existence of plans to implement SMS. However, results indicated a lack of safety management education, training and motivation, which are key concepts that influence all the safety management implementation process. Furthermore, results reveal the lack of skills to analyze risk associated with identified hazard. Internal audit and safety investigation are the main means of safety performance monitoring within the AMO. Hypothetical test was conducted using Chi-square statistic. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the appointment of key personnel and management commitment within an AMO safety management system. Overall, the findings suggest that AMO need to do more to improve the implementation and understanding of SMS within the AMO.

  9. The Relevance of Feasibility study in Assessing the Economic Viability of Dried-sachet Tomato Production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, “the relevance of feasibility study in assessing the economic viability of dried-sachet tomato production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria” is carried out using the survey research design. The aim is to find out whether dried-sachet tomato production can be done, profitably and successfully in Kano metropolis. Focus group discussion is used to select some dealers on dried sachet tomato production to determine the viability of tomato business in the study area. Data presentation and analysis was quai-qualitative. The major findings revealed that this product is very important and gives financial benefits apart from its health benefits. Several techniques of removing the liquid contents has been observed as either conventional current, or electrical method by addition of anhydrous (de-hydrating reagents. In order to retain its colour, the convention current method was adopted as the best, that is tray drier, drum drier, mechanized manual method, spray drier etc. Conclusively, the production of dried tomato powder in sachet is a good business, if the necessary capital base is provided. Therefore, it is recommended among others that the experience needed to manage a business should be acquired, and that knowledge and experience acquired should be effectively utilized.

  10. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim, L. S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  11. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

  12. Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June, mid rain (July–August and late rain seasons (September–October for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.

  13. Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of South East Nigeria using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the State Capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. Inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydro-chemical analysis, which results, when available would be interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydro-chemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to Water Resources Managers and Decision-Makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

  14. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

  15. ON THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN PREFERENCE ASSESSMENT OUTCOMES AND PROGRESSIVE-RATIO SCHEDULE ASSESSMENTS OF STIMULUS VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Frank, Michelle A; Gregory, Meagan K; Allman, Melissa J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether stimuli of different preference levels would be associated with different amounts of work maintained by the stimuli, as determined through progressive-ratio schedule break points. Using a paired-choice preference assessment, stimuli were classified as high, moderate, or low preference for 4 individuals with developmental disabilities. The stimuli were then tested three times each using a progressive-ratio schedule (step size of 1; the break-point criterion w...

  16. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone-irrespective of their ability to pay-gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  17. Assessment of Challenges in Developing Self-Instructional Course Materials at the National Open University of Nigeria

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    Charity Akuadi Okonkwo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is Nigeria’s only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university’s vision and mission. There are delays and difficulties in developing and distributing materials to students and Study Centres. Many pioneer students cannot graduate because of this challenge. This paper examines the process of developing self-instructional course materials at NOUN. It reflects on the challenges associated with the quantity, quality, and timely production of course materials, labelled “the hills, the wills, and the skills” obstacles. The paper concludes that there is a need for better professional development in order to provide efficient ODL delivery.

  18. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%, 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%, and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%. But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4% when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.

  19. Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A major constraint to the development of properly engineered landfills is the high cost of synthetic liners and its scarcity in the local markets in developing country like Nigeria, which calls for alternative local materials for landfill liner. Consequently, crushed shale / clay shale deposits appear inexpensive and can be utilized to effectively retard the spread of leachate from landfills. Hence, this study focus on the assessment of geotechnical, geochemical and sorption characteristics of shale units from Anambra Basin, SE-Nigeria for suitability or otherwise as compacted clay liner (CCL) in landfills. Twelve samples consisting of three each from four different formations namely: Enugu, Nkporo, Imo and Ameki formations were collected and subjected to basic geotechnical tests such as grain size analysis, Atterberg's limits, compaction and coefficient of permeability following standard testing methods (BS 1377). In addition, mineralogical X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and geochemical ICP-MS / ICP-ES analyses were employed for geochemical characterization. CEC and batch sorption tests with respect to Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn as contaminant in leachates were also employed for sorption characterization. The results of the geotechnical tests conducted on the shale samples revealed that the crushed shale samples have liquid limit range of 55-79%, percentage fines of 80-93%, percentage clay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the density irrespective of the compaction level to be utilized in the field. In addition, the permeability of 2.14 - 9.12 x 10-5cm/s is higher than 1 x 10-7 cm/s recommended for typical isolation barriers, which implies negative impacts in respect of possible attendant contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater by the leachates. The geochemical analyses of the samples reflect relatively high SiO2 values of 52.1-55.8% compared to Al2O3 of 16.96-27.45% and Fe2O3 of 3.10-7.19%, which suggest the dominance of kaolinite as confirmed by the XRD. Nonetheless, the occurrence of illite in Enugu and Nkporo shales and smectite in Imo shale is a confirmation of the relatively high plasticity indices mentioned earlier and indication of good sorption properties. The CEC of the samples have relatively low value of 2.6 - 5.1 cmol/kg, which is less than the recommended minimum of 10 meq/100 g. The sorption capacity of the samples with respect to Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni ranges from 24.4 to 34.7 ppm with metal sorption in the order of Zn >Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni. The overall assessment revealed that the metal uptake, CEC and plasticity index of the shale samples are positively correlated suggesting strong influence of the clay mineralogy on the sorption characteristics of the samples. In spite of the observed relatively high permeability and swelling potential as well as moderate good sorption properties, the study shale units could be enhanced to the required specification through appropriate amendment technology. Though the shale units do not generally satisfy the requirements of compacted clay liners, however, based on the sorption characteristics, Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shales can be adequately employed for attenuation of contaminant leachates in double, composite or and multiple lining systems

  20. Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    k. Adepoju; A.M. Tukur; A. ADEDIJI

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P) were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Als...

  1. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) ?Sv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) ?Sv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  2. Assessment of Veterinary Extension Services Rendered to Poultry Farmers by the Agricultural Development Project, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matanmi B. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the veterinary extension services rendered by the Kwara State Agricultural Development Project (KWADP to poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure produced the sample size of 110 from five villages in the study area. A well structured interview schedule was administered to the respondents to produce data which was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that majority of the poultry farmers in the study area were male (73.3%, aged between 31 and 50 (70.9% and had over 10 years experience in poultry farming (74.5%. Only 17.3% of the farmers had secondary school education. Almost all the respondents (97.35% were aware of the veterinary services of the (KWADP. The frequency of extension contact was monthly for 59.1% of the respondents. The t-test at 1% level of significance revealed significant differences in the means of meat yield and egg yield before and after extension contact. The study concluded that though there was strong level of awareness of the veterinary services of the KWADP and there was evidence of positive impact of the extension contact on productivity, the extension service was not meeting the needs of the farmers in some aspects of poultry production such as facilitating credit facilities for expansion. The study recommended that the frequency of extension contact be improved upon. Lastly, the study suggested that farmers should be encouraged to form or join cooperative societies to brighten their chances of securing rural credit.

  3. GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Eludoyin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary forest, secondary forest and mangrove. The area in square kilometers of each land use type in each year was calculated and thereafter the change was determined by subtracting the area of the same land use type in 1986 from 2000 and the percentage of change is therefore calculated. In addition, the probability of change of twenty years was also determined from one land use type to another using Markovian Transition Estimator (MTE from IDRISI Andes. The study reveals that farmland, mangrove, primary forest and sparse vegetation reduced over time by 45.34, 37.06, 43.06 and 8.09%, respectively while secondary forest, built up area and water increased by 5.88, 74.55 and 3.43%, respectively. It is also projected by MTE that in 2020 farmland has the probability of 0.570 (57% of changing to secondary forest and 0.154 (15.4% of changing to built up area. Primary forest has the probability of 0.186 (18.6% to change to built up area. It is recommended among others that laws should be promulgated to prevent unlawful expansion of construction of any form and that the people in the communities in the study area should be enlightened and educated on the effects of deforestation on the environment.

  4. Assessment of indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin east local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study made use of well-structured questionnaire to collect data from 180 respondents by means of four-stage random sampling technique. Analytical tools used include frequency, percentage and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Findings showed that the majority of respondents had no formal education (73.3%, were middle aged (52.2%, and married (81.1%. The indigenous processing techniques commonly used by the respondents include: picking/harvesting of fruits, washing of fruits, de-pulping, drying, seed selection, seed cracking, roasting of kernels, milling of kernels, boiling of ground kernels, kneading, mixing, filtration, solidification and packaging. The majority (75% of sources for information on indigenous shea butter processing came from family members. Factors limiting the majority of respondents were: inadequate water supply (95%, inadequate processing equipment (86.1% and inadequate credit facilities (81.7%. Correlation analysis results revealed that age (-0.153, p<0.05 and the years of experience (-0.270, p<0.01 of respondents showed a significant relationship with the indigenous techniques of processing shea butter. It was concluded that indigenous methods of processing shea butter are widespread among respondents, knowledge is acquired through family members and that they are faced with several challenges. Among others, the study recommends the need for extension agents to be posted to rural areas to educate rural women and build on their indigenous knowledge of processing shea butter in order to produce high quality butter.

  5. Community effort in operational oceanography scientific assessment: recent progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fabrice; Smith, Greg; Maksymczuk, Jan; Regnier, Charly; Ryan, Andrew; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Garcia Sotillo, Marcos; Drevillon, Marie; Levier, Bruno; Volpe, Gianluca; Lagemaa, Priidik

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the GODAE OceanView program, and efforts supported through funded projects like the EU MyOcean/MyOcean-2/MyOcean-FO activities, validation and scientific assessment of ocean operational systems are witnessing noticeable progresses. In particular concerning the community shared assessment activities. Collaborations, through working group, have raised for implementation validation common practices. Through GODAE OceanView two real-time inter comparison tasks are carried on, with international contributions of most advances global operational centres: the so-called «class 4» inter comparison activity allows real time monitoring performance of temperature, salinity, sea-ice and sea level parameters. In parallel, linked with the CLIVAR/GSOP efforts, inter comparison of reanalysis is providing a framework for future multi-model ocean climate monitoring. At the European level, operational centres are working together in order to 1) define in common ways best practices for operational cal/val activities; 2) implement and test performance assessment in real time and off-line; and 3) offer to GMES/Copernicus users reliable information on operational ocean product quality. Exemples of recent development are provided here, together with a prospective overview of cal/val practices.

  6. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP). Interim progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was established in 1993 to address concern over the potential health and environmental impacts of the dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters of the Arctic seas. The work is being carried out as part of the IAEA's responsibilities with regard to the London Convention 1972. The project will last for four years and is run by the IAEA in co-operation with the Norwegian and Russian Governments, and with the involvement, through the IAEA, of experts from about 15 IAEA Member States. The objectives of the project are: (1) to assess the risks to human health and to the environment associated with the radioactive wastes dumped in the Kara Sea and the Barents Sea, and (2) to examine possible remedial actions related to the dumped wastes and to advise on whether these actions are necessary and justified. The project has been organized into five principal working areas: (i) source terms, (ii) existing environmental concentrations, (iii) transfer mechanisms and models, (iv) impact assessment and (v) remedial measures. Progress of IASAP is reviewed each year by a group of senior scientists. This group is also responsible for preparing the final report of IASAP and the recommendations for presentation to Contracting Parties to the London Convention in 1996. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

  8. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  9. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

  10. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income stream discounted over a 30 year period at 20 percent discount rate in 2008 was between 642.20/ha and 2,852.62/ha. Consequently, the welfare loss due to the loss of 21,340 hectares of mangrove was between 13,704,548 and 60,874,911. The study also established, for the first time, the high social value of the Niger Delta Mangroves.

  11. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

  12. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  13. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  14. Assessment of the Occurrence and Risks of Emerging Organic Pollutants (EOPs) in Ikpa River Basin Freshwater Ecosystem, Niger Delta-Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Offiong, Nnanake-Abasi; Kang, Suil; Yang, Paul; Essien, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The levels of some emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in surface water of a freshwater ecosystem, the Ikpa River Basin, Nigeria using liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, leachates and storm water samples collected from nearby dumpsites were also analysed to assess the effect on water quality. Seventeen compounds were detected at the nanogramme-per-litre levels and the ecological risks of selected compounds assessed based on predicted no-effect concentrations derived from comparison of toxicity data recorded for green algae, fish and invertebrate with the maximum measured environmental concentrations, to obtain risk quotients. Some of the compounds showed some level of widespread occurrence or persistence. Also, bisphenol A, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, triclocarban and triclosan were the most important EOPs detected in the study area that may pose detrimental effects to the aquatic organisms based on the outcome of the risk assessment. PMID:26341253

  15. Impact of Task Performance Fraud Risk Assessment on Forensic Skills and Mindsets: Experience from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of task performance, fraud risk assessment and forensic accountants and auditors’ skills and mindsets in the Nigerian public sector. It also draws the attention of the users of public sector accountants and auditors such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission, Special Control Unit of Money Laundering, Terrorism Financing and White collar crimes. The objective of the study is to enhance the fraud risk ...

  16. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh) Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Braide Wesley; U.S. Oranusi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained f...

  17. Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Lucky; Ekane, O. R.

    2011-01-01

    The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the sto...

  18. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezechiel Longe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solid...

  19. Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Enemchukwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90 volunteer patients; comprising (30 patients with malaria only, (30 with typhoid only and (30 with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20 healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23, AST (31.33±12.80, ALT (23.10±11.84, TB (19.43±5.02, CB (5.91±3.03 and ALP(116.69±48.68, AST (28.33±11.72, ALT (22.8±5.94, TB (19.31±5.84,CB (5.60±2.50 were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62, AST (33.97±8.43, ALT (24.40±4.37,TB (21.27±2.96,CB (6.58±3.10 while the control subjects had mean serum levels of ALP (71.05±18.18, AST (16.65±7.45, ALT (13.85±6.09,TB (10.05±4.85 and CB (3.00±1.67. These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05.The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT,TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

  20. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Youngu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no library. Sixty-three (63 percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adabara, N. U.; J. A. Momoh; M. E. Abalaka; Daniyan S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu) sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105...

  2. Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

    Full Text Available This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

  3. Risk based assessment for offshore jacket platform in Niger delta, Nigeria (corrosion and fatigue hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore structures are imperative for uninterrupted crude oil production which is the main stay of Nigerian economy. Fatigue and corrosion have been identified to be the most prevalent structural hazards in offshore environment. Jacket platform may be exposed to certain seawater wave which often leads to structural failure, particularly when the platform is subjected to corrosion and fatigue hazards. Therefore, corrosion and fatigue damage requires detail evaluation to prevent jacket platform from untimely failure. Risk based assessment method has been identified as the appropriate tool to determine the risk levels associated with component damages acted upon by several hazards with different scenarios. The results of this work revealed that simultaneously corroded and fatigued components exhibit unacceptable risk level and is the appropriate limiting damage scenario for marine structures underwater inspection. This technique is proved to be accurate and the most appropriate procedure for management of hazards, safety and environmental protection.

  4. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2015-07-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys (F = 2.044, p = 0.138, ? = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OYINLOYE, R. O.; J. Oloukoi

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC) dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other de...

  6. An Assessment of the Impact of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Structural Adjustment Programme on Cotton Production and Utilization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyu A. Ammani

    2012-01-01

    At Nigerias independence, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy. It provided employment, food, raw materials for industry and foreign exchange. However, within 20 years of Independence the country became unable to cope with the overall needs of its food and raw materials. Increased foreign exchange earnings from the export of crude oil were implicated as leading to the neglect and subsequent decline in the performance of the Nigerian agricultural sector. The Structural Adjustment Progra...

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    OSUJI, U. S. A

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and e...

  8. Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2010-01-01

    The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to proce...

  9. Impact assessment of the environmental protection policies in the upstream oil industry in Nigeria / A.M. Bayagbon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayagbon, Anthony Mamurhomu

    2011-01-01

    The need for energy and the associated economic benefits from the oil and gas deposits found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria necessitated the exploration and exploitation activities being carried out by the oil and gas Companies. However, these exploration and exploitation activities due to their unpredictable nature have a huge potential for environmental pollution as been experienced in the form of oil spills, gas flaring, irresponsible disposal of waste and several ...

  10. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsalam Saliu; Onajole Adebayo; Odeyemi Kofoworola; Ogunowo Babatunde; Abdussalam Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analy...

  11. Nigeria. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecky, M

    1984-12-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion were derived from oil. Oil reserves are expected to be exhausted in 15 years. To compensate for this expected loss, an effort was initiated in 1980 to revive the country's deteriorating agricultural sector. In addition, the government instituted educational programs aimed at increasing the supply of skilled labor for industrial development. PMID:12313400

  12. Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

  13. Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Solomon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and judges accountable without undue harm to their independence. It also started to address the scepticism about the courts among a significant part of the public, through efforts to improve media coverage, make information about courts more available, and make courts user friendly. While praiseworthy and bound to improve the reality and the perception of the administration of justice overall, these initiatives did not end attempts to exert influence on judges and case outcomes by powerful people (in the public and private sectors or the mechanisms that facilitated their efforts. This essay begins by identifying criteria for assessing the quality of the administration of justice in any country, including in the post-soviet world and suggesting specific markers (usually qualitative connected to each of the criteria developed above. Then, the essay provides an account of relevant policy initiatives in judicial reform undertaken first under Yeltsin and then in the Putin years. The essay goes to provide an assessment of the state of the courts in the Russian federation in 2007 in the light of the criteria and markers supplied in the first section. It concludes with a look to the future, and the identification of crucial markers of change for the post-Putin era.

  14. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S. Y.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105 cfu/ml and fungal counts ranged from 3.0 103 cfu/ml – 36.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of Klebsiella and Bacillus while fungi isolated include Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and species of Candida and Mucor. The most frequently occurring bacteria was S. aureus while the most frequently occurring fungal was species of Mucor. Conclusion: The results suggested that the soybean cheese samples were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and could cause health hazard to the consumers. There is need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation as a good hygienic practice in the production and preparation of the soybean cheese since it serves as a good source of protein, carbohydrate and fat being of great nutritional value to the consumers.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  17. Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, Lucky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the stock market were also x-rayed. Also highlighted were the trading, clearing and settlement process of the Nigerian stock exchange and the short comings. The study concluded that for the Nigerian stock exchange to contribute significantly in the development of the Nigerian economy through mobilization and utilization of funds for expansion of business enterprises in the country, it should intensify efforts in creating public awareness as regards its services to the economy, effective investor education, fostering and stimulating speculation in the market and reforms that would compel investors to take due diligence when funds are to be raised by government to eliminate the buying and selling culture that exists in the market should be carried out.

