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Sample records for nigeria assessing progress

  1. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Nigeria in 2012. Areas with very high scores include th...

  2. Nigeria's environmental impact assessment laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency, NESREA, established in November, 2006 with the mission to ensure a cleaner and healthy environment for Nigerians and to inspire personal and collective responsibility in building an environmentally conscious society for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. Nigeria has put in place appropriate institutional mechanism including legal framework for environmental management in collaboration with NESREA to work closely with all stake holders to facilitate the EIA process in the nuclear industry in Nigeria and ensure that the Nigerian environment and its people benefit maximally from nuclear power generation development

  3. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2003-March 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-30

    Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, three World Health Organization (WHO) regions (Americas, Western Pacific, and European) have been certified polio-free, and the number of countries where polio is endemic has decreased from 125 in 1988 to six in 2003 (Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Niger, Nigeria, and Pakistan). In 2003, Nigeria, the most populous country of the African continent (2003 population projected from 1991 census report: 125 million), reported 355 wild poliovirus (WPV) cases, accounting for 45% of cases reported globally and >80% of cases reported from the African Region (AFR). This report summarizes progress toward polio eradication in Nigeria during January 2003-March 2004. The findings indicate the urgent need to implement high-quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Nigeria to interrupt ongoing WPV transmission. PMID:15123987

  4. The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olusegun Ayodele, Akanbi.

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The [...] study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to determine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

  5. Women in physics in Nigeria: Status, actions, and progress (2011-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka A.; Rabiu, Babatunde; Ogunjo, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    In Nigeria the number of women taking up a career in physics is increasing. The progress made by Nigerian women in physics is presented. The Nigerian Women in Physics working group continues to organize activities to encourage more girls and women into physics. One of such activity is the biannual conference of women in physics in Nigeria. Through this event, many Nigerian women in physics attend and a few women from educationally disadvantaged parts of Nigeria attend and present their research. In this report we present progress that has been made to bring in more women into physics in Nigeria.

  6. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi M. Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

  7. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria is the eighth world oil producer but is obliged to import motor fuel. Nigeria will be soon an important gas producer and its oil production could pass from 2.05 106 barrels a day today to 5 106 barrels in 2010 owing to the intense development of offshore exploration. France ranks fourth in the suppliers of Nigeria behind Usa, United-Kingdom and Germany. A total of 2.5 milliards of dollars have been invested in Nigerian Economy by French firms, 60% of this amount concerns the oil-gas sector. One year after the election of a new president, Nigeria has still difficulties to emerge from a tense social and economic situation but its future seems promising. (A.C.)

  8. Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and communications networks are an important part of the development. The US is involved in providing economic aid to Nigeria. At the present time, Nigeria is producing small arms and light armored vehicles and is attempting to increase both of those capabilities. Nigerian foreign policy has focused largely in Africa and is, to this end, very active in African organizations. It condemns apartheid and advocates the imposition of mandatory comprehensive economic sanctions against South Africa. Relations with the US are cordial; there is frequent travel between the 2 countries and there are currently between 15-20,000 Nigerians studying in the US. PMID:12177964

  9. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola; Adebiyi Kazeem Adekunle

    2015-01-01

    Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabi...

  10. Gender and Family Structure on Career Progression in Public Audit Firms in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ukuta Ayakiri Jeake; Appah Ebimobowei; Bariweni Binaebi

    2013-01-01

    Gender and family structure are important variables in the growth and promotion of auditors in public audit firms to be partners and managing partners. Therefore, this study examines the effect of gender and family structure on the career progression of individuals in public audit firms in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, relevant primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was collected from a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty three respondent...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  12. Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obe Bernardine Wuraola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

  13. Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Uzairu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations. The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations.

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth...

  15. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS INFLUENCING COSTING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    AKINYOMI Oladele John

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cost accounting information for decision making has been a fundamental issue in cost accounting for several years. However, only a small proportion of the previous studies were carried out in the developing countries. Thus, this study investigates the factors which influence costing system implementation in Nigeria. Adopting survey research design, the sample includes forty manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to financial managers, management accou...

  17. Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omalu ICJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaires disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled water became a major source of drinking water. Although, portable and affordable, the problems of its purity and other health concerns have begun to manifest. Sachet water have been reported to contain bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidia sp. Apart from environmental contaminants, improper storage and handling by vendors also poses a serious threat to the health of the ignorant consumers. This paper tends to review the quality of these pure water; its physical examination, microbial assessments, its impacts on health, and the various strategies adopted by the concerned authorities to regulate this thriving industry.

  18. Validation of Modified Soft Skills Assessment Instrument (MOSSAI) for Use in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworanti, O. A.; Taiwo, M. B.; Iluobe, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, it has become an accepted norm nearly all over the globe to teach and assess soft skills. However, in Nigeria, it is an emerging area of interest that needs to be addressed squarely. In the light of the fore-going, this study validated a modified version of Measuring and Assessment Soft Skills (MASS) (an instrument developed and used by…

  19. Nigeria: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation––Detailed Assessment of Observance of Insurance Core Principles

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria undertook a Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), which included a review of the structure of Nigeria’s insurance market and the supervisory framework. The assessment was benchmarked against the Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) issued by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAISs). It is advised that the National Insurance Commission (NAICOM) of Nigeria can expand the objective to include the creation of a fair, safe, and stable insurance sector for the bene...

  20. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  1. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes

  2. Assessment of Child Progress. Monograph Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Joan, Ed.

    Four author-contributed papers examine issues in assessing child progress in early childhood special education. D. Bricker and S. Gumerlock present "A Three-Level Strategy" which features analysis of daily or weekly progress, analysis of progress toward long- and short-term objectives, and analysis of progress toward program goals. C. Dunst…

  3. Employers Assessment of Work Ethics Required of University Business Education Graduates in South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the employers assessment of work ethics required of university Business Education graduates in south south Nigeria. One research question and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 318 identified employers of Business Education graduates in…

  4. Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - Crisis Management and Crisis Preparedness Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank, (WB)

    2013-01-01

    This note elaborates on the recommendations made in the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for Nigeria in the areas of contingency planning, crisis management, and bank resolution. It summarizes the findings of the FSAP mission undertaken during September 4 to 19, 2012 and is based upon analysis of the relevant legal and policy documents and extensive discussions with the authoriti...

  5. Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory framework for securities markets in Nigeria has improved markedly since the 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), and particularly in the last five years. Since the adoption of the Investments and Securities Act 2007 (ISA) and the first set of rules and regulations of the Nigerian Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the regulatory framework has been further ...

  6. Nigeria : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Main Text and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) for Nigeria reviews the procurement system in terms of: legal framework, public sector procurement of goods/works/consultants, procurement performance in Bank-financed projects, private sector procurement, trade practices, financial framework, and electronic commerce. The report consists of two volumes. The first volume contains a summary o...

  7. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  8. Gender and Family Structure on Career Progression in Public Audit Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukuta Ayakiri Jeake

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender and family structure are important variables in the growth and promotion of auditors in public audit firms to be partners and managing partners. Therefore, this study examines the effect of gender and family structure on the career progression of individuals in public audit firms in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, relevant primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was collected from a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty three respondents with an average reliability of 0.83 and the secondary data from published scholarly articles. The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using regression, t-test, granger causality test and diagnostic test. The statistical analysis reveals the linkage between gender and technical competence of auditors in public audit firms; family structure and productivity of auditors in public audit firms; family structure and dedication to duty of auditors in public audit firms and the difference between male and female on the career progression in public audit practice. On the basis of the empirical result, the study concludes that gender of an individual does not affect the technical competence of auditors, but rather what is important is the level of education and experience of the auditor; family structure affects the productivity of auditors. This is particularly in respect to women that are married; family structure affects the dedication of auditors in public audit firms and there are differences between the growth and promotion of male or female in public audit firms. On the basis of the conclusion, useful recommendations were presented to improve the role of gender and family structure on career progression in public audit firms.

  9. PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF LANDFILL GENERATED LEACHATES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher N Akujieze; Imoukhuede Moses IDEHAI

    2014-01-01

    About 3.5 million tonnes of comingled municipal solid wastes (MSW) are dumped annually into the landfill areas of Lagos in Nigeria with a human population of about 21 million. Upon geo-bio-chemical processes, leachates are produced which are improperly collected and may be introduced to the environment with possible insidious effects on human health. Eight (8) composite leachates samples were collected from four (4) landfills in the megacity and tested for their physiochemical parameters in o...

  10. Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Omalu ICJ; Eze GC; Olayemi IK; Gbesi S; Adeniran LA; Ayanwale AV; Mohammed AZ; Chukwuemeka V

    2011-01-01

    Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaires disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled wate...

  11. Piloting Laboratory Quality System Management in Six Health Facilities in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, Henry; Ojo, Emmanuel; Ameh, James; Musuluma, Humphrey; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Jegede, Feyisayo; Ojo, Olufunmilayo; Uwakwe, Nkem; Ochei, Kingsley; Dada, Michael; Udah, Donald; Chiegil, Robert; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Background Achieving accreditation in laboratories is a challenge in Nigeria like in most African countries. Nigeria adopted the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (WHO/AFRO– SLIPTA) in 2010. We report on FHI360 effort and progress in piloting WHO-AFRO recognition and accreditation preparedness in six health facility laboratories in five different states of Nigeria. Method Laboratory assessments were con...

  12. Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: ?The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. ?Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Government's plans. ?These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. ?The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. ?Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

  13. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye; Jibiri, Nnamdi N.; Adebowale A Olomide

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurem...

  14. The Health Profile and Impact Assessment of Waste Scavengers (Rag Pickers) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    C.K. Wachukwu; C.A. Mbata; C.U. Nyenke

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the health profile and impact assessment of waste scavengers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To isolate and identify the potential pathogens that degrade the waste, samples were collected from 7 dumpsites and one control site. Serial dilutions of the samples were carried out and aliquots (0.1 mL) of the diluted samples were inoculated into appropriate media. Similarly, blood, stool, urine and nasal swabs were collected from 80 waste scavengers and 20 co...

  15. Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ugumanim Bassey Obo; Felix Onen Eteng; Maurice Ayodele Coker

    2014-01-01

    The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, i...

  16. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globa...

  17. Socio-economic assessment of farmers’ participation in agroforestry system in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewole S. O.; Dahunsi O. M.; Akintola A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed factors influencing the participation of farmers in agroforestry system in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 157 sampled farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression model. The findings of the study revealed that the farmers were still in their agricultural active age group with average age of 46 years. Majority (42.7%) of the respondents had tertiary education. The average land size c...

  18. Assessment of Loiasis and Outcomes of Ivermectin Masstreatment in Ijebu-North, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.A.Hassan; Akinsanya, B.; Iyase, N.; Owagboriaye, F. O.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 286 individuals from 3 selected communities (Areedi-Aje, Ipakodo/Ojokodo, and Ijebu-Igbo) of Ijebu-North, southwestern Nigeria were examined for Loa loa microfilaremia using finger prick blood smear, between December 2008 and March 2009. Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to obtain information, from 187 Ijebu-Igbo residents, on adverse reactions experienced from retrospective treatments with ivermectin and history of eye worm. Only 33.9% of the respondents rep...

  19. Assessing the Socioeconomic Impacts Arising from Oil Pollutions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria – Environmental Law and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nwoko, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic impacts arising from the oil pollutions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, including a possible solution. Nigeria is a developing country with inherent government failures in legal enforcement, and petroleum companies are unable to comply with pertinent petroleum-related legislation. The study target oil spillage and gas flaring as the principal petroleum-related pollutions, and conducts a field study to determine the pollution impacts ...

  20. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

  1. An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanyes The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Ntiwunka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This article assessed the relevance of Adekanyes book titled The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.

    Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political development

    Rsum Cet article a valu la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitul Le militaire la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance mergente au Nigeria pour le Nigria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examin le pouvoir et linfluence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de lconomie en raison de leur richesse,lex-militaire de connexion, la comptence, le prestige et lexprience. Il pose en principe que les retraits militaires sont regroups en deux catgories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retrait militaire a t en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraits se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de lactivit humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scne politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle lite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considrable dans la prise de dcision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothses taient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraits militaires ont merg depuis 1999 que llite dirigeante et mme si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure dtermine qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples Parti dmocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont t fortement influencs par ces riches et influents officiers la retraite qui, tout prix veiller ce que leurs candidats remporter les lections. Avec la nomination dun nouveau prsident CENI, la rvision de la loi lectorale, et la campagne pour llection libre et quitable, il est estim que dun nouvel ensemble de llite mergera qui va rveiller le dveloppement politique au Nigeria.

    Mots cls: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire la retraire comme puissance mergente au Nigeria; dveloppement politique

  2. Promotion of Non-Oil Export in Nigeria: Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.R. Efobi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF was established in 1977 with the aim of enhancing commercial banks’ loans to the agricultural sector in Nigeria with focus on agro-allied and agricultural production. Many years down the line, the country has witnessed poor participation in the international market with regards to non-oil export. The above stance was assessed with a view to establishing interaction between ACGSF and non-oil export using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR technique. The study found, among others, that there exist a long-run relationship between the ACGSF and export, but the magnitude is minimal. It was therefore recommended, inter alia, that adequate infrastructural and storage facilities, which increase the shelf-life of agricultural outputs are needed to improve non-oil exports in Nigeria.

  3. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  4. Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Ogunsumi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

  5. Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis

  6. Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Longe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration values for TDS, DO,NH4+, SO4+, PO4+, NO3G and ClG are 9.17 mg LG1, 3.19 mg LG1, 0.22 mg LG1, 1.60 mg LG1, 10.73 mg LG1, 38.5mg LG1 and 7.80 mg LG1 respectively. The mean concentration values for Fe, Mn, Zn and Cr- in groundwatersamples are 0.07mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1 and 0.44mg LG1 respectively. The current results showinsignificant impact of the landfill operations on the groundwater resource. The existing soil stratigraphy atthe landfill site consisting of clay and silty clay is deduced to have significantly influenced natural attenuationof leachate into the groundwater resource. It is however observed that in the absence of a properly designedleachate collection system, uncontrolled accumulation of leachates at the base of the landfill pose potentialcontamination risk to groundwater resource in the very near future. The research recommends an upgrade ofthe solous landfill to a standard that would guarantee adequate protection of both the surface and thegroundwater resources in the locality.

  7. PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF LANDFILL GENERATED LEACHATES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Akujieze

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available About 3.5 million tonnes of comingled municipal solid wastes (MSW are dumped annually into the landfill areas of Lagos in Nigeria with a human population of about 21 million. Upon geo-bio-chemical processes, leachates are produced which are improperly collected and may be introduced to the environment with possible insidious effects on human health. Eight (8 composite leachates samples were collected from four (4 landfills in the megacity and tested for their physiochemical parameters in order to determine their suitability for discharge into agricultural soils and groundwater systems. Geological site investigation reveal that the landfills except Epe have significant attenuative clayey soil protection above groundwater, and can adsorb and/ or precipitate contaminants/ pollutants within its mass. Using ANOVA, juxtapositions of the Fcalculated with the Fcritical valuesrevealed a metal sequence of : Hg > Zn >As >Mn >Ni >K >Pb >Cr>Cd>Fe. Also, total alkalinity> total hardness> total acidity. All the measured anions had Fcalculated above Fcritical values and were in the hierarchy : Chloride> sulphate> phosphate>nitrate.. Mean concentrations were in the order : Fe>Cd>Cr>Pb>K>Ni=Mn>As>Zn>Hg. Fe also posted the highest value for standard deviation. Results of the ratios of the standard deviation to the means were in the sequence: Fe> Zn>K> Ni > Mn>Pb> Cr> Cd> Hg> As. The presence of arsenic above prescribed limits in the Epe leachate is a major concern because the lithology is sandy, and has a reported depth of about 3m to the unconfined aquifer that adjoins the Epe Lagoon. This expansive landfill is recommended for closure.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Benedict Taiwo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty water samples were obtained in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria in order to determine the groundwater quality in the area. Thirteen samples were obtained from hand-dug wells, two samples were obtained from a spring while the remaining five samples were collected from boreholes. These samples were subjected to both physical and chemical analyses with a view to comparing the results obtained with the World Health Organizations (WHO standard for quality drinking water. The results of the physical parameters measured shows that the colour ranges from 5H to 50H, turbidity ranges from 2NTU to 40NTU and the electrical conductivity ranges from 2.2102 mho/cm to 1.4103 mho/cm. Chemical analysis results on the other hand show that all the samples have pH within the weakly acidic range except for sample HDW 3 that falls within the weakly alkaline range. Furthermore, the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS range from 154 to 980 mg/L while the Total Hardness of the water samples range from 24 to 280 mg/L. Ionic studies show that the Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Mg2+ occur in order of decreasing abundance in the samples with the concentrations ranging from 10 to 160 mg/L, 20 to 90 mg/L, 10 to 90 mg/L and 14 to 150 mg/L, respectively. The anions present in the water samples in order of decreasing abundance are HCO3-, Cl-, SO2-4 and NO-3 with their concentrations ranging from 44 to 292 mg/L, 10 to 77 mg/L, 0.01 to 50 mg/L and 0.01 to 4.0 mg/L, respectively. It has been shown that anthropogenic inputs can continually ruin the suitability of the water for safe drinking purpose. Therefore, the ability to quickly control the anthropogenic inputs to the groundwater system in Akungba Akoko area will assist in keeping the quality of groundwater in Akungba Akoko to be maintained.

  9. Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3-84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

  10. Multi-Dimensional Approach to Environmental Quality Assessment of life Central Local Government Area in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality of water samples from various sources in Ife Central Local Government Area in Nigeria has been assessed using standard analytical techniques. 300 water samples of 2 litres each were collected. Some were analysed for trace elements using AAS, nitrate using UV Spectrometry and bacteriological content. The specific radioactivity of 100 soil samples were determined using a Gamma Spectrometer. Most of the sources of drinking water were polluted. Iron contents were found to be very high in most of the samples. In general, radioactivity levels from natural and artificial are relatively low in soil samples except at three sample sites

  11. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  12. Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended

  13. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

  14. Elusive Justice? An Assessment of Child Justice in the Tripartite Court System in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode OGUNNIRAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are three courts with different theoretical underpinning administering child justice in Nigeria. The Juvenile Court is premised on the rehabilitative ideal but researches have shown that the apparatus to fulfill this ideal is non-existent. The Sharia Court composition is radically different and the procedure used in such courts follow strict Islamic legal precepts. Invariably, child offenders are not given adequate protection guaranteeing justice. Prior Work: This article assesses child justice in these courts to determine the extent of protection of child offenders. They are young, immature and very vulnerable. Over the years, various studies have demonstrated the need for change in the above courts. Value: Based on law, the article examines the provisions creating the new Family Courts. These provisions accord with international juvenile justice standards established to grant justice to such offenders. The Family Court, just as it is being used for several purposes in other jurisdictions, is a recent development in Nigeria. Implications: This article assesses the structure and procedure of this new court and proposes it as being best suited for child offenders.

  15. Assessment of wind energy potential of two sites in North-East, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagbenle, R.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Katende, J. [Electrical and Information Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Ajayi, O.O.; Okeniyi, J.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2011-04-15

    The study is used to assess the wind energy potential of Maiduguri and Potiskum, two sites in North-East, Nigeria. 21 years (1987-2007) monthly mean wind data at 10 m height were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological department and subjected to 2-parameter Weibull and other statistical analyzes. The result showed that average monthly mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 3.90 to 5.85 m/s, while for Maiduguri, it ranged from 4.35 to 6.33 m/s. Seasonally, data variation between the dry and wet seasons revealed that, the mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 4.46 (for dry) to 5.16 m/s (for wet), while for Maiduguri it ranged from 5.10 (dry) to 5.59 m/s (wet). The wind power density variation based on the Weibull analysis ranged from 102.54 to 300.15 W/m{sup 2} for Potiskum and it ranged from 114.77 to 360.04 W/m{sup 2} for Maiduguri respectively. Moreover, Maiduguri was found to be the better of the sites in terms of monthly and seasonal variation of mean wind speed, but they both can be suitable for stand alone and medium scale wind power generation. (author)

  16. Assessing E-Government Implementation in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Wole Michael Olatokun; Busola M. Adebayo

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed e-Government adoption in Ekiti state government ministries, agencies and departments. It determined the availability of e-Government resources and infrastructure, the stage of e-government implementation and the challenges. Gartners four phase of e-Government model was used for analysis. Social sur vey design approach was adopted. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire administered to the Director of IT and administration in the 29 ministries, agencies ...

  17. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  18. An expost economic assessment of the intervention against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadou L. Fadiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the intervention against avian influenza in Nigeria. It applied a simple compartmental model to define endemic and burn-out scenarios for the risk of spread of HPAI in Nigeria. It followed with the derivation of low and high mortality risks associated to each scenario. The estimated risk parameters were subsequently used to stochastically simulate the trajectory of the disease, had no intervention been carried out. Overall, the intervention costs US$ 41 million, which was yearly dis- bursed in various amounts over the 2006-2010 period. The key output variables (incremental net benefit, disease cost, and benefit cost ratio were estimated for each randomly drawn risk parameter. With a 12% annual discount rate, the results show that the intervention was economically justified under the endemic scenario with high mortality risk. On average, incremental benefit under this scenario amounted to US$ 63.7 million, incremental net benefit to US$27.2 million, and benefit cost ratio estimated to 1.75.

  19. An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effects of SAP on poultry production in Nigeria between 1985 - 1990. It was observed that the Structural Adjustment Programme has had tremendous effects on poultry industry in Nigeria. The farmers have not adjusted favourably to the effect of SAP with 75 % of them operating between 20 - 50 % and 19 % below 20 % of production capacity. Currently the industry is being operated below 30 % mainly due to the high cost of chicks and inputs some of which have risen to over 1000 %. Productivity of the birds has also been affected with about 30 % reduction in the number of eggs laid per bird per year. Age at maturity has also increased to about 30 % among broilers. Farmers found it difficult to buy feed and drug resulting in increased mortality of about 80 % among broilers. The rise in the prices of product of about 500 % does not match the increase cost of production. Recommendations are therefore made to help stabilise the poultry industry.