  18. Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Adetunji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC. Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed high values of both enterobacteriacea and TAVC on surfaces of the processing facilities and a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in mean enterobacteriacea and TAVC before and after processing of the wall, knife, table and floor. There was significant increase in both the enterobacteriacea (96% and TAVC (98% on the carcass after evisceration. The mean TAVC for the water and effluent was 1.16±0.1 and 13.79±0.06 logcfu/ml respectively. This study showed the need to maintain good management practice, good hygienic condition and role of sanitation in our abattoirs

  19. Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoobe T.O.T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

  20. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechiel Longe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

  1. Assessment of Radiological Levels in Soils from Artisanal Gold Mining Exercises at Awwal, Kebbi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological levels from Awwal artisanal gold mining exercises in Kebbi State. Results show mean values of activities of 40K>226Ra232 Th numerically as 425.96±5.56, 23.85±2.01 and 18.80±1.21 Bq/kg, respectively. The average outdoor gamma dose was 34.26 nGy/h while the mean annual effective dose rate was 42.15 &muSv/year (= 0.042 mSv/year, which is less than 0.07 mSv/year benchmark given in UNSCEAR (1993. Radio logically, the values obtained are low and do not imply any significant health concerns effects on the local population. However, the observed unprofessional practices such as lack of use of gas mask while working in the dust-filled mine cafes and at the mills could expose workers to possible risks from inhalation of respiratory crystalline silica as well as exposure to radon gas.

  2. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braide Wesley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

  3. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanike K. Adeyemo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6 for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

  4. Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Orebiyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ?Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

  5. Chemical Water Quality Assessment in Selected Location in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Jidauna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examined well water quality (chemical in Jos metropolis which it collected a total of twenty water samples that were taken for laboratory analysis. The stratified systematic random method was used in the selection of sample area/location. A total of (10 out of the existing (20 wards were systematically selected, while in each of the wards, two wells with one each from higher and lower elevations were randomly selected in which water samples were collected. The samples collected were analyses at UNICEF (WATSAN Laboratory Bauchi. USEPA method of water analysis was used to test for the chemical parameters. Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient was used test for the relationship between high and low elevation in the sample elements, as well as mean and standard deviation. The results indicates that pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, As and Cyanide appears within NSDWQMPL, while NO2, Cl, F, Mn, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, CaCo3 and Cr marginally falls within acceptable standard for drinking water quality maximum permitted limit. Consequently, NO3, SO4, Fe and CaCo3 in some parts of Jos metropolis fall outside acceptable standard of NSDWQMPL. Moreover, pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, NO2, NO3, Cl, F, Mn, Cr, As, Cu, Zn, showed that there is no significant relationship within the individual elements in regards to elevation (high and low in the study area whereas, SO4, Fe, Mg, Ca, CaCo 3 and CaCo3 showed that there is significant relationship in elevation (high and low among the individual sample elements. The study concludes that well water quality through chemical assessment in Jos metropolis is not fit for drinking. It recommends sensitizations campaign on the importance of clean water, sanitation, enforcement of existing laws and more research be undertaken to cover for seasonal variation, more elements and sample size.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Akindele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011 in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the rainy season than in the dry season, while pH and Biological Oxygen Demand were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the dry season than in the rainy season. Apparent colour, Total Solids (TS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, K+ Cl-, total acidity, total hardness, NO3- and PO43- decreased (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site, while water transparency, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, SO42 and Mg2+ showed an increase (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site. Apparent colour, TS, TSS, total acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ NO3- and PO43- increased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom, while pH, Mg2+ and DO decreased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom at the lacustrine section of the lake. Cluster analysis of the parameters showed major clusters between the major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and the general chemical characteristics (TDS, alkalinity, conductivity, acidity and hardness and also between the nutrient compounds (Organic matter, NO3- and PO43- and the hydro-physical parameters (TS, TSS, apparent colour, true colour and turbidity. The water quality indices and sodium absorption ratio values in the sampled stations indicated that the water is most suitable for probable applications at the lacustrine section, towards the dam site.

  7. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  8. Radiological assessment of fish samples due to natural radionuclides in river Yobe, Northern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12), fish became outliers with significant values of 112.53?Svy-1, 121.11?Svy-1 and 114.32?Svy-1 effective dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as well as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

  9. Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 ?Gyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 ?Gyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14?Svy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ? 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong, Aliyu Haliru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration exceeds in two water samples; others are beyond detection level. In all, concentration of heavy metals in groundwater is in the order Mn >Fe > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni. The implication of the elevated levels of heavy metals in some samples of groundwater is a serious cause for concern to public health. Most of the groundwater samples are good and can be used for irrigation with adequate soil management

  11. Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mmadu, R. A. O.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation ...

  12. Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D. Sunday Abayomi Adebisi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with produc...

  13. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kudi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmers’ budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the traders’ budget revealed that from an investment cost of 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders’ are making a revenue of 41,700.00 (lint + seed and a net profit of 4,954.00 ton-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors. There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  14. Learning Progressions: Tools for Assessment and Instruction for All Learners. Technical Report #1307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Leilani; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Conceptually, learning progressions hold promise for improving assessment and instruction by precisely outlining what students know and don't know at particular stages of knowledge and skill development. Based upon a synthesis of the literature, a rationale for the use of learning progressions maps to clarify how learning progresses in…

  15. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES ampersand H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES ampersand H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES ampersand H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES ampersand H issues

  16. Multi-criteria Assessment of the Relationship between Deforestation, Rainfall and Landuse Change from Remotely Sensed Data in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, F.; Aragao, L.; Mercado, L.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to undertake an in-depth evaluation of deforestation, rainfall and landuse dynamics in Nigeria using a localized hybrid TREES/FAO deforestation model. Forty seven (47) 2002 (October 2001-March, 2002) Landsat 7 scenes covering Nigeria were assembled and processed with 376 ground control points for image rectification, reprojection, conversion to reflectance and mosaicking. We also assembled 250m and 500m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data for Nigeria for 2002. Using data from the NigerianSat1 Atlas for 2003, Nigerian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (NGSDI) 2002 and a threshold of 70% /5ha for forest cover, the Landsat and MODIS composites were classified into Rainforest, Swamp Forest, Deciduous Forest and Cropland. The overall accuracy was 88%. We developed a multi-criteria hybrid TREE/FAO model for sampling deforestation rates for 2002, 2008 and 2012 for Nigeria. For 2008 and 2012, NigerianSat1 and other satellite data sources were used to fill gaps or replace data on the scanner error of Landsat7. Accumulated patches of Rainfall Data (0.250 x 0.250) was obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for selected forest samples while land cover data from NGSDI was updated with field work data in other evaluate its relationship with the Remotely sensed data. Deforestation rates stood at 0.33% yr-1, 0.14 yr-1 and 0.17% yr-1 for the Woodland, Rainforest and Deciduous Forest respectively. Estimates for the Swamp Forest could not be effectively computed due to high cloud cover throughout the year. The relationship between forest cover change and rainfall stood at r= 0.21; p?0.05 and r=0.42; p?0.05 for the forest and Savannah zones respectively. Deforestation rate was higher in the Woodland than the Rainforest and Deciduous zones due to the better economic value of the species and the ease of felling these trees with minimal cost and favorable terrain features. The weak relationship between rainfall and forest cover in the Rainforest is associated with its location within the zone of maximum air mass convergence due to the concave landscape structure of the Niger Delta to the Atlantic. Moreover, the Rainforest region is nearly always green throughout the year with a highly variable dry season when there are no clouds; hence variability in rainfall may not affect the rate forest cover change as opposed to the Savannah landscapes where forest cover change is dependent on rainfall or moisture supply. Consequently our results show that deforestation is concentrated along the Forest-Savannah boundary of Nigeria where intensive agriculture, anthropogenic forest fires and shifting cultivation dominate. Our results could not confirm hot deforestation spots (pixels) as indicated by most continental-global scale evaluation of deforestation patches. We are going to develop a multi-criteria decision support system for identifying localized deforestation hot spots for Nigeria.

  17. 75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education... Reading. SUMMARY: The National Assessment Governing Board is soliciting public comment and recommendations... Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels definitions describe the reading skills and...

  18. Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onunkwo – A, A; Okoroji I. L.

    2012-01-01

    Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10) vertical electricity soundings (VES) was conducted for data generation using terrameter 3...

  19. Manganese as a Reference Element for the Assessment of Zinc Enrichment and Depletion in Selected Farming Soils of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Uduma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn content was evaluated of the arable soils in the vicinity of mining and dumping sites in Nigeria. Its content the arable soils assayed by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS ranged from 48.3 to 280.4 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF calculated by using manganese as a crustal reference element fell within a range of 16.3-161.2. The mean values of the enrichment factor of 59.41 classified the soil as extremely high enrichment with zinc. Anthropogenic activities contribute significantly to the elevated level of zinc in the studied areas.

  20. Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. ? Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. ? Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

  1. Is Nigeria’s Unemployment Problem Unsolvable?

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    M.A. Adawo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment in Nigeria is alarming. Its measurement by statistical authorities does not pose red alert. It has been discovered that the observed situation of unemployment is more serious than what official statistics want us to believe. The aim of this study is to examine unacceptable unemployment rate in Nigeria. Our findings show that labor force in Nigeria grows at more or less a steady rate of 0.3% every year while GDP growth rate at 1984 factor cost grows at 3.5% over a period of 33 years which implies that Nigeria experiences a jobless growth. The causes of unemployment in Nigeria include poor infrastructure, insecurity and non-diversification of the economy and poor educational system that does not readily produce employable graduates. Among other things we have recommended that governments at all levels should partner with the private sector and diversify the economy in order to create jobs.

  2. Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Olusesan Awoleye; Willie Owolabi Siyanbola; Onaolapo Francisca Oladipupo

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all...

  3. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women of northeast Nigeria on risk factors associated with cancer of the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Bimba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.

  4. Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onunkwo – A, A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10 vertical electricity soundings (VES was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands from boreholes within three (3 communities and ten (10 water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3 aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m, middle (82m and lower (102 to 115m aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3 fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984 standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of screen. The middle and lower aquifers are preferable. The middle aquifer is ideal for domestic boreholes while the lower aquifer should be developed for community and industrial boreholes.

  5. Natural radionuclide content and radiological assessment of clay soils collected from different sites in Ekiti State, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay soil samples collected from different sites in Ekiti State, southwestern Nigeria were analysed for their natural radionuclide contents, using the gamma ray spectrometric method. The overall mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K obtained in this study were, respectively, 33.6 ± 5.3, 20.1 ± 3.3 and 207.2 ± 113.0 Bq kg-1. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of the clay soil as a component of building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The results indicate that the values obtained fall below the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of clay as a building material does not pose any significant radiation hazard to individuals in the study area. (authors)

  6. Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.

  7. Downstream assessment of chlorinated organic compounds in the bed-sediment of Aiba Stream, Iwo, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutona, Godwin O; Olatunji, Stephen O; Obisanya, Joshua F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated levels and distribution pattern of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) otherwise known as organochlorine pesticides in sediment samples at downstream of Aiba watercourse in Iwo, South-western Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction method followed by GC-ECD analysis were used to ascertain levels of COCs in the sediment samples collected from four different locations along the stream. Eighteen COCs were detected with trans permethrin and endosulfan sulfate having highest and lowest concentrations of 375.70 ± 689.41 and 0.03 ± 0.05 µg/g, respectively. The varying levels of COCs as obtained in this study were attributed to organochlorine pesticides contamination emanated from different agricultural practices and domestic sewage loads of the study area. PMID:26839760

  8. The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.C. Mbagwu

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Oyinloye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other details supported by GPS locations was carried out. Seven dominant classes of feature: agro-forest/light forest, built-up area, exposed rock surfaces/bare land, forest reserve, shrub and arable land, ridge forest and water body were identified. A time series analysis of the LULC changes was carried out to provide the necessary understanding of the changes required for policy formulation and decision-making with respect to cocoa production, forest reserve management and landuse planning, control, coordination and budgeting while being mindful of environmental conservation. This indispensable geo-information is yet lacking in the cocoa growing belt of southwestern Nigeria. ArcView software was used to prepare the corresponding time series LULC maps of the study area. The study showed that the forest reserves within the study area reduced at an average rate of 2.78% per year while agro-forest/light forest reduced to 46.39% (i.e., at an average rate of 1.55% per year and, shrub and arable land increased by 323.06% (i.e., at an average rate of 10.77% per year for food production farming to feed the rapidly increasing population between 1972 and 2002.

  10. An Assessment of the Efficiency of Government Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria. Case of the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwanehi Barbara Ofuani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Business, Government and Society interrelationships. It eventually narrowed down to assessing the efficiency of government regulatory agencies, in fulfilling the role of government in protecting consumers from unscrupulous practices of businesses. The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC was chosen for the study. Since the expectations of the consumers are paramount here, the stakeholder approach method was used for assessing the efficiency of NAFDAC. Literature and previous empirical studies on the topic were examined. For representativeness, data was collected utilizing the survey research design through Questionnaire distributed to 200 respondents in some areas of Lagos Mainland in Lagos state, using the convenience sampling method. 187 copies of the questionnaire representing 93.5% were returned and usable. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the responses to questions regarding the efficiency of NAFDAC and a hypothesis tested using a one-sample T-test. The findings ran contrary to results from some previous studies. Instead, consumer awareness of the existence of NAFDAC as a regulatory agency and its functions were established, along with a high rate of consumer education. The assessment of its efficiency also showed a high rating. Recommendations were made that the study be replicated in other states of Nigeria and further studies carried out to evaluate its efficiency under previous and current directors for improvement purposes.

  11. Suicidal ideation: Are refugees more at risk compared to host population? Findings from a preliminary assessment in a refugee community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, O O; Atilola, O; Soyannwo, T

    2015-12-01

    Among the serious mental health problems that may be associated with being a refugee is suicidal behavior. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among African refugees in Oru-Ijebu Nigeria. Suicidal ideation was assessed using appropriate section in the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview while the brief version of the WHO Quality of Life was used to assess quality of life as a clinical variable. Study involved 444 refugees and 527 non-refugee member of host community. Result showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee comparison group (27.3% vs. 17.3%; prefugees compared with their non-refugee members of same community. Quality of life was the only factor independently associated with suicidal ideations among refugees. In conclusion, the study shows that the prevalence of suicidal ideation is significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee members of the host community and calls for innovative ways of extending mental health services to refugees at the study site. PMID:26412050

  12. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  13. Is Nigeria’s Unemployment Problem Unsolvable?

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Adawo; E.B. Essien; N.U. Ekpo

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment in Nigeria is alarming. Its measurement by statistical authorities does not pose red alert. It has been discovered that the observed situation of unemployment is more serious than what official statistics want us to believe. The aim of this study is to examine unacceptable unemployment rate in Nigeria. Our findings show that labor force in Nigeria grows at more or less a steady rate of 0.3% every year while GDP growth rate at 1984 factor cost grows at 3.5% over a period of 33 yea...

  14. Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and...

  15. Tubular biomarkers to assess progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Gianfranco; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2011-05-01

    Despite aggressive management, many patients with diabetic nephropathy still develop end-stage renal disease. Accompanying tubulointerstitial damage is important in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Markers of tubular damage, such as NGAL, KIM-1, and LFABP, have been proposed for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. However, Nielsen et al. report a lack of an independent correlation between these biomarkers and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, these markers seem to offer no improvement in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21527942

  16. Assessing Progress in Mastery of Counseling Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntze, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    During the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine (Murphy, Murphy & Newcomb, 1937). However, during the second half of the last century this term also came into vogue for describing social interactions between humans (Argyle, 1981). Social skills...

  17. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Søren Peter; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo L; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Thornton, John S; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypoth...

  18. [FY 2014 progress report]: Water Resource Inventory and Assessments in Region 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for Water Resource Inventory and Assessment documents activities occurring on Region 5 Refuges during FY2014. The goal of the WRIAs is to help...

  19. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  20. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

  1. Population demography of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lovina, Obewu Onwuka

    2014-01-01

    The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for approximately one sixth of the African population (or one fifth of Sub-Saharan African population). Approximately 50 % of Nigerians are urban dwellers. At least 24 cities have populations of more than 100,000. The variety of customs, languages, and traditions among Nigeria's 389 ethnic groups gives the country a cultural diversity. Nigeria suffers from a population explosion, with a current population in excess of 170 million (2012) an...

  2. Geoscience skills in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Key, Roger; Johnson, Christopher; Knights, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As part of a team from the British Geological Survey, scientists Dan Lapworth and Kate Knights have just finished a two-year programme to train geoscientists in Nigeria. The trainee geoscientists carried out regional stream sediment surveys, as part of a long-term mapping programme across Nigeria. The sediment analysis will be used to find new, economically valuable mineral deposits in Nigeria. Understanding the natural distribution of elements – the geochemical baseline – will also help ...

  3. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  4. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

  5. Nigeria’s 2015 Election in Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nkwachukwu Orji; Institute of African Affairs, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies

    2014-01-01

    As Nigeria moves closer to its 2015 elections, there are concerns that the elections, like the previous ones, will be marred by violence. This article examines why elections are usually volatile in Nigeria, the main sources of apprehensions regarding the 2015 elections, the key issues that might define the elections, factors that might mitigate the outbreak of violence, and the national and regional fallout that can be expected.

  6. Digitizing resources for University of Nigeria repository: Process and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Nneka Eke

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of digitization of resources at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN); the processes involved and the challenges faced. In the context of the establishment of a digital library in University of Nigeria, the study aimed to: establish progress that has been made by UNN in digitizing their resources; report the process of digitizing these materials; find out problems encountered in the digitization project; and proffer solutions to the problems encounte...