  20. Impact Assessment of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edirin Jeroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an impact assessment of the consolidation exercise on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. While prior studies focused on the financial performance of banks (with emphasis on profitability, the main thrust of this study was on how the consolidation exercise had affected different areas of commercial banks in Nigeria other than profitability. Secondary data were sourced from the annual accounts and statistical bulletins of the CBN and SEC respectively for the relevant years. The data obtained were analysed by means of sensitivity analysis, in addition to the correlation and regression analyses. The results obtained show that the consolidation exercise had positive impact on the selected variables (Non Performing Loans, Liquidity Ratio, Bank Credit to Private Sector and Bank Capital To Asset Ratio for this study. Based on the above findings, we recommend among others that while efforts are made by the CBN to sustain the increased capital base of banks, a very sound corporate governance framework and effective risk management systems must be put in place to check the level of non-performing loans which seem to be predominant in the industry. The quality of bank credit to private sector and their recovery procedures should also be improved upon.

  1. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

  2. Assessment of the Impact of Extension Services on Fish Farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the impact of access to extension services on fish farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio economic characteristics of fish farmers, information disseminated to fish farmers, attributes of extension agents, and farmers access to extension services and farmers profitability. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the farmers and a sample size of 90 fish farmers was selected from the six local government selected. Analysis of data was carried out using frequency and percentage tables and Gross Margin analysis was used to determine the profitability of the farmers. There was relationship between farmers access to extension services and their profitability. It was recommended that extension agents should intensify their efforts in reaching farmers and passing useful information to them in order to increase farmers profitability.

  3. Assessment of loiasis and outcomes of ivermectin masstreatment in Ijebu-North, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A A; Akinsanya, B; Iyase, N; Owagboriaye, F O

    2011-06-01

    A total of 286 individuals from 3 selected communities (Areedi-Aje, Ipakodo/Ojokodo, and Ijebu-Igbo) of Ijebu-North, southwestern Nigeria were examined for Loa loa microfilaremia using finger prick blood smear, between December 2008 and March 2009. Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to obtain information, from 187 Ijebu-Igbo residents, on adverse reactions experienced from retrospective treatments with ivermectin and history of eye worm. Only 33.9% of the respondents reported having had a history of eye worm while 33.2% had microfilaremia. The demographic factor of gender was not significant determinants of the prevalence (P>0.05) while age was significant (P0.05) adverse reactions from 187 subjects involved in the retrospective ivermectin administration confirmed that ivermectin delivery may be considered safe. The community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) programme was most probably responsible for the low prevalence and intensity. PMID:21738271

  4. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Mdecins Sans Frontires discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  5. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  6. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health of journalists in South-South, Nigeria

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    Ofili A.N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in Benin city, the capital of Edo state in Nigeria. Three hundred and twenty consenting journalists from 5 media corporations in the city were interviewed using structured pre-tested questionnaires. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results: Eight (2.5% respondents had no job stress, 124 (38.8 % had mild job stress with 166 (51.9 % having moderate job stress and 22 (6.95% having high job stress. Job title [OR 2.99; p = 0.00, 95% CI (1.31, 6.84], and gender [ OR 0.11, p = 0.02; 95% CI (0.02, 0.68] were significantly associated with the experience of job stress. One hundred and ninety four (60.6% respondents expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs. Respondents who had been in employment for < 15 years and those who experienced high job stress, 22 (6.95% were significantly (P< 0.00 respectively more dissatisfied than others. Psychological morbidity was present in 44 (13.8% respondents, with job title as the only single predictor of psychological morbidity [odds ratio 0.57, 95% CI (0.42 – 0.78, P= 0.00]. Conclusion: Management of media organisations in the state should put in place interventions to reduce identified stressors in the work environment targeted at identified high risk groups.

  7. Ophthalmic Research Priorities and Practices in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Views of Nigerian Ophthalmologists

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulraheem O Mahmoud; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A.; Abdu Lawal; Omolase, Charles O.; Yinka Ologunsua; Elsie Samaila

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : To study the views of ophthalmologists on research priorities and outcomes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : A structured questionnaire was distributed to 120 ophthalmologists and ophthalmic residents who were attending an annual congress in Nigeria. The participants′ background information, relative research priorities, frequency of publications, research types, publication media, challenges faced in publishing and impact on health practice or policy were collected. Resul...

  8. Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    James Okoro

    2013-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the study...

  9. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeed...

  10. Assessment of the impact of oil and gas resource exploration on the environment of selected communities in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omorede, Christiana Kayinwaye

    2014-01-01

    This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growt...

  11. The Relevance of Feasibility study in Assessing the Economic Viability of Dried-sachet Tomato Production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Haruna, A. S.; Mohammed, K; Adebayo, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study, the relevance of feasibility study in assessing the economic viability of dried-sachet tomato production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria is carried out using the survey research design. The aim is to find out whether dried-sachet tomato production can be done, profitably and successfully in Kano metropolis. Focus group discussion is used to select some dealers on dried sachet tomato production to determine the viability of tomato business in the study area. Data presentation and...

  12. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N; Olomide, Adebowale A

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions. PMID:26150688

  13. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  14. Radiological safety assessment of surface-water dam sediments used as building material in southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples collected from surface-water dams in five southwestern states of Nigeria with the aim of estimating the background radiation levels and assessing the radiological hazards associated with the use of sediments in building construction. The weighted mean concentration of 40K varied from 199.1 to 796.7 Bq kg-1, whereas that of 238U varied from 22.6 to 27.6 Bq kg-1 and that of 232Th varied from 36.4 to 76.1 Bq kg-1 in the five states where samples were collected. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities, internal and external indices, and effective dose rates in indoor air. The values obtained are lower than internationally recommended limits for building materials. The results indicate an acceptably low radiological risk arising from the use of the sediments in the construction of buildings.

  15. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N.; Olomide, Adebowale A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions. PMID:26150688

  16. Assessment of Utilization of Internet Facilities Among Pre-Service Teachers in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeronke Olufunmilola OGUNLADE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Internet can further equip teachers by providing them with the latest information on their discipline. The purpose of technology in teacher training is to provide pre-service teachers with the capability of integrating computer technologies into curriculum and instructional activities.This study therefore assessed the internet facilities among pre-service teachers in the University of Ilorin in Nigeria. The use of internet facilities based on gender was also examined. The instrument used was a questionnaire. All pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin were the population for the study. Some 150 students in 400 level were randomly sampled (89 males, 61 females. Frequency counts and percentage were used to answer three research questions while the independent t-test statistic was used to test the hypothesis. The results show that: 80% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward the use of internet facilities, 62% agreed that males were more internet literate; and there was no significant difference between male and female in the use of internet facilities. Based on the findings, it was recommended that training should be emphasized for pre-service teachers, female pre-service teachers should be encouraged to be part of change and pre-service teachers should learn to balance their time.

  17. Assessment of Risk in the Internally Generated Revenue (IGR Structure of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philips O.O. Nto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed risk in the Internally Generated Revenue structure of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives included (I estimation of factors and significant input variables influencing risk in IGR structure of the State and (II examination of risk reducing practices. Data which were collected from 50 management staffs of revenue yielding Ministries, departments and agencies in Abia State were analysed with factor analysis, Tobit regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The results of the factor analysis grouped the significant input variables which scored 0.33 and above into institutional and non-institutional sources of risk while that of Tobit regression analysis revealed that significant variables which cause variation between expected and realised IGR of the State are lack of database; mismanagement of fund by government; delay in payment of revenue by tax payers; difficulty in tracking tax evaders; and weak internal control mechanism. The results point to the fact that policy on tax identification number (TIN should be strengthened and linked to the bank account of the tax payer so that relevant revenues are deducted at source.

  18. Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria

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    M. A. Nwachokor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the fertility constraints identified were low effective cation exchange capacity and soil acidification. In addition, the clayey texture of the subsoil made these soils susceptible to erosion as well as caused harvesting difficulties. Liming was recommended to ameliorate the acidity constraints. Liming together with incorporation of organic materials into the soils were the measures needed to enhance their effective cation exchange capacity. Soil erosion control was to be given high priority especially by maintaining adequate surface cover and ensuring that tillage was limited to only when soil was drier than the plastic limit.

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, I M; Adetunji, M T; Gbadebo, A M; Banjoko, O P

    2007-12-01

    In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand - dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended. PMID:18180542

  20. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

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    Ofide Blessing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only receive top management attention when there is a problem. Hence, the paper assessed the building maintenance management practices of 6 higher institutions available (2 universities, 2 polytechnics and 2 colleges of education in Niger State. This was done by interviewing the Directors of Works of the 6 institutions using a structured interview method. The study revealed that there was no maintenance manual in any of the Works Department of the higher education institution, no user satisfaction survey has ever been conducted and none of the institutions had a computerised maintenance management system (CMMS in place. In addition to these, corrective maintenance was mostly adopted and there was inadequate staffing of the field operatives. All these shortcomings might be responsible for the backlog of maintenance work experienced in the institutions studied. A proactive maintenance system should be put in place, CMMS should be adopted to enhance effective maintenance work, and top management should be enlightened on the imperative of maintenance among other issues competing for funds within the institutions and be more flexible in allocation of resources to enhance maintenance works.

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  2. Socio-economic assessment of farmers’ participation in agroforestry system in Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    Oyewole S. O.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed factors influencing the participation of farmers in agroforestry system in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 157 sampled farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression model. The findings of the study revealed that the farmers were still in their agricultural active age group with average age of 46 years. Majority (42.7% of the respondents had tertiary education. The average land size cultivated by the farmer was 4.97 hectares. The results of farmers’ participation in agroforestry showed that more than half (52% of the farmers always practice agro-forestry system. The average score (2.34 obtained from Likert scale indicates that sampled farmers in the study area are practicing agroforestry system of farming. The socio-economic and institutional variables influencing rate of participation in agroforestry system were: level of education, size of farmland, membership of association, farming experience and extension contact. The study recommends that government should review the Land Act Decree and pay attention on land consolidation program in order to reduce land scarcity and fragmentation of farm holdings. This is because agroforestry farming requires large area of land.

  3. Challenges of trachoma control: An assessment of the situation in Northern Nigeria

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    Mansur M Rabiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, a lot has been achieved in the control of trachoma worldwide. New assessment techniques, effective evidence-based control strategy with new methods and drugs, and an aggressive global partnership for the control of the disease have evolved. As such the number of people with the disease and blindness due to the disease had drastically reduced. Trachoma is now only responsible for about 4% of blindness worldwide down from 12% some few decades ago. Some countries are on the verge of eliminating the disease as a public health problem. Despite these achievements numerous challenges remain for achieving trachoma control in endemic communities. This article highlights the challenges faced in one of the known trachoma endemic areas - northern Nigeria. Aspects on the dearth of complete situational data on trachoma, fragmented implementation of the SAFE strategy, community apathy, difficulties faced in ensuring safe, and quality lid surgery in the most difficult terrain where the disease thrives are discussed here. Other unique challenges like managing children with severe trichiasis, curbing the high rate of early-onset recurrence of trichiasis after lid rotation surgery and challenges to maintain supply of antibiotics and implementation of facial cleanliness and environmental improvement components of the control strategy are presented along with the learnt experiences and recommendations. These challenges and their remedies are likely to be shared by other trachoma endemic areas in Africa.

  4. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MANAGERS OF TECHNICAL COLLEGE WORKSHOPS: A CASE OF NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

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    Ibrahim Yakubu Umar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effectiveness of managers of technical college workshops from the perspective of stakeholders in North Central Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was employed. Three research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A 35-item questionnaire developed by the researchers and validated by three experts was used to collect data from 101 administrators, 140 teachers, and 24 workshop personnel randomly sampled and stratified along trades in technical colleges. Mean was employed to answer the research questions while one way analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to test the hypotheses using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for data analysis. Result revealed that respondent shared similar opinions on the management of technical college workshops. It was therefore recommended that: The managers of the workshops should use alternative approaches in the management of workshop instead of waiting for government to provide everything; maintenance of tools should be a regular practice in the workshops; administrators should recommend teachers and workshop personnel to attend seminars regularly in order to update their knowledge on current practices in the management of technical college workshops among others.

  5. Radiological assessment of sediment samples from Oporoma oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out on sediment samples collected from an oil producing field in Oporoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, using HPGe detector with the aim of assessing radiological exposure and doses to workers and general public. The activity concentration of 40K varied from (58.214.95 - 127.0710.90) Bq/kg whereas that of 238U varied from (5.670.72 - 26.462.21) Bq/kg and that of 232Th varied from (5.880.61 - 68.515.10) Bq/kg. The radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from radium equivalent activities which ranges between (22.68 - 133.64) Bq/kg, internal and external indices ranges from (0.08 - 0.43) Bq/kg and (0.06 - 0.36) Bq/kg respectively, and effective dose rate from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides (40K, 238Uand 232Th ) ranges from (0.01 - 0.38) mSv/y. The values obtained are lower than the internationally recommended limits. The values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the communities within this environment.

  6. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Selected Inland Valley Agro-ecosystems for Irrigation in Southwest Nigeria

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    Olatunji S Aboyeji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the quality of groundwater of 6 inland valley (IV agro-ecosystems with a view to establishing their characteristics for cropping in the derived savannah of southwest Nigeria. Water samples were collected in piezometers during the rainy and dry seasons and analysed for physicochemical and heavy metal properties. Major water quality indices and comparison with stipulated standards were used to determine the usability of the waters for irrigation. The study showed that the waters were generally neutral to slightly alkaline, with the dominance structure of the major cations and anions in the order of Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > CO3. The concentration of heavy metals was generally within the recommended limits for most crops grown in the study area. Major water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids, permeability index, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s ratio and residual sodium bicarbonate are generally within the levels acceptable for crop irrigation. Kruskal-Wallis H test (two-tailed showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the water quality parameters/indices between the inland valley sites, P = 0.935. The groundwater of inland valley agro-ecosystems of the study area is generally suitable for agricultural utilisation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.2.10802

  7. Assessment of Adoption Status of Management Practices for West African Dwarf Goat Production in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Odeyinka, SM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Obafemi Awolowo University Rural Development Project communities in Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the adoption status of West African Dwarf Goat (WADG management practices among the seventy (70 project participants purposively considered for the study. A structured interview was used to elicit quantitative data which was subjected to descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were also collected using focus group discussion (FGD, key informants interviews and onthe- spot assessment, which were conducted in seven rural communities. The study revealed, among others, that the farmers adopted the WADG management practices introduced to them at one point in time or the other during the project implementation, from which they derived a lot of socio-economic benefits. However, over 50 percent of the participants were no more involved in goat rearing since the project has stopped. Reasons attributed to this vary from community to community. Management practices like regular feeding (cut and carry system and washing were claimed to be labour intensive and a little bit difficult. All (100% respondents overwhelmingly expressed their desire for continuation and sustainability of the services provided by the project.

  8. Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment

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    Mohammed Sirajo Aminu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.712.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4?0were females; while of the 20 controls,50?0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4?20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05?20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31?20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

  9. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  10. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

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    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  11. Assessment of the Concentration of Carbon Monoxide in Ambient Air Environment of Abakaliki Urban Area, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Ehiri; I.I. Ikelle

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a well known gaseous atmospheric pollutant. In this study the baseline concentration of CO in the ambient air environment of Abakaliki Urban Area, Nigeria was estimated using digital CO gas monitor. Ten sites were monitored for their CO levels and the data collected were statistically analyzed. Results show that the mean concentration of ambient CO in Abakaliki Urban Area, Nigeria was 1.01 ± 0.30 ppm. The range was 0.160 – 2.60 ppm. Vanco Junction site ...

  12. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  13. The Health Profile and Impact Assessment of Waste Scavengers (Rag Pickers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    C.K. Wachukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the health profile and impact assessment of waste scavengers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To isolate and identify the potential pathogens that degrade the waste, samples were collected from 7 dumpsites and one control site. Serial dilutions of the samples were carried out and aliquots (0.1 mL of the diluted samples were inoculated into appropriate media. Similarly, blood, stool, urine and nasal swabs were collected from 80 waste scavengers and 20 control subjects. The blood samples were used for the determination of haematological parameters and widal test, while urine, stool and nasal swabs were used for microbiological analysis. Five genera of bacteria were isolated from the waste dumpsites, which include Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. while the control sites showed growth of Bacillus sp., only. The culture result from waste scavengers also showed similar organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Salmonella sp. There was significant decrease in the haemoglobin levels, haematocrit and Neutrophil counts of rag pickers as compared with the control subjects (p-1, HCT 36.33±16.7% and Neutrophil 33.33±14.06%, while control subjects were Hb 14.48±04 g dL-1, HCT 42.66±9.47% and Neutrophil 56.55±16.83%. The AST for waste scavengers was slightly increased, while the other LFT values were decreased compared to the control subjects. It can be inferred that waste scavengers serve as vehicles for the transmission of certain pathogens that degrade waste, thereby, constituting some public health hazards.

  14. Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale in Kano, Nigeria

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    Abiola Tajudeen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resilience seemed to lie at the core of the recent promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. This concept has been well studied in western countries and less in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. The aim of the study is therefore, to demonstrate the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Resilience Scale (RS and its 14-item short version (RS-14 in a Nigerian sample. Results The RS, RS-14, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS and two screening questions on experience of recent and upcoming distress were administered to 70 clinical students who consented to participate after a major professional examination. Internal consistency and convergent validity were assessed. The participants mean age was 22.50 years (SD = 0.60. The mean score of RS and RS-14 were 130.23 (SD = 17.08 and 74.17 (SD = 10.14 respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the RS was 0.87 and that of the RS-14 was 0.81. The mean RS score by gender was 132.04 (SD = 19.08 and 126.52 (SD = 11.50 for males and females respectively and the difference was significant (t = 2.50; p = 0.012. The correlation of RS with RS-14 (r = 0.97; p = 0.000, the HADS depression (r = -0.28; p = 0.017 and anxiety (r = -0.26; p = 0.028 subscales, were significant. The corresponding t-test values for the means of RS and RS-14 scores for both cases and non-cases as determined by HADS, were significant at p Conclusions The study confirms that the RS and RS-14 may be potentially useful instruments to measure resilience in Nigerians.

  15. Geochemical Assessment of Source Rock Qualities Penetrated by Nasara-1 Well (Gongola Basin), Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasara-1 is one in a set of 3 exploratory wells drilled in the ] Gongola basin of the upper Benue trough in Nigeria. Nasara-1 well was dry. Organic geochemical studies have been carried out to assess the qualities of source rocks penetrated by the well. The well penetrated entirely Cretaceous sequences of the Pindiga, Yolde and probably Bima formations. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents are generally very low, with none of the values in the siliciclastic sequences exceeding 1.0w%. About 50% of all TOC values lie between 0.50 -0.87wt%. Hydrogen indices (His) correlated against Tmax indicate source qualities that are of entirely gas-generative potential. However, at depths of between 4710- 4770 ft, TOC values of between 55.10 and 55.20wt% characteristic of coals have been recorded; with His of between 564 -589 mgHC/gTOC and Tmax of 423 -4280C. This is the first report of coal deposition in either the Pindiga, Yolde or Bima Formation. Extract yields (SOM) gave values of 360 -447mgHC/gTOC. Petrographic studies on the samples from this interval reported macerals of the amorphous bituminite group, indicating that the very high His and SOM resulted from migration of oil from probably deeper or laterally located yet to be identified source rocks. The total ion chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the extracts from this interval (4710 -4770ft) show some ramping of unresolved complex mixtures, attributable to biodegradation. Further biomarker data indicate a dominance of low molecular weight n-alkanes (C15 - C25)' pristane/phytane ratios of bewteen 0.8 tp 1.3 and very high contents of C28 regular steranes. These attributes indicate that the source Irock that generated the migrated oil was deposited in a lacustrine environment (C28) with high algal-bacterial contents, whose generated hydrocarbons have been intermittently subjected to anoxic to suboxic biodegradation processes

  16. Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economy is largely dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel supply shortages. In response to the transportation fuel supply difficulties in Nigeria, the country released the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives in 2007 to create favorable investment climate for the entrance of Nigeria into the biofuel sector. The paper assessed the progress made thus far by Nigeria, 4 years after the Nigerian biofuel was released in an attempt to answer the question whether the policy is adequate to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy. The study found that little progress has been made, which includes commencement of the construction of 20 bioethanol factories, installation of biofuel handling facilities at two depots (Mosimi and Atlas Cove), and selection of retail outlets for biofuel/conventional fuel mix. The site construction of the announced biofuel projects is now slow and other progress is marginal. We therefore conclude that the Nigerian biofuel policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy unless the Government revert and refocus on biofuel and include additional financial incentives such as grants and subsidy to complement the tax waivers (income, import duty, VAT), loans, and insurance cover contained in the policy. - Highlights: ► Nigeria's economy is dependent on petroleum, yet the country is suffering from fuel shortages. ► The Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentives was released in 2007. ► Little progress has been made since the policy was released 4 years ago. ► Hence, the policy is unlikely to transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy

  17. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban–rural dichotomy. - Highlights: • Urban improved sources of a given type are no more contaminated than rural ones. • Fecal contamination is 1.6–2.3 times more likely in rural areas, combining sources. • We find no evidence to justify different urban and rural water quality standards. • Comparisons of urban and rural areas are sensitive to definitions of urban extent

  18. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

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    Achor Justin U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of the nurses (t = -2.23, df = 78, p = 0.03 and there was also significant relationship between previous involvement in managing children with childhood autism as a specialist paediatric or psychiatric nurse and the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire (t = 6.90, df = 78, p = 0.00. Conclusion The scores reflect deficits in knowledge about childhood autism among the study cohorts. Paediatric and psychiatric nurses as members of multidisciplinary teams that care for children with childhood autism are expected to provide holistic care and adequate counselling to the families of these children. Unfortunately in this environment, they are not fully equipped with enough knowledge about childhood autism. Education on childhood autism is therefore needed and can be provided through continuing medical education and emphasizing childhood autism in their training curriculum. This will enhance early identification and diagnosis of childhood autism with early interventions that are known to improve prognosis.

  19. The Effective Management of Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: An Analytical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…

  20. A Study of E-Readiness Assessment: The Case of Three Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweni, Samuel O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness of three higher educational institutions in Nigeria in their attempt to introduce and maintain technology-driven services to students, faculty, and support staff. The prerequisites for participation in the digital, networked economy include the affordable ICT, reliable electric supply, reliable and up-to-date

  1. Comparative assessment of two Artemisinin based combination Therapies in the treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria among University students in Nigeria

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    Okonta Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In line with the recommendation of artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT by WHO in the effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria, African nations including Nigeria changed their malaria treatment policy to combination therapies. To date, about 15 African nations adopted artesunate /amodiaquine (AA as their first line agent while Nigeria adopted artemether /lumefantrine (AL. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the treatment outcome among patients treated with AA to those treated with AL for acute uncomplicated malaria. Method: The study was conducted at Nnamdi Azikiwe University campuses using quantitative methods. Two hundered and ninety six patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment group- AA and AL with 148 patients per group. All the patients were educated about the drugs and adherence. Adherence and treatment outcomes including parasite clearance and the drugs effects on biochemical parameters among others were assessed by follow up visits on third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth-day post treatment. Data were analysed using Cox Regression model on SPSS 17.0. Result: Both drugs were well adhered to and tolerated. One case of Steven Johnson-like reaction was observed with AL. Fever resolution and parasite clearance was similar in both groups with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR by day 28 for AL and AA being 70.3% and 85.1% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings is in favour of higher efficacy of AA with respect to their ACPR. More controlled studies will be needed to ascertain the adoption of AL as first line drug in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

  2. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that

  3. Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olusesan Awoleye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.

  4. Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Kamalu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

  5. Geospatial Assessment and Monitoring of the Dynamics of Urban Expansion of Ogbomoso, South-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Jesuleye; R.Oyinloye; E.A. Adzandeh; E. Eguaroje

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the dynamics of urban expansion along with the Landuse/Landcover changes in Ogbomoso North and South LGAs, Oyo State, Nigeria, using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Technology. Ogbomoso has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development of large infrastructural facilities such as highway/expressway, power stations as well as the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, the University Teaching Hospital Complex, modern markets, very many schools,...

  6. Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor, Jude C; Orjinta, Ikechukwu H

    2013-01-01

    The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the imp...

  7. Assessment of groundwater recharge in semi-arid region of northern nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average annual groundwater recharge value of three sites, representing the major geological basins of Northern Nigeria, ranged from 169 mm for Maiduguri to 837 mm in Kano area and the recharge coefficient for the zone ranged from 0.26 to 0.56. The month of August accounted for about 53% of the average annual estimate. About 69 mm (70%) of average annual potential natural groundwater recharge was lost, as a result. (author)

  8. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Haruna Gujba; Yacob Mulugetta; Adisa Azapagic

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU) continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four time...

  9. The cost of peace: assessing the domestic impacts of Nigeria's military deployments to ECOMOG operations

    OpenAIRE

    Afaha, Philip

    2014-01-01

    A new wave of thinking is evolving in diplomacy: that of deploying military resources for peace instead of war. This new method which gained currency immediately after the World War II and has come to shape international relations in the beginning of the 21st century is constantly bedeviled by far reaching socio-economic implications due to the often haphazard and disarticulated approach of such engagements. Although Nigeria stands tall as a vanguard of peacekeeping around the ...

  10. Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale in Kano, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abiola Tajudeen; Udofia Owoidoho

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Resilience seemed to lie at the core of the recent promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. This concept has been well studied in western countries and less in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. The aim of the study is therefore, to demonstrate the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Resilience Scale (RS) and its 14-item short version (RS-14) in a Nigerian sample. Results The RS, RS-14, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and two...

  11. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofide Blessing; Jimoh Richard; Achuenu Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only ...

  12. Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna Irimiya,

    2013-01-01

    - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional) and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Co...

  13. Seasonal Biodiversity Assessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrate of Asejire Reservoir, Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin Irabor Asibor

    2015-01-01

    The benthic macro-invertebrate fauna of Asejire Reservoir, Southwest Nigeria were investigated for two years (2004 2006) covering both the rainy and dry seasons. The major objective of the study was to provide baseline information on aspects of the biology (taxonomic composition, occurrence, distribution and abundance) of the benthic macro-invertebrates, characteristics of the reservoir sediment. A total of twenty sampling stations were established to represent the various sections and regi...

  14. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju; Oludare Tolulope Adeyemi; Mustapha Abiodun Okunnu

    2009-01-01

    The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manif...

  15. Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. AKAN; E.A. Moses; V. O. OGUGBUAJA; J. ABAH

    2007-01-01

    The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results ...

  16. Assessment of Adoption Status of Management Practices for West African Dwarf Goat Production in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odeyinka, SM.; Torimiro, DO.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Obafemi Awolowo University Rural Development Project communities in Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the adoption status of West African Dwarf Goat (WADG) management practices among the seventy (70) project participants purposively considered for the study. A structured interview was used to elicit quantitative data which was subjected to descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were also collected using focus group discussion (FGD), key informants interview...

  17. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Orish

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF RURAL YOUTH INVOLVEMENT IN THE USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs AMONG FARMERS’ IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. AYINDE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed rural youth involvement in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in agriculture in Osun State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examined awareness and analysed attitude of rural youths in the use of ICTs to disseminate agricultural information. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select one hundred and twenty respondents for the study. The data were collected using structured interview schedule and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean age of respondents was 18.0 years. Also, 71.7 percent of the respondents scored high in ICTs awareness in relation to agriculture. Telephone (56.0% was commonly used as a mean of passing agricultural information among the youths and the level of computer/literacy was slightly above average (58.3. Result of the correlation analysis shows that there was a positive and significant relationship (r = 0.481; p > 0.05 between the awareness of the usage of ICTs in agriculture and their attitude toward the use of ICTs. The study therefore concluded among others, that rigorous awareness on the inportance of ICTs in farming should be created among youths in Osun State in order enhance and bring about positive solutions to agricultural development stakeholders efforts in combating food insecurity in Nigeria.

  19. Assessment of Office Education Operating Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okoro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the office education operating competencies possessed by the university postgraduate business education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population and sample consisted of 388 business education graduates who are postgraduate students in universities in Nigeria. A 31-item structured questionnaire was validated and was also subjected to reliability which had internal consistency of 0.96 was used for data collection. The mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions while Z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that the respondents are competent in office education operating skills such as ability to file documents properly, knowledge handling office machines, ability to take minutes during meeting, among others. However, the respondents are not competent in knowledge of insurance policy and can do approach.

  20. Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ogaboh Agba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers job performance in Nigeria. The study attempt to compare the influence of wages and other conditions service on employees performance. To achieve this objective, we elicited information from 300 respondents who were purposively sample from four organizations in some selected geo-political zones in Nigeria. Data collected were presented in graph, pie chart and bar chart. Findings reveal that, employee job performance are greatly influenced by regular and good wages; followed by conducive work environment, availability of internet facilities, good library, recognition/award, regular promotion, training opportunities, access to medical care and communication flow. We made the following recommendations among others, that managers of formal organizations should properly remunerate workers as well as provide conducive work environment for their employees. We posit that other least motivating factors as identified in this study should not ignore by managers, since each provide workers with a level of stimulant that propel them into maximum performance in work organization.

  1. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

  2. Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2008-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of GOES. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Accordingly, a diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is designed to infer attributes of a favorable microburst environment. In addition, a GOES-West imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3 (upper level water vapor), band 4 (longwave infrared window), and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived products. This paper provides an updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst algorithms, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and presents validation results for the 2008 convective ...

  3. The international arctic seas assessment project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article provides some background information on wastes dumped into the Arctic Seas and describes the progress made within the framework of International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) lunched to assess the health and environmental implications of the dumping. 1 tab

  4. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  5. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  6. Trace Element Assessment of Stream Sediments Around the Aluminium Smelting Company in Ikot-Abasi, South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azubuike S. Ekwere

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess the trace element chemistry in the vicinity of a recently established aluminium smelting complex in Ikot Abasi, south-eastern Nigeria was carried out, using stream sediments as sampling media. Twenty three trace elements; Ag, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Ga, La, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, W, Y and Zr, were analysed for in the sediments. Results from analyses showed that concentration levels of these elements were within limits of geogenic sourcing. Correlation and factor analyses indicated associations of chemical species to be related to the adjoining geologic suites; Precambrian basement and Cretaceous sediments. Comparatively the sediments exhibit geochemical characteristics consistent with sediments from other parts of the Niger Delta. The deductions provide a baseline data set for future monitoring around the smelting site.

  7. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y-1) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy-1 and 93.6014.4 nGyh-1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

  8. Habitat assessment for seasonal variation of river pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria, in a geographic information systems interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanike K. Adeyemo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposure in environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management authorities. Using habitat assessment protocol, the author assesses the pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data used include hydrographic feature data and habitat assessment data. These basic environmental components are the result of the integration of a wide range of relatively independent factors which enable a more complex analysis of the environment in urban areas. Geographic information systems were used for data management, input and output of data and visualisation. The pollution status of the inland rivers assessed during the rainy season (July to September and dry season (October to March in the eleven local government areas in Ibadan suggested that out of the twenty-two sample points, seven (31.8% and six (27.3% were slightly polluted and nine (40.9% and ten (45.4% were moderately polluted during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The environmental models are focused on the assessment of surface-water quality of habitat in relation to human activities. Although the models are calibrated and tested by application in the metropolitan area of Ibadan, the structure of this project is applicable to other similar areas.

  9. Assessment of the quality of tuberculosis surveillance data in six selected states in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu U Onyeonoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of TB program interventions, identify deficiencies, and inform policies and programs. These data are also used for advocacy, resource mobilization, and allocation, both nationally and internationally. This study is aimed at verifying the reliability of the data collated and submitted from the direct observation therapy strategy (DOTS facilities to the National TB Program (NTP in some selected states in Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 facilities providing TB services were purposively selected from six states in Southern Nigeria, based on the treatment success rate as reported in 2009. In each selected facility, the following records were reviewed for concordance: Patient treatment cards and facility TB register, facility TB register and facility laboratory register, facility TB register and local government area (LGA TB register, and LGA TB register and TB quarterly reports. Furthermore, a total of 273 patients were selected for interview to validate the information contained in the treatment cards. Results: Agreement between the data sources was relatively high, though higher in some states than the others. Agreement between patient treatment card and facility TB register, and facility TB register and laboratory register were 97% and 85%, respectively. The lowest concordance was observed between the facility TB register and the LGA TB register. All the patients interviewed confirmed the information as recorded in their treatment cards. Conclusion: The study revealed that NTP data in Southern Nigeria is fairly reliable; however, there are variations observed among the states and at various levels. This study underlines the need to improve TB surveillance data in some states, particularly at the facility and at the LGA levels.

  10. Water Quality Assessment of Ake Stream, Near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Aho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the physico-chemical and biological quality of Ake stream located near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria was examined over duration of 7 months. The survey was conducted in the period between April and September based on random sampling with a view to ascertaining the impurity level of the stream. The physico-chemical analysis gave average results for Temperature, Turbidity, Iron, Chromium and Sulphate as 28.70C, 200.5NTU, 2.0, 0.2 and 44.3m...

  11. Dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ gamma spectroscopy has been employed to characterise natural radiation in the soil at 32 locations in the Delta region of Nigeria. The outdoor gamma dose rates in the air due to 40K, 238U and 232Th in the soil were 1.5 0.9 nGy h-1, 6.9 1.6 nGy h-1 and 16.3 3.1 nGy h-1 respectively. The estimated total annual outdoor effective dose to the people in the region was 31.6 ?Sv y-1. (authors)

  12. Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    E.U. Etim

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L), BOD (167±5...

  13. Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C Okafor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the impact of the caretaker committees in Nigerian Local Government on the practice of constitutional democracy. The discussion is framed by the theoretical perspectives and Nigerian literature on local government and constitutional democracy, and by the recent phenomenal wave of dissolving elected local government councils and subsequent replacement with caretaker committees. Contrary to popular belief, that local government as the third tier of government has failed to achieve the objective for which it was created, this paper observes that party politics has been the bane of Nigerian local government since its inception, and that democratically elected local councils with political and financial autonomy are the major conditions for an effective and efficient multi-purpose local government system in Nigeria.

  14. Assessment of the Willingness of Ebonyi State Government to Adopt the Contributory Pension Scheme in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA O. NWEKE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2004 Nigeria keyed into the contributory pension scheme. This was precipitated by the daunting challenges pensioners face in accessing their pensions under the non-contributory pension scheme which was introduced in 1979 by Act 102. The major challenges that confronted the non-contributory pension scheme were embezzlement of pension funds, and delay in the payment of retirement benefits to retirees and on time. These negatively affected the welfare of retirees. This study reviewed reasons why Ebonyi State government was stuck with the non-contributory pension scheme despite these challenges. The study was conducted in Ebonyi State and the study population was made up of 108 staffs of the Department of Pension’s, office of the Head of Service and staff of the Sub-Treasury, Ebonyi State Ministry of Finance. Questionnaire was administered to 108 respondents, out of which 85 were returned. Data generated reveal government’s unwillingness to submit for passage the contributory pension bill to the Ebonyi State House of Assembly (51.8% and excessive bureaucracy in the adoption of the contributory pension scheme (60%, that contributory pension scheme is difficult to manage (56.5% and so forth   as reasons why government has refused to introduce the contributory pension scheme. The study recommends the adoption of the contributory pension scheme as alternative to the challenges pensioners face in the management of the non-contributory pension scheme in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  15. Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

  16. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

  17. Assessment of Land Management Practices in Food Crops Production among Small Scale Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulazeez, Muhammad-Lawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out an assessment of agricultural land management practices in food crops production among small scale farmers in Kwara Sate, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the socio economic characteristics of crop farmers in Kwara State; ascertained the cropping patterns common among them; highlighted the soil conservation methods adopted by the farmers; examined the relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and their adoption of major agricultural land management practices; and investigated the constraints to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria A three stage random sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and forty four small scale food crops farmers. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression model and four point Likert-type scale were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that food crops production in Kwara State is dominated by middle aged men who are poorly educated and have poor access to agricultural extension services. Half of the respondents (48.60% adopted cereal-based cropping systems. 48.6% of the farmers adopted a minimum of three management practices. Crop rotation was mostly adopted by all the farmers while irrigation was the least adopted by only 29.3% of the respondents. Furthermore, the study revealed that farm size, age, education status, number of contacts with extension agents, household size and number of farm plots of the respondents were the significant factors affecting their adoption of land management practices. The study also revealed that the major constraints to the use of sustainable crop management practices among the farmers included inadequate supply of fertilizer, inadequacy of labour and credit, poor knowledge of improved agricultural practices, poor transportation, low produce prices and high cost of production. The study recommended the need for training programme on the use of appropriate sustainable practices that will take into account the cropping systems adopted by the farmers.

  18. Assessing the knowledge and skills in clinical ophthalmology of medical interns: Survey results from Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface I Eze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the skills and knowledge of clinical ophthalmology among medical interns in Enugu, Nigeria, to the recommendations of the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted of Medical Interns attending the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, from April 2010 to June 2010. Data on cohort demographics, undergraduate ophthalmology exposure, clinical skills and diagnostic competencies were collected and analyzed. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: The cohort comprised 81 males and 48 females (sex ratio = 1.7 : 1, aged 21-35 years (mean: 26.8 2.4 years. The gender difference was significant ( P < 0.05. The response rate was 88.7%. The duration of undergraduate ophthalmology exposure ranged from 1 to 4 weeks. Exposure was often adequate in cornea/external eye (95.3%, lens/cataract (95.3% and glaucoma (92.2%; but not in vitreo-retinal disease (47.3%, neuro-ophthalmology (45.7% and refractive surgery (0.0. The majority were competent at visual acuity testing (97.7% and visual field examination (93.0%. There was lower competency at anterior chamber assessment (49.6% and slit-lamp examination (39.5%. The majority could confidently diagnose conjunctivitis (96.1% and cataract (90.7%, but not strabismus (42.6% or macular degeneration (20.2%. Conclusions: Medical interns in Enugu displayed gaps in their undergraduate ophthalmology exposure, clinical knowledge and skills. This has implications for stakeholders in medical education and eye care delivery. Review of the curriculum, provision of training resources and compliance with ICO guidelines could address the deficiencies.

  19. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (?g/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (?g/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd?> As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health. PMID:25971518

  20. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Quality in the Lake Chad Basin in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Chad holds great importance in Africa. It is a life and income source for millions of people. In Nigeria, Lake Chad gives support for the three largest economic sectors: fishing, farming, and herding. For many centuries, there has been an equitable balance between these sectors and their survival; with the shrinking of the Lake since the 1960s though, there has been a struggle for these sectors to all maintain a status quo. By performing water quality testing on the streams and rivers that connect with Lake Chad, one is able to determine the health and vitality of the water. Mainly, it has a direct correlation with what the water is providing the land and villages of the area and what the soil and ground are providing to the water. By looking into the conditions of the water which is sourcing a large part of Nigeria, it gives the ability to directly identify actions that are occurring above and below the ground. This gives great support when investigating the shrinking of the Lake. Areas visited and tested in Nigeria include: Kano, Hadejia, Nguru, and Maiduguri. 15 stream regions were visited and tested. In addition to this, 70 villages were visited in which over a hundred well samples were taken. In determining water quality of a sample, specific parameters were tested, these included: nitrate, nitrite, total chlorine, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. These tests determined the presence of nitrogen, the hardness, and the acidity/neutrality of the water; all which prove important in helping support and maintain healthy growth and life for those who use and consume it. The information gathered thus far is just a base for future research. Although there are little permanent conclusions drawn from the information gathered, it provides great benefits for future research. Given that this is the first time water quality testing has ever been performed in the area, it gives great foundation for additional water quality testing performed in other regions that sync up to the Lake. Comparisons could then be made thus creating more understanding of the hydrologic functions that occur in the area.

  1. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion: The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities. Keywords: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptives, patent medicine vendors, mystery client, PPMV, quality of care, Nigeria

  2. Assessment of Chemical/phytotoxin and Microbial Contamination of Pasta Foods Marketed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Okafor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible chemical/phytotoxin and microbial contamination of nine brands of pasta foods (macaroni, spaghetti and noodles commonly consumed in Nigeria were investigated following identification of pesticide residues in Indomie noodles (a brand of pasta food and contamination of baby foods (SMA with some poisonous cassava materials. Enzymatic and spectrophotometric analysis of these foods for cyanide content indicate the presence of this compound ranging from 7.60-70.65 mg CN-kg-1. Chemical analysis of these foods showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and saponins while microbial quality test indicated the presence of Salmonella sp., Rhizopus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus in three food samples. The implications of these findings are discussed from toxicological and food bioterrorism points of view.

  3. Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in the business, majority of them are retailers selling less than four cartons of fish on daily basis and most of them have formal education. From the gross margin analysis and t-test, marketing of frozen fish is profitable in the area. However, it was recommended that major constraints like poor storage/preservation, inadequate capital and marketing costs should be tackled to improve the efficiency of marketing system of frozen fish in the State.

  4. Geospatial Assessment and Monitoring of the Dynamics of Urban Expansion of Ogbomoso, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Jesuleye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the dynamics of urban expansion along with the Landuse/Landcover changes in Ogbomoso North and South LGAs, Oyo State, Nigeria, using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Technology. Ogbomoso has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development of large infrastructural facilities such as highway/expressway, power stations as well as the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, the University Teaching Hospital Complex, modern markets, very many schools, a number of low cost housing estates, local authority offices, etc. This has therefore, resulted in loss of agricultural land, modification and alterations in the land use/land cover over time without any detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the changes. There is therefore, need for synoptic analyses of patterning, change and expansion at regional scales over time in the environment. LandSat imageries of 1990, 2000 and NigeriaSat-1 imagery of 2007 of the environment were subjected to supervised image classification using IDRISI Selva 17.0 software. Results obtained from classifications were cross-tabulated for change detection. The results reveal that water body appreciated from 1.2% (1990, 3.1% (2000 to 3.7% (2007. Built-up area appreciated from 6.4 to 20.3% (1990-2007. Arable land remained the largest land cover, with the value of 57.8% in 1990, 47.8% in 2000 and 62% in 2007. Compound Interest formula was used to determine the rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso town and the expansion of the town was projected for the year 2020 and 2025. The average rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso was found to be significantly high with a value of 8.92%.

  5. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arabi,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

  6. Assessment of some physico-chemical parameters of River Ogun (Abeokuta, Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria) in comparison with national and international standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimowo, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the physico-chemical quality of River Ogun, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria. Four locations were chosen spatially along the water course to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities that are capable of changing the quality of river water. The water samples were collected monthly for seven consecutive months (December 2011 – June 2012) at the four sampling stations. pH, air temperature (℃), water temperature (℃), conductivity (µs/cm) and total diss...

  7. Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Berkley

    2013-12-01

    There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

  8. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% t...

  9. An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

  10. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as 0.0507, at Warri as 0.0774, and at Calabar as 0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  11. Assessing and monitoring student progress in e-learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Meyen, Edward L.; Aust, Ronald J.; Bui, Yvonne N.; Isaacson, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    E-learning has emerged as a form of pedagogy and as a delivery system with broad implications for meeting personnel needs nationally in special education. At present, it is important to make investments in research and development to ensure that this new pedagogy becomes fully developed and is appropriately applied. Assessment and monitoring of student progress in e-learning environments is an important element of this new form of pedagogy that requires research attention to ma...