  7. Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    Recent testing and validation have found that the GOES microburst products are effective in the assessment and short-term forecasting of downburst potential and associated wind gust magnitude. Two products, the GOES sounder Microburst Windspeed Potential Index and the multispectral GOES imager product have demonstrated capability in downburst potential assessment. Each microburst product consists of a set of predictor variables that generates output of expected microburst risk. This paper compares and contrasts the sounder and imager microburst products and outlines the advantages of each product in the nowcasting process. An updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst products, case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and validation results for the 2009 convective season over United States Great Plains is presented.

  8. Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva

    2008-01-01

      Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200 pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual to collaborative learning combined to indicate three notable changes resulting from the strategy: (1) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT applied in education to address future augmented teacher - students' liaisons.

  9. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

  10. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  11. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

  12. Local Residents’ Perception on the Causes and Effects of Deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Ba,; M. Galtima,; A. L. Tukur,; A. A. Zemba1

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria...

  13. Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edafiaje, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured questionnaire used as instrument for data collection. The study showed that Microfinance service, particularly, those sponsored by government, have resulted in an increased level of credit disbursement and gains in agricultural production and other activities, the effects were short- lived, due to the unsustainable nature of the programme. Microfinance banks should increase the interval between asking for loans repayment and the time of granting the loans as this renders useless the study or verification of the borrower feasibility study, more especially under an inflationary period.

  14. Assessment of Clinical Diagnosis, Microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests, and Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbosin, Olunike Olayeni; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the performance of clinical diagnosis and three laboratory diagnostic methods (thick film microscopy (TFM), rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Using clinical criteria, 217 children were recruited into the study out of which 106 (48.8%) were positive by TFM, 84 (38.7%) by RDT, and 125 (57.6%) by PCR. Using a composite reference method generated from the three diagnostic methods, 71 (32.7%) patients were found to be truly infected and 90 (41.5%) truly uninfected, while 56 (25.8%) were misidentified as infected or noninfected. When each of the 3 diagnostic methods was compared with the composite reference, PCR had sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 62.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 56.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.8%; microscopy had sensitivity of 77.2%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 66.9%, and NPV of 81.1%, while RDT had sensitivity of 62.3%, specificity of 87.4%, PPV of 67.7%, and NPV of 84.5%. PCR test performed best among the three methods followed by TFM and RDT in that order. The result of this study shows that clinical diagnosis cannot be relied upon for accurate diagnosis of P. falciparum in endemic areas. PMID:24371538

  15. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 ± 3.3, 25.8 ± 4.7 and 153.9 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 ± 3.1, 23.9 ± 4.5 and 219.9 ± 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 ± 3.2, 26.3 ± 3.8 and 149.0 ± 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 ± 3.1, 29.7 ± 4.0, 28.2 ± 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 ± 0.004, 0.036 ± 0.005, 0.035 ± 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. PMID:23567195

  16. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, were 12.5±3.3, 25.8±4.7 and 153.9±18.5 Bq kg-1 for Suntan Beach, 13.1±3.1, 23.9±4.5 and 219.9±33.9 Bq kg-1 for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2±3.2, 26.3±3.8 and 149.0±19.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8±3.1, 29.7±4.0, 28.2±3.3 nGy h-1, respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034±0.004, 0.036±0.005, 0.035±0.004 mSv y-1, which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y-1 recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. (authors)

  17. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0?µg/dL than the roadside 43.5?µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  18. Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva; Lewis Brooks, Anthony

    2008-01-01

      Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200 pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual ...

  19. Introduction to the National Assessment of Education Progress SAS and SPSS System Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Systems Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress's (NAEP's) Public-Use Data tapes (22 tapes) contain data for several national samples of one particular age-group (9-, 13- or 17-year-olds or adults between the ages of 26 and 35) who were assessed in a particular learning area (citizenship/social studies, mathematics, reading, and science). In order…

  20. Assessment of progressive deformation on the basis of elastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of structures subjected to cyclic loading is complex. The structure may be in inelastic or plastic shakedown state or exhibit the ratchetting phenomenon. For reasons related to operation (functional play), geometric instability (buckling) and damage, it is important to estimate the maximum deformation reached on the structure when 'it stabilizes. A proposed solution to this problem is offered by the rule of the efficiency diagram based on a set of experimental results but, in certain cases, this method is impossible or difficult to apply. In this paper, we propose a general theoretical approach to the efficiency diagram and this will allow us to extend its field of application to cases of structures subjected to null primary loading. For this purpose, we demonstrate that, in certain cases, there is a coupling between primary and secondary loading. A new definition of primary stress, identified with the former definition in simple cases, is proposed. Finally, we will apply this method to structures bitubes and shells at free level, under thermomechanical loading and, therefore, generating secondary stresses liable to work in progressive deformation mode

  1. Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression

  2. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  3. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEBOLA A. ADEKUNLE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and predictive equations were developed. Result showed that Ecorem increased SEC by 13.43 to 23.03%, improved the original soil status (159.25 ±9.25 µScm-1 by 8.63 to 52.94% and did not render the treated soil saline. The effect also varied with Ecorem – soil weight ratio, giving positive correlations with coefficients of up to 0.967 (p = 0.01; which is a function of petroleum product type. Predictive equations developed showed that for planning remediation project execution using Ecorem; for soil contaminated by petroleum products such as spent engine oil and crude oil, marginal negative errors of 9% and positive error of 2 to 17% should be taken into consideration.

  4. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  5. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg-1, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg-1 and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg-1, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg-1, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg-1 and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  8. Nigeria Strategic Gas Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The study underlines the government's strategic role in promoting proactive gas development schemes, and the drive for change in gas flaring reduction, for better use of Nigeria's gas resources. It is an analysis and integration of independent proposals from international oil companies to the Government of Nigeria for gas utilization projects. The elements and policy framework are evaluate...

  9. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

  10. Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

    2005-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

  11. Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of south-east Nigeria using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the state capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. An inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three (33) water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydrochemical analysis, which results, when available would lie interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydrochemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to water resources managers and decision-makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

  12. Exploring Ecopedagogy for the Attainment of Education for All in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiyefa, Muraina Olugbenga; Ajayi, Ayo; Adeyanju, Lawrence Olugbade

    2015-01-01

    Despite the progress so far recorded on the Education For All (EFA) programme in Nigeria, vulnerable children such as students with disabilities, street children referred to as "almajirai", nomadic Fulani children, orphans, the girl-child particularly in Northern Nigeria are yet to qualitatively access and benefit from the programme.…

  13. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.?

  14. Progress in the assessment of resources. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, M.

    1982-06-01

    This paper explains the achieved level in brown coal classification and petrological brown coal assessment in the GDR. Soft brown coal with 40 to 70% moisture content is macropetrographically classified into lithotypes considering visual properties including color, texture, lamination and xylite content. The standard TGL 15387 shows this lithotype classification. A brown coal classification system into microlithotypes (maceral groups greater than 50 mu m) by using quantitative micropetrographical analysis (QMA) developed by Sontag, Tzschoppe and Christoph is further explained. The analysis includes microphotometrical reflection measurements according to E. Kuenstner (1977) and electronic picture analysis using microscope Densitron equipment. Various graphs and schemes are provided showing the macropetrographic classification system of lithotypes; coal property relations among brown coals, briquets and tar content; petrological briquetting characteristics of European soft brown coals from mines in the GDR, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; gelification properties of microlithotypes determined by microphotometric reflection measurements; and also selected reflection values for brown coal varieties.

  15. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, plung cancer.

  16. Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

    2012-08-01

    The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

  17. Nigeria : Strengthening Monetary and Liquidity Management

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) identified considerable problems in containing the upsurge in liquidity in the financial system, partly caused by spending of oil receipts. In the face of persistent excess liquidity in the financial system, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) made numerous adjustments in the monetary policy framework and instruments; however, these had a l...

  18. An assessment on DNA microarray and sequence-based methods for the characterization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Adebayo O.; Oyedara, Omotayo; Okon, Kenneth; Raji, Adeola; Peters, Georg; von Müller, Lutz; Schaumburg, Frieder; Herrmann, Mathias; Ruffing, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections worldwide. In the characterization of this opportunistic pathogen, DNA microarray hybridization technique is used as an alternative to sequence based genotyping to obtain a comprehensive assessment on the virulence, resistance determinants, and population structure. The objective of this study was to characterize a defined collection of S. aureus isolates from Nigeria using the microarray technique, and to assess the extent that it correlates with sequence-based genotyping methods. The clonal diversity and genomic content of 52 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were investigated by spa typing, MLST and DNA microarray hybridization. More than half (55.8%) of these isolates were associated with clonal complexes (CCs) typically associated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones i.e., CC1, CC5, CC8, CC30, and CC45. Certain genes linked with virulence (hlgA and clfA) and adherence (ebpS, fnbA, sspA, sspB, and sspP) were detected in all isolates. A number of genes or gene clusters were associated with distinct clonal types. The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) was linked with CC5, CC25, CC30, CC45, and CC121, enterotoxin H gene (seh) with CC1, exfoliative toxin D gene (etd) with CC25 and CC80, and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B gene (edinB) with CC25, CC80, and CC152. The excellent agreement between data from DNA microarray and MLST in the delineation of Nigerian MSSA isolates indicates that the microarray technique is a useful tool to provide information on antibiotic resistance, clonal diversity and virulence factors associated with infection and disease. PMID:26539185

  19. Religion in a Secular State and State Religion in Practice: Assessing Religious Influence, Tolerance, and National Stability in Nigeria and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuwunenye Clifford Njoku

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some recent state formations are offshoots of religious societies where the elite clothed the state with religious apparel. Diverse communities and their beliefs compel many modern nations to adopt a secular state ideology in order to avoid religious domination of time. Constitutionally, Islam is the official religion in Malaysia, while the state has maintained peaceful co-existence among its religious groups with an emphasis on religious tolerance and improved wealth distribution. Conversely, Nigeria, constitutionally a secular state with shared populations of mainly Christians and Muslims, is embroiled in yearly religious conflicts. This article aims to show how Nigeria’s secular state status is engulfed in religious bigotry due to institutional inadequacies. This is unlike Malaysia’s state-centered influence on religion, yet its wealth distribution policy makes room for peaceful co-existence in its polity as against more severe challenges of corruption in Nigeria. The paper argues that leadership and institutional failures have exacerbated religious conflicts in Nigeria and hence the state totters in the face of tension. A theoretical debate unveils our proposition on religious practices in both countries. We rely on secondary data and empirical evidence in unveiling issues and conclude with modest recommendations.

  20. Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226Ra and 232Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 ?Sv, 8.1 ?Sv and 8.8 ?Sv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 ?Sv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

  1. Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20?Sv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

  2. Management of protected areas in Sahel savannah ecoregion of Nigeria under the threat of desertification

    OpenAIRE

    BOROKINI Temitope Israel; OJO Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the challenges facing 8 selected protected areas in the Sahel Savannah ecoregion and proffer solutions to these challenges in order to ensure conservation and sustainability of Nigeria’s biodiversity. Primary data were collected from randomly-selected 120 staffs using questionnaire administration from 8 Forest Reserves within Borno and Yobe states of Nigeria. A high level of encroachment of all the studied protected areas was observed, which ranged from defo...

  3. Emotional distress among people with epilepsy in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhu, Folorunsho T.; Abdulkareem J Yusuf; Marufah D Lasisi; Saad B Aremu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is associated with significant psychiatric morbidities. However, little is known about epilepsy and emotional distress in northern Nigeria. Aim: To assess the prevalence and determinants of emotional distress among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kaduna, northern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January, 2011 and June, 2011. Materials and Methods: We administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as well as the Oslo 3-It...

  4. On whether foreign direct investment catalyzes economic development in Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Okpara, Godwin Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the impact of Foreign Direct Investment on some selected macro-economic variables such as real GDP, gross fixed capital formation and unemployment. Data for the variables were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Statistical Bulletin. For the assessment of this impact, the author used co-integration and error correction model to arrive at a parsimonious result which revealed that foreign direct investment though impacts positively and significantly on the gross f...

  5. Cybercrime in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okonigene Robert Ehimen, Adekanle Bola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of some key organizations. We investigated these crimes and noted some useful observations. From our observ...

  6. Theileria mutans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perié, N M; Uilenberg, G; Schreuder, B E

    1979-05-01

    Two strains of bovine Theileria from northern Nigeria were shown to be identical to Theileria mutans in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. One of the strains was transmitted by the tick Amblyomma variegatum; large macroschizonts, typical for T mutans, could be demonstrated in infected cattle. It is concluded from these experiments and from the literature that there is reliable evidence so far for the occurrence in Nigeria of only two bovine Tehileria species, T mutans and T velifera. PMID:117536

  7. Nigeria Mission Performance Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Performance Reporting System (PRS) is a reporting system that enables USAID/Nigeria Implementing Partners to report their performance data and USAID/Nigeria...

  8. Using aromatic biological markers as a tool for assessing thermal maturity of source rocks in the Campano-Maastrichtian Mamu Formation, southeastern Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jude E, Ogala; Mike I, Akaegbobi.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La concentración y distribución de biomarcadores aromáticos en carbones y esquistos de cinco perforaciones en la formación Maastrichtian Mamu de la cuenca de Anambra, en el sureste de Nigeria, fueron analizados a través de un estudio de espectometría cromatográfico y de masa del gas para medir la ma [...] durez termal y la entrada de material orgánico. El estudio está enfocado en las variaciones de la abundancia relativa de naftalinas y fenantrenos, y en los esteroides monoaromáticos y triaromáticos identificados en los fragmentogramas de masas. La trimetinaftalina (TMN) es la más abundante de la familia de las naftalinas mientras el metilfenantreno (MP) es el más abundante de los fenantrenos. El tota de los fenantrenos y sus isómeros fue mayor que el de las naftalinas. La distribución de estos hidrocarbones aromáticos y sus alquilos derivados fue controlada ampliamente por un mecanismo de expulsión selectiva y de la maduración térmica de material orgánico. La baja proporción dibenziotofeno/fenantreno (DBT/PHEN) (0.01-0.06), al igual que las concentraciones mejoradas de 1,2,5-TMN relativas de 1,2,7-TMN indican que la materia orgánica se deriva principalmente de plantas mayores, y del diagrama terniario de los esteroides monoaromáticos C27, C28 y C29 sugiere un tipo III mezclado con tipos II/III de querógenos. El valor calculado de la reflectancia de vitrinita (%Rm) determinado de la proporción de isómeros de metildibenziotofeno (MDR) en los extractos rocosos oscila de 0.51 a 1.43. Estos valores de madurez indican que los extractos de carbones y esquistos son marginalmente maduros para la generación de hidrocarbono. Abstract in english The concentration and distribution of aromatic biomarkers in coals and shales from five boreholes penetrating the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess the thermal maturity and organic matter input [...] . The study focused on the variations of the relative abundances of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and monaromatic and triaromatic steroids identified on the mass fragmentograms. Trimethylnaphthalene (TMN) is the most abundant member of the naphthalene family while methylphenanthrene (MP) is the most abundant phenanthrene family member. The total of phenanthrenes and their isomers was greater than that of naphthalenes. The distribution of these aromatic hydrocarbons and their akyl derivatives was strongly controlled by a selective expulsion mechanism and thermal maturation of organic matter. The low dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene (DBT/PHEN) ratios (0.01-0.06), as well as the enhanced concentrations of 1,2,5-TMN relative to 1,2,7- TMN, indicates organic matter derived mainly from higher plants, and the extract ternary plot of C27, C28 and C29 monoaromatic steroids suggests a Type III and mixed Type II/III kerogen. The calculated mean vitrinite reflectance (%Rm), determined from the distributions of the isomers of methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR) in the rock extracts, ranged from 0.51 to 1.43. These maturity values indicate that the coal and shale extracts are marginally mature for hydrocarbon generation.

  9. Research progress of motor function assessments and their clinical applications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, clinically featured as progressive skeletal muscle atrophy with gradual loss of muscle strength and activity abilities, is the most common genetic muscular disease in children throughout the world. The core and continuous characteristic of DMD is motor dysfunction. Motor function assessments of DMD are now focusing on muscle strength, walking ability, range of motion and ability of activities, still without unified standards. Confirming the comprehensive, scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation tools for DMD assessment is the premise of research in motor developmental rules of DMD, which will help to better understand the motor progress of DMD and to supply evidences for choosing treatment methods, confirming timing of intervention, assessing effect of treatments and designing rehabilitation plans. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.002

  10. Rules of Origin in the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement and Nigeria’s international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Balogun, Emmanuel Dele

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues and assesses the impact of the rules of origin (RoO) and cumulation on Nigeria’s international trade within the context of Africa-EU partnerships agreements. The review of literatures shows that RoO are an important element in determining the final benefit associated with the bilateral trade relationship under preferential trade agreements. It notes that Africa-EU bilateral trade relations dates back to the Lome Conventions that gave preferential entry in...

  11. Assessing the Moral Relevance of Peace Education Contents in the Basic Education Social Studies Curricula for Effective Citizenship Participation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaubani, Okechukwu O,; Okafor, Ogochukwu Stella

    2015-01-01

    Social studies is a core subject at the basic education level in Nigeria which has the potentials of inculcating functional knowledge and desirable morals into pupils for effective citizenship participation through peaceful coexistence. However, despite this positive trend, the moral significance of peace education contents of the subject seem not…

  12. Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes. PMID:23601404

  13. Assessing progression of clinical reasoning through virtual patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Elenita; Ziegert, Kristina; Hult, Håkan; Fors, Uno

    2016-01-01

    To avoid test-driven learning, there have been discussions regarding the use of more formative assessments in health care education to promote students' deep learning. Feedback is important in formative assessment, but many students ignore it; therefore, interventions should be introduced which stimulate them to reflect on the new knowledge. The aim for this study was to explore if Virtual Patient (VP)-based formative assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, had an impact on postgraduate pediatric nursing students' development of clinical reasoning abilities. Students' self-evaluations served as the basis for measuring progress. Data was analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings showed a clear progression of the clinical reasoning ability of the students. After the first assessment, the students described feelings of uncertainty and that their knowledge gaps were exposed. At the mid-course assessment the awareness of improved clinical reasoning was obvious and the students were more certain of knowing how to solve the VP cases. In the final assessment, self-efficacy was expressed. VP-based assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, early in the education resulted in a gain of students' own identification of the concept of clinical reasoning, awareness of what to focus on during clinical practice and visualised expected clinical competence. PMID:26482401

  14. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  15. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence

  16. A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

  17. Primary Teacher's Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Practices as Means of Providing Quality Primary/Basic Education by Botswana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenty, H. J.; Adedoyin, O. O.; Odili, John N.; Major, T. E.