  12. CONCAWE's market fuel survey. Assessing progress in biofuel blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the coming decade, more bio-components, especially ethanol and ethers in gasoline and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in diesel fuel, will be blended into transport fuels in order to meet the EU's 2020 mandate for renewable energy. This survey of gasoline and diesel market fuels from 17 countries evaluates the oxygenate concentrations in service station fuels from the winter of 2010-11 in order to assess progress toward meeting the EU's objective.

  13. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Gujba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources.

  14. Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanna Irimiya,

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Conventional and Green features in the six study areas. From the study, the annual energy intensity of Kaduna for conventional buildings is 25.24 kwh/m2. With the introduction of green appliances, a drastic reduction in the buildings annual energy consumption was recorded which stood at 20.57 kwh/m2representing about 18.26% reduction in annual energy consumption which indicates a significant energy saving. In Kano VAC consumed the highest energy 12.49 kwh/m2of the total consumption of all end-users. When replaced with energy efficient appliances the consumption dropped to 7.95 kwh/m2representing 34.14% reduction. The use of energy efficient appliances is recommended.

  15. Assessing the prevalence and determinants of adolescents' unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Chukwunenye Iheanacho

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the prevalence and determinants of adolescents' unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in Owerri, Nigeria. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to obtain information from 540 female adolescents of mean age 15.8 years. In addition, four FGDs were held with female adolescents in selected localities and in-depth interviews held with fifteen health-care service providers. Almost all the adolescents (99.8%) were Christians, with 70.3% being Catholics and 68.2% living with their parents. Over half (57.2%) of the adolescents had had sex. Contraceptives were rarely used owing to deep-seated cultural values. The data show that 31.6% of those who had ever had sex had an unintended pregnancy. Of these, 78.9% had recurrent pregnancies and 20.2% had an abortion. Of the latter, 41.8% had a recurrent abortion and 72.7% a post-abortion problem, for which 70.2% never sought treatment, increasing the risk of infertility in later life. The abortion seekers mostly went to patent medicine operators. A more acceptable and cost-effective contraceptive campaign involving use of local vernacular and traditional/local opinion leaders should be explored. PMID:20522271

  16. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Hedberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearsons Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  17. Performance Assessment of Lokoja Confluence Beach as a Tourist Site in Kogi State, Nigeria

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    Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  18. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

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    Okwoche J. Ode

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05 higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

  19. Water Quality Assessment of Ake Stream, Near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Aho, I.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the physico-chemical and biological quality of Ake stream located near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria was examined over duration of 7 months. The survey was conducted in the period between April and September based on random sampling with a view to ascertaining the impurity level of the stream. The physico-chemical analysis gave average results for Temperature, Turbidity, Iron, Chromium and Sulphate as 28.70C, 200.5NTU, 2.0, 0.2 and 44.3mg/l respectively. The Bacterial load per 100ml of water ranged between 978 – 1800 giving average value of 1389. The overall results revealed that the stream is heavily stagnated, especially in terms of microbial load, which is an indication of human and feacal contamination. Most of the physical and chemical perimeters were above the maximum permissible levels, indicating that treatment is required before water from the source can be used for domestic applications.

  20. Metal pollution assessment of surface sediments along a new gas pipeline in the Niger Delta (Nigeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Gianpiero; Cabras, Igino; Predonzani, Sergio; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Reisenhofer, Edoardo

    2007-02-01

    Chromium, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium were determined in sediments of the Niger Delta (Nigeria) in order to discriminate between natural metal sources and anthropogenic ones. Surface sediments were collected at seven sites along a new gas pipeline near Port Harcourt, between the New Calabar River and the Bonny River towards Bonny town. Chemical characterisation is obtained by hydrofluoric-nitric acid digestion procedure, providing the 'total' ('residual') metal contents. Information about the anthropogenic metal fraction was obtained by cold diluted hydrochloric acid extraction procedure. This 'labile' acid soluble fraction of metals, perhaps due to relatively recent inputs in the sediments, constitutes the fraction more likely to be available to marine organisms, and furnishes a first evaluation of the possible toxicity of sediments of this sensitive ecosystem. Zinc appears to be the most available of all the heavy metals: its 'labile' fraction attains 40-50% of the 'total' zinc in sediment. Sites near Port Harcourt city are the most contaminated. All the examined metals are one order of magnitude below the respective values proposed as a limit for toxicity and are comparable with those observed by other authors in similar Niger Delta areas. Some anomalous data found near Port Harcourt city suggest that zinc and cadmium are the metals that require further monitoring. Their anthropogenic source could be derived from urban and industrial sewage. PMID:17219239

  1. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

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    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  2. A baseline investigation and safety assessment of dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced. A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of 40K found in soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.617.4Bq/Kg to 315.016.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of 238U ranged from 0.1017.1Bq/Kg to 48.164.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from 1.817.8Bq/Kg to 252.717.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of 232Th was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba eku). The average value of the total absorbed dose rates for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.044.0nGy/h and 32.036.3nGy/h respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety recommended world mean by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

  3. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of bituminous soil in Agbabu, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, M. Omoniyi [Department of Physics, University of Ado Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria)], E-mail: niyikaye2002@yahoo.com

    2008-01-15

    Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) in bituminous soil samples and viscous bitumen sample from Agbabu bitumen deposit, southwest Nigeria, has been measured using a high-resolution (HpGe detector) {gamma}-spectrometry. The average values of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K obtained are lower than the global average values. The Th/U activity ratio is comparable to values reported in literature. The average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was found to be 12.65{+-}3.19nGyh{sup -1}, which is below the corresponding worldwide population weighted average value of 60nGyh{sup -1}. Both radium equivalent and representative level index values measured are lower than the internationally accepted limits for building and road construction materials. The results of the study indicate that the area has low background radiation level; as such no significant radiological hazard is expected in the area.

  4. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of bituminous soil in Agbabu, southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in bituminous soil samples and viscous bitumen sample from Agbabu bitumen deposit, southwest Nigeria, has been measured using a high-resolution (HpGe detector) ?-spectrometry. The average values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K obtained are lower than the global average values. The Th/U activity ratio is comparable to values reported in literature. The average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was found to be 12.653.19nGyh-1, which is below the corresponding worldwide population weighted average value of 60nGyh-1. Both radium equivalent and representative level index values measured are lower than the internationally accepted limits for building and road construction materials. The results of the study indicate that the area has low background radiation level; as such no significant radiological hazard is expected in the area

  5. Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m−3 and 117 Bq m−3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m−3. - Highlights: ► Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ► The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m−3. ► The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ► This value is elevated though below the action level. ► Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

  6. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

  7. Using Landsat 5 imagery in the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks around Dutsin-Ma, northwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsat's TM imagery of January 1986 covering Dustin - Ma and the surrounding areas in northwestern Nigeria was used for the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks (Basement Complex) terrain. Employing ER Mapper (5.2), surface indicator for the occurrence of groundwater such as thriving vegetation in non - irrigated lands, and fracture were identified. These were interpreted vis - a - vis the tectonic development of the are. Lineaments interpreted as fractures show two prominent strike maxima that lie between 0000 and 0300, with the more common lying between 0000 and 0100. These strike maxima correspond to the stress axis of the Pan African orogeny. The lushness of vegetation along these strikes is higher than in the neighbouring areas and indicate the presence of groundwater. On the basis of lineament density and relative lushness of the vegetal cover, the area was divided into three main hydrogeological zones namely, the zones with the highest, intermediate, and least groundwater potential, for which ground truthing is recommended for their confirmation. Geophysical surveys for the siting of boreholes are also recommended parallel to strikes between 270oand 300o. It is judged that the groundwater resource for this area is low because of the general lack of moist or seepage areas, the low threshold value. (0.12) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the generally dispersed nature of the vegetation

  8. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users.

  9. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiri Nnamdi N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001. The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

  10. Assessment of Use of Selected Information Communication Technologies (ICTs for Extension Service Delivery: Implication for Agricultural Development in Nigeria

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    Adetumbi, Saheed.Ige, Olaniyi, Olumuyiwa.,Akin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the implication of the useof selected Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs for extension service delivery in Nigeria. The simplerandom technique was used to select fifty percent of the total extensionagents which equivalent to forty-two respondents assample size for the study. Frequency counts, percentages, meanand standard deviation were used as descriptive statistic. Also,Chi-Square test and Spearman’s rho correlation were employedas inferential statistic to test for the hypotheses. Findings indicatedthat access to various ICTs tools especially Radio and Mobilephone and were found to be relevant to farming operations. Theresult of Chi square test revealed that significant relationshipexist between sex, age, level of education, years of working experienceof the extension agents and level of use of ICTs. Furthermore,the result of Spearman rho Correlation showed thatthere was no significant relationship between ICT training of extensionworkers and the level of use of ICTs. The study recommendedamong others that, there should be a periodic review ofthe use of current ICTs in extension service delivery to facilitateeffectiveness in the use of ICTs for extension service and adequatefunding of extension service should also be ensured to enhancethe maintenance of ICTs made available to extension personnel.

  11. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received, period of practice, work load and radio logical procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have attempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001). The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices

  12. The Relevance of Feasibility study in Assessing the Economic Viability of Dried-sachet Tomato Production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, the relevance of feasibility study in assessing the economic viability of dried-sachet tomato production in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria is carried out using the survey research design. The aim is to find out whether dried-sachet tomato production can be done, profitably and successfully in Kano metropolis. Focus group discussion is used to select some dealers on dried sachet tomato production to determine the viability of tomato business in the study area. Data presentation and analysis was quai-qualitative. The major findings revealed that this product is very important and gives financial benefits apart from its health benefits. Several techniques of removing the liquid contents has been observed as either conventional current, or electrical method by addition of anhydrous (de-hydrating reagents. In order to retain its colour, the convention current method was adopted as the best, that is tray drier, drum drier, mechanized manual method, spray drier etc. Conclusively, the production of dried tomato powder in sachet is a good business, if the necessary capital base is provided. Therefore, it is recommended among others that the experience needed to manage a business should be acquired, and that knowledge and experience acquired should be effectively utilized.

  13. Assessment of Safety Management System Implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization: A Case Study of Nigeria Operators

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    Kole Osaretin Uhuegho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study survey data was used to assess employees’ perceptions of Safety Management System (SMS implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO in the aviation industry. AMOs in Nigeria were used as a case study. Results show that over 80% of the population used for this study accord to the existence of plans to implement SMS. However, results indicated a lack of safety management education, training and motivation, which are key concepts that influence all the safety management implementation process. Furthermore, results reveal the lack of skills to analyze risk associated with identified hazard. Internal audit and safety investigation are the main means of safety performance monitoring within the AMO. Hypothetical test was conducted using Chi-square statistic. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the appointment of key personnel and management commitment within an AMO safety management system. Overall, the findings suggest that AMO need to do more to improve the implementation and understanding of SMS within the AMO.

  14. An assessment of health practises among small-scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Jones A. Akangbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.

  15. Improving quality of malaria treatment services: assessing inequities in consumers' perceptions and providers' behaviour in Nigeria

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    Obikeze Eric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about quality of malaria treatment services of different healthcare providers is needed to know how to improve the treatment of malaria since inappropriate service provision leads to increased burden of malaria. Hence, the study determined the technical and perceived quality of malaria treatment services of different types of providers in three urban and three rural areas in southeast Nigeria. Methods Questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected healthcare providers about the technical quality of their malaria treatment services. Exit polls were used to obtain information about perceived quality from consumers. A socio-economic status (SES index and comparison of data between urban and rural areas was used to examine socio-economic status and geographic differences in quality of services. Results The lowest technical quality of services was found from patent medicine dealers. Conversely, public and private hospitals as well as primary healthcare centres had the highest quality of services. Householders were least satisfied with quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops and were mostly satisfied with services rendered by public and private hospitals. The urbanites were more satisfied with the overall quality of services than the rural dwellers. Conclusion These findings provide areas for interventions to equitably improve the quality of malaria treatment services, especially for patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops, that are two of the most common providers of malaria treatment especially with the current change of first line drugs from the relatively inexpensive drugs to the expensive artemisinin-based combination therapy, so as to decrease inappropriate drug prescribing, use, costs and resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  16. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

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    Kasim, L. S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  17. An Assessment of Records Management Practice in Selected Local Government Councils in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare, Abdullahi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What government does/fails to do is conveyed to the public largely by records and information of various types in the public service, without which there will be no government. When records are poorly managed, much time is involved in sorting and locating needed information from large volumes of records. The rate of records misplaced or lost from which useful information for decision making is usually obtained makes it difficult to provide concise and up-to-date records of both past and present operations, raising the challenge of effective record-keeping. Thus this study examined records management practices in selected local government councils in Ogun State, Nigeria, adopting the descriptive survey research method using questionnaires for data collection. Its population comprised 415 records of personnel in the selected councils, of which 208 were sampled using simple random technique. From the 208 copies of the questionnaire administered on the registry personnel, 150 copies were useable, with a 72.12% response rate. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. The results indicated a prevalence of paper as the dominant medium for recording/conveying information in the councils with most of these being either in active state, semi-active, and vital and were kept and maintained in the registry, while in-active records were kept in the records store. Storage facilities for record-keeping were insufficient. Security measures against unauthorized access to records were by restrictions and subject users to managerial clearance. The study concluded that council records were in chaos and recommended the formulation of coherent records management policy, adequate budgetary provision, and adequate finance.

  18. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

  19. Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria

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    E.U. Etim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L, BOD (167±53 mg/L, COD (329±106 mg/L, NO3 - (28.3±3.67 mg/L, NH3 (22.3±4.8 mg/L and (Pb 0.23±0.02 mg/L levels indicated gross organic and metal pollution. Ground water similarly, showed elevated levels of BOD (12.9±0.7 mg/L, nitrate (36.1±5.35 mg/L and ammonia (13.7±2.6 mg/L. Metal levels in surface water and sediment was strongly correlated (r=0.89. Topsoil and vegetation samples around the vicinity of the creek did not show any significant level of contamination. There was no significant differences (p=0.05 in surface and ground water quality among the sampling points. The creek water was classified as heavily polluted. This could affect the aquatic flora and fauna of the creek ecosystem. Remediation measures should be employed to clean up the water way system and the environment.

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF HOUSING AND NEIGHBOURHOOD QUALITY CONDITION IN ILESA, NIGERIA

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    YOADE Adewale Olufunlola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality housing is the goal of all localities; such assurance reflects a community’s ability to respond to the needs of its citizens, as well as to accommodate growth and economic development. This paper focuses its study onhousing and neighbourhood quality condition in Ilesa, Nigeria.Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources.204 households were surveyed using multi-stage sampling. Information was obtained on basic socioeconomic, housing and environmental characteristics of the respondent‘s household. The study reveals that more than half 54.3% of the respondents have open drainage in their neighbourhood, 33.8% have covered/buried drainage while the remaining 11.9% have soak away in their buildings. The finding reveals that 45.6% of the respondents are inherited occupier if their building, 34.4% of them is tenancy while the remaining 20.0% are owner occupier. However, positive and direct relationship exists between income and housing type (p = 0.000; r = 0.711, educational attainment (p = 0.000; r = 0.647 and type of toilet (p =0.000; r = 0.556. It was recommended among others that there should be activation in the senses embraces the emergence of citizens who will be aware of their environmental problems, who will believe changes are not only possible but feasible, and who will have a keen desire to change and accept changes.The paper therefore concludes that if the trend continues sustainable development in the area will remain unattainable.

  1. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

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    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

  2. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

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    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%, 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%, and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%. But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4% when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.

  3. Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A major constraint to the development of properly engineered landfills is the high cost of synthetic liners and its scarcity in the local markets in developing country like Nigeria, which calls for alternative local materials for landfill liner. Consequently, crushed shale / clay shale deposits appear inexpensive and can be utilized to effectively retard the spread of leachate from landfills. Hence, this study focus on the assessment of geotechnical, geochemical and sorption characteristics of shale units from Anambra Basin, SE-Nigeria for suitability or otherwise as compacted clay liner (CCL) in landfills. Twelve samples consisting of three each from four different formations namely: Enugu, Nkporo, Imo and Ameki formations were collected and subjected to basic geotechnical tests such as grain size analysis, Atterberg's limits, compaction and coefficient of permeability following standard testing methods (BS 1377). In addition, mineralogical X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and geochemical ICP-MS / ICP-ES analyses were employed for geochemical characterization. CEC and batch sorption tests with respect to Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn as contaminant in leachates were also employed for sorption characterization. The results of the geotechnical tests conducted on the shale samples revealed that the crushed shale samples have liquid limit range of 55-79%, percentage fines of 80-93%, percentage clay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the density irrespective of the compaction level to be utilized in the field. In addition, the permeability of 2.14 - 9.12 x 10-5cm/s is higher than 1 x 10-7 cm/s recommended for typical isolation barriers, which implies negative impacts in respect of possible attendant contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater by the leachates. The geochemical analyses of the samples reflect relatively high SiO2 values of 52.1-55.8% compared to Al2O3 of 16.96-27.45% and Fe2O3 of 3.10-7.19%, which suggest the dominance of kaolinite as confirmed by the XRD. Nonetheless, the occurrence of illite in Enugu and Nkporo shales and smectite in Imo shale is a confirmation of the relatively high plasticity indices mentioned earlier and indication of good sorption properties. The CEC of the samples have relatively low value of 2.6 - 5.1 cmol/kg, which is less than the recommended minimum of 10 meq/100 g. The sorption capacity of the samples with respect to Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni ranges from 24.4 to 34.7 ppm with metal sorption in the order of Zn >Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni. The overall assessment revealed that the metal uptake, CEC and plasticity index of the shale samples are positively correlated suggesting strong influence of the clay mineralogy on the sorption characteristics of the samples. In spite of the observed relatively high permeability and swelling potential as well as moderate good sorption properties, the study shale units could be enhanced to the required specification through appropriate amendment technology. Though the shale units do not generally satisfy the requirements of compacted clay liners, however, based on the sorption characteristics, Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shales can be adequately employed for attenuation of contaminant leachates in double, composite or and multiple lining systems

  4. Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    k. Adepoju; A.M. Tukur; A. ADEDIJI

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P) were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Als...

  5. GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Eludoyin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary forest, secondary forest and mangrove. The area in square kilometers of each land use type in each year was calculated and thereafter the change was determined by subtracting the area of the same land use type in 1986 from 2000 and the percentage of change is therefore calculated. In addition, the probability of change of twenty years was also determined from one land use type to another using Markovian Transition Estimator (MTE from IDRISI Andes. The study reveals that farmland, mangrove, primary forest and sparse vegetation reduced over time by 45.34, 37.06, 43.06 and 8.09%, respectively while secondary forest, built up area and water increased by 5.88, 74.55 and 3.43%, respectively. It is also projected by MTE that in 2020 farmland has the probability of 0.570 (57% of changing to secondary forest and 0.154 (15.4% of changing to built up area. Primary forest has the probability of 0.186 (18.6% to change to built up area. It is recommended among others that laws should be promulgated to prevent unlawful expansion of construction of any form and that the people in the communities in the study area should be enlightened and educated on the effects of deforestation on the environment.

  6. Assessment of indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin east local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study made use of well-structured questionnaire to collect data from 180 respondents by means of four-stage random sampling technique. Analytical tools used include frequency, percentage and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Findings showed that the majority of respondents had no formal education (73.3%, were middle aged (52.2%, and married (81.1%. The indigenous processing techniques commonly used by the respondents include: picking/harvesting of fruits, washing of fruits, de-pulping, drying, seed selection, seed cracking, roasting of kernels, milling of kernels, boiling of ground kernels, kneading, mixing, filtration, solidification and packaging. The majority (75% of sources for information on indigenous shea butter processing came from family members. Factors limiting the majority of respondents were: inadequate water supply (95%, inadequate processing equipment (86.1% and inadequate credit facilities (81.7%. Correlation analysis results revealed that age (-0.153, p<0.05 and the years of experience (-0.270, p<0.01 of respondents showed a significant relationship with the indigenous techniques of processing shea butter. It was concluded that indigenous methods of processing shea butter are widespread among respondents, knowledge is acquired through family members and that they are faced with several challenges. Among others, the study recommends the need for extension agents to be posted to rural areas to educate rural women and build on their indigenous knowledge of processing shea butter in order to produce high quality butter.