    2007-01-01

    More than any other of its aspects, assessment plays a central role in determining the quality of education. Quality of primary/basic education (QoE) can be viewed as the extent to which the process of education at the primary education level maximizes desirable outcomes in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviour of the learners.…

  18. Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kass Nancy; Taiwo Olaniyi O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study with research...

  19. Assessing Unidimensionality and Differential Item Functioning in Qualifying Examination for Senior Secondary School Students, Osun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo Oluwafemi Ajeigbe; Eyitayo Rufus Ifedayo Afolabi

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed unidimensionality and occurrence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in Mathematics andEnglish Language items of Osun State Qualifying Examination. The study made use of secondary data. The resultsshowed that OSQ Mathematics (-0.094 ? r ? 0.236) and English Language items (-0.095 ? r ? 0.228) wereunidimensional. Also, there was occurrence of DIF items in both Mathematics and English Language multiple-choiceitems of the OSQE for 2008. Fourteen items representing 28% of t...

  20. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankwo, U. J. Victor; N.N. Jibiri; Dada, S. S.; Onugba, A. A.; Ushie, P.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to ra...

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Fraud Risk Assessment and Knowledge Requirement on Fraud Related Problem Representation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates Fraud Risk Assessment Task Performance (TPFRA) and Knowledge Requirement (KR) of the forensic accountant and auditor on Fraud Related Problem Representation (FRPR) in the Nigerian public sector. The study used cross-sectional design and 400 Survey questionnaires. The respondents are real professional people (auditors and forensic accountants in the Nigerian public sector) as true representatives to enhance the generalisation of the outcomes. A total of 36 indica...

  2. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Moshood N. Tijani; Onodera, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water a...

  3. Geology and Geochemical Assessment of Metal Contamination of Stream Sediments at Igun and Its Environs, Ilesha Area South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola A. I.; Adebisi N. O.; Ikhane P. R.; Bankole S. I.; Olaleye F.

    2014-01-01

    The cause of heavy metal contamination in stream sediments is probably related to mining activities in Igun study area. Hence the degree of contamination of major and trace elements was carried out to ascertain environmental impact assessment of Igun and its environs, the geology of the study area shows that talc schist, quartzite, amphibolite and granite are the major rock types within the study area, while petrographic studies show quartz, microcline feldspar, biotite, muscovite and hornble...

  4. Assessing Teaching Readiness of University Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications for Managing Teacher Education Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Akuegwu; A. O. Edet; C. C. Uchendu; U. I. Ekpoh

    2011-01-01

    This ex-post-facto designed study was geared towards assessing the readiness of would-be teachers in universities in Cross River State for the teaching profession, and how reforms can be managed to strengthen this. Three hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 200 students from the two universities in the state constituted the sample drawn from a population of 1684 graduating education students. Data were generated using “Students’ Teaching Readiness Questionnaire (S...

  5. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  6. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 25, Issue 6, November-December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment Update, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Origins of the WASC Assessment Leadership Academy; (2) Editor's Notes: Parallel Paths to Progress in Assessment in Europe and the United States; (3) The Impact of the First Three Years of the WASC Assessment Leadership Academy; (4) Restructuring the Writing…

  7. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  8. Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

    2013-01-01

    Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs ...

  9. Assessing progressivity of out-of-pocket payment: with illustration to Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world, policy makers are considering or implementing financing strategies that are likely to have a substantial impact on the equity of health financing. The assessment of the equity implication is clearly important, given the potential impact that alternative finance sources have on households. Households incur out-of-pocket payment directly from their budget, apart from their public or private insurance. Out-of-pocket payment is the primary concern, given their undesirable impact on households. Progressivity measures departures from proportionality in the relationship between out-of-pocket payment and ability to pay. It is the most frequently used yardstick to assess the equity of out-of-pocket payments in empirical studies. This paper provides an evaluation of such progressivity measures, undertaken using four approaches (proportion approach, tabulation approach, concentration curve and Kakwani's index), in order to reveal their usefulness and underlying notion. It is illustrated empirically with data on out-of-pocket payment for health care in Malaysia for 1998/ 1999, based on the nationally representative Household Expenditure Survey. Results indicate that out-of-pocket payments are mildly progressive, whilst the four approaches have their benefits and limitations in assessing equity implications. This analysis is of interest from a policy perspective, given Malaysia's heavy reliance on out-of-pocket payments to finance health care. PMID:17044546

  10. Water Supply and Sanitation in Nigeria : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This analysis aims to help Nigeria assess its own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services, in the subsectors of rural and urban water supply, rural and urban sanitation, and hygiene. This second Country Status Overview (CSO2) compares Nigeria's own estimates of coverage with data from the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The impac...

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

  12. Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Obiefuna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

  13. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

  14. Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Ocheni; Basil C. Nwankwo

    2012-01-01

    Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government em...

  15. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  16. European Interests in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Misser, François

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a decline in bilateral trade in recent years, Nigeria still remains the European Union’s most important market and supplier in sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa. Conversely, Europe Fifteen is Nigeria’s first trading partner, both for imports and exports. An important fact in sub-Saharan Africa is that despite the decline of European investments in non-energy sectors, Nigeria is peculiar in that it is a country where the amount of investments exceeds the amount of European publ...

  17. Leprosy situation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Sunday; Chukwu, Joseph; Obasanya, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    With an annual new case detection of 4000 people, a Grade 2 disability rate of 12%, and nearly 10% child ratio among new cases, leprosy remains a disease of public health importance in Nigeria. Faced with the reality of low endemicity; a declining budgetary allocation to leprosy control; and a pervasive loss of expertise; it is necessary for Nigeria to re-organise its leprosy control services to further reduce the burden of the disease and ensure quality care to people affected by leprosy. PMID:24428117

  18. Cross border trade in grain between Nigeria and neighbouring Niger: Risk management assessment along Sokoto Illela-Konni border land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chiwuzulum Odozi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain is an important marketable commodity that is hampered by risk of interrelated dimensions, particularly in borderlands of West Africa. Assessing the extent of risk in borderlands can be valuable for policy-makers and likely to contribute to increased regional trade through effective management. Risk management along the grain supply chain was investigated. The methodology was qualitative using desk review of literature and field survey and interviews. While the survey revealed evidence of substantial volume of grain exchange, most of the traders indicated transportation, high taxes and low production of grain as the most important risk factors limiting trade. Production was found to be limited by low access to agricultural insurance, fertilizer, irrigation and credit. Although farmers had access to production information, market information was inadequate. While public grain reserve exists to manage price risk; the capacity was insignificant compared to the magnitude of grain trade in the region. The guaranteed minimum grain price was not collectively determined but by government and their contractors.

  19. Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Adesoji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302 between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230, size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245, hour spent on farm (b = 1.469 and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567 were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

  20. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    CERN Document Server

    Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

  1. Local Residents’ Perception on the Causes and Effects of Deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ba,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views

  2. Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

  3. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-01-01

    This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to a...

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

  5. Numerical Assessment of the Progressive Rock Fracture Mechanism of Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, F.; Wei, M. D.; Xu, N. W.; Ma, Y.; Yang, D. S.

    2015-03-01

    The International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) suggested cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc method falls into a major testing category of rock fracture toughness measurement by virtue of chevron notched rock samples. A straight through crack front during the whole fracturing process is assumed in the testing principle but is never assessed. In this study, the progressive rock fracture mechanism of cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc rock specimens is numerically simulated for the first time. Two representative sample types with distinct geometry of notch ligaments are modelled. The assumption of a straight through crack front for chevron notched fracture samples is critically assessed. The results show that not only the notch tip but also the saw-cut chevron notch cracks during the experiments. The straight through crack front assumption is never satisfied in the realistic rock fracture progress of chevron notched disc samples. In addition, the crack features prominent curved front, far from being straight. In contrast to the sample type with narrow notch ligament, the acoustic emission (AE) of the simulation on the sample with wide notch ligament depicts obvious biased fracturing of the prescript fracturing route of the notch. The numerically observed progressive fracture mechanism calls for more attention on how to accurately calibrate the critical dimensionless stress intensity factor for a better measurement of Mode I fracture toughness via chevron notched samples.

  6. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water, in and around Imirigin oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha and beta activity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water in and around Imirigin oil field has been carried out. Study area was subdivided into five locations, soil and water samples were collected from field undisturbed environment and oil spilled areas. Sample collection and preparation follows standard procedures. Insitu measurement was conducted for pH and electrical conductivity, heavy metal analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and gross alpha and beta activity concentration was carried out by using Gas Filled Proportional Counter. Average value for pH and electrical conductivity are 6.5±00.2 and 46.8±1.0?S/cm respectively for soil and 6.4±0.5 and 406.1±5.2?S/cm respectively for water. The mean values obtained for AAS analysis for soil are (11.9±1.0, 3.3±0.4, 1.7±0.7, 8.1±0.5, 42.5±1.9, 3.3±0.5, 8.0±0.6, 0.08±0.02 and 79.5±2.2)mg/kg. For Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr respectively. For water, mean value obtained are (8.3±0.5, 4.2±0.4, 1.6±0.4, 1.5±0.3, 1.3±0.2, 0.±0.004, 0.07±0.003, 0.05±0.01 and ND)mg/l for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Pb, Cd, Hg and As respectively. Gross alpha and beta activities mean concentrations for soil are 0.53±0.02Bq/g and 29.29±0.17Bq/g respectively, and 4.02±0.01Bq/l and 54.23±1.76Bq/l respectively for water. The results show that the level of the various metals obtained differs from location to location. Values obtained in soil are within reported values in the Niger Delta region except iron level. Heavy metals such as Ca, Fe and Cd exceed the WHO limits for drinking water. The mean values for alpha and beta activity in soil are above reported values in similar environment while mean values obtained in water samples are above WHO recommended maximum permissible limit for drinking water. These values obtained suggested that drinking water from sampled locations may pose some health hazards to the public users but soil from the area is safe as construction material for buildings.

  7. Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gambo Akpoko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973 definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986 is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991. Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999. The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999. They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999. For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP. The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on crop yields and farmers’ income. MATERIALS AND METHODS The data used were collected by means of structured interview schedule from a sample of rural youth farmers in Kaduna State during the 2005/2006 cropping season. Out of the 23 Local Government Areas (LGAs in Kaduna State, three namely: Zaria, Sabon-Gari and Giwa were purposively selected for the study. These three LGAs were among the major agricultural producing areas of the State and where the activities of the NAERLS’ extension Program, were heavily concentrated, thus, the basis for the selection. The NAERLS extension program was implemented in thirteen villages in the selected LGAs. Seven of these villages were purposively chosen since they had considerable number of program youths (312. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the NAERLS RUYEP. Against this background, there was the need to involve both participants and non-participants to serve as control for comparison. The whole target population within the selected villages was, therefore, stratified into Program participants and non-participants. The names of the participants in the selected villages were written alphabetically and from the list, 76 participants were randomly selected. An equal sample of 76 non-participants were randomly selected from the villages where participants had been chosen. In all, a total of 152 rural youths were involved in the study. The conditions for the selection of the respondents included:

    • He/she should be in the range of 18-30 years old,
    • He/she should be a farmer.
    Data were collected on some personal characteristics of the farmers, adoption of the recommended practices, crop yields and income of the farmers. Yields estimations were based on a sample plot size of 40 m2. All the plant stands within a plot were counted, harvested, weighed and extrapolated. Income from crops production was estimated based on the market prices at the time of data z collection. These information provided the indicators for attaining the objectives of this study. Descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages and other statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviations, Chi-square and Pearson-Product-Moment correlation analyses were used to analyse the data. The level of significant was set a priori at 0.05. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Demographic characteristics of the respondents: The study revealed that about 79% of the participants were 30 years or younger, while 63% of the non-participants were within this age category. The implication of this is that both the participants and non-participants were within the age category with abundant energies and prone to innovations adoption to increase production and income. Only 12% of the participants farmers had no formal education, while 35% had quoranic education. The remaining had educational exposure ranging from primary to post secondary education. About 17% of the non-participants had no formal education, while about 40% had quoranic education. A similar number (33% of them attended primary school, while 10% had either secondary or post secondary school education (Table 1. The implication of the education variable is that both the participants and non-participants possessed the education required to read and understand written information which could increase knowledge about new farm practices.
    Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the respondents
    As also shown in Table 1, 38% of the participants cultivated less than 1.5 ha, while 36% of the non-participants cultivated less than 1.5 ha. The remaining, cultivated above 1.5 ha. It can, therefore, be deduced that both the participants and non-participants had the land holdings required to adopt improved agricultural practices. They also had fairly large household sizes which suggests their capabilities to provide the farm labour often required to adopt improved practices. Impact of the program on adoption of recommended practices: The study area is one of the major maize producing areas of Nigeria, endowed with a high potential for maize production. As such, the program gave much attention to maize production. This crop was, therefore, selected for a detailed impact assessment of the program extension activities. Consequently, to determine the adoption of the recommended improved agricultural practices, each respondent was awarded an adoption score based on consistent and large-scale, use of the 8 recommended maize production practices shown in Table 2. One point was scored for each of the 8 practices. Table 2 shows that majority (54% of the participants had between 4-6 points, while 43% of the non-participants fall within this category.
    Table 2: Adoption scores of the recommended production practices and level of adoption

    Table 3: Average maize yields of participants and non-participants
    Also, while about 28% of the participants had between 6-8 points, only 3% of the non-participants had above 6 points of adoption scores. The recommended practices mostly adopted by the participants were improved varieties (83%, fertilizer application (100%, sowing dates (48%, spacing between holes (51%, plant population (45% and weeding (56%. The adoption pattern reflected the farmers access to the NAERLS extension services. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01. The claim that the youths are prone to innovation adoption, possess knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999 has been justified in this study. It implies that farmers having more access to NAERLS extension services had higher adoption scores. Chi-square analysis also indicated that difference between participants and non-participants in adoption score was also significant at 1% level [1% level (χ2 by 14.23]. Additionally, age, education, farm size and income were found to be significantly related to adoption of the recommended practices. Impact of the program on crops yields of participants and non-participants: Maize is the most important crop cultivated in the study area and the crop that the NAERLS’ RUYEP emphasized. Table 3 shows clearly that about 84.2% of the participants had average yield of maize above 1 t ha‾1. Only, 15.8% of the participants obtained average yields below 1 t ha‾1 compared with about 34% of the non-participants in that level of production.
    Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviations of Yields of Major Crops
    *: Significant at p<0.05
    A part from maize, the Program also popularised the adoption of improved practices of other crops such as sorghum, millet, cowpea and rice. A comparative yield estimates of these crops is shown in Table 4. The means and standard deviations of the yields per hectare show that yields of the participants were only slightly higher than those of the non-participants of the scheme. The t-values show that the mean yield of all the crops except for maize, did not differ significantly among participants and the non-participants. Impact on farmer’s income: An important measure of the impact of the Program is its effects on the income of the participants. It was hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on farmers income. Income from arable crops cultivated by farmers were aggregated. This actually was estimated income as it included estimates of crops consumed, sold or given as gifts. Only 27% of the participants obtained income less than N50,000.00 from crops production during the season which data used in this study were collected. About 24% of them generated income greater than N100,000.00 from crops production. On the other hand, a majority (53% of the non-participants generated income less than N50,000.00, while only 7% had income above N100,000 (Table 5. This finding support the hypothesis that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on farmers income. In other words, the NAERLS RUYEP has improved the production techniques of the participants, thereby resulting in increased income. Nevertheless, even though the income of the participants was higher than those of non-participants, their income is considered in this paper to be generally low compared with others in non-farming occupations, if it is assumed that arable crops cultivation was the only source of their income. Further more, although the study shows an increase in the income of most of the participants, it was not quantitatively certain whether the increase in income translated to improvement in profitability of farming and improved standard of living of the youths and the local communities.
    Table 5: Income (N from crops production
    Note: US $1 = N130.00
    Perceived effectiveness of the NAERLS rural youths extension program: When opinion of respondents about the NAERLS RUYEP was sought, the following results emerged. About 79% of the participants strongly agreed that the program had assisted them with regards to production problems and rural life improvement. About 8% simply agreed, while 3% disagreed and 10% either gave no response or were neutral. Considering these results, however, it could be said that majority of the participants considered the Program helpful. CONCLUSIONS A number of general observations and conclusion can be drawn from this study. The first is that rural youths in the study area are willing to accept new improved farm practices if they know about them and if the practices prove economically advantageous. This means that they respond positively to economic incentives. Such incentives should, therefore, be provided by the government. The second point is that extension work of the NAERLS’ type appears to have a better pay-off than the extensive Training and Visit (T and V system pursued in Nigeria (Chikwendu et al., 2001. Thus, it has the potential for overcoming the weaknesses of the T and V extension system. It is also clear from the study that if rural youths programs such as that of the NAERLS which emphasize modern farming and offers a career to young people within their rural neighbourhood are encouraged, the tendency for rural youth migration to urban centers would be substantially curbed. The concept of RUYEP as exemplified by NAERLS may serve as a model for agricultural education institutions in Nigeria. The implication of the findings to the attention of policy makers is that if the country can adopt the NAERLS type of extension approach, the youths are capable of producing large quantities of food sufficient to feed the nation and surplus for export. It seems pertinent, therefore, to suggest that Nigerian governments should study the NAERLS approach vigorously with a view to adopting it in other communities of the country. Further more, although the study shows an increase in the income of most of the participants, it was not certain whether the increase in income translated to improvement in profitability of farming and improved standard of living of the youths and the local communities. This matter deserves further investigation using more rigorous data and statistical tools to strengthen the findings of this study. Moreover, the contributions of higher institutions of learning to rural youths development is a very interesting aspect of rural community development studies which has not been adequately focused in Nigeria. This present study appears to be a good start. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author is grateful to the Director, NAERLS, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria for permission to publish this manuscript.