  7. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 5.3) to (484.2 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 2.1) and (22.8 2.7) to (62.4 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 133.5), (13.3 8.0) and (40.0 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 36.4), (16.1 13.3) and (32.5 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 10.9) ?Sv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 19.1) ?Sv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  8. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary

  9. Milestone-Based Assessments Are Superior to Likert-Type Assessments in Illustrating Trainee Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kathleen W.; Whicker, Shari A.; Bookman, Jack; Narayan, Aditee P.; Staples, Betty B.; Hering, Holly; McGann, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Pediatrics Milestone Project uses behavioral anchors, narrative descriptions of observable behaviors, to describe learner progression through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. Starting June 2014, pediatrics programs were required to submit milestone reports for their trainees semiannually. Likert-type scale assessment tools were not designed to inform milestone reporting, creating a challenge for Clinical Competency Committees. Objective To determine if milestone-based assessments better stratify trainees by training level compared to Likert-type assessments. Methods We compared assessment results for 3 subcompetencies after changing from a 5-point Likert scale to milestone-based behavioral anchors in July 2013. Program leadership evaluated the new system by (1) comparing PGY-1 mean scores on Likert-type versus milestone-based assessments; and (2) comparing mean scores on the Likert-type versus milestone-based assessments across PGY levels. Results Mean scores for PGY-1 residents were significantly higher on the prior year's Likert-type assessments than milestone-based assessments for all 3 subcompetencies (P < .01). Stratification by PGY level was not observed with Likert-type assessments (eg, interpersonal and communication skills 1 [ICS1] mean score for PGY-1, 3.99 versus PGY-3, 3.98; P  =  .98). In contrast, milestone-based assessments demonstrated stratification by PGY level (eg, the ICS1 mean score was 3.06 for PGY-1, 3.83 for PGY-2, and 3.99 for PGY-3; P < .01 for PGY-1 versus PGY-3). Significantly different means by trainee level were noted across 21 subcompetencies on milestone-based assessments (P < .01 for PGY-1 versus PGY-3). Conclusions Initial results indicate milestone-based assessments stratify trainee performance by level better than Likert-type assessments. Average PGY-level scores from milestone-based assessments may ultimately provide guidance for determining whether trainees are progressing at the expected pace. PMID:26217427

  10. Assessing the progress in depolluting the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Claudette; Roddier-Quefelec, Cécile; Giraud, Jean-Pierre; Hema, Tatiana

    2016-01-30

    The depollution of the Mediterranean Sea by 2020 is the overarching goal of Horizon 2020 Initiative (H2020). The first phase (2007-2013) tackled the main land-based pollution sources; municipal waste, urban wastewater and industrial emissions. As part of the H2020 roadmap implementation, the ENPI-SEIS project focused on the first H2020 review mechanism that included a) establishing a process for regular environmental reporting in the European Neighbourhood Policy South countries, and b) generating the knowledge necessary to assess the progress in depolluting the Mediterranean Sea. This paper reviews the process in line with the "Shared Environmental Information System" principles and its three pillars (content, cooperation, infrastructure). The main outcomes of the thematic assessment, based on a set of regional H2020 indicators, are also presented. This assessment highlights the major drivers and their implications on marine protection. It also identifies areas that require further attention in the next phase of H2020 (2014-2020). PMID:26652144

  11. Community effort in operational oceanography scientific assessment: recent progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fabrice; Smith, Greg; Maksymczuk, Jan; Regnier, Charly; Ryan, Andrew; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Garcia Sotillo, Marcos; Drevillon, Marie; Levier, Bruno; Volpe, Gianluca; Lagemaa, Priidik

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the GODAE OceanView program, and efforts supported through funded projects like the EU MyOcean/MyOcean-2/MyOcean-FO activities, validation and scientific assessment of ocean operational systems are witnessing noticeable progresses. In particular concerning the community shared assessment activities. Collaborations, through working group, have raised for implementation validation common practices. Through GODAE OceanView two real-time inter comparison tasks are carried on, with international contributions of most advances global operational centres: the so-called «class 4» inter comparison activity allows real time monitoring performance of temperature, salinity, sea-ice and sea level parameters. In parallel, linked with the CLIVAR/GSOP efforts, inter comparison of reanalysis is providing a framework for future multi-model ocean climate monitoring. At the European level, operational centres are working together in order to 1) define in common ways best practices for operational cal/val activities; 2) implement and test performance assessment in real time and off-line; and 3) offer to GMES/Copernicus users reliable information on operational ocean product quality. Exemples of recent development are provided here, together with a prospective overview of cal/val practices.

  12. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP). Interim progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was established in 1993 to address concern over the potential health and environmental impacts of the dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters of the Arctic seas. The work is being carried out as part of the IAEA's responsibilities with regard to the London Convention 1972. The project will last for four years and is run by the IAEA in co-operation with the Norwegian and Russian Governments, and with the involvement, through the IAEA, of experts from about 15 IAEA Member States. The objectives of the project are: (1) to assess the risks to human health and to the environment associated with the radioactive wastes dumped in the Kara Sea and the Barents Sea, and (2) to examine possible remedial actions related to the dumped wastes and to advise on whether these actions are necessary and justified. The project has been organized into five principal working areas: (i) source terms, (ii) existing environmental concentrations, (iii) transfer mechanisms and models, (iv) impact assessment and (v) remedial measures. Progress of IASAP is reviewed each year by a group of senior scientists. This group is also responsible for preparing the final report of IASAP and the recommendations for presentation to Contracting Parties to the London Convention in 1996. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. The Efficacy of Biofuel Production as a Means of Increasing The Energy Base in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. V. Famurewa

    2015-01-01

    This study critically reviews the efficacy of biofuel production as a means of increasing the energy base in Nigeria. It aims at assessing among others, the progress made so far in this direction. Biofuels are renewable liquid fuels coming from biological raw materials which are good substitutes for both fossil fuel and energy. It has the exciting potential for mitigating the grave threats of global warming, reducing the world's dependence on imported oil from insecure sources and reducing th...

  14. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

  15. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income stream discounted over a 30 year period at 20 percent discount rate in 2008 was between 642.20/ha and 2,852.62/ha. Consequently, the welfare loss due to the loss of 21,340 hectares of mangrove was between 13,704,548 and 60,874,911. The study also established, for the first time, the high social value of the Niger Delta Mangroves.

  16. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

  17. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  18. Assessment of the Occurrence and Risks of Emerging Organic Pollutants (EOPs) in Ikpa River Basin Freshwater Ecosystem, Niger Delta-Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Offiong, Nnanake-Abasi; Kang, Suil; Yang, Paul; Essien, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The levels of some emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in surface water of a freshwater ecosystem, the Ikpa River Basin, Nigeria using liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, leachates and storm water samples collected from nearby dumpsites were also analysed to assess the effect on water quality. Seventeen compounds were detected at the nanogramme-per-litre levels and the ecological risks of selected compounds assessed based on predicted no-effect concentrations derived from comparison of toxicity data recorded for green algae, fish and invertebrate with the maximum measured environmental concentrations, to obtain risk quotients. Some of the compounds showed some level of widespread occurrence or persistence. Also, bisphenol A, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, triclocarban and triclosan were the most important EOPs detected in the study area that may pose detrimental effects to the aquatic organisms based on the outcome of the risk assessment. PMID:26341253

  19. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Kudi; J.G. Akpoko; Abdulsalam, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discus...

  20. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh) Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Braide Wesley; U.S. Oranusi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained f...

  1. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniyan S. Y.; Sangodere T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

  2. Impact of Task Performance Fraud Risk Assessment on Forensic Skills and Mindsets: Experience from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of task performance, fraud risk assessment and forensic accountants and auditors skills and mindsets in the Nigerian public sector. It also draws the attention of the users of public sector accountants and auditors such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission, Special Control Unit of Money Laundering, Terrorism Financing and White collar crimes. The objective of the study is to enhance the fraud risk ...

  3. Skill assessment of the existing capacity for extended-range weather forecasting in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuwon, James O.; Odekunle, Theophilus O.

    2004-08-01

    The need for skilful weather forecasting as a strategy for adapting food production to a variable and changing climate is recognized. Frequent assessment of the existing tools provides the needed feedback to encourage the growth of a more reliable weather forecasting capacity. A scheme designed for the assessment of the skill demonstrated by published weather forecasts is presented. The existing products of four weather forecasting organizations with interests in West Africa are assessed using the observed weather during the period from 1996 to 2000. The weather forecasting organizations concerned are NOAA (USA), Met Office (UK), CNRS (France) and the Nigerian Central Forecasting Office. The forecast skills of the various organizations appear not to have witnessed any significant improvement between 1996 and 2000. Overall, the low proportion of the forecasts falling into the low skill category is encouraging. However, the relatively high percentage of the moderate skill and low percentage of the high skill categories suggest that there is considerable room for improvement. One may have to give the various organizations more time to perfect the existing tools. However, this review has not come too early, because it is the type of feedback needed to hasten the emergence of more skilful forecasts. It has been established in this study that better rainfall forecasts could be achieved with higher resolution sea-surface temperature anomaly data and the inclusion of more predictor variables, especially those of a synoptic nature.

  4. Nigeria Economic Report, November 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Nigeria Economic Report (NER) is a regular publication of the World Bank. Each edition provides an overview of recent macroeconomic developments and devotes special attention to a topic of particular relevance or urgency. In this edition the macroeconomic overview is followed by both a detailed analysis of the country’s fuel subsidy and an assessment of the current state and economic p...

  5. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Youngu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries arent putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates spatially referenced data with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didnt have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no library. Sixty-three (63 percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

  6. Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Enemchukwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90 volunteer patients; comprising (30 patients with malaria only, (30 with typhoid only and (30 with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20 healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23, AST (31.33±12.80, ALT (23.10±11.84, TB (19.43±5.02, CB (5.91±3.03 and ALP(116.69±48.68, AST (28.33±11.72, ALT (22.8±5.94, TB (19.31±5.84,CB (5.60±2.50 were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62, AST (33.97±8.43, ALT (24.40±4.37,TB (21.27±2.96,CB (6.58±3.10 while the control subjects had mean serum levels of ALP (71.05±18.18, AST (16.65±7.45, ALT (13.85±6.09,TB (10.05±4.85 and CB (3.00±1.67. These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05.The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT,TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

  7. A Quasi-experimental Study to Assess an Interactive Educational Intervention on Nurses' Knowledge of Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama Ilesanmi, Rose; Morohunfoluwa Oluwatosin, Odunayo

    2016-04-01

    Educational intervention programs are an important element to improve nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer (PU) pre- vention. Various teaching methods have been used with diverse results but none have been analyzed in Nigeria. A quasi- experimental study using a pretest/post test design was conducted among 193 registered nurses with >6 months experi- ence who worked in purposefully selected wards (neuroscience, orthopedics, renal, and cardiac) in 3 teaching hospitals to examine the level of knowledge retention after interactive instruction. Participants were randomized to intervention (IG, n = 127 from 2 hospitals) and control (CG, n = 66 from 1 hospital) groups; the IG was provided a 5-day, face-to-face interactive lecture, and the CG engaged in a 1-day, 4-hour discussion of PU prevention practices. The Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Tool, a 47-item questionnaire in which a correct answer = 1 point and an incorrect/"I don't know" answer = 0 (maximum score 47), was used to assess and compare knowledge retention at 3 time points: baseline (T1), immediately after instruction (T2), and after 3 months (T3). Three trained research assistants assisted with registration of participants and distribution and collection of the questionnaires. All questionnaires were retrieved at T1 before the intervention be- gan. Respondents were encouraged to respond to all questions. Data were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA (P = 0.05). At T1, knowledge scores were comparable between the IG and CG (32.5 ± 4.2 and 30.8 ± 5.0 for IG and CG, respec- tively). At T2, knowledge scores increased significantly only in the IG to 40.7 ± 3.4 (d = 1.94, P less than 0.05). The mean difference between T1 and T2 was -8.2 ± 5.4, t = -17.0, P = 0.000. Similarly, mean scores increased significantly from T2 to T3 in the IG (mean= -2.0 ± 5.5, t = -4.1, P = 0.000); scores in the CG were -6.2 ± 7.2, t = -6.3 (P = 0.000). A face-to-face interactive lecture was shown to be an effective method of program delivery for nurses; other educational methods should be as- sessed and their effects on PU prevention practices and outcomes evaluated. PMID:27065217

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniyan S. Y.; M. E. Abalaka; Momoh, J. A.; Adabara, N. U

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu) sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105...

  9. Assessment of occurrence and concentrations of paraquat dichloride in water, sediments and fish from Warri River Basin, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpesu, Thomas Ohwofasa

    2015-06-01

    The distribution of Paraquat dichloride in different matrices of Warri River, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria was examined. The samplings and physicochemical parameters of the river were carried out during the dry and wet seasons, and stations were visited on monthly basis. The downstream stations had significant (p  0.05). The reverse was the case for sediments and fish. The physicochemical parameters of the river's water were within the recommended limits accepted by Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria. The observed Paraquat dichloride concentrations were above ecological bench, an observation that calls for regular monitoring and strict law enforcement to develop a strategy to manage environmental hazards and to improve environmental protection of this area. PMID:25548014

  10. Risk based assessment for offshore jacket platform in Niger delta, Nigeria (corrosion and fatigue hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore structures are imperative for uninterrupted crude oil production which is the main stay of Nigerian economy. Fatigue and corrosion have been identified to be the most prevalent structural hazards in offshore environment. Jacket platform may be exposed to certain seawater wave which often leads to structural failure, particularly when the platform is subjected to corrosion and fatigue hazards. Therefore, corrosion and fatigue damage requires detail evaluation to prevent jacket platform from untimely failure. Risk based assessment method has been identified as the appropriate tool to determine the risk levels associated with component damages acted upon by several hazards with different scenarios. The results of this work revealed that simultaneously corroded and fatigued components exhibit unacceptable risk level and is the appropriate limiting damage scenario for marine structures underwater inspection. This technique is proved to be accurate and the most appropriate procedure for management of hazards, safety and environmental protection.

  11. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2015-07-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys (F = 2.044, p = 0.138, α = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  12. Assessment of Natural Radionuclides in Fly Ash Produced at Orji River Thermal Power Station, Nigeria and the Associated Radiological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Janet A. Ademola; Uzoma C. Onyema

    2014-01-01

    Coal fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. Coal contains trace quantities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The concentrations of these radionuclides are usually low in the coal, but enriched in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and soil samples in the vicinity of Orji River thermal power station in Nigeria was determined by gamma ray spec...

  13. Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2010-01-01

    The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to proce...

  14. Prediction And Performance Assessments of External Horizontal Global Illuminance of Measured Data from Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the measurements and analysis of external horizontal global illuminance for Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. A set of empirical expressions were derived from seasonal and yearly variations of horizontal global illuminance against solar altitude. The model derived from the study performed better compared with two other models proposed for the area from other studies conducted elsewhere. The results presented here serves to develop the base for reliable localized day lighting data to be used in building designs in the area

  15. Impact assessment of the environmental protection policies in the upstream oil industry in Nigeria / A.M. Bayagbon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayagbon, Anthony Mamurhomu

    2011-01-01

    The need for energy and the associated economic benefits from the oil and gas deposits found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria necessitated the exploration and exploitation activities being carried out by the oil and gas Companies. However, these exploration and exploitation activities due to their unpredictable nature have a huge potential for environmental pollution as been experienced in the form of oil spills, gas flaring, irresponsible disposal of waste and several ...

  16. The Direct Assessment and Captive Costs Methods for Estimating the Economic Costs of Power Outages among Selected Industries in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachimenum N. Amadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent power outages, the typical Nigerian firm incurs huge costs arising from damaged equipment, lost output, spoiled materials, idle workers and restart costs. This paper developed mathematical models for the computation of the economic costs due to power outages in selected electricity intensive industries from the major industrial areas of Nigeria. This became necessary to optimize investment and operating decisions for adequate power outage mitigation measures.

  17. A comparative assessment of the factors that attract oil sector FDI in Nigeria and Angola / Jan Willem Eggink

    OpenAIRE

    Eggink, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the oil sector of Africa, more specifically in Nigeria and Angola. A large problem faced by most African countries is their low domestic investment. This is due to the low savings rates in these countries. FDI serves as a supplement to domestic investment and therefore allows for increased production and growth in the region that can ultimately lead to better development. Further, FDI brings forth positive spill over effects that...

  18. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsalam Saliu; Onajole Adebayo; Odeyemi Kofoworola; Ogunowo Babatunde; Abdussalam Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analy...

  19. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OYINLOYE, R. O.; J. Oloukoi

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC) dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other de...

  20. External Debts Management Strategies in Developing Economies: An Impact Assessment on Selected Economic Indices of Nigeria (2002–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Uche Lucy Onyekwelu; Emma Okoye; Uche Boniface Ugwuanyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines External Debts Management Strategies in developing economies and its implications on some key economic indices using Nigeria as a case study. This work has adopted both the content analysis and the empirical approach. Data for this study were basically secondary data. The quantitative data for analysis were gathered from the statistical bulletins/releases of relevant government agencies like the Debt Management Office, Central Bank and the Office of the Accountant General ...

  1. A Critical Assessment of Ministerial Formation in Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria in the Light of the Pastores Dabo Vobis: A Case Study of Claretian Institute, Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Enyinnaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the last few decades, spiritual formation has been receiving attention in theological education literature. An increasing number of theological educators have observed how easily this important objective of ministerial formation gets crowded out by the academic and ministry emphases. Others have called attention to the problem of fragmentation pointing to the need for integration in the work theological institutions do. Thus, it has become common to hear institutions boast of how integrated their programmes are and how much emphasis they place on spiritual formation. It is, however, not that common to see studies dedicated to finding out how these claims are actually realized in practice. The purpose of this paper is to assess to what extent Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria comply with the emphasis in the Pastores Dabo Vobis (PDV on spiritual formation. The PDV is the dominant Roman Catholic document on ministerial formation since Vatican II. The PDV has been influential in highlighting the importance of spiritual formation in theological education globally. The paper gives a brief overview of the PDV’s portrayal of ministerial formation and then examines one Roman Catholic Seminary in Nigeria (the Claretian Institute, Nekede, Owerri  to see to what extent spiritual formation is carried out amongst other objectives. The paper concludes with salient lessons other theological institutions can learn from Claretian Institute’s effort at provision of holistic and relevant theological preparation for ministers.

  2. Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

  3. Assessment of Radiological Levels in Soils from Artisanal Gold Mining Exercises at Awwal, Kebbi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological levels from Awwal artisanal gold mining exercises in Kebbi State. Results show mean values of activities of 40K>226Ra232 Th numerically as 425.96±5.56, 23.85±2.01 and 18.80±1.21 Bq/kg, respectively. The average outdoor gamma dose was 34.26 nGy/h while the mean annual effective dose rate was 42.15 &muSv/year (= 0.042 mSv/year, which is less than 0.07 mSv/year benchmark given in UNSCEAR (1993. Radio logically, the values obtained are low and do not imply any significant health concerns effects on the local population. However, the observed unprofessional practices such as lack of use of gas mask while working in the dust-filled mine cafes and at the mills could expose workers to possible risks from inhalation of respiratory crystalline silica as well as exposure to radon gas.

  4. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechiel Longe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

  5. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braide Wesley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

  6. Evaluation of Formation Damage and Assessment of Well Productivity of Oredo Field, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotara O. Oluwagbenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation damage canincurconsiderable cost for remediation and deferred production. Thorough understanding of the formation damage mechanisms, stringent measures for its control and prevention, and effective and efficient treatments are the keys for optimum production strategies for oil and gas fields. WELL 4X was investigated in this study to properly diagnosed and evaluate productivity in OREDO FIELD and Bottom Hole Pressure survey was used from Bottom Hole Pressure analysis in addition to the information of the well production history and reservoir data available to determine and assess the extent of the formation damage in the well. The WELL 4X was stimulated using Acid Foam Diversion Techniques to enhance reservoir productivity and increase economic operations. The stimulation job done on the well showed a peak increase of production from 850 bbl/day to 3200 b/d before it declined to 2150 bbl/day, and finally maintained an average stabilized rate of 2000 bbl/day. It has to be established that the treatment method on WELL 4X using Acid Foam Diversion Techniques and the Bottom Hole Pressure survey conducted on the WELL 4X in OREDO FIELD is found to be efficient in the determination and evaluation of formation damage.

  7. Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, Lucky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the stock market were also x-rayed. Also highlighted were the trading, clearing and settlement process of the Nigerian stock exchange and the short comings. The study concluded that for the Nigerian stock exchange to contribute significantly in the development of the Nigerian economy through mobilization and utilization of funds for expansion of business enterprises in the country, it should intensify efforts in creating public awareness as regards its services to the economy, effective investor education, fostering and stimulating speculation in the market and reforms that would compel investors to take due diligence when funds are to be raised by government to eliminate the buying and selling culture that exists in the market should be carried out.

  8. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S.Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

  9. Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoobe T.O.T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

  10. Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Solomon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and judges accountable without undue harm to their independence. It also started to address the scepticism about the courts among a significant part of the public, through efforts to improve media coverage, make information about courts more available, and make courts user friendly. While praiseworthy and bound to improve the reality and the perception of the administration of justice overall, these initiatives did not end attempts to exert influence on judges and case outcomes by powerful people (in the public and private sectors or the mechanisms that facilitated their efforts. This essay begins by identifying criteria for assessing the quality of the administration of justice in any country, including in the post-soviet world and suggesting specific markers (usually qualitative connected to each of the criteria developed above. Then, the essay provides an account of relevant policy initiatives in judicial reform undertaken first under Yeltsin and then in the Putin years. The essay goes to provide an assessment of the state of the courts in the Russian federation in 2007 in the light of the criteria and markers supplied in the first section. It concludes with a look to the future, and the identification of crucial markers of change for the post-Putin era.

  11. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  12. Chemical Water Quality Assessment in Selected Location in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Jidauna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examined well water quality (chemical in Jos metropolis which it collected a total of twenty water samples that were taken for laboratory analysis. The stratified systematic random method was used in the selection of sample area/location. A total of (10 out of the existing (20 wards were systematically selected, while in each of the wards, two wells with one each from higher and lower elevations were randomly selected in which water samples were collected. The samples collected were analyses at UNICEF (WATSAN Laboratory Bauchi. USEPA method of water analysis was used to test for the chemical parameters. Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient was used test for the relationship between high and low elevation in the sample elements, as well as mean and standard deviation. The results indicates that pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, As and Cyanide appears within NSDWQMPL, while NO2, Cl, F, Mn, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, CaCo3 and Cr marginally falls within acceptable standard for drinking water quality maximum permitted limit. Consequently, NO3, SO4, Fe and CaCo3 in some parts of Jos metropolis fall outside acceptable standard of NSDWQMPL. Moreover, pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, NO2, NO3, Cl, F, Mn, Cr, As, Cu, Zn, showed that there is no significant relationship within the individual elements in regards to elevation (high and low in the study area whereas, SO4, Fe, Mg, Ca, CaCo 3 and CaCo3 showed that there is significant relationship in elevation (high and low among the individual sample elements. The study concludes that well water quality through chemical assessment in Jos metropolis is not fit for drinking. It recommends sensitizations campaign on the importance of clean water, sanitation, enforcement of existing laws and more research be undertaken to cover for seasonal variation, more elements and sample size.