  8. Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Sunday Abayomi Adebisi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with product made-in-Nigeria. Survey study was carried out through questionnaire administration on 120 respondents; using purposive sampling technique to select the three popular markets in Lagos (Yaba, Oshodi and Eko to gather the required data for empirical analysis. The population of this study were the textile products consumers in Lagos State where Textiles customers were randomly sampled in each of these markets. Ordinary Least Square method (OLS, t-test, f-statistics, coefficient of determination (R2 and Durbin Watson Statistics were used to estimate the data. The results showed: (a significant relationship between product quality and desire to buy made-in-Nigeria at 0.05 level (r = .984, P<0.05; (b a significant, high positive relationship between the perceived cost of individual purchases and the satisfaction derived from made -in-Nigeria goods ( r = .961 and (c a correlation coefficient of 0.979, for cultural believes and buying behaviour of Nigerians. The results necessitated the formulation of required strategies for implementation in concluding the study

  9. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I : a multicentre longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G

    2013-01-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups.

  10. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage) or trends in status (i.e., rates of change). However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved. PMID:26812524

  11. Student Loans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuta, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the operation of the student loan program in Nigeria, including its past problems and current attempts of the Nigerian Students Loans Board to improve efficiency of loan collection. It proposes the establishment of a new Education Bank to finance student loans and other forms of investment in higher education. (Author/DB)

  12. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  13. The Challenge of Liquid Transportation Fuels in Nigeria and the Emergence of the Nigerian Automotive Biofuel Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the challenge of liquid transportation fuel in Nigeria, which necessitated the entrance of the country into the biofuel race. The study found that despite being an important member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC), Nigeria still suffers from fuel scarcities. Reasons for the short supply of refined petroleum products (particularly gasoline, diesel and aviation fuel) in Nigeria include poor capacity utilization of the nation’s refineri...

  14. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM): AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR BUSINESS PERFORMANCE ON MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK (MTN) IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola, Gloria Chiadika; Adekunle, Joel Adeleke

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN), one of the global cellular providers headquartered in South Africa and owned by corporate investors outside Nigeria. Nigeria, been a readymade market with about 140 millions of people, hence MTN has over 35 million subscribers. The objective of this paper is to assess the Effect of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on Business Performance on Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) in Nigeria. 200 questionnaires were administered and the statistical ...

  15. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Yohanna.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  16. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendell Nancy R; Zeitlyn David; Plaster Christopher A; Powell Adam; Pour Naser; Connell Bruce A; Veeramah Krishna R; Weale Michael E; Bradman Neil; Thomas Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the s...

  17. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura; Niero, Monia; Anton, Assumpcio; Bare, Jane; Boulay, Anne-Marie; Cherubini, Francesco; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Henderson, Andrew; Levasseur, Annie; McKone, Thomas E; Michelsen, Ottar; i Canals, Llorenc? Mila?; Pfister, Stephan; Ridoutt, Brad; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Verones, Francesca; Vigon, Bruce; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    practicality of the finally recommended impact category indicators. Results and discussion The global warming TF concludes that analysts should explore the sensitivity of LCA results to metrics other than GWP. The particulate matter TF attained initial guidance of how to include health effects from PM2......Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA...... indicators. This paper presents the progress made since 2013, preliminary results obtained for each impact category and the description of a rice life cycle assessment (LCA) case study designed to test and compare LCIA indicators. Methods The effort has been focused in a first stage on impacts of global...

  18. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  19. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

  20. Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

  1. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  2. Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    A Y Dutse

    2008-01-01

    The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI), which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign sub...

  3. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Ikedichi Okpani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC. One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme.

  4. Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

  5. Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

  6. The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

  7. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819 PMID:12266187

  8. Perceptions, Knowledge, Adaptation and Socio-Economic Cost of Climate Change in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fanen Terdoo; Olalekan Adekola

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the perceptions and determine the ability of farmers in rural Northern Nigeria to explain climate change, and to ascertain the socio-economic cost of climate change to them. The study also sought to understand how farmers have adapted to climate change and assess barriers to adaptation. The study is based on a survey of farmers in two rural communities in Northern Nigeria. The results reveal that the people generally associate climate change with chang...

  9. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24740707

  10. The Role of Teachers in Sex Education and the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshi, Daniel C.; Nakalema, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Research was undertaken to assess the role of primary school teachers with regard to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were responded to by 210 teachers drawn from primary schools in Eastern Nigeria (with pupils aged 6-15 years). These were supplemented by focus group discussions and…

  11. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  12. Assessing the Extent of Human Trafficking: Inherent Difficulties and Gradual Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Scullion

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the key current research and statistical evidence available on the global scale of trafficking in human beings, and considers the assumption that the occurrence of trafficking is increasing. The value and limitations of this statistical data is identified, as is the relationship between the research base and the resulting legal and policy responses. This allows an assessment of whether there is a connection between the perceived problem and the responses to trafficking victims’ circumstances. It questions whether assumptions, generalisations and policies can be based around the available data and the responsibilities of individual countries, including the UK and the wider international community, in relation to the improvement of data collection. The article also considers signs of progress in terms of data collection and suggests further future improvements that need to be made to the approach taken.

  13. Assessing temporal agreement between central and local progression-free survival times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Donglin; Cornea, Emil; Dong, Jun; Pan, Jean; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2015-02-28

    In oncology clinical trials, progression-free survival (PFS), generally defined as the time from randomization until disease progression or death, has been a key endpoint to support licensing approval. In the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance for industry, May 2007, concerning the PFS as the primary or co-primary clinical trial endpoint, it is recommended to have tumor assessments verified by an independent review committee blinded to study treatments, especially in open-label studies. It is considered reassuring about the lack of reader-evaluation bias if treatment effect estimates from the investigators' and independent review committees' evaluations agree. The agreement between these evaluations may vary for subjects with short or long PFS, while there exist no such statistical quantities that can completely account for this temporal pattern of agreements. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new method to assess temporal agreement between two time-to-event endpoints, while the two event times are assumed to have a positive probability of being identical. This method measures agreement in terms of the two event times being identical at a given time or both being greater than a given time. Overall scores of agreement over a period of time are also proposed. We propose a maximum likelihood estimation to infer the proposed agreement measures using empirical data, accounting for different censoring mechanisms, including reader's censoring (event from one reader dependently censored by event from the other reader). The proposed method is demonstrated to perform well in small samples via extensive simulation studies and is illustrated through a head and neck cancer trial. PMID:25393731

  14. Strengthening non-state climate action: a progress assessment of commitments launched at the 2014 UN Climate Summit

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Sander; Falkner, Robert; VAN ASSELT Harro; Goldberg, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This report provides the first progress assessment of climate actions launched at the 2014 UN Climate Summit in New York. It considers the distribution and performance of climate actions along multiple dimensions that are relevant to both mitigation and adaptation. While it is too early for a conclusive assessment of the effectiveness of climate actions, this study makes a first and indispensable step toward such an assessment. Initial findings are encouraging. One year after their launch, mo...

  15. An Assessment of Quality of Service (QoS In Voice Communications over Four GSM Networks in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. OYEBISI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of four operators of mobile telecommunications services in voice communications in Lagos and Oyo States in South Western Nigeria for the first five years of operation. Using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU standard of measuring customer experience of voice telephony service through the voice quality scores known as the Mean Opinion Score (MOS, the study identified the quality of service in voice call between the year 2001 and 2006. The data used for the statistical analysis were obtained randomly from the subscribers of GSM services in the states. The research established that the voice quality for the first five years of operation on all the networks considered were below the ITU specified conversational voice quality of > 3.0 on the MOS scale.

  16. Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanna, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

  17. E-BANKING IN DEVELOPING ECONOMY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Elisha Menson AUTA

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of e-banking in Nigeria’s economy using Kaiser-Meyar-Olkin (KMO) approach and Barlett’s Test of Sphericity which support the use of factor analysis in order to extract independent variables associated with e-banking. The paper explores the major factors responsible for internet banking based on respondents’ perception on various e-banking applications. It also provides a framework of the factors which are taken to assess the e-banking perception. Due...

  18. Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

  19. LINGUISTIC HEGEMONY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NIGERIA / HÉGÉMONIE LINGUISTIQUE DE L'ANGLAIS AU NIGERIA / HEGEMONÍA LINGÜÍSTICA DE LA LENGUA INGLESA EN NIGERIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abolaji Samuel, Mustapha.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available el asunto de la hegemonía y predominancia lingüística se ha discutido en muchos estudios desde los inicios del siglo XX. El común denominador entre tales estudios parece ser la hegemonía lingüística del inglés como idioma global y la supervivencia de los otros idiomas del mundo. Este artículo revisa [...] de manera crítica la tendencia que se ha reportado en Nigeria y reevalúa algunos de los mecanismos de resistencia propuestos en la literatura. El propósito es ofrecer soluciones al mencionado dominio del inglés y sus efectos en los idiomas locales de Nigeria. El autor considera que algunas miradas, a propósito de la hegemonía del inglés, pueden haberse exagerado, influenciando así algunos mecanismos de resistencia sugeridos. Así, este artículo propone un mecanismo de resistencia pragmático y ajustado al contexto que podría poner la hegemonía del inglés en la perspectiva adecuada y por lo tanto, preservar los idiomas locales en las sociedades multilingües, especialmente en Nigeria. Abstract in english the subject of linguistic hegemony and language dominance has been taken up in many studies since the wake of the twentieth century. The common denominator among these studies appears to be the linguistic hegemony of the English language as a global language and the survival of the other languages o [...] f the world. This paper critically reviews the trend that has been reported in Nigeria and re-assesses some of the proposed resistance mechanisms in literature. The aim is to proffer solutions to the reported domination of English and its effect on Nigeria's local languages. The author believes that some views about the linguistic hegemony of English might have been exaggerated thereby influencing some suggested resistance mechanisms. Thus, this paper proposes a context-sensitive and pragmatic resistant mechanism that might place the hegemony of English in the right perspective and thus conserve local languages in multilingual societies, especially in Nigeria.

  20. Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chimobi Omoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.

  1. Exposure of Dentists to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoje, Victoria N.; Taiwo, Babafemi O.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among dental patients and to assess dentists’ risk for exposure, we conducted a study among dental patients at a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a country where tuberculosis is endemic. Ten (13%) of 78 sputum samples obtained were positive for M. tuberculosis. PMID:20735939

  2. Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

  3. Fun, Fizzy and Formative Approaches to Assessment: Using Rapid Digital Feedback to Aid Learners' Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Blair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the early observations and findings from a small-scale exploratory project titled e-scape scotland. This project builds on earlier research into the use of mobile devices to enable learners to create authentic, real-time e-portfolios which allowed for summative assessment. The e-scape scotland project explores the feasibility of using e-portfolios for evidence collection and a range of formative assessment purposes during design and technology activities. It examines the responses of teachers and learners and the technical issues in implementation. Four schools are participating. Data are being collected through observation, learner and teacher responses, and evaluation. The preliminary results from this study indicate that learners respond positively to using mobile devices to support their learning activity. The e-portfolios being constructed offer high quality insight into the learners' approach to the design projects tackled. Teachers are delighted by the potential immediacy of the system in offering timely feedback to aid progression.

  4. Recent progress in structural integrity assessment techniques for components subject to service-induced degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant components are exposed to a wide range of environmental and loading conditions which can cause degradation over time. Aging embrittlement, erosion-corrosion, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue are examples of aging mechanisms which could reduce structural margins in reactor components. The degradation effects from these mechanisms have been seen more frequently with the aging of the early nuclear plants. Since there is a strong incentive for keeping these older plants running for longer periods of time without compromising safety, proper plant management to minimize damage from degradation mechanisms is extremely important. Structural margin assessment, monitoring, and maintenance are important elements of such a management plan. Significant progress has been recently made in the understanding, evaluation and monitoring of these degradation mechanisms. This has led also to new requirements in the ASME Code design basis for nuclear plants. Current state of understanding and new developments in the ASME Code to address some of these degradation mechanisms are covered in this paper. Cast stainless steels used in pump casings and valve bodies have been known to experience thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperatures. Recent predictive models of thermal aging effects on material toughness, developed at Argonne National Lab are reviewed and applied to assess ASME Code structural margins of a reactor pump casing. A recent ASME Code Case provides methods for the evaluation and acceptance criteria for reactor pressure vessels having ductile fracture toughness values reduced below the requirements of 10CFR50 due to irradiation embrittlement. Background and application of this code case to an older BWR vessel is described. The occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel piping highlighted the need for evaluation methods for structural margin assessment in piping

  5. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

  6. Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urama, J. O.

    Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

  7. Practice, Trends and Challenges of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.O. Obe; V.F. Balogun

    2007-01-01

    Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications in Nigeria. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure. Now that our daily transactions have gone mobile, E-commerce has also joined the band wagon, resulting in the ability to carry out commerce while on the move via mobile devices (phones, PDA`s etc.). This is refer...

  8. The Food Industry in Nigeria: Development and Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Ojinnaka

    2011-01-01

    In Nigeria, the food processing sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises, as well as multinational food companies. Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. These standards are essential elements for local and international businesses which contribute to economic progress through industrial development and trade. This review takes a critical look on the Nigerian ...

  9. Biofuel development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of fuel use in urban and rural centres in Nigeria is reviewed. The special problems posed to rural dwellers is examined. Agricultural wastes and some wood processing wastes are examined as source of fuel. Rice husk and sawdust are identified as promising sources of solid fuel which are currently unexploited because the rural people lack the technology to utilise particulate or powdery fuels. In this work rice husk, sawdust and other wasted particulate fuels are turned into briquettes to render them more useable by the rural communities. The local briquette production process as well as preliminary tests on and trials of the briquettes are reported. (author)

  10. E-banking and Bank Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oginni Simon Oyewole, Mohammed Abba, El-maude, Jibreel Gambo, Arikpo, I. Abam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available he resultant of technological innovation has been the transformation in operational dimension of banks over some decades. Internet technology has brought about a paradigm shift in banking operations to the extent that banks embrace internet technology to enhance effective and extensive delivery of wide range of value added products and services. However, the fact that e-banking is fast gaining acceptance in Nigerian banking sector does not assuredly signify improved bank performance nor would conspicuous use of internet as a delivery channels make it economically viable, productive or profitable. Whether progression is made in the use of internet technology (e-banking or not, there should be parameter to empirically assess its impact over specified period of adoption. Consequently, the study examined the impact of electronic banking on banks’ performance in Nigeria. Panel data comprised annual audited financial statements of eight banks that have adopted e- and retained their brand name banking between 2000 and 2010 as well as macroeconomic control variables were employed to investigate the impact of e-banking on return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE and net interest margin (NIM. Result from pooled OLS estimations indicate that e-banking begins to contribute positively to bank performance in terms of ROA and NIM with a time lag of two years while a negative impact was observed in the first year of adoption. It was recommended that investment decision on electronic banking should be rational so as to justify cost and revenue implications on bank performance.

  11. Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y Dutse

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI, which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigeria’s domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

  12. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  13. Assessment Of The Availability, Utilization And Management Of ICT Facilities In Teaching English Language In Secondary Schools In Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Onyi Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the availability, utilization and management of ICT facilities in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A questionnaire titled “Availability, Utilization and Management of Information and Communication Technology in teaching English Language in Secondary Schools” (AUMICTSS was used for data collection. Twenty randomly selected secondary schools from Kaduna metropolis were used for the study. A total of 100 teachers participated by responding to the items on the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using frequencies and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that there is a dearth of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna as there are only very few of such facilities available in most of the schools visited. It also revealed that most teachers were not competent in the use of these facilities as the management of these facilities requires training and re-training. It was recommended as a matter of urgency that government should provide more ICT facilities in schools and ensure the provision of electricity in every secondary school for optimal utilization of these facilities. Teachers should equally be trained and re-trained regularly in the use and management of ICT facilities for effective English Language curriculum delivery.

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in the work environments of a secondary iron and steel smelting and a paint industry in Lagos, Nigeria, were investigated using gravimetric sampling techniques and TXRF spectrometric analysis. The TXRF was used to analyse the concentration of toxic trace elements and heavy metals in the air-borne particulate. The elements detected included Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. Toxicity potentials of PM10 and PM2.5 suspended particulate matter and that of Pb were determined using USEPA national ambient air quality standards. Results were used to evaluate the possible occupational exposure for workers in the sampling areas, as well as those of the general public. These indicate that the concentrations of respirations dust and heavy metals in the work environments, especially the iron and steel smelter are high enough to affect the health of workers and the general public who reside in the neighbourhood. If combined with the effect of traffic pollution in this areas, the total air pollution load may be much higher than values recommended by WHO for general public protection. The need to investigate the options for emission reduction and the management of occupational and general public exposure was highlighted. (author)

  15. Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 ?g/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

  16. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40K, 238U and 232Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 ?Sv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 ?Sv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  17. The Impact of Political Leadership and Corruption on Nigeria’s Development since Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Olu Awofeso; Temitayo Isaac Odeyemi

    2014-01-01

    The paper draws an interlocking relationship between political leadership and development and concludes that, while leadership had played tremendous role in the socio-political and economic development of most nations of the world, the reverse is the case in Nigeria. Apart from identifying other social vices that accounted for the protracted state of Nigeria’s underdevelopment, the paper also singles out corruption as the major impediment to Nigeria’s quest for development since independence....

  18. Evaluation of Subscriber Attitude to Mobile Number Portability Implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tiamiyu; Osuolale Abdramon; Mejabi; Omenogo Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the attitude of mobile telephone subscribers to the implementation of mobile number portability (MNP) in Nigeria. It also identified the demographic variables that should be considered when targeting marketing or sensitization campaigns. A survey design was adopted in the form of a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data from 860 respondents across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. The data was analysed using frequency distributions and cross-tabu...

  19. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; DR. MRS. I. S. MADUEME

    2012-01-01

    This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

  20. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Sadiq Umar, MBBS, MPH, MHPM, FWACP; Samuel Bitrus Bawa, MBBS, MPH, FWACP

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey ...