  13. Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Orebiyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ﴾Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Akindele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011 in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the rainy season than in the dry season, while pH and Biological Oxygen Demand were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the dry season than in the rainy season. Apparent colour, Total Solids (TS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, K+ Cl-, total acidity, total hardness, NO3- and PO43- decreased (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site, while water transparency, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, SO42 and Mg2+ showed an increase (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site. Apparent colour, TS, TSS, total acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ NO3- and PO43- increased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom, while pH, Mg2+ and DO decreased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom at the lacustrine section of the lake. Cluster analysis of the parameters showed major clusters between the major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and the general chemical characteristics (TDS, alkalinity, conductivity, acidity and hardness and also between the nutrient compounds (Organic matter, NO3- and PO43- and the hydro-physical parameters (TS, TSS, apparent colour, true colour and turbidity. The water quality indices and sodium absorption ratio values in the sampled stations indicated that the water is most suitable for probable applications at the lacustrine section, towards the dam site.

  15. Radiological assessment of fish samples due to natural radionuclides in river Yobe, Northern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12), fish became outliers with significant values of 112.53μSvy-1, 121.11μSvy-1 and 114.32μSvy-1 effective dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as well as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

  16. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong, Aliyu Haliru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration exceeds in two water samples; others are beyond detection level. In all, concentration of heavy metals in groundwater is in the order Mn >Fe > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni. The implication of the elevated levels of heavy metals in some samples of groundwater is a serious cause for concern to public health. Most of the groundwater samples are good and can be used for irrigation with adequate soil management

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment of Onyeama Coal Mine in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezemokwe, D.E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-metal concentration levels in water, coal wastes, soil and background soil were determined with a view to assessing the degree of contamination and environmental impact due to coal mining activities around Onyeama coal mine. A total of 58 samples comprising 11 water, 11 coal wastes, 22 soils and 14 background soils were collected and analyzed. Various physico-chemical characteristics of water analyzed include pH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphate, chloride, calcium and magnesium. Chemical analysis of water, coal wastes, soil and background soil samples were undertaken to determine concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, As, Mn and Fe using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF and Pollution Index (PI results indicate significant enrichments of Cd, Pb and Ni in all the media examined compared with other elements studied. In water, the concentrations of Fe (3.13 mg/l, Cd (0.33 mg/l, Ni (1.30 mg/l, Cr (0.12 mg/l and As (0.07 mg/l exceeded the recommended values (1.0, 0.003, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.01mg/l respectively for potable water. In coal waste samples, Cd (2.52mg/kg is high with health risk level of 5. Cu (2.81mg/kg, Co (1.57 mg/kg and As (0.19 mg/kg moderately polluted the environment. In soil, high mean concentration levels are recorded for Cd (5.56 mg/kg and Pb (3.15 mg/kg, moderate to low levels for Cr (1.88 mg/kg, Cu (1.70 mg/kg, Co (0.44mg/kg, Mn (0.99mg/kg and As (0.16 mg/kg. Concentration of metals in the four media examined indicated that the level of pollution is in descending order as shown: soil medium >>>coal wastes medium >> water medium> background soil medium. Reference to World Health Organization standards, the observed trend in the concentration of the metals in the media, will pose health problems to humans and may impact adversely on the ecological, agricultural as well as underground water systems.

  19. Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 μGyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 μGyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14μSvy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ≤ 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

  20. Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Nwankwoala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006 standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006 limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l. The concentration of sodium ion (Na+ ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water, except chloride with low values (9.5 to 158mg/l compared to W.H.O limit of 250m/l for drinking water. The low concentration is an indication of absence of salt water intrusion in the area. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is recommended that regular hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation. More importantly, hydrogeological study is very imperative to fully understand the hydrogeology of the area.

  1. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kudi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmers’ budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the traders’ budget revealed that from an investment cost of 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders’ are making a revenue of 41,700.00 (lint + seed and a net profit of 4,954.00 ton-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors. There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  2. Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mmadu, R. A. O.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation ...

  3. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES ampersand H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES ampersand H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES ampersand H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES ampersand H issues

  4. Multi-criteria Assessment of the Relationship between Deforestation, Rainfall and Landuse Change from Remotely Sensed Data in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, F.; Aragao, L.; Mercado, L.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to undertake an in-depth evaluation of deforestation, rainfall and landuse dynamics in Nigeria using a localized hybrid TREES/FAO deforestation model. Forty seven (47) 2002 (October 2001-March, 2002) Landsat 7 scenes covering Nigeria were assembled and processed with 376 ground control points for image rectification, reprojection, conversion to reflectance and mosaicking. We also assembled 250m and 500m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data for Nigeria for 2002. Using data from the NigerianSat1 Atlas for 2003, Nigerian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (NGSDI) 2002 and a threshold of 70% /5ha for forest cover, the Landsat and MODIS composites were classified into Rainforest, Swamp Forest, Deciduous Forest and Cropland. The overall accuracy was 88%. We developed a multi-criteria hybrid TREE/FAO model for sampling deforestation rates for 2002, 2008 and 2012 for Nigeria. For 2008 and 2012, NigerianSat1 and other satellite data sources were used to fill gaps or replace data on the scanner error of Landsat7. Accumulated patches of Rainfall Data (0.250 x 0.250) was obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for selected forest samples while land cover data from NGSDI was updated with field work data in other evaluate its relationship with the Remotely sensed data. Deforestation rates stood at 0.33% yr-1, 0.14 yr-1 and 0.17% yr-1 for the Woodland, Rainforest and Deciduous Forest respectively. Estimates for the Swamp Forest could not be effectively computed due to high cloud cover throughout the year. The relationship between forest cover change and rainfall stood at r= 0.21; p?0.05 and r=0.42; p?0.05 for the forest and Savannah zones respectively. Deforestation rate was higher in the Woodland than the Rainforest and Deciduous zones due to the better economic value of the species and the ease of felling these trees with minimal cost and favorable terrain features. The weak relationship between rainfall and forest cover in the Rainforest is associated with its location within the zone of maximum air mass convergence due to the concave landscape structure of the Niger Delta to the Atlantic. Moreover, the Rainforest region is nearly always green throughout the year with a highly variable dry season when there are no clouds; hence variability in rainfall may not affect the rate forest cover change as opposed to the Savannah landscapes where forest cover change is dependent on rainfall or moisture supply. Consequently our results show that deforestation is concentrated along the Forest-Savannah boundary of Nigeria where intensive agriculture, anthropogenic forest fires and shifting cultivation dominate. Our results could not confirm hot deforestation spots (pixels) as indicated by most continental-global scale evaluation of deforestation patches. We are going to develop a multi-criteria decision support system for identifying localized deforestation hot spots for Nigeria.

  5. Manganese as a Reference Element for the Assessment of Zinc Enrichment and Depletion in Selected Farming Soils of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Uduma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn content was evaluated of the arable soils in the vicinity of mining and dumping sites in Nigeria. Its content the arable soils assayed by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS ranged from 48.3 to 280.4 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF calculated by using manganese as a crustal reference element fell within a range of 16.3-161.2. The mean values of the enrichment factor of 59.41 classified the soil as extremely high enrichment with zinc. Anthropogenic activities contribute significantly to the elevated level of zinc in the studied areas.

  6. Assessing the contributions of private health facilities in a pioneer private-public partnership in childhood immunization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuemeka Oluoha; Chukwuemeka Umeh; Hycienth Ahaneku

    2014-01-01

    The vision of Nigeria’s immunization program is to reach and sustain routine immunization coverage of greater than 90% for all vaccines by 2020. In order to achieve this, Abia state embarked on a unique private-public partnership (PPP) between private health facilities and the Abia state ministry of health. The aim of this partnership was to collaborate with private health facilities to provide free childhood immunization services in the state - the first of its kind in Nigeria. This is a ret...

  7. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olanike K. Adeyemo; Oniovosa E. Ubiogoro

    2012-01-01

    The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish s...

  8. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olufunmilola T. Bankole; Ojuri, Oluwapelumi O.

    2013-01-01

    Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show a...

  9. 75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education... Reading. SUMMARY: The National Assessment Governing Board is soliciting public comment and recommendations... Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels definitions describe the reading skills and...

  10. Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babagana, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

  11. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in Intelligence Agency 2012; Fotso et al. 2011). Over half of the population already lives in an urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

  12. Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. → Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. → Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

  13. Analysis of Settlement Expansion and Urban Growth Modelling Using Geoinformation for Assessing Potential Impacts of Urbanization on Climate in Abuja City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of settlement expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, one of West Africa’s fastest developing cities, using geoinformation and ancillary datasets. Three epochs of Land-use Land-cover (LULC maps for 1986, 2001 and 2014 were derived from Landsat images using support vector machines (SVM. Accuracy assessment (AA of the LULC maps based on the pixel count resulted in overall accuracy of 82%, 92% and 92%, while the AA derived from the error adjusted area (EAA method stood at 69%, 91% and 91% for 1986, 2001 and 2014, respectively. Two major techniques for detecting changes in the LULC epochs involved the use of binary maps as well as a post-classification comparison approach. Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis was conducted to detect LULC changes with specific focus on the settlement development pattern of Abuja, the federal capital city (FCC of Nigeria. Logical transitions to the urban category were modelled for predicting future scenarios for the year 2050 using the embedded land change modeler (LCM in the IDRISI package. Based on the EAA, the result showed that urban areas increased by more than 11% between 1986 and 2001. In contrast, this value rose to 17% between 2001 and 2014. The LCM model projected LULC changes that showed a growing trend in settlement expansion, which might take over allotted spaces for green areas and agricultural land if stringent development policies and enforcement measures are not implemented. In conclusion, integrating geospatial technologies with ancillary datasets offered improved understanding of how urbanization processes such as increased imperviousness of such a magnitude could influence the urban microclimate through the alteration of natural land surface temperature. Urban expansion could also lead to increased surface runoff as well as changes in drainage geography leading to urban floods.

  14. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women of northeast Nigeria on risk factors associated with cancer of the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Bimba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.

  15. Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.

  16. The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.C. Mbagwu

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

  17. Downstream assessment of chlorinated organic compounds in the bed-sediment of Aiba Stream, Iwo, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutona, Godwin O; Olatunji, Stephen O; Obisanya, Joshua F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated levels and distribution pattern of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) otherwise known as organochlorine pesticides in sediment samples at downstream of Aiba watercourse in Iwo, South-western Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction method followed by GC-ECD analysis were used to ascertain levels of COCs in the sediment samples collected from four different locations along the stream. Eighteen COCs were detected with trans permethrin and endosulfan sulfate having highest and lowest concentrations of 375.70 ± 689.41 and 0.03 ± 0.05 µg/g, respectively. The varying levels of COCs as obtained in this study were attributed to organochlorine pesticides contamination emanated from different agricultural practices and domestic sewage loads of the study area. PMID:26839760

  18. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Oyinloye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other details supported by GPS locations was carried out. Seven dominant classes of feature: agro-forest/light forest, built-up area, exposed rock surfaces/bare land, forest reserve, shrub and arable land, ridge forest and water body were identified. A time series analysis of the LULC changes was carried out to provide the necessary understanding of the changes required for policy formulation and decision-making with respect to cocoa production, forest reserve management and landuse planning, control, coordination and budgeting while being mindful of environmental conservation. This indispensable geo-information is yet lacking in the cocoa growing belt of southwestern Nigeria. ArcView software was used to prepare the corresponding time series LULC maps of the study area. The study showed that the forest reserves within the study area reduced at an average rate of 2.78% per year while agro-forest/light forest reduced to 46.39% (i.e., at an average rate of 1.55% per year and, shrub and arable land increased by 323.06% (i.e., at an average rate of 10.77% per year for food production farming to feed the rapidly increasing population between 1972 and 2002.

  19. An Assessment of the Efficiency of Government Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria. Case of the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwanehi Barbara Ofuani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Business, Government and Society interrelationships. It eventually narrowed down to assessing the efficiency of government regulatory agencies, in fulfilling the role of government in protecting consumers from unscrupulous practices of businesses. The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC was chosen for the study. Since the expectations of the consumers are paramount here, the stakeholder approach method was used for assessing the efficiency of NAFDAC. Literature and previous empirical studies on the topic were examined. For representativeness, data was collected utilizing the survey research design through Questionnaire distributed to 200 respondents in some areas of Lagos Mainland in Lagos state, using the convenience sampling method. 187 copies of the questionnaire representing 93.5% were returned and usable. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the responses to questions regarding the efficiency of NAFDAC and a hypothesis tested using a one-sample T-test. The findings ran contrary to results from some previous studies. Instead, consumer awareness of the existence of NAFDAC as a regulatory agency and its functions were established, along with a high rate of consumer education. The assessment of its efficiency also showed a high rating. Recommendations were made that the study be replicated in other states of Nigeria and further studies carried out to evaluate its efficiency under previous and current directors for improvement purposes.

  20. Suicidal ideation: Are refugees more at risk compared to host population? Findings from a preliminary assessment in a refugee community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, O O; Atilola, O; Soyannwo, T

    2015-12-01

    Among the serious mental health problems that may be associated with being a refugee is suicidal behavior. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among African refugees in Oru-Ijebu Nigeria. Suicidal ideation was assessed using appropriate section in the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview while the brief version of the WHO Quality of Life was used to assess quality of life as a clinical variable. Study involved 444 refugees and 527 non-refugee member of host community. Result showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee comparison group (27.3% vs. 17.3%; prefugees compared with their non-refugee members of same community. Quality of life was the only factor independently associated with suicidal ideations among refugees. In conclusion, the study shows that the prevalence of suicidal ideation is significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee members of the host community and calls for innovative ways of extending mental health services to refugees at the study site. PMID:26412050

  1. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  2. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Søren Peter; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo L; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Thornton, John S; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypoth...... hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups....

  3. Tubular biomarkers to assess progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Gianfranco; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2011-05-01

    Despite aggressive management, many patients with diabetic nephropathy still develop end-stage renal disease. Accompanying tubulointerstitial damage is important in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Markers of tubular damage, such as NGAL, KIM-1, and LFABP, have been proposed for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. However, Nielsen et al. report a lack of an independent correlation between these biomarkers and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, these markers seem to offer no improvement in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21527942

  4. Assessing Progress in Mastery of Counseling Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntze, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDuring the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine (Murphy, Murphy & Newcomb, 1937). However, during the second half of the last century this term also came into vogue for describing social interactions between humans (Argyle, 1981). Social skills ca...

  5. Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

  6. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

  7. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  8. [FY 2014 progress report]: Water Resource Inventory and Assessments in Region 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior This progress report for Water Resource Inventory and Assessment documents activities occurring on Region 5 Refuges during FY2014. The goal of the WRIAs is to help...

  9. Geoscience skills in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Key, Roger; Johnson, Christopher; Knights, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As part of a team from the British Geological Survey, scientists Dan Lapworth and Kate Knights have just finished a two-year programme to train geoscientists in Nigeria. The trainee geoscientists carried out regional stream sediment surveys, as part of a long-term mapping programme across Nigeria. The sediment analysis will be used to find new, economically valuable mineral deposits in Nigeria. Understanding the natural distribution of elements – the geochemical baseline – will also help ...

  10. Nigerias 2015 Election in Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nkwachukwu Orji; Institute of African Affairs, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies

    2014-01-01

    As Nigeria moves closer to its 2015 elections, there are concerns that the elections, like the previous ones, will be marred by violence. This article examines why elections are usually volatile in Nigeria, the main sources of apprehensions regarding the 2015 elections, the key issues that might define the elections, factors that might mitigate the outbreak of violence, and the national and regional fallout that can be expected.

  11. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

  12. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  13. Obstetric Knowledge of Nurse-Educators in Nigeria: Levels, Regional Differentials and Their Implications for Maternal Health Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Salisu Ishaku; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Oginni, Ayodeji Babatunde; Tukur, Jamilu; Adoyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of nurse-midwife educators on the major causes of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Setting: Schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria. Method: A total of 292 educators from 171 schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria were surveyed for their knowledge of the major causes of maternal mortality as a prelude to…

  14. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

  15. Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva; Lewis Brooks, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual to collaborative learning combined to indicate three notable changes resulting from the strategy: (1......) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT...

  16. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  17. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

  18. Local Residents Perception on the Causes and Effects of Deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Ba,; M. Galtima,; A. L. Tukur,; A. A. Zemba1

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the local residents understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria...

  19. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 3.3, 25.8 4.7 and 153.9 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 3.1, 23.9 4.5 and 219.9 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 3.2, 26.3 3.8 and 149.0 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 3.1, 29.7 4.0, 28.2 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 0.004, 0.036 0.005, 0.035 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. PMID:23567195

  20. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, were 12.53.3, 25.84.7 and 153.918.5 Bq kg-1 for Suntan Beach, 13.13.1, 23.94.5 and 219.933.9 Bq kg-1 for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.23.2, 26.33.8 and 149.019.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.83.1, 29.74.0, 28.23.3 nGy h-1, respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.0340.004, 0.0360.005, 0.0350.004 mSv y-1, which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y-1 recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. (authors)

  1. Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edafiaje, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured questionnaire used as instrument for data collection. The study showed that Microfinance service, particularly, those sponsored by government, have resulted in an increased level of credit disbursement and gains in agricultural production and other activities, the effects were short- lived, due to the unsustainable nature of the programme. Microfinance banks should increase the interval between asking for loans repayment and the time of granting the loans as this renders useless the study or verification of the borrower feasibility study, more especially under an inflationary period.

  2. Biometric and Intelligent Self-Assessment of Student Progress System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Pruskus, V.; Vlasenko, A.; Seniut, M.; Kaklauskas, G.; Matuliauskaite, A.; Gribniak, V.

    2010-01-01

    All distance learning participants (students, professors, instructors, mentors, tutors and the rest) would like to know how well the students have assimilated the study materials being taught. The analysis and assessment of the knowledge students have acquired over a semester are an integral part of the independent studies process at the most…

  3. Assessing the Restructuring of SADC - Positions, Policies and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Jan; Tjønneland, Elling N.

    2001-01-01

    This study was commissioned by Norad. The Report provides an assessment of the institutional restructuring of SADC and an input to the planning of future Norwegian assistance to regional co-operation in Southern Africa. The institutional reforms mainly revolve around the changing role and functions of the SADC Secretariat but also include the sector co-ordinating units in member states which have been found highly uneven in their ability to pursue and implement policies; the establishment of ...

  4. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  5. Nigeria Strategic Gas Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    The study underlines the government's strategic role in promoting proactive gas development schemes, and the drive for change in gas flaring reduction, for better use of Nigeria's gas resources. It is an analysis and integration of independent proposals from international oil companies to the Government of Nigeria for gas utilization projects. The elements and policy framework are evaluate...

  6. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg-1, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg-1 and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg-1, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg-1, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg-1 and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  8. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEBOLA A. ADEKUNLE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and predictive equations were developed. Result showed that Ecorem increased SEC by 13.43 to 23.03%, improved the original soil status (159.25 ±9.25 µScm-1 by 8.63 to 52.94% and did not render the treated soil saline. The effect also varied with Ecorem – soil weight ratio, giving positive correlations with coefficients of up to 0.967 (p = 0.01; which is a function of petroleum product type. Predictive equations developed showed that for planning remediation project execution using Ecorem; for soil contaminated by petroleum products such as spent engine oil and crude oil, marginal negative errors of 9% and positive error of 2 to 17% should be taken into consideration.

  9. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  10. Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression

  11. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

  12. Assessment of Pregnancy Status, Malaria Knowledge and Malaria Fever Morbidity among Women of Reproductive Ages in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one the major health problem in Nigeria. During pregnancy, it poses serious threat to the survival of both unborn foetus and the mothers. This study determined the effect of adequate malaria knowledge and pregnancy status of women on use of mosquito nets and reported malaria fever morbidity.The data were collected during the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS from 4632 women. Data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics and Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit regression.Results show that 13.19% of the women were pregnant, of which about one-third slept under mosquito nets. Also, 25.26% reported malaria associated fever in the previous two weeks to the time of interview, while 78.28% correctly answered that mosquitoes are responsible for malaria. Knowledge on malaria prevention was low with 55.70% and 14.93% indicating sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN, respectively. Probability of sleeping under mosquito nets significantly increased with knowing that sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN could prevent malaria while it decreased with having fever, age, urban residence and knowing that use of mosquito spray and coil can prevent malaria. The probability of having fever increased significantly with household size, being pregnant and age at first birth but decreased with age, knowing that sleeping under ITN, cutting grasses and closing door/windows would prevent malaria.Use of mosquito nets among the women was low. Also, efforts to enhance their knowledge on malaria prevention and ensuring adequate access to mosquito nets especially for pregnant women would curtail the impact of malaria.

  13. An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola Adeyemi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

  14. Optical Assessment of Vascular Disease Progression and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua A.

    Vascular disease manifests itself in many different forms, including chronic ulcers which do not heal, impaired blood flow to the limbs, or damage to the natural reperfusion process. The current forms of assessing vascular disease are often subjective and provide incomplete knowledge about the tissue of interest. This work focused on developing non-invasive techniques to quantitatively evaluate three specific elements of vascular disease: diabetic ulcers, venous ulcers, and peripheral arterial disease. Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) was used to predict healing (82% positive predictive value) in diabetic ulcers after 4 weeks of assessment (sensitivity of 0.9 and specificity of 0.86; pwound size reduction alone (the current gold standard). A novel therapeutic ultrasound treatment for venous ulcers, using a low-frequency (20kHz), low intensity (wounds which do not heal (pwound outcomes, specifically the rate of wound closure per week (pwound size, p30 seconds) belonging to patients with PAD (ptechniques using non-invasive optical modalities.

  15. Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of south-east Nigeria using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the state capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. An inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three (33) water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydrochemical analysis, which results, when available would lie interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydrochemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to water resources managers and decision-makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

  16. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  17. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, plung cancer.

  18. Nigeria : Strengthening Monetary and Liquidity Management

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) identified considerable problems in containing the upsurge in liquidity in the financial system, partly caused by spending of oil receipts. In the face of persistent excess liquidity in the financial system, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) made numerous adjustments in the monetary policy framework and instruments; however, these had a l...

  19. 2002 progress report and public health assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    Clean Air Hamilton focuses on improving air quality in the City by providing advice to City Council. The actions and activities of Clean Air Hamilton directly benefit residents. The activities relate to natural areas and corridors; reducing and managing waste; consuming less energy; changing our modes of transportation; land use issues in urban areas; and, personal health and well-being. The report includes an assessment of human health impacts caused by air pollution in Hamilton. It uses the most recent science and Hamilton air quality data as a basis. The results indicate that approximately 100 people die prematurely each year in Hamilton, while approximately 620 people require admission to hospitals for respiratory and cardiovascular problems related to exposure to pollutants. The second Upwind Downwind Conference was held in February 2002, sponsored by Clean Air Hamilton. All three levels of government view Clean Air Hamilton as a success. The City of Hamilton was awarded the prestigious 2000 Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving Living Environment as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. 47 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

    2012-08-01

    The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

  1. An assessment on DNA microarray and sequence-based methods for the characterization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Adebayo O.; Oyedara, Omotayo; Okon, Kenneth; Raji, Adeola; Peters, Georg; von Mller, Lutz; Schaumburg, Frieder; Herrmann, Mathias; Ruffing, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections worldwide. In the characterization of this opportunistic pathogen, DNA microarray hybridization technique is used as an alternative to sequence based genotyping to obtain a comprehensive assessment on the virulence, resistance determinants, and population structure. The objective of this study was to characterize a defined collection of S. aureus isolates from Nigeria using the microarray technique, and to assess the extent that it correlates with sequence-based genotyping methods. The clonal diversity and genomic content of 52 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were investigated by spa typing, MLST and DNA microarray hybridization. More than half (55.8%) of these isolates were associated with clonal complexes (CCs) typically associated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones i.e., CC1, CC5, CC8, CC30, and CC45. Certain genes linked with virulence (hlgA and clfA) and adherence (ebpS, fnbA, sspA, sspB, and sspP) were detected in all isolates. A number of genes or gene clusters were associated with distinct clonal types. The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) was linked with CC5, CC25, CC30, CC45, and CC121, enterotoxin H gene (seh) with CC1, exfoliative toxin D gene (etd) with CC25 and CC80, and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B gene (edinB) with CC25, CC80, and CC152. The excellent agreement between data from DNA microarray and MLST in the delineation of Nigerian MSSA isolates indicates that the microarray technique is a useful tool to provide information on antibiotic resistance, clonal diversity and virulence factors associated with infection and disease. PMID:26539185

  2. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanike K. Adeyemo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6 for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

  3. Religion in a Secular State and State Religion in Practice: Assessing Religious Influence, Tolerance, and National Stability in Nigeria and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuwunenye Clifford Njoku

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some recent state formations are offshoots of religious societies where the elite clothed the state with religious apparel. Diverse communities and their beliefs compel many modern nations to adopt a secular state ideology in order to avoid religious domination of time. Constitutionally, Islam is the official religion in Malaysia, while the state has maintained peaceful co-existence among its religious groups with an emphasis on religious tolerance and improved wealth distribution. Conversely, Nigeria, constitutionally a secular state with shared populations of mainly Christians and Muslims, is embroiled in yearly religious conflicts. This article aims to show how Nigerias secular state status is engulfed in religious bigotry due to institutional inadequacies. This is unlike Malaysias state-centered influence on religion, yet its wealth distribution policy makes room for peaceful co-existence in its polity as against more severe challenges of corruption in Nigeria. The paper argues that leadership and institutional failures have exacerbated religious conflicts in Nigeria and hence the state totters in the face of tension. A theoretical debate unveils our proposition on religious practices in both countries. We rely on secondary data and empirical evidence in unveiling issues and conclude with modest recommendations.

  4. Physics Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jefferson L.

    2006-12-01

    For the last year and half I have been teaching at ABTI-American University of Nigeria (AAUN) in Yola, Nigeria (a small rural town in eastern Nigeria). One of the primary goals of AAUN is to offer American-style higher education in West Africa. Before coming to AAUN, I taught beginning physics using lecture/discussion and Real-Time Physics laboratories in the USA for ten years. I will discuss the differences and difficulties I have found in trying to use these teaching methods with West African students.

  5. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  6. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  7. Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20μSv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

  8. Grasscutter (Thyonomys Swinderianus) Husbandry in Nigeria: A Review of The Potentialities, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, O. J.; Dike, U. A.

    2012-01-01

    Domestication of grasscutter is a relatively novel practice in Nigeria with its potentialities, challenges and opportunities. This study was a review of grasscutter husbandry in Nigeria. The major aim was to assess the potentialities, opportunities and challenges of this aspect of farming in Nigeria. As revealed by the study, the potentialities of grasscutter rearing are that grasscutter farming has social acceptability, good meat quality of high biological value (high protein and low fat), i...

  9. Collaboration between paediatric surgery and other medical specialties in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoro, Philemon E; Emmanuel A Ameh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The quality of service and success of patient care and research in most fields of medicine depend on effective collaboration between different specialties. Paediatric surgery is a relatively young specialty in Nigeria and such collaborations are desirable. This survey assesses the nature and extent of collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire survey carried out in November 2008 among paediatric surgeon...

  10. Emotional distress among people with epilepsy in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhu, Folorunsho T.; Abdulkareem J Yusuf; Marufah D Lasisi; Saad B Aremu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is associated with significant psychiatric morbidities. However, little is known about epilepsy and emotional distress in northern Nigeria. Aim: To assess the prevalence and determinants of emotional distress among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kaduna, northern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January, 2011 and June, 2011. Materials and Methods: We administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as well as the Oslo 3-It...

  11. Nigeria Mission Performance Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development The Performance Reporting System (PRS) is a reporting system that enables USAID/Nigeria Implementing Partners to report their performance data and USAID/Nigeria...

  12. Using aromatic biological markers as a tool for assessing thermal maturity of source rocks in the Campano-Maastrichtian Mamu Formation, southeastern Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jude E, Ogala; Mike I, Akaegbobi.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La concentracin y distribucin de biomarcadores aromticos en carbones y esquistos de cinco perforaciones en la formacin Maastrichtian Mamu de la cuenca de Anambra, en el sureste de Nigeria, fueron analizados a travs de un estudio de espectometra cromatogrfico y de masa del gas para medir la ma [...] durez termal y la entrada de material orgnico. El estudio est enfocado en las variaciones de la abundancia relativa de naftalinas y fenantrenos, y en los esteroides monoaromticos y triaromticos identificados en los fragmentogramas de masas. La trimetinaftalina (TMN) es la ms abundante de la familia de las naftalinas mientras el metilfenantreno (MP) es el ms abundante de los fenantrenos. El tota de los fenantrenos y sus ismeros fue mayor que el de las naftalinas. La distribucin de estos hidrocarbones aromticos y sus alquilos derivados fue controlada ampliamente por un mecanismo de expulsin selectiva y de la maduracin trmica de material orgnico. La baja proporcin dibenziotofeno/fenantreno (DBT/PHEN) (0.01-0.06), al igual que las concentraciones mejoradas de 1,2,5-TMN relativas de 1,2,7-TMN indican que la materia orgnica se deriva principalmente de plantas mayores, y del diagrama terniario de los esteroides monoaromticos C27, C28 y C29 sugiere un tipo III mezclado con tipos II/III de quergenos. El valor calculado de la reflectancia de vitrinita (%Rm) determinado de la proporcin de ismeros de metildibenziotofeno (MDR) en los extractos rocosos oscila de 0.51 a 1.43. Estos valores de madurez indican que los extractos de carbones y esquistos son marginalmente maduros para la generacin de hidrocarbono. Abstract in english The concentration and distribution of aromatic biomarkers in coals and shales from five boreholes penetrating the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess the thermal maturity and organic matter input [...] . The study focused on the variations of the relative abundances of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and monaromatic and triaromatic steroids identified on the mass fragmentograms. Trimethylnaphthalene (TMN) is the most abundant member of the naphthalene family while methylphenanthrene (MP) is the most abundant phenanthrene family member. The total of phenanthrenes and their isomers was greater than that of naphthalenes. The distribution of these aromatic hydrocarbons and their akyl derivatives was strongly controlled by a selective expulsion mechanism and thermal maturation of organic matter. The low dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene (DBT/PHEN) ratios (0.01-0.06), as well as the enhanced concentrations of 1,2,5-TMN relative to 1,2,7- TMN, indicates organic matter derived mainly from higher plants, and the extract ternary plot of C27, C28 and C29 monoaromatic steroids suggests a Type III and mixed Type II/III kerogen. The calculated mean vitrinite reflectance (%Rm), determined from the distributions of the isomers of methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR) in the rock extracts, ranged from 0.51 to 1.43. These maturity values indicate that the coal and shale extracts are marginally mature for hydrocarbon generation.

  13. Assessing the Moral Relevance of Peace Education Contents in the Basic Education Social Studies Curricula for Effective Citizenship Participation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaubani, Okechukwu O,; Okafor, Ogochukwu Stella

    2015-01-01

    Social studies is a core subject at the basic education level in Nigeria which has the potentials of inculcating functional knowledge and desirable morals into pupils for effective citizenship participation through peaceful coexistence. However, despite this positive trend, the moral significance of peace education contents of the subject seem not…

  14. Research progress of motor function assessments and their clinical applications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, clinically featured as progressive skeletal muscle atrophy with gradual loss of muscle strength and activity abilities, is the most common genetic muscular disease in children throughout the world. The core and continuous characteristic of DMD is motor dysfunction. Motor function assessments of DMD are now focusing on muscle strength, walking ability, range of motion and ability of activities, still without unified standards. Confirming the comprehensive, scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation tools for DMD assessment is the premise of research in motor developmental rules of DMD, which will help to better understand the motor progress of DMD and to supply evidences for choosing treatment methods, confirming timing of intervention, assessing effect of treatments and designing rehabilitation plans. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.002

  15. Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes. PMID:23601404

  16. Assessing progression of clinical reasoning through virtual patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Elenita; Ziegert, Kristina; Hult, Hkan; Fors, Uno

    2016-01-01

    To avoid test-driven learning, there have been discussions regarding the use of more formative assessments in health care education to promote students' deep learning. Feedback is important in formative assessment, but many students ignore it; therefore, interventions should be introduced which stimulate them to reflect on the new knowledge. The aim for this study was to explore if Virtual Patient (VP)-based formative assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, had an impact on postgraduate pediatric nursing students' development of clinical reasoning abilities. Students' self-evaluations served as the basis for measuring progress. Data was analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings showed a clear progression of the clinical reasoning ability of the students. After the first assessment, the students described feelings of uncertainty and that their knowledge gaps were exposed. At the mid-course assessment the awareness of improved clinical reasoning was obvious and the students were more certain of knowing how to solve the VP cases. In the final assessment, self-efficacy was expressed. VP-based assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, early in the education resulted in a gain of students' own identification of the concept of clinical reasoning, awareness of what to focus on during clinical practice and visualised expected clinical competence. PMID:26482401

  17. An Assessment of the Changes in the Landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki Development Prone Area of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry N Obiefuna; Semiat O Idris; N. UDUMA-OLUGU

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment is the analysis of the evolution of a landscape, an examination of the basic natural and human processes with ecological interrelationships which jointly shape that landscape and determine values for its uses. This paper is an assessment of the landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki development prone area on the North-East of Lagos Metropolis. It utilized the analytical tool of ArcGIS with topographic maps and Ikonos imaging to examine changes in the land use/land cover of the ar...

  18. A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and

  19. Assessment of Management Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant management competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the management competencies possessed by the university…

  20. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence

  1. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  2. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jibiri Nnamdi N.; Oguntade Grace T.

    2007-01-01

    The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally expo...

  3. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Moshood N. Tijani; Shinichi ONODERA

    2009-01-01

    With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water a...

  4. Geology and Geochemical Assessment of Metal Contamination of Stream Sediments at Igun and Its Environs, Ilesha Area South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola A. I.; Adebisi N. O.; Ikhane P. R.; Bankole S. I.; Olaleye F.

    2014-01-01

    The cause of heavy metal contamination in stream sediments is probably related to mining activities in Igun study area. Hence the degree of contamination of major and trace elements was carried out to ascertain environmental impact assessment of Igun and its environs, the geology of the study area shows that talc schist, quartzite, amphibolite and granite are the major rock types within the study area, while petrographic studies show quartz, microcline feldspar, biotite, muscovite and hornble...

  5. An Empirical Investigation of Fraud Risk Assessment and Knowledge Requirement on Fraud Related Problem Representation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates Fraud Risk Assessment Task Performance (TPFRA) and Knowledge Requirement (KR) of the forensic accountant and auditor on Fraud Related Problem Representation (FRPR) in the Nigerian public sector. The study used cross-sectional design and 400 Survey questionnaires. The respondents are real professional people (auditors and forensic accountants in the Nigerian public sector) as true representatives to enhance the generalisation of the outcomes. A total of 36 indica...

  6. The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asibong U

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Udeme Asibong,1 Ita B Okokon,1 Thomas U Agan,2 Affiong Oku,3 Margaret Opiah,4 E James Essien,5 Emmanuel Monjok1,5 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 4Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 5Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA Background: Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology: Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results: The majority of the respondents (70.8% had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (χ2=12.05, P=0.0001 and partograph availability (χ2=56.5, P=0.0001 had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (χ2=9.43, P=0.002 was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%, nonavailability (70%, shortage of staff (61.5%, and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%. Conclusion: Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. Keywords: knowledge, utilization, partograph, obstetric caregivers, labor monitoring, Nigeria

  7. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  8. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,

  9. ASSESSMENT OF COMPLIANCE TO TREATMENT AMONG AMBULATORY ASTHMATIC PATIENTS IN A SECONDARY HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Showande et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the level of compliance using three different methods: pill count, self report and peak expiratory flow rate, in asthmatic patients attending a secondary health care facility. Self report (using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, peak expiratory flow rate and pill count were used to assess patient’s compliance and identify the factors which may be responsible for non compliance. Measurement of peak expiratory flow rate and the pill count were done at two different occasions. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics. The study showed that the patients were prescribed a range of one to four drugs: 54% (3 drugs, 32% (2 drugs, 8% (4 drugs and 2% (1 drug. The levels of compliance were 86.57% for self report and 83.56% for pill count (p > 0.05. Reasons given for non compliance were: apparent wellness (33.31%, forgetfulness (26.67%, cost of drugs (6.67%, dysphagia (6.67%, presence of non-disturbing symptoms (6.67%, side effects (6.67%, ignorance/fear of addiction (6.67%, perceived lack of benefit from treatment (6.67%, and lethargy towards chronic medication (6.67%. However, there was a significant difference in the readings of the peak expiratory flow rate measured at two different occasions (p < 0.05. The study showed no significant difference in the methods used to assess the level of compliance. Non compliance can be overcome by proper education of patients on the importance of complying with the administration of medication and proper usage of metered dose devices.

  10. Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    H.I Owamah

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g) of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>C...

  11. An Assessment of Sexually Transmitted Infection Management at the Primary Health Care Level in a Local Government in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Olayinka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The control of Sexually Transmitted Infections (ST Is is an important strategy in reproductive health and HIV/AIDS control. It should be such that comprehensive management of patients with ST Is is available at the primary health care level. This study was to assess the quality of ST I care at the primary health care level in Zaria. Method: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which a three-part structured questionnaire was administered to all staff who provided clinical services to patients seeking ST I services in the 28 operational health centres in the local government area and these facilities were also assessed using a checklist. Results: Over half of the respondents are females (54.5%, while the modal age group was 35-39years (36.4%. Most of the staff providing clinical including ST I services were Senior Community Health Extension Workers (SCHEWS (72.7% with only 5(9.1% nurses/midwives and 2(3.5% being Community Health Officers (CHOs. There were training gaps identified with only 16.3% trained on STI counseling only; the 3.6% trained on syndromic management were the CHOs who had no knowledge of the 4Cs of syndromic management. While counseling of patients was routinely done by 92.7% of respondents and 70.9% promoted the use of condoms; assessment of attitude to ST Is showed that 70.9% of respondents felt that ST Is are as a result of promiscuity, 78.2% believed that condoms would encourage promiscuity and 45.5% felt religion is against the use of condoms. However, 92.7% are of the opinion that condom use is protective against ST Is. Many of the respondents (81.8% support that all STI patients be screened for HIV; while 23.6% support the screening of spouses for STIs. Assessment of facilities available at the health centres show that none was adequately equipped for the syndromic management of ST Is. No centre had the syndromic management manual or chart; none had the STI-01 or -02 reporting forms. Only 39.3% had drug dispensing sections. Conclusion: Primary prevention of STI should be an integral part of the PHC package; conscious effort should be made to involve the PHC level in the surveillance and treatment of ST Is by proper training and provision of pertinent materials.

  12. Assessment Update: Progress, Trends, and Practices in Higher Education. Volume 25, Issue 6, November-December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment Update, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This issue of "Assessment Update" presents the following articles: (1) Origins of the WASC Assessment Leadership Academy; (2) Editor's Notes: Parallel Paths to Progress in Assessment in Europe and the United States; (3) The Impact of the First Three Years of the WASC Assessment Leadership Academy; (4) Restructuring the Writing

  13. Research progress of motor function assessments and their clinical applications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), clinically featured as progressive skeletal muscle atrophy with gradual loss of muscle strength and activity abilities, is the most common genetic muscular disease in children throughout the world. The core and continuous characteristic of DMD is motor dysfunction. Motor function assessments of DMD are now focusing on muscle strength, walking ability, range of motion and ability of activities, still without unified standards. Confirming the comprehensive, sc...

  14. Cross-section Trichometry: A Clinical Tool for Assessing the Progression and Treatment Response of Alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Mauro, Lucia M.; Tabas, Irene A; Chen, Anne L.; Llanes, Isabel C; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2012-01-01

    Background: To properly assess the progression and treatment response of alopecia, one must measure the changes in hair mass, which is influenced by both the density and diameter of hair. Unfortunately, a convenient device for hair mass evaluation had not been available to dermatologists until the recent introduction of the cross-section trichometer, which directly measures the cross-sectional area of an isolated bundle of hair. Objective: We sought to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of...

  15. Water Supply and Sanitation in Nigeria : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This analysis aims to help Nigeria assess its own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services, in the subsectors of rural and urban water supply, rural and urban sanitation, and hygiene. This second Country Status Overview (CSO2) compares Nigeria's own estimates of coverage with data from the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The impac...

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm2 or 107μW/m2) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm2 or 107μW/m2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

  17. Assessing progressivity of out-of-pocket payment: with illustration to Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world, policy makers are considering or implementing financing strategies that are likely to have a substantial impact on the equity of health financing. The assessment of the equity implication is clearly important, given the potential impact that alternative finance sources have on households. Households incur out-of-pocket payment directly from their budget, apart from their public or private insurance. Out-of-pocket payment is the primary concern, given their undesirable impact on households. Progressivity measures departures from proportionality in the relationship between out-of-pocket payment and ability to pay. It is the most frequently used yardstick to assess the equity of out-of-pocket payments in empirical studies. This paper provides an evaluation of such progressivity measures, undertaken using four approaches (proportion approach, tabulation approach, concentration curve and Kakwani's index), in order to reveal their usefulness and underlying notion. It is illustrated empirically with data on out-of-pocket payment for health care in Malaysia for 1998/ 1999, based on the nationally representative Household Expenditure Survey. Results indicate that out-of-pocket payments are mildly progressive, whilst the four approaches have their benefits and limitations in assessing equity implications. This analysis is of interest from a policy perspective, given Malaysia's heavy reliance on out-of-pocket payments to finance health care. PMID:17044546

  18. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

  19. Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I Owamah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>Cr>Cu>Co> Cd >Hg, while those of the sediments is in the order of Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg > Co. The control analysis was carried out in a non- oil polluted river (Ikpoba River and the values served as base line values for the study.

  20. An indirect assessment of the effects of oil pollution on the diversity and functioning of turtle communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Luiselli, L.; G. C. Akani

    2003-01-01

    There are many documented cases of oil spillage in the Niger Delta region, southern Nigeria (West Africa). Due to both habitat characteristics and omnivorous habits, the freshwater turtles are important vertebrates species in the trophic chain. They are therefore considered to play a significant role as ecological indicators for areas subjected to oil spillage events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oil spillage and consequent pollution on the abundance, complexity and fu...

  1. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  2. Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria; Mesure des radionucleides naturels et de l'evaluation de la dose de granits de l'Etat d'Ondo, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Ayeni, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-10-15

    The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th contents were lower, whereas the {sup 40}K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

  3. European Interests in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Misser, François

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a decline in bilateral trade in recent years, Nigeria still remains the European Union’s most important market and supplier in sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa. Conversely, Europe Fifteen is Nigeria’s first trading partner, both for imports and exports. An important fact in sub-Saharan Africa is that despite the decline of European investments in non-energy sectors, Nigeria is peculiar in that it is a country where the amount of investments exceeds the amount of European publ...