  1. Adherence to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in urban Kano, northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Gajida, Auwalu Umar; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Abubakar, Isa Sadeeq; Baba, Abdullahi Suleiman; Jibo, Abubakar M; Muktar H. Aliyu

    2012-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is associated with substantial risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The uptake of preventive antimalarials is low in malaria endemic countries, including Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional study design, we assessed factors associated with uptake and adherence to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) among antenatal attendees in primary health centers in Kano, northern Nigeria (n?=?239). A total of 137 respondents (57.3%) reported r...

  2. Severity and impact of acne vulgaris on the quality of life of adolescents in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedegbe EE; Henshaw EB

    2014-01-01

    Evelyn E Ogedegbe,1 Eshan B Henshaw2 1Cedarcrest Hospital, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, which affects most adolescents at some point in their lives. It has been found to have a significant impact on their psychological well-being and has been associated with depression and suicide ideation. Many studies have assessed...

  3. EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magaji, Nanle

    2015-01-01

    The study is an assessment of the effect of job enrichment on non-academic staff motivation in private universities in Nigeria; a survey of selected private universities in South-western Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between job enrichment and employees‘ motivation. This study employed a crosssectional survey design. Data was collected from 547 non-academic staff and was analyzed using Descriptive Statistics (mean, standard deviati...

  4. Economics and Technical Efficiency of Dry Season Tomato Production in Selected Areas in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Adenuga

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) is one of the major fruit vegetables in Nigeria. In view of its seasonal availability and the need to make it available all-year round, effort must be made to increase efficiency of its production especially during the dry season. A study was therefore carried out to examine the economics of dry season tomato production in Kwara state, Nigeria. It estimated the costs and returns and assessed the technical efficiency of dry season tomato production. A two-...

  5. Community Perception of Afforestation Programme in Desert Encroach Area Toshia, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaji Abdu Geidam; Marof Rudzwan; Asnarulkhadi Abusamad

    2012-01-01

    Desert encroachment, a global problem, is serious in Nigeria especially in the northern part. To assess the community perception towards afforestation programs and desert encroachment, a survey was conducted in Toshia northern Nigeria; the objective of this study was to determined factors that influence rural community’s perception towards desert encroachment. A self design questionnaire was used for the data collection from the participants of the study comprised 60 residents selected across...

  6. A programme evaluation of pre-primary education reform, and policy, in Plateau State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaye Fadimatu Hamza

    2006-01-01

    Contextualisation This paper presents a brief overview of the educational system in Nigeria with an emphasis on the pre-primary education level. It addresses the international literature on early childhood pedagogy and assesses to what extent pre-primary education policy in Nigeria is inspired by this literature. The paper will pay special attention to the shortcomings and obstacles encountered in trying to implement the pre-primary education policy of Plateau State i...

  7. The Effect of Agricultural Development Project (ADP) on the Rural Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Adamu Madu; Abba Mohammed Wakili

    2012-01-01

    Majority of communities in Nigeria are rural dwellers and agrarian by occupation. Development strategy for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without first sustained growth in rural income and standard of living primarily from agriculture. It was based on this that the state wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP) was established to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study assesses the effect of the ADP a...

  8. Gender and Reproductive Outcomes: The Effects of a Radio Serial Drama in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fatou Jah; Scott Connolly; Kriss Barker; William Ryerson

    2014-01-01

    A large body of evidence has documented the effectiveness of mass-media communication programs in increasing family planning use and changing reproductive behavior. But the potential impact of these programs on the mediating role of gender norms has not been systematically assessed in Nigeria. Regionally representative cross-sectional end line data collected for the evaluation of a long-running entertainment-education radio serial drama program aired in northern Nigeria are examined for progr...

  9. The impact of the open access movement on medical based scholarly publishing in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Alasia Datonye

    2007-01-01

    The open access movement and its initiatives -- which advocate a shift from predominant print-based publication to electronic and Internet sources -- is expected to improve the global distribution of scholarly research and impact positively on the current state of scholarly publications in the developing world. This review examines the current state of medical journals in Nigeria and assesses the impact of the open access movement and its initiatives on medical scholarly publishing in Nigeria...

  10. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing...

  11. Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success. PMID:22118149

  12. Developing higher resolution climate change scenarios for agricultural risk assessment: progress, challenges and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Climate change presents perhaps the greatest economic and environmental challenge we have ever faced. Climate change and its associated impacts, adaptation and vulnerability have become the focus of current policy, business and research. This paper provides invaluable information for those interested in climate change and its impacts. This paper comprehensively reviews the advances made in the development of regional climate change scenarios and their application in agricultural impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessment. Construction of regional climate change scenarios evolved from the application of arbitrary scenarios to the application of scenarios based on general circulation models (GCMs). GCM-based climate change scenarios progressed from equilibrium climate change scenarios to transient climate change scenarios; from the use of direct GCM outputs to the use of downscaled GCM outputs; from the use of single scenarios to the use of probabilistic climate change scenarios; and from the application of mean climate change scenarios to the application of integrated climate change scenarios considering changes in both mean climate and climate variability.

  13. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  14. Improving energy efficiency in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its huge population of about 100 million people, Nigeria consumes a relatively small share of the world's energy. GDP per capita equaled about US$ 800 in 1985. Agriculture accounts for the largest portion of GDP, at around 40%, followed by services with 31%, industry with 25% and transport with 4$. Unlike most other African nations, Nigeria has abundant energy sources. Recent estimates assumed that Nigeria has about 16 billion barrels of oil, 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe) of gas and 3 billion boe of coal. The results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Nigeria indicate that between 1985 and 2025, Nigeria's energy consumption will rise substantially as both population and economic growth rates soar. While biomass consumption drops markedly over the observed time period, gas and oil consumption witness significant increases. Coal and solar power also account for increasing shares of Nigeria's energy supply in the coming four decades. Hydro's share in energy use remains stable

  15. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

  16. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for atherosclerosis and use in assessing progression and regression in hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the wall thickening and stenosis rate (ASI), the calcification rate (ACI), and the wall thickening and calcification stenosis rate (SCI) of the lower abdominal aorta calculated by the 12 sector method from simple or enhanced computed tomography. The intra-observer variation of the calculation of ASI was 5.7% and that of ACI was 2.4%. In 9 patients who underwent an autopsy examination, ACI was significantly correlated with the rate of the calcification dimension to the whole objective area of the abdominal aorta (r=0.856, p<0.01). However, there were no correlations between ASI and the surface involvement or the atherosclerotic index obtained by the point-counting method of the autopsy materials. In the analysis of 40 patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases, ASI and ACI were also highly correlated with the percentage volume of the arterial wall in relation to the whole volume of the observed artery (r=0.852, p<0.0001) and also the percentage calcification volume (r=0.913, p<0.0001) calculated by the computed method, respectively. The percentage of atherosclerotic vascular diseases increased in the group of both high ASI (over 10%) and high ACI (over 20%). We used SCI as a reliable index when the progression and regression of atherosclerosis was considered. Among patients of hypercholesterolemia consisting of 15 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 6 non-FH patients, the change of SCI (d-SCI) was significantly correlated with the change of total cholesterol concentration (d-TC) after the treatment (r=0.466, p<0.05) and the change of the right Achilles' tendon thickening (d-ATT) was also correlated with d-TC (r=0.634, p<0.005). However, no correlation between d-SCI and d-ATT was observed. In conclusion, CT indices of atherosclerosis were useful as a noninvasive quantitative diagnostic method and we were able to use them to assess the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. (author)

  17. Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea, On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L. P. BEAUV in North-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. S. Turaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea, on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05 the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.

  18. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  19. Assessment of radionuclide concentration and absorbed dose from consumption of community water supplies in oil and gas producing areas in delta State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area 14 were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCI per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photo peaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49.15±15.35 BqL-1 with a range of 6.03 and 177.04 Bq L-1 while for 226Ra, the mean specific activity was 3.36±1.28 Bq L-1 with a range of 1.29 and 12.08 BqL-1 and the mean specific activity for 228Ra was 3.21± 2.69 BqL-1 with a range of 1.61 and 9.83 BqL-1 and the total annual effective dose did not show any significant health impact. (author)

  20. Lagdo Dam Flood Disaster of 2012: An Assessment of the Concentrations, Sources, and Risks of PAHs in Floodplain Soils of the Lower Reaches of River Niger, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Godswill O; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Emuh, Fidelis N; Nwajei, Godwin E

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of the USEPA 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the floodplain of the lower reaches of River Niger, Nigeria, were investigated following the Lagdo Dam flood disaster of 2012. The aim was to provide information on the extent of contamination, sources, and risks of PAHs in these soils. The concentrations of Σ16 PAHs in the floodplain soils ranged from 812 to 10,700 μg kg. The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) toxic equivalence and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) factors were used to evaluate the risk of human exposure to PAHs in these soils. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenic equivalence (BaP) and benzo(a)pyrene mutagenic equivalence (BaP) ranged from not detected to 4090 μg kg and not detected to 4150 μg kg, respectively. The total ILCR for children and adults was calculated as the summation of the individual risks through the three routes of exposure, (ingestion, dermal, and inhalation of vapor or dust). The values obtained indicate that there are 6450 and 4480 chances in one million equally exposed persons to develop the risk of cancer for children and adults, respectively, which were higher than the USEPA acceptable guideline value of one cancer case in one million (10) equally exposed persons. The PAHs source evaluation, using the diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA), indicated that the major sources of PAHs in these soils were fossil fuel combustion, gas flaring, wood combustion, traffic emissions, and input from petroleum. PMID:26828186

  1. Beyond the Rhetorics of Statecraft in Africa: Searching for a New Paradigm of Leadership in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Agaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership question features most prominently in virtually all reported analyses, comments and interviews in the media, especially the print media. One thing that is evident is the recognition of leadership deficit as an important factor in understanding Africa and indeed Nigeria’s predicament. Chinua Achebe, in “The Trouble with Nigeria” identified leadership failure as the bane of development in Nigeria and by implication in most of Africa. As a matter of fact, even honest African leaders like the late Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria, late Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana, and Nelson Mandela (South Africa had in the past pointed at the leadership malaise in development in the continent. This paper therefore examines leadership and governance in Nigeria within the framework of servant- leadership. We noted that for Nigeria to evolve a positive and focus leadership with morals, values and accountability, there is the need for selfless in the form of putting others above self in service delivery, which is the essence of servant-leadership. The creating of a culture of servant leader-leadership in Nigeria would mean the replacement of the top-bottom culture with one where attributes of servant-leadership as already identified flourish. It would require having in place a leadership that has “worked well enough to be considered valid.” It is, therefore, an evidence of internalization of values and “a stabilizing force which creates social reality for its techniques for creating a culture of servant-leadership which is not possible except there is progress in evolving a team of servant-leaders.

  2. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  3. Fish Breeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

  4. Nigeria’s Educational System in a Globalizing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy-Telu Hamilton-Ekeke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is in the midst of an electronic communications revolution. Electronic information flows across national boundaries. But not every nation is in this information technology jamboree at the same paste and frequency. Many people in Nigeria for reasons of technology, infrastructure, or socioeconomic status do not have access to electronic information. Telecommunication has changed the speed and method of doing the business of education all over the globe. It has transformed the world into a computerized global village with easy access to scholarly publications and new academic innovations round the globe. Thus, information technology is an inevitable tool in the 21st Century Education. Nigerian scholarly articles as well as Nigeria universities information on the internet is very scanty. It is therefore a challenge for Nigeria to haste and computerize her educational system so that she can compete effectively in the global market place. It will be erroneous to argue that modern technology is the answer to all of human problems. And it is unassailably true that Nigeria’s educational problems are not from the 'harshness and the niggardliness of nature'. Obviously, the Nigerian attitude towards information technology is a major part of the problem. In fact, a big chunk of it lies, on how to restructure the educational system in line with current technology development and its adoption and acceptability as along with the new information technologies are new challenges in getting accurate and reliable information from around the world.

  5. Nigeria's energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study critically assessed the various policy issues of sustainable energy development in Nigeria. The basic focus was to discuss and analyze some of the laws of the federation as it relates to the development of Renewable Energy in Nigeria. It surveyed the nation's energy policy statement and the vision 20:2020 of the federal government. The Renewable Energy Master Plan developed by the joint efforts of the Energy Commission of Nigeria and United Nations Development Programs were also appraised. The level of development and the index of renewable energy production as stated by the policy statement, the vision 20:2020 and the Renewable Energy Master Plan were highlighted. The study found some policy challenges which include weak government motivation, lack of economic incentives, multiple taxations, non-existent favorable customs and excise duty act to promote renewable energy technologies. Further to this, some legal reforms which may aid the promotion of renewable energy development in Nigeria and also make robust the nation's energy policy were proposed. Some of the laws that require amendment to promote renewable energy include the land use act, environmental impact assessment decree and the investment laws of the federation of Nigeria. - Highlights: • The study exposed the energy policy issues of Nigeria. • The various policy documents and the energy statement of vision 20:2020 were surveyed. • Various challenges impinging growth or renewable energy were highlighted. • Some suggestions for policy reformation were proposed

  6. Appraisal of Construction Project Procurement Policies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Abubakar Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of performance of public sector projects in Nigeria is tied to the impact of procurement strategy or policy used in providing the building. Procurement policies significantly influence the success of construction projects since they are designed to provide solutions to specific project needs or conditions. The Nigerian construction industry was analyzed with particular emphasis on public sector procurement. The general performance of public sector projects in Nigeria was broadly assessed and quite unfortunately the literature review has criticized public sector procurement in Nigeria of been inefficient for efficient project delivery. Equally the respondents to the survey data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and oral interview conducted suggest that projects are affected by the procurement strategy adopted for project delivery. A significant number of the questionnaire respondents believe that performance of projects could be improved using alternative or hybrid procurement strategies. Recommendations were proffered in order to mitigate or reduce completely the challenges and complexities faced by public project procurement schemes in Nigeria.

  7. Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

  8. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live births by the year 2015.

  9. ?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

  10. Gamma spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K ) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta State, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2'x2' NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2±5.6Bq/kg to 94.2±7.7Bq/kg with mean value of 41±5Bq/kg for 226Ra, 17.1±3Bq/kg to 47.5±5.3Bq/kg with mean value of 29.7±4Bq/kg for 232Th and 107±10.2Bq/kg to 712.4±38.9 Bq/kg with a mean value of 412.5±20 Bq/kg for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5±12.3Bq/kg, 0.8 Bq/kg, 54.6nGy/h, 0.07?Sv/y, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excessive exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area.

  11. ?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2? × 2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6 Bqkg?1 to 94.2 ± 7.7 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0 Bqkg?1 for 226Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0 Bqkg?1 to 47.5 ± 5.3 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 29.7 ± 4 Bqkg?1 for 232Th and 107.0 ± 10.2 Bqkg?1 to 712.4 ± 38.9 Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0 Bqkg?1 for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3 Bq.kg?1, 0.8 Bqkg?1, 54.6 ?Gyh?1, 0.07 ?Svy?1, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. - Highlights: ? The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, Th and 40K) in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state. ? Gamma spectroscopy operated on a 2” × 2” NaI(TI) detector was used and the values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries. ? The calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. ? The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public.

  12. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendell Nancy R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1 in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations. Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

  13. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I: A multicentre longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups. To determine whether quantitative fat imaging could measure disease progression in a cohort of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) patients over a 12 month period. 32 adult patients (17 male;15 female) from 4 European tertiary referral centres with the homozygous c.826C?A mutation in the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) completed baseline and follow up measurements 12 months later. Quantitative fat imaging was performed and muscle fat fraction change was compared with (i) muscle strength and function assessed using standardized physical tests and (ii) standard T1-weighted MRI graded on a 6 point scale. There was a significant increase in muscle fat fraction in 9 of the 14 muscles analyzed using the quantitative MRI technique from baseline to 12 months follow up. Changes were not seen in the conventional longitudinal physical assessments or in qualitative scoring of the T1w images. Quantitative muscle MRI, using the Dixon technique, could be used as an important longitudinal outcome measure to assess muscle pathology and monitor therapeutic efficacy in patients with LGMD2I. (authors)

  14. Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment: Progress toward a Seamless System? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may provide valuable data for decision makers at school and…

  15. “Think of it as a Challenge”: Problematizing Pedagogical Strategies for Progression When Assessing Web-based University Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Svensson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse how a taxonomy-based course design can support students’ qualitative learning processes in online university courses. The paper presents a case study based on two online courses in comparative literature in Swedish and English. A document analysis has been applied to analyse the empirical material, which includes the syllabuses, study guides, and examination assignments connected to the courses. Socio-cultural aspects of learning processes, assessment and feedback, course design using a taxonomic structure (SOLO, and a progressive theory of literary studies (Langer’s theories of envisionment function as a framework. The results show that the examination assignments aim to further the students’ educational processes from stage 2 to stage 5 of the SOLO-taxonomy and, at the same time, through Langer’s four stances. While the course structure has a positive effect on the students’ general as well as literary progress, there are some pedagogical challenges with online teaching in literature that are discussed. In addition, the examination assignments could have been used as ways to strengthen the students’ socio-cultural learning. Furthermore, with little alterations, the examination assignments, which were all used as means of summative assessment, could also have been used formatively to assess the students’ progress.

  16. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

  17. The search for underlying principles of health impact assessment: progress and prospects: Comment on "Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment"

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Mirko S; Jürg Utzinger

    2014-01-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Is...

  18. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

  19. Performance of computer-based analysis using temporal subtraction to assess joint space narrowing progression in rheumatoid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shota; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Okubo, Takanobu; Katayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Our computer-based method can detect the chronological change in joint space width between baseline and follow-up images as the joint space difference index (JSDI). The aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of our computer-based method in assessment of joint space narrowing progression in rheumatoid patients. Twenty-seven patients (24 women and 3 men) with rheumatoid arthritis underwent radiography of the bilateral hand at baseline and at 1 year. The joint space narrowing (JSN) of a total of 252 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and 229 carpal joints was assessed by our computer-based method, setting the Sharp/van der Heijde method as the gold standard. We constructed a receiver operating characteristic curve by using the Sharp/van der Heijde method as the gold standard and set the optimal cutoff on JSDI for MCP, carpal, and MCP/carpal joints. We then calculated the sensitivity and specificity for each cutoff in assessment of JSN progression. At the most discriminant cutoff, the sensitivity and specificity of the computer-based method for MCP joints was 78.6 versus 85.3 %, respectively (AUC = 0.837; P < 0.001). Carpal joints revealed a lower sensitivity and specificity with 64.7 and 86.8 % (AUC = 0.775; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity for MCP/carpal joints was 71.0 versus 83.6 %, respectively (AUC = 0.778; P < 0.001). The computer-based method presented a reliable assessment of JSN progression with high sensitivity and specificity and may be useful in follow-up assessment of the joint damage in rheumatoid patients. PMID:26298417

  20. 75 FR 56509 - Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...Mission to Nigeria AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U...economies in Africa. The International Monetary Fund projects Nigeria's...