  4. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanstra, Joost P; Zürbig, Petra; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J G; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individuals, including 522 with follow-up data, using proteome analysis. We validated that a previously established multipeptide urinary biomarker classifier performed significantly better in detecting and predicting progression of CKD than the current clinical standard, urinary albumin. The classifier was also more sensitive for identifying patients with rapidly progressing CKD. Compared with the combination of baseline eGFR and albuminuria (area under the curve [AUC]=0.758), the addition of the multipeptide biomarker classifier significantly improved CKD risk prediction (AUC=0.831) as assessed by the net reclassification index (0.303±-0.065; P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.058±0.014; P<0.001). Correlation of individual urinary peptides with CKD stage and progression showed that the peptides that associated with CKD, irrespective of CKD stage or CKD progression, were either fragments of the major circulating proteins, suggesting failure of the glomerular filtration barrier sieving properties, or different collagen fragments, suggesting accumulation of intrarenal extracellular matrix. Furthermore, protein fragments associated with progression of CKD originated mostly from proteins related to inflammation and tissue repair. Results of this study suggest that urinary proteome analysis might significantly improve the current state of the art of CKD detection and outcome prediction and that identification of the urinary peptides allows insight into various ongoing pathophysiologic processes in CKD. PMID:25589610

  5. Cross border trade in grain between Nigeria and neighbouring Niger: Risk management assessment along Sokoto Illela-Konni border land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chiwuzulum Odozi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain is an important marketable commodity that is hampered by risk of interrelated dimensions, particularly in borderlands of West Africa. Assessing the extent of risk in borderlands can be valuable for policy-makers and likely to contribute to increased regional trade through effective management. Risk management along the grain supply chain was investigated. The methodology was qualitative using desk review of literature and field survey and interviews. While the survey revealed evidence of substantial volume of grain exchange, most of the traders indicated transportation, high taxes and low production of grain as the most important risk factors limiting trade. Production was found to be limited by low access to agricultural insurance, fertilizer, irrigation and credit. Although farmers had access to production information, market information was inadequate. While public grain reserve exists to manage price risk; the capacity was insignificant compared to the magnitude of grain trade in the region. The guaranteed minimum grain price was not collectively determined but by government and their contractors.

  6. An Assessment of Beneficiaries’ Satisfaction of the Management of Loan Contract Components by Farmer Cooperative Societies in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Oghenerobor Alufohai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed beneficiaries’ satisfaction in the managementof loag-contract components by cooperatives involved inthe farm credit delivery in Edo State. The objective was toidentify the components of the farm loan contract, examine themanagement strategies and rate the beneficiaries’ satisfaction ofsuch management strategies. This was done by purposivelyselecting 40 cooperatives involved in farm credit delivery inOredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha LGAs of Edo State where thereis a proliferation of cooperatives who are actively involved infarm credit delivery. Data were analyzed using descriptivestatistics, queuing model and satisfaction indices.Results showedthe main loan-contract components to be loan volume, repaymentregime, interest rates charged, default management, collateralrequired, timeliness and loan monitoring. Average beneficiaries’index was 4.28 out of 5 indicating high satisfaction originatingfrom good queue management with traffic density of 1.12,moderate interest rate of 9% p.a, active loan monitoring, nophysical collateral, timely disbursement of loan and accommodativerepayment regime. Only individual loan volumes were low as aresult of inadequate loanable fund. Study recommends that cooperativesocieties should take advantage of external sources offunds to boost the volume of their loanable funds.

  7. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    CERN Document Server

    Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

  8. Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria

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    S.A. Adesoji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302 between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230, size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245, hour spent on farm (b = 1.469 and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567 were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

  9. National Assessment of Educational Progress and State Assessments: What Do the Data Really Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Gordon, William R., II

    2011-01-01

    A high school principal and faculty celebrated after hearing that their students in each of the quartiles had improved in both reading and mathematics on the state accountability assessment. Because of the percent of increases in achievement levels on the test, the Florida Department of Education awarded the school an A for 2011. Shortly…

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmom Prince Chinedu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

  12. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-01-01

    This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to a...

  13. Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

  14. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water, in and around Imirigin oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha and beta activity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water in and around Imirigin oil field has been carried out. Study area was subdivided into five locations, soil and water samples were collected from field undisturbed environment and oil spilled areas. Sample collection and preparation follows standard procedures. Insitu measurement was conducted for pH and electrical conductivity, heavy metal analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and gross alpha and beta activity concentration was carried out by using Gas Filled Proportional Counter. Average value for pH and electrical conductivity are 6.500.2 and 46.81.0?S/cm respectively for soil and 6.40.5 and 406.15.2?S/cm respectively for water. The mean values obtained for AAS analysis for soil are (11.91.0, 3.30.4, 1.70.7, 8.10.5, 42.51.9, 3.30.5, 8.00.6, 0.080.02 and 79.52.2)mg/kg. For Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr respectively. For water, mean value obtained are (8.30.5, 4.20.4, 1.60.4, 1.50.3, 1.30.2, 0.0.004, 0.070.003, 0.050.01 and ND)mg/l for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Pb, Cd, Hg and As respectively. Gross alpha and beta activities mean concentrations for soil are 0.530.02Bq/g and 29.290.17Bq/g respectively, and 4.020.01Bq/l and 54.231.76Bq/l respectively for water. The results show that the level of the various metals obtained differs from location to location. Values obtained in soil are within reported values in the Niger Delta region except iron level. Heavy metals such as Ca, Fe and Cd exceed the WHO limits for drinking water. The mean values for alpha and beta activity in soil are above reported values in similar environment while mean values obtained in water samples are above WHO recommended maximum permissible limit for drinking water. These values obtained suggested that drinking water from sampled locations may pose some health hazards to the public users but soil from the area is safe as construction material for buildings.

  15. Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gambo Akpoko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973 definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986 is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991. Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999. The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999. They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999. For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP. The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on crop yields and farmers’ income. MATERIALS AND METHODS The data used were collected by means of structured interview schedule from a sample of rural youth farmers in Kaduna State during the 2005/2006 cropping season. Out of the 23 Local Government Areas (LGAs in Kaduna State, three namely: Zaria, Sabon-Gari and Giwa were purposively selected for the study. These three LGAs were among the major agricultural producing areas of the State and where the activities of the NAERLS’ extension Program, were heavily concentrated, thus, the basis for the selection. The NAERLS extension program was implemented in thirteen villages in the selected LGAs. Seven of these villages were purposively chosen since they had considerable number of program youths (312. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the NAERLS RUYEP. Against this background, there was the need to involve both participants and non-participants to serve as control for comparison. The whole target population within the selected villages was, therefore, stratified into Program participants and non-participants. The names of the participants in the selected villages were written alphabetically and from the list, 76 participants were randomly selected. An equal sample of 76 non-participants were randomly selected from the villages where participants had been chosen. In all, a total of 152 rural youths were involved in the study. The conditions for the selection of the respondents included:

    He/she should be in the range of 18-30 years old,
    He/she should be a farmer.
    Data were collected on some personal characteristics of the farmers, adoption of the recommended practices, crop yields and income of the farmers. Yields estimations were based on a sample plot size of 40 m2. All the plant stands within a plot were counted, harvested, weighed and extrapolated. Income from crops production was estimated based on the market prices at the time of data z collection. These information provided the indicators for attaining the objectives of this study. Descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages and other statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviations, Chi-square and Pearson-Product-Moment correlation analyses were used to analyse the data. The level of significant was set a priori at 0.05. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Demographic characteristics of the respondents: The study revealed that about 79% of the participants were 30 years or younger, while 63% of the non-participants were within this age category. The implication of this is that both the participants and non-participants were within the age category with abundant energies and prone to innovations adoption to increase production and income. Only 12% of the participants farmers had no formal education, while 35% had quoranic education. The remaining had educational exposure ranging from primary to post secondary education. About 17% of the non-participants had no formal education, while about 40% had quoranic education. A similar number (33% of them attended primary school, while 10% had either secondary or post secondary school education (Table 1. The implication of the education variable is that both the participants and non-participants possessed the education required to read and understand written information which could increase knowledge about new farm practices.
    Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the respondents
    As also shown in Table 1, 38% of the participants cultivated less than 1.5 ha, while 36% of the non-participants cultivated less than 1.5 ha. The remaining, cultivated above 1.5 ha. It can, therefore, be deduced that both the participants and non-participants had the land holdings required to adopt improved agricultural practices. They also had fairly large household sizes which suggests their capabilities to provide the farm labour often required to adopt improved practices. Impact of the program on adoption of recommended practices: The study area is one of the major maize producing areas of Nigeria, endowed with a high potential for maize production. As such, the program gave much attention to maize production. This crop was, therefore, selected for a detailed impact assessment of the program extension activities. Consequently, to determine the adoption of the recommended improved agricultural practices, each respondent was awarded an adoption score based on consistent and large-scale, use of the 8 recommended maize production practices shown in Table 2. One point was scored for each of the 8 practices. Table 2 shows that majority (54% of the participants had between 4-6 points, while 43% of the non-participants fall within this category.
    Table 2: Adoption scores of the recommended production practices and level of adoption

    Table 3: Average maize yields of participants and non-participants
    Also, while about 28% of the participants had between 6-8 points, only 3% of the non-participants had above 6 points of adoption scores. The recommended practices mostly adopted by the participants were improved varieties (83%, fertilizer application (100%, sowing dates (48%, spacing between holes (51%, plant population (45% and weeding (56%. The adoption pattern reflected the farmers access to the NAERLS extension services. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01. The claim that the youths are prone to innovation adoption, possess knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999 has been justified in this study. It implies that farmers having more access to NAERLS extension services had higher adoption scores. Chi-square analysis also indicated that difference between participants and non-participants in adoption score was also significant at 1% level [1% level (χ2 by 14.23]. Additionally, age, education, farm size and income were found to be significantly related to adoption of the recommended practices. Impact of the program on crops yields of participants and non-participants: Maize is the most important crop cultivated in the study area and the crop that the NAERLS’ RUYEP emphasized. Table 3 shows clearly that about 84.2% of the participants had average yield of maize above 1 t ha‾1. Only, 15.8% of the participants obtained average yields below 1 t ha‾1 compared with about 34% of the non-participants in that level of production.
    Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviations of Yields of Major Crops
    *: Significant at p<0.05
    A part from maize, the Program also popularised the adoption of improved practices of other crops such as sorghum, millet, cowpea and rice. A comparative yield estimates of these crops is shown in Table 4. The means and standard deviations of the yields per hectare show that yields of the participants were only slightly higher than those of the non-participants of the scheme. The t-values show that the mean yield of all the crops except for maize, did not differ significantly among participants and the non-participants. Impact on farmer’s income: An important measure of the impact of the Program is its effects on the income of the participants. It was hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on farmers income. Income from arable crops cultivated by farmers were aggregated. This actually was estimated income as it included estimates of crops consumed, sold or given as gifts. Only 27% of the participants obtained income less than N50,000.00 from crops production during the season which data used in this study were collected. About 24% of them generated income greater than N100,000.00 from crops production. On the other hand, a majority (53% of the non-participants generated income less than N50,000.00, while only 7% had income above N100,000 (Table 5. This finding support the hypothesis that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on farmers income. In other words, the NAERLS RUYEP has improved the production techniques of the participants, thereby resulting in increased income. Nevertheless, even though the income of the participants was higher than those of non-participants, their income is considered in this paper to be generally low compared with others in non-farming occupations, if it is assumed that arable crops cultivation was the only source of their income. Further more, although the study shows an increase in the income of most of the participants, it was not quantitatively certain whether the increase in income translated to improvement in profitability of farming and improved standard of living of the youths and the local communities.
    Table 5: Income (N from crops production
    Note: US $1 = N130.00
    Perceived effectiveness of the NAERLS rural youths extension program: When opinion of respondents about the NAERLS RUYEP was sought, the following results emerged. About 79% of the participants strongly agreed that the program had assisted them with regards to production problems and rural life improvement. About 8% simply agreed, while 3% disagreed and 10% either gave no response or were neutral. Considering these results, however, it could be said that majority of the participants considered the Program helpful. CONCLUSIONS A number of general observations and conclusion can be drawn from this study. The first is that rural youths in the study area are willing to accept new improved farm practices if they know about them and if the practices prove economically advantageous. This means that they respond positively to economic incentives. Such incentives should, therefore, be provided by the government. The second point is that extension work of the NAERLS’ type appears to have a better pay-off than the extensive Training and Visit (T and V system pursued in Nigeria (Chikwendu et al., 2001. Thus, it has the potential for overcoming the weaknesses of the T and V extension system. It is also clear from the study that if rural youths programs such as that of the NAERLS which emphasize modern farming and offers a career to young people within their rural neighbourhood are encouraged, the tendency for rural youth migration to urban centers would be substantially curbed. The concept of RUYEP as exemplified by NAERLS may serve as a model for agricultural education institutions in Nigeria. The implication of the findings to the attention of policy makers is that if the country can adopt the NAERLS type of extension approach, the youths are capable of producing large quantities of food sufficient to feed the nation and surplus for export. It seems pertinent, therefore, to suggest that Nigerian governments should study the NAERLS approach vigorously with a view to adopting it in other communities of the country. Further more, although the study shows an increase in the income of most of the participants, it was not certain whether the increase in income translated to improvement in profitability of farming and improved standard of living of the youths and the local communities. This matter deserves further investigation using more rigorous data and statistical tools to strengthen the findings of this study. Moreover, the contributions of higher institutions of learning to rural youths development is a very interesting aspect of rural community development studies which has not been adequately focused in Nigeria. This present study appears to be a good start. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author is grateful to the Director, NAERLS, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria for permission to publish this manuscript.

  16. Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmadu, R. A. O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010 (AMCON Act and employs as a method, analytical exposition of the Act in this work. The paper finds that lack of corporate governance and incentive problems caused Nigeria's banking sector crisis. It argues that though the provisions of the AMCON Act are aimed at compelling corporate governance and international best practices, inherent weaknesses and inconsistencies with superior legislations leave a big question mark on its applicability and effectiveness. The paper calls for legislative rethink if Nigeria must prevent future failures in the banking sector and rebuild confidence in the investing public as well as in bank depositors.

  17. Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Sunday Abayomi Adebisi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with product made-in-Nigeria. Survey study was carried out through questionnaire administration on 120 respondents; using purposive sampling technique to select the three popular markets in Lagos (Yaba, Oshodi and Eko to gather the required data for empirical analysis. The population of this study were the textile products consumers in Lagos State where Textiles customers were randomly sampled in each of these markets. Ordinary Least Square method (OLS, t-test, f-statistics, coefficient of determination (R2 and Durbin Watson Statistics were used to estimate the data. The results showed: (a significant relationship between product quality and desire to buy made-in-Nigeria at 0.05 level (r = .984, P<0.05; (b a significant, high positive relationship between the perceived cost of individual purchases and the satisfaction derived from made -in-Nigeria goods ( r = .961 and (c a correlation coefficient of 0.979, for cultural believes and buying behaviour of Nigerians. The results necessitated the formulation of required strategies for implementation in concluding the study

  18. Progress towards geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Where do we stand? An international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of removing long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment by placing it in deep geologic repository has been arrived at after considerable thought, research and development, and debate, including ethical discussions and consideration of other options. An assessment is presented of the current status of deep geologic disposal and of developments in the past decade. It is based on information and views collected from radioactive waste management experts from OECD/NEA Member countries, and on a review of other inputs. Key points of interest are summarised in the next section and expanded upon in the subsequent sections which consider: progress in related science and technology, progress in implementation of the concept, and other factors necessary to achieve an appropriate level of societal acceptance. (R.P.)

  19. Severe Accident Progression and Consequence Assessment Methodology Upgrades in ISAAC for Wolsong CANDU6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst the applications of integrated severe accident analysis codes like ISAAC, the principal are to a) help develop an understanding of the severe accident progression and its consequences; b) support the design of mitigation measures by providing for them the state of the reactor following an accident; and c) to provide a training platform for accident management actions. After Fukushima accident there is an increased awareness of the need to implement effective and appropriate mitigation measures and empower the operators with training and understanding about severe accident progression and control opportunities. An updated code with reduced uncertainties can better serve these needs of the utility making decisions about mitigation measures and corrective actions. Optimal deployment of systems such as PARS and filtered containment venting require information on reactor transients for a number of critical parameters. Thus there is a greater consensus now for a demonstrated ability to perform accident progression and consequence assessment analyses with reduced uncertainties. Analyses must now provide source term transients that represent the best in available understanding and so meaningfully support mitigation measures. This requires removal of known simplifications and inclusion of all quantifiable and risk significant phenomena. Advances in understanding of CANDU6 severe accident progression reflected in the severe accident integrated code ROSHNI are being incorporated into ISAAC using CANDU specific component and system models developed and verified for Wolsong CANDU 6 reactors. A significant and comprehensive upgrade of core behavior models is being implemented in ISAAC to properly reflect the large variability amongst fuel channels in feeder geometry, fuel thermal powers and burnup. The paper summarizes the models that have been added and provides some results to illustrate code capabilities. ISAAC is being updated to meet the current requirements and expectations. The detailed modeling of the core allows for finer estimates of the source terms. Inclusion of new severe accident phenomena is expected to allow for a greater confidence in the consequence assessments

  20. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage) or trends in status (i.e., rates of change). However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved. PMID:26812524

  1. The Challenge of Liquid Transportation Fuels in Nigeria and the Emergence of the Nigerian Automotive Biofuel Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the challenge of liquid transportation fuel in Nigeria, which necessitated the entrance of the country into the biofuel race. The study found that despite being an important member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC), Nigeria still suffers from fuel scarcities. Reasons for the short supply of refined petroleum products (particularly gasoline, diesel and aviation fuel) in Nigeria include poor capacity utilization of the nation’s refineri...

  2. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM): AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR BUSINESS PERFORMANCE ON MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK (MTN) IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola, Gloria Chiadika; Adekunle, Joel Adeleke

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN), one of the global cellular providers headquartered in South Africa and owned by corporate investors outside Nigeria. Nigeria, been a readymade market with about 140 millions of people, hence MTN has over 35 million subscribers. The objective of this paper is to assess the Effect of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on Business Performance on Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) in Nigeria. 200 questionnaires were administered and the statistical ...

  3. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  4. Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  5. Assessment of NORM-containing food crops/stuffs in OML 58 and OML 61 within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary assessment of the levels of natural radionuclide in some commonly consumed cereals, fruits, vegetables and tubers within OML 58 and OML 61 in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been carried out. The areas under study were divided into six (6) zones (A,B,C,D,E,F) and investigated. An insitu measurement approach was adopted using Nuclear Radiation Meter (Radarlert-100) and a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS 76 CSX) equipment. Sixteen(16) readings each was taken in each of the six zoned areas making a total of ninety-six (96) food crops samples which was randomly selected. Measured average radiation levels in each of the six zones ranges between 0.009±0.001mRhr-1 (0.479±0.038mSvyr-1) to 0.020±0.001mRhr-1(1.064±0.065mSvyr-1) for zone A, 0.011±0.001mRhr-1, (0.585±0.041mSvyr-1) to 0.022±0.002mRh-1 (1.170±0.105mSvyr-1) for zone B, 0.010±0.001mRhr-1 (0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.025±0.002mRhr-1 (1.330±0.016mSvyr-1) for zone C, 0.010±0.001mRhr-1(0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.028±0.002mRhr-1 (1.490±0.134mSvyr-1) for Zone D, 0.005±0.000mRhr-1 (0.266±0.021mSvyr-1) to 0.022±0.002mRhr-1 (1.170±0.105mSvyr-1) for Zone E, 0.01± 0.001mRhr-1(0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.016±0.001mRhr-1(0.851±0.068mSvyr-1) for Zone F. The mean food crop radiation levels ranges from 0.012±0.001mRhr-1(0.798±0.065mSvyr-1) to 0.016±0.001mRhr-1(0.849±0.067mSvyr-1) while the mean background radiation levels ranges from 0.011±0.001mRhr-1 (0.585±0.041mSvyr-1) to 0.015±0.001mRhr-1(0.798±0.065mSvyr-1). The annual equivalent dose estimated were in the range of 0.613mSvyr-1 to 0.849mSvyr-1 far below the dose limits for radiological workers (20mSvyr-1) and the dose limit for the public (1mSvyr-1) (ICRP,1994). Comparison of the measured radiation levels of the food crops samples with the normal background levels show that 45 samples which represent 46.8% of the whole sample exceeded the normal background level of 0.013mRhr-1 (ICRP,1994). These values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the populace consuming these food crops/stuffs but may have some long-term health side-effects.

  6. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

  7. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  8. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  9. Progress curve mechanistic modeling approach for assessing time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Howard J; Pertinez, Henry; Säll, Carolina; Collins, Claire; Hyland, Ruth; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-09-01

    A progress curve method for assessing time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 is based on simultaneous quantification of probe substrate metabolite and inhibitor concentrations during the experiment. Therefore, it may overcome some of the issues associated with the traditional two-step method and estimation of inactivation rate (k(inact)) and irreversible inhibition (K(I)) constants. In the current study, seven time-dependent inhibitors were investigated using a progress curve method and recombinant CYP3A4. A novel mechanistic modeling approach was applied to determine inhibition parameters using both inhibitor and probe metabolite data. Progress curves generated for clarithromycin, erythromycin, diltiazem, and N-desmethyldiltiazem were described well by the mechanistic mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) model. In contrast, mibefradil, ritonavir, and verapamil required extension of the model and inclusion of competitive inhibition term for the metabolite. In addition, this analysis indicated that verapamil itself causes minimal MBI, and the formation of inhibitory metabolites was responsible for the irreversible loss of CYP3A4 activity. The k(inact) and K(I) estimates determined in the current study were compared with literature data generated using the conventional two-step method. In the current study, the inactivation efficiency (k(inact)/K(I)) for clarithromycin, ritonavir, and erythromycin were up to 7-fold higher, whereas k(inact)/K(I) for mibefradil, N-desmethyldiltiazem, and diltiazem were, on average, 2- to 4.8-fold lower than previously reported estimates. Use of human liver microsomes instead of recombinant CYP3A4 resulted in 5-fold lower k(inact)/K(I) for erythromycin. In conclusion