  1. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  2. Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna, J. K.; Umogbai, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance ...

  3. Performance of Micro Restaurant Enterprises in Cross River State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    G. E. Umeze; S. B. Ohen

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the performance of micro restaurants in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data obtained from a proportionate random sample of 132 restaurant enterprises and analyzed using descriptive statistics, cost and return analysis, profitability ratios, and multiple regression (ordinary least square) analysis. The result of the analysis showed that ownership of restaurants in Calabar metropolis is largely dominated by females (83.3 percen...

  4. Challenges of Women in Urban Agriculture in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adedayo A; Tunde A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Women play significant roles generally in urban agricultural production. In spite of their roles, women farmers are faced with myriads of challenges that affect their increased production in the urban areas. This study assessed the challenges of women farming in urban areas with reference to Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 1,801 women farmers were sampled from different urban areas in the state. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were organized for them in order to explore their minds on the cha...

  5. Banking Sector Liquidity and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel O. Fadare

    2011-01-01

    Employing a linear least square model and time series data from 1980 to 2009, this paper studies the determinants of Banking Sector liquidity in Nigeria and assesses the extent to which the recent financial crises affected liquidity in deposit money banks in the country. The paper makes some interesting findings. First, we find that only liquidity ratio, monetary policy rate and lagged loan-to-deposit ratio are significant for predicting Banking Sector liquidity. Secondly, we find that a decr...

  6. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oreagba Ibrahim; Oshikoya Kazeem; Amachree Mercy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured...

  7. Frozen Fish Markets and Marketing Problems in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Teslim Bada; M.A.Y. Rahji

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the performance of the frozen fish markets in Ibadan, Nigeria in terms of price transmission,market margins, marketing costs, and the magnitude of changes in these variables. The study revealed that theaverage retail price for Mackerel is higher than that of Stockfish while that of Stockfish is greater than that ofSadinela. The same pattern is observed for the wholesale prices, marketing costs and net margins. All themeasures used to assess the problems gave the same rank ...

  8. Radiographic assessment of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing early disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic disease predominantly involving the joints. Since the pathogenesis, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of RA have only been partially elucidated, a definitive therapy has not been established. Precise diagnosis and follow-up therapy requires objective quantification, and radiological analyses are considered to be the most appropriate method. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the time-dependent progression of joint damage in patients with pharmacologically-treated RA, and to determine which therapeutic agents demonstrate the highest efficacy. Outpatient records, laboratory values, therapy schemes and radiographs from hands and feet of 150 RA patients were collected, analyzed and statistically evaluated. Radiographs were quantified using the Larsen score and supportively using the 'RheumaCoach-Rheumatology' computer software. Our observations reveal that radiologically-detectable damage is most pronounced during the first year of disease, while mitigated and generally progressing linearly thereafter. Overall Larsen scores linearly increased from year 0 to 10 (r=0.853), during which the mean Larsen score increased 7.93 ± 0.76 per year. During the first year, RA progression was similar regardless of the medication administered (gold-compounds, AU; chloroquine, CQ; methotrexate, MTX; sulfasalazine SSZ). While MTX and CQ treatment showed no difference when examined as mean 5-year increment of Larsen score, AU and SSZ showed up to 3 fold higher RA progression compared with MTX. The Larsen score in year 1 did not correlate with that of years 2 to 5. In contrast, Larsen scores in year 2 were linearly related to each of the subsequent 3 years. Despite similar ESR values in various medication groups, cumulative ESR correlated with RA progression, and its reduction with therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this study found that, (i) early DMARD-treated RA progressed more rapidly during the first than in subsequent years, and (ii) a linear increase during the first ten years after diagnosis upon retrospective assessment using the original Larsen score, (iii) therapy with methotrexate and chloroquine yielded equal results, and were superior to sulfasalazine or oral gold-compounds, and (iv) despite the effectiveness of cumulative ESR in evaluating RA progression, (v) radiographs of the hands and feet to predict RA were most useful when assessed using the original Larsen score at baseline, after one and two years. (author)

  9. Religious Ideals and Responsible Leadership: The Shepherd Model and Lessons for Nigeria’s Fledging Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiya Ilufoye Sarafa

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria is a country where religion thrives in the form of Christianity, Islam and African indigenous religion. Paradoxically, Nigeria is also a country where amorality thrives. A t all levels of governance, amorality has been a prom inent feature of Nigerian politics. This study discusses religion, morality and politics nexus in Nigeria. It argues that though religion has played indispensable roles in the authoritative allocation of values and distribution of political offices in Nigeria, it...

  10. Longitudinal Assessment of Progress in Reasoning Capacity and Relation with Self-Estimation of Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Anne; Mélot, France; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally…

  11. Assessing the Relationship between ITIL Implementation Progress and Firm Size: Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagi Kanapathy; Kashif Ibadullah Khan

    2012-01-01

    ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) is a service management framework that is considered as aset of best practices that assist organizations to increase IT service management effectiveness, service deliveryand IT governance. ITIL enables technology departments to demonstrate strong IT service management viasystematic execution of operations with stringent controls. A questionnaire survey method was utilized toexplore the relationship between ITIL implementation progress and f...

  12. Research in the geosciences related to resource assessment. Interim progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelson, M.G.

    1980-07-18

    Research progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) development of a field data acquisition and processing system for use in exploration geophysics; (2) analysis of seismic data from Imperial Valley and Mt. Etna; and (3) the genesis of uranium ore deposits. (ACR)

  13. Research in the geosciences related to resource assessment. Interim progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) development of a field data acquisition and processing system for use in exploration geophysics; (2) analysis of seismic data from Imperial Valley and Mt. Etna; and (3) the genesis of uranium ore deposits

  14. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  15. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

    2011-12-01

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  16. Appendix 4. Member Churches of Christian Council of Nigeria (CCN)1

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Methodist Church Nigeria The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion) The Presbyterian Church of Nigeria The Nigerian Baptist Convention The Salvation of Army Qua Iboe Church of Nigeria The African Church The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria Ekklesiyar Yan'uwa a Nijeria Church of Christ in Nigeria Church of the Lord (Aladura) The Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim Affdiated Bodies The Boys' Brigade Nigeria The Girls' Brigade Nigeria Young Men's Christian Association of Nigeria Yo...

  17. Threat to Nigeria Since 1960: A Retrospection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andy Afinotan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-independence Nigerian state was faced with the intractable task of governing a multifaceted nation, comprised of 36 regional states which were divided along ethno-religious lines, up to 300 ethnic groups and a plethora of linguistic dialects, in addition to three (3 distinct religious groupings. The challenge of the post-colonial Nigerian state was the efficient administration and governance of a broad-based society with a multiplicity of interests, values, traditions and cultural inclinations. The culmination of an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and dissatisfaction from different regions of Nigeria came with the advent of the Biafra secessionist battle of 1967. Following the end of the Biafra conflict, the Nigerian society became characterised with struggles and resistance against the state system in various forms, with the gripes and disquiets of various groups coming to the fore in various, often violent ways. Making use of library research and content analysis methologies, the authors trace the sequence of crises faced by the Nigerian state since independence, with a keen focus on the Biafra War of 1967, the Niger Delta crisis (particularly, the botched Amnesty Programme of 2009, as well as the current threat of Boko Haram terrorism which has taken hold of the Nigerian society since 2009. The paper concluded that, for the high ideals of Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress to be attained in Nigeria, the State must deal with corruption, ethnicity, religious fundamentalism and security related crimes, while doing more to restructure the polity and enthrone free and fair elections.

  18. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  19. Uranium favourability study in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshin, I. O.; Rahaman, M. A.

    Geological considerations indicate that four types of uranium deposits, three from within the crystalline rocks and the fourth from the sedimentary formations, can be explored for in Nigeria. The Precambrian Basement Complex underwent crustal reactivation in Pan-African times (600 ± 150 Ma) during which migmatites and rocks of the Older Granite suite were emplaced. The occurrences of these rocks in northeastern, north-central and central Nigeria are possible hosts for the granitic type of uranium deposit. Vein-type uranium deposits are often localized in areas of the Basement Complex which have undergone intense brittle deformation. The high-level, anorogenic, peralkaline Younger Granites of Nigeria of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age have geochemical characteristics which are similar to those of the host rocks of non-orogenic type uranium deposit in alkali complexes such as the Bokan mountains of Alaska. The sandstone type of uranium deposit may be found in the Cretaceous-Recent continental sandstone formations in the Sokoto, Niger, Chad and Benue Basins of Nigeria and in the sediments overlying the Oban Massif in Cross Rivers State. Geologically similar sandstone occurrences elsewhere in the world (Gabon, Niger and Colorado, U.S.A.) are known to harbour important uranium mineralization.

  20. Hope and violence in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

  1. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  2. Managing Nigeria's Image Crisis: Akunyili’s Rebranding Programme to the Rescue (?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Egwemi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the current image problem in Nigeria, the attem pt to launder this im age via rebranding, the kind of reactions that rebranding has elicited and a prognosis on w hat can be done. This is against the background of the image crisis that the country suffered from between 1993 and 1999. The image crisis in that period was largely attributed to Nigeria’s lack of democratic progress. This image crisis was again compounded by the fraud that characterized the 2007 general elections. While arguing that the rebranding programme seems to be more of a cosmetic remedy, the paper recommends among other things that beyond sloganeering, the Nigerian government needs to address the issues that gave rise to the image crisis in the first place. This is the only way that N igeria can get out of the image quagmire.

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

  4. Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis for Assessment of Progressive Collapse Potential in intermediate RC frame structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Khazaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Through accident or act of terrorism, structures may be subject to conditions that could lead to progressive collapse. A large part of common reinforced concrete (RC structures are designed as intermediate moment resisting frames. In this study, based on the acceptance criteria of the last edition of UFC 4-023-03 document, the influence of some external column removal cases are evaluated by nonlinear procedures in all stories of a regular structure. Nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analyses are conducted to estimate the progressive collapse resistance of the building subjected to column failure. Results show that after column removal in top stories, in both nonlinear static and dynamic analysis, the structure hinges exceeds CP level of performance. Compared to dynamic analyses, it is concluded that static analyses are more conservative in the estimation of total number of plastic hinges and shear force in beams.

  5. Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis for Assessment of Progressive Collapse Potential in intermediate RC frame structures

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Khazaee

    2013-01-01

    Through accident or act of terrorism, structures may be subject to conditions that could lead to progressive collapse. A large part of common reinforced concrete (RC) structures are designed as intermediate moment resisting frames. In this study, based on the acceptance criteria of the last edition of UFC 4-023-03 document, the influence of some external column removal cases are evaluated by nonlinear procedures in all stories of a regular structure. Nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic ana...

  6. Environmental Impact of Toxic Metal Load in Some Military Training Areas within the One Division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Nwaedozie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of six trace metals in the three military training areas in Nigeria, within Kaduna metropolis, viz:- Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, Nigeria Air Force Base, Kaduna and Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The level of lead, copper, chromium, zinc manganese and Nickel were assessed. The samples were collected in the month of September and the highest concentration of lead was found in Nigerian Air Force base shooting range (526.49mg/kg. Lead was also found to be high in the Shooting range of Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria (216.49 mg/kg while the Armed Forces Command and Staff College shooting range, Jaji has the least value (54.39mg/kg. The trend of trace metals in Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria , Shooting range is Mn > Pb > Zn> Cr>Cu >Ni while in Nigeria Armed Forces Command and Staff College Jaji, Shooting range it is Mn >Cr > Pb> Zn >Cu> Ni and at the Nigeria Air Force base, Kaduna it changes to Pb> Mn > Cu > Zn >Cr. The high value of Mn and Pb obtained in all the areas could be attributed to military activities. This result obtained indicates that military training areas are polluted with trace metals. The results are explained in terms of its health effect on the troops and the host community.

  7. Environmental Impact of Toxic Metal Load in Some Military Training Areas within the One Division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Nwaedozie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of six trace metals in the three military training areas in Nigeria, within Kaduna metropolis, viz:- Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, Nigeria Air Force Base, Kaduna and Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The level of lead, copper, chromium, zinc manganese and Nickel were assessed. The samples were collected in the month of September and the highest concentration of lead was found in Nigerian Air Force base shooting range (526.49mg/kg. Lead was also found to be high in the Shooting range of Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria (216.49 mg/kg while the Armed Forces Command and Staff College shooting range, Jaji has the least value (54.39mg/kg. The trend of trace metals in Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria , Shooting range is Mn > Pb > Zn> Cr>Cu >Ni while in Nigeria Armed Forces Command and Staff College Jaji, Shooting range it is Mn >Cr > Pb> Zn >Cu> Ni and at the Nigeria Air Force base, Kaduna it changes to Pb> Mn > Cu > Zn >Cr. The high value of Mn and Pb obtained in all the areas could be attributed to military activities. This result obtained indicates that military training areas are polluted with trace metals. The results are explained in terms of its health effect on the troops and the host community.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for accelerated assessment of drug effect and prediction of subsequent radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: a study of patients receiving combined anakinra and methotrexate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Nielsen, H; Johansen, JS; Narvestad, E; Ejbjerg, BJ; Baslund, B; Møller, JM; Thomsen, HS; Petersen, J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By MRI to assess the efficacy of addition of anakinra for controlling synovitis and stopping erosive progression in patients with clinically active RA despite receiving methotrexate, and to determine the predictive value of MRI for subsequent radiographic erosive progression. METHODS...... evaluation) at weeks 0 and 36. RESULTS: MRI synovitis scores were not significantly changed. Radiography of both hands and wrists after 36 weeks showed erosive progression in 11 patients, and MRI after 12 weeks in 10 patients. Nine of 10 patients with MRI progression at 12 weeks had radiographic progression...... at 36 weeks. Baseline MRI synovitis and erosion scores, but no clinical/biochemical parameters, correlated significantly with subsequent erosive progression. CONCLUSION: Addition of anakinra did not significantly reduce MRI signs of synovitis, and most patients had progressive joint destruction...

  9. Migration and rural opportunities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with migration to rural areas in Nigeria. The author examines the rural economic structures, social systems, and demographic features affecting such migration. These features are compared for migrants and nonmigrants in the cash cropping and subsistence cropping areas of southwestern Nigeria. The results suggest that rural migration in southwestern Nigeria is mainly urban-rural migration of a colonizing type. Data for the study are from a survey of 1,782 households in 12 villages. PMID:12339440

  10. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. Annual progress report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.; Riordan, C.; Hammond, E.; Ismailidis, T.

    1993-06-01

    This annual report summaries the activities and accomplishments of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1992 (1 October to 30 September 1992). Managed by the Analytic Studies Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, this project is the major activity of the US Department of Energy`s Resource Assessment Program.

  11. Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).

  12. Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Bin Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will commence. By the time a column is eliminated from the structure as a result of a sudden motor vehicle strike or earthquake or fire or any other internal or external factor that could take one column out of the system, the weight of the building (gravity load will be distributed among other columns within the structure. Failure commences in the part of the structure that has lost a column unless other columns are designed appropriately against gravity loads and are capable of redistribution of additional loads imposed on them. Failure of vertical load bearing elements will continue until the stabilization of extra loading. Hence, this could lead to serious damage and collapse of the building which will lead to higher damage to the building than the primary damage. This research is based on the regulations conforming to the specifications of UFC guidelines and the structures have been modeled using SAP2000 (2012. In order to study the effects of the progressive collapse on the seismic design of special steel moment frames, SMRF, two 5-story and 15-storystructures are modeled in SAP2000 (2012. In order to have a better understanding of progressive collapse and obtain reliable results, Linear Static (LS, Nonlinear Static (NLS and Nonlinear Dynamic analyses (NLD procedure for single and 2 adjacent columns removal have been implemented in this study. Having a good perception of the possibility of progressive collapse involves incorporation of demand capacity ratio, plastic hinges formation and vertical displacements of removed column’s location plus axial force in columns adjacent to the removed column. Other factors such as number of stories and the amount of local damage resulted from the removal of 2 adjacent columns could also lead to a better understanding of the structural behavior.

  13. Determination of Nonylphenol, Octylphenol and Bisphenol-A in Water and Sediments of Two Major Rivers in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebola A Oketola; Taiwo K. Fagbemigun

    2013-01-01

    The continuous uncontrolled discharge of pollutants into aquatic systems in developing countries like Nigeria has prompted a more sensitive assessment of the level of pollutants inhabiting the environment. Sediments and waters of River Ogun and River Ibeche in southwestern part of Nigeria were collected and analysed for 4-t-Octyphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and Bisphenol-A (BPA), that have been shown to possess endocrine-disrupting properties. Prior to analysis by GC-MS technique, ta...

  14. The Role of Parents in the Prevention of Hiv/Aids Among Secondary School Students in Ijebuode Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dele-Osibanjo, Taiwo A.; Onifade, Comfort Adenike

    2013-01-01

    The study was an assessment of the role of parents in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS among adolescents in Nigeria. The study was conducted among students of selected secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Nigeria. Two Hundred and Thirty (230) students were randomly selected as sample for the study. The instrument consisted of a set of questionnaire covering the areas of investigation. The data collected were analysed with simple percentage and chi-square statistical tool. The results showed that p...

  15. Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

    OpenAIRE

    Sofowora Olaniyi Alaba; Bimbo Adekomi

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed the impact of a World Bank Assisted Project “STEP-B” on teaching and learning of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STM) in Nigeria. It also described the contribution of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife to the improvement of STM through research development, utilization of ICT, human resources and Educational Technology infrastructure in Post Basic Education Institutions (PBEIs) in Nigeria. A sample of 360 participants was used. They were selected from all t...

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria : a multilevel discrete choice analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu O; Lawoko S; Dalal K

    2011-01-01

    Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of ...

  17. A Survey of Home Delivery and Newborn Care Practices among Women in a Suburban Area of Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lamina Mustafa Adelaja

    2011-01-01

    Context. Information about reasons for delivering at home and newborn care practices in suburban areas of Western Nigeria is lacking, and such information will be useful for policy makers. Objectives. To describe the home delivery and newborn care practices and to assess the reasons for delivering at home. Study Design, Setting, and Subjects. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the immunization clinics of Sagamu local government, Western part of Nigeria during January and February 200...

  18. The Influence Of Personal Factors On Workers’ Turnover Intention In Work Organizations In South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Elsie Omolara Babajide

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personal factors on workers’ turnover intention in work organizations in South-West Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of personal variables to turnover intention assessment among industrial workers in Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A total of 725 respondents were selected using stratified sampling technique. A set of self developed structured questionnaire titled Personal Factors an...

  19. TQM STRATEGIES AND HEALTH CARE DELIVERIES: LESSONS FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the TQM Strategies and health care delivery in Nigeria, and the various means of measuring service quality. Nigeria continues to suffer outbreaks of various diseases cholera, malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis, measles, yellow fever, Bird flu e.t.c., all these diseases combine to cause high morbidity and mortality in the population. To assess the situation this paper looks at the relevant indicators like Annual Budgets by Government, Individual’s income, the role of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA and various health care agencies vested with the sole responsibility for elaborating standards for products and processes in Health care Delivery.The paper also examines the implication of Government Budget estimates on the Life expectancy of an average Nigerian. The findings necessitated the need for the government to seek support from WHO to assist in strengthening the health care system by advocating and providing technical support to health sector reforms.

  20. MRI biomarker assessment of neuromuscular disease progression: a prospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jasper M; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Fischmann, Arne; Machado, Pedro M; Reilly, Mary M; Yousry, Tarek A; Thornton, John S; Hanna, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A substantial impediment to progress in trials of new therapies in neuromuscular disorders is the absence of responsive outcome measures that correlate with patient functional deficits and are sensitive to early disease processes. Irrespective of the primary molecular defect, neuromuscular disorder pathological processes include disturbance of intramuscular water distribution followed by intramuscular fat accumulation, both quantifiable by MRI. In pathologically distinct neuromuscular disorders, we aimed to determine the comparative responsiveness of MRI outcome measures over 1 year, the validity of MRI outcome measures by cross-sectional correlation against functionally relevant clinical measures, and the sensitivity of specific MRI indices to early muscle water changes before intramuscular fat accumulation beyond the healthy control range. Methods We did a prospective observational cohort study of patients with either Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A or inclusion body myositis who were attending the inherited neuropathy or muscle clinics at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK. Genetic confirmation of the chromosome 17p11·2 duplication was required for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A, and classification as pathologically or clinically definite by MRC criteria was required for inclusion body myositis. Exclusion criteria were concomitant diseases and safety-related MRI contraindications. Healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls were also recruited. Assessments were done at baseline and 1 year. The MRI outcomes—fat fraction, transverse relaxation time (T2), and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)—were analysed during the 12-month follow-up, by measuring correlation with functionally relevant clinical measures, and for T2 and MTR, sensitivity in muscles with fat fraction less than the 95th percentile of the control group. Findings Between Jan 19, 2010, and July 7, 2011, we recruited 20 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A, 20 patients with inclusion body myositis, and 29 healthy controls (allocated to one or both of the 20-participant matched-control subgroups). Whole muscle fat fraction increased significantly during the 12-month follow-up at calf level (mean absolute change 1·2%, 95% CI 0·5–1·9, p=0·002) but not thigh level (0·2%, ?0·2 to 0·6, p=0·38) in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A, and at calf level (2·6%, 1·3–4·0, p=0·002) and thigh level (3·3%, 1·8–4·9, p=0·0007) in patients with inclusion body myositis. Fat fraction correlated with the lower limb components of the inclusion body myositis functional rating score (?=–0·64, p=0·002) and the Charcot-Marie-Tooth examination score (?=0·63, p=0·003). Longitudinal T2 and MTR changed consistently with fat fraction but more variably. In muscles with a fat fraction lower than the control group 95th percentile, T2 was increased in patients compared with controls (regression coefficients: inclusion body myositis thigh 4·0 ms [SE 0·5], calf 3·5 ms [0·6]; Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A thigh 1·0 ms [0·3], calf 2·0 ms [0·3]) and MTR reduced compared with controls (inclusion body myositis thigh ?1·5 percentage units [pu; 0·2], calf ?1·1 pu [0·2]; Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A thigh ?0·3 pu [0·1], calf ?0·7 pu [0·1]). Interpretation MRI outcome measures can monitor intramuscular fat accumulation with high responsiveness, show validity by correlation with conventional functional measures, and detect muscle water changes preceding marked intramuscular fat accumulation. Confirmation of our results in further cohorts with these and other muscle-wasting disorders would suggest that MRI biomarkers might prove valuable in experimental trials. Funding Medical Research Council UK. PMID:26549782

  1. State financed PV technology projects in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)

  2. Making Instruction and Assessment Responsive to Diverse Students' Progress: Group-Administered Dynamic Assessment in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) x 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control…

  3. Can Creativity Be Assessed? Towards an Evidence-Informed Framework for Assessing and Planning Progress in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Mike; Peterson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the role of constructions of creativity in the classroom and their consequences for learning and, in particular, for the assessment of creativity. Definitions of creativity are examined to identify key implications for supporting the development of children's creativity within the classroom. The implications of…

  4. Assessment methods as effective tools for learning outcomes of students in senior secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamidi W.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of assessment on the students learning outcomes in Agricultural Science at five different secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, Osun State were studied. An arm of a class was used for each test; Continuous Assessment (CA and Conventional Method (CM were used for each arm. Students were taught during their normal school times for the maximum time of forty minutes thrice a week. There were ten objective questions weekly for each assessment of the students in the CA method for six weeks. The same questions were used throughout for all the schools, done simultaneously for CA. Also, sixty questions at once at the end of the sixth week for CM. Standard deviation and regression equations for the mean values were used in the analysis. The results show that CA could be adjudged to be better off than the CM because of its higher mean values in all the schools than the CM. The higher R2 values of 0.99 and 0.88 revealed stronger correlation between different methods of assessment and the targeted learners. The CA test should be used instead of CM; the CM does not make learners to gain much cognitive knowledge when compare with what CA does to students.

  5. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

  6. An assessment of recent Iranian fertility trends using parity progression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2013 a draft population bill was introduced in the Iranian Parliament. Based on the presumption that fertility in Iran had fallen to a very low level, the bill proposed a wide range of pronatalist policies with the aim of increasing fertility to 2.5 births per woman. The draft law called for restrictions on the employment of women and young single people and inducements for women to marry in their late teens. New estimates of fertility, such as those provided in this paper, cast doubt upon the view that fertility had fallen to a very low level. In May 2014 a statement issued by the Supreme Leader provided guidelines for a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility at around the replacement level. Objective: To measure the trend in fertility in Iran, especially from 2000 onwards. Methods: Using the 2010 IDHS, the synthetic cohort parity progression ratio method is used to measure the fertility trend in Iran. Synthetic parity progressions are compared with real cohort parity progressions to examine the presence of tempo effects. Comparison is made with age-based measures from surveys, censuses, and the birth registration system. Results: This paper demonstrates that fertility in Iran was constant for the decade 2000-2009, at a level of around 1.8-2.0 births per woman. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence supporting a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility in Iran at around the replacement level. Comments: The paper demonstrates the advantages of parity-based measurement over age-based measurement when tempo effects may be involved.

  7. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  8. Research progress on assessment of reactor vessel integrity under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a representative method of reactor vessel integrity (RVI) under severe accident conditions, In-vessel retention of molten core debris (IVR) is an important severe accident management strategy employed in the AP1000 generation-3 Pressurized Water Reactor. In this paper, research progress on the test and theoretical analysis based on RVI is reviewed. Test facilities and techniques, as well as the modeling are summarized. In addition, tools for numerical simulation for RVI are evaluated. Finally, based on the applications in thermal hydraulic technology for the generation-3 Pressurized Water Reactor in China, the potential research direction of thermal-hydraulics under RVI conditions are discussed. (authors)

  9. A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework in the sense that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are. This paper aims to provide suggestions for improving the sustainability evaluation part of a sustainability assessment. In particular it will provide a comprehensive review of different sustainability evaluation tools (from a reductionist perspective) as well as the feasibility of incorporating them within a sustainability assessment framework. Reviewed tools include monetary tools, biophysical models and sustainability indicators/composite indices that have been developed within different disciplines such as economics, statistics, ecology, engineering and town planning

  10. Democracy in Nigeria: the challenge of infectious disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Anya,1 Chikwe Ihekweazu.2

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between democracy and health outcomes has been the focus of recent research interest [1,2]. With an estimated 140 million people, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. In May 2007, it marked eight years of unbroken civilian government, the longest period of civilian rule in its post-independence history with the noticeably peaceful handover of power from President Obasanjo to President Yar’adua. These eight years of relative peace and democratic governance in Nigeria have seen changes in the economy with steady growth, a large reduction in external debt, and structural reforms of the financial and telecommunications sectors. These changes, however, have had little impact on the lives of ordinary Nigerians [3]. In the health sector, progress has been slow and many challenges remain: from weak health systems to tackling HIV/AIDS; from improving immunization coverage (which in the past has impeded the global goal of eradicating polio to implementing the new International Health Regulations (IHR; from achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs to preparing for pandemic flu. We examine the progress made and challenges faced from an infectious diseases perspective in Nigeria over the past eight years.In northern Nigeria in 2003, concerns about vaccine safety, i.e. rumours that the polio vaccine caused sterility, led to a halt in polio immunization. This led to the resurgence of the disease in Nigeria, and the re-infection of several neighbouring countries, setting back the entire global eradication programme [4]. While the last two years have witnessed a renewed response with reinvigorated vaccination campaigns, the disease has persisted and Nigeria remains one of four countries in which the circulation of the wild poliovirus has never been interrupted, recording the highest number of confirmed polio cases in 2006 and 2007 [5]. Routine immunisations for other vaccine preventable diseases remain below 50% (most recent data 2005 [6]. Outbreaks of measles, for which a cheap, safe and easily administered vaccine has been available for two decades, continue to occur with unacceptable mortality rates [7].In February 2006, the first case of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in domestic birds in Africa was reported from a poultry farm in Nigeria [8]. The case took 5 weeks to be confirmed. Health officials were quickly overwhelmed by the challenge of culling thousands of chickens, responding too late and with too little as the disease spread. Each week brought new anxiety and weird responses [9]. The response to this outbreak provided a troubling illustration of what can happen when H5N1 hits a developing country with a weak health care system and limited capacity in infectious disease control.Nigeria has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world [10]. In 1999 the new civilian government set up a National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA charged with coordinating various activities related to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in the country. The committee has recently been transformed by legislative act into a statutory agency. The prevalence rate based on national sentinel surveys rose from 1.8 per cent in 1991 to 5.8 % in 2001 but in 2006 it was estimated at 3.9 per cent [11]. However, marked variation within the country persists with prevalence rates as high as 12 per cent in some states [12]. In 2005, the Nigerian government committed to universal provision of free antiretroviral therapy, the implementation of which has been largely funded by the Global Fund, PEPFAR [12] and the World Bank. While some progress has been made, with an estimated 92,000 people currently on treatment [12], poor management, shoddy coordination, and capacity issues have impeded further progress in this area.In Nigeria, there is no broad technical agency with the capacity for the surveillance and response to infectious disease. This responsibility lies with technocrats in the Ministry of Health. Most surveillance and response activities are managed via disease specific vertical programmes, with little coordination between them, leading to inefficient use of scarce human resources. The recent announcement that a National Disease Control and Prevention Centre (NDCPC is to be created out of the current Central Public Health Laboratory in Lagos [13] is a welcome development but the challenge will lie in its implementation.Nigeria must face up to the challenge of building the capacity to rapidly respond and manage infectious disease threats. The availability of several international funding sources and advances in technology have made infectious disease control activities significantly easier in recent times. However, accessing and optimizing the use of these resources requires bold, visionary and strategic leadership. The most recent Minister of Health ordered a rapid review of the health system and requested legislative review of how past donor funds have been expended [14]. The case for investing in health, not just as an altruistic service to a population but to promote economic development, has been elucidated by the World Health Organization’s report on Macroeconomics and Health [15]. Nigeria, with its huge population, cannot afford to neglect the health of its people as it seeks economic development in a stable democratic environment.

  11. NON-CANCER HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FROM EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Ayantobo; Awomeso, J. A.; G. O. Oluwasanya; B. S. Bada; TAIWO, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the Un...

  12. Using the Malcolm Baldrige "are we making progress" survey for organizational self-assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Judith A; Jennings, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    A national healthcare company applied the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and its "Are We Making Progress?" survey as an annual organizational self-assessment to identify areas for improvement. For 6 years, Liberty Healthcare Corporation reviewed the survey results on an annual basis to analyze positive and negative trends, monitor company progress toward targeted goals and develop new initiatives to address emerging areas for improvement. As such, the survey provided a simple and inexpensive methodology to gain useful information from employees at all levels and from multiple service sites and business sectors. In particular, it provided a valuable framework for assessing and improving the employees' commitment to the company's mission and values, high standards and ethics, quality of work, and customer satisfaction. The methodology also helped the company to incorporate the philosophy and principles of continuous quality improvement in a unified fashion. Corporate and local leadership used the same measure to evaluate the performance of individual programs relative to each other, to the company as a whole, and to the "best practices" standard of highly successful companies that received the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. PMID:22571768

  13. Ending Natural Gas Flaring in Nigeria’s Oil Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Idowu Ibitoye

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria has one of the largest ten natural gas reserves in the world and roughly 50% of the deposits are discovered in association with oil. Over the years most of the associated gas is flared, with the attendant damage to the environment and a huge economic loss. Several efforts have recently been made to curtail gas flaring, including the establishment of a liquefied natural gas plant, a pipeline to transport gas to some neighbouring countries, and legislative measures to regulate the oil a...

  14. Women migrants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1994-06-01

    The prevailing notion in Nigeria is that female migration is associational migration. This survey of the towns of Ibadan, Enugu, Lagos, and Kaduna examines the need for female paid employment and the reasons for migration based on marital status among 2316 migrant women with comparisons to 1363 nonmigrant women. A primary motivation for migration is dissatisfaction with living conditions. Families are support groups providing transportation and initial reinforcement for moves to urban areas. Remittances to families in the place of origin reinforce the investment. The expectation is that women will use migration as an option for advanced education, paid employment, and increased income. The survey found that only 8.2% of migrants made the decision to migrate alone. 82.7% make migration decisions jointly with family members: husbands, parents, and other relatives. Single women were more likely to make sole decisions or decisions with parents. 94% indicated family support for the decision to migrate. About 18% of single women paid the cost of transportation and the move themselves. 70% made the move in the company of parents and other relatives. Married women's costs were underwritten by husbands, except for 9.5% who paid for it themselves. 82.6% did not have a prearranged job before migrating. The average stay ranged from three months to several years. About 33% stayed less than a year. Most migrants with wage employment in the formal sector secured their positions with the help of relatives. 55.4% of migrants in the survey stayed with relatives on arrival, 8.6% were in rented units, and 2.5% stayed in employer housing. Slightly more than 50% of migrants staying with relatives and received free board. Female migration between 1971 and 1981 was influenced by modernization and greater advancement in education. Transportation and communication improvements made it easier to migrate. The economic recession and structural adjustment measures during the 1980s stimulated female migration as a means to secure family income. 16% of migrating women did so for human capital development. The decision to migrate was heavily influenced by dissatisfaction with present living conditions. PMID:12179892

  15. NON-CANCER HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FROM EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ayantobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s human health risk assessment guidelines. Simple random sampling was used to administer questionnaires to investigate demographic characteristics and public health status of residents. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA using SPSS for Windows version 16. Results indicated elevated levels of Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr, Copper (Cu, lead (Pb, Manganese (Mn, Nickel (Ni and Zinc (Zn ranging from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.60 and 1.80-29.90 mg L-1 respectively which exceeded national recommended limits with few exceptions. Hazard Quotients (HQ and Hazard Index (HI of heavy metals were calculated and results greater than 1 indicate non-carcinogenic adverse health effects of the observed metals. A daily intake of water by the local residents could pose a potential health threat from long-term heavy-metal exposure. The risk assessment provided by this study can be beneficially used and applied for risk communication to avoid negative public health impact. Similarly, Water Safety quality assurance strategic plan should be developed to safeguard source, water and public health within the mining community.

  16. The Global Sustainability Index: An Instrument For Assessing The Progress Towards The Sustainable Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    There is rarely an optimal solution in sustainable development but most frequently a need to build compromises between conflicting aspects such as economic, social and environmental ones and different expectations of stakeholders. Moreover, information is rarely available and precise. This paper will focus on how to use indicators to monitor sustainable development, integrating the information provided by many of them into a complex general sustainability index. Having this general indicator is essential for decision makers as it is very complicated to evaluate the performance of the organization based on multiple indicators. The objective of this paper is to find mathematical algorithms for simplifying the decision-making process by offering an instrument for the evaluation of the sustainability progress.

  17. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  18. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  19. Nigeria - Consultations for Improved Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1999-01-01

    The World Bank-assisted Nigeria Primary Education Project aims at assisting the Government of Nigeria to improve the quality of the subsector through the supply of instructional materials, upgrading of infrastructural facilities, enhancing teachers' competence, facilitating school management, inspection, planning and data gathering. This is being achieved by involving stakeholders at all l...

  20. E-waste in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dam, Peter Rosendahl; Kristensen, Mia; Hansen, Gustav Egede; Sørensen, Peter Christian Taro; Friis, Christian Grønberg

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the technological industry has undergone massive growth. Electrical and electronic equipment reaches obsolescence faster than ever before. If internationally accepted rules of safe processing are adhered to, recycling is not profitable. It is often exported and recycled primitively, a profitable and attractive occupation for the poor. However, primitive recycling is extremely harmful to the environment as well as the personal health of the recycler. Focusing on Nigeria, this p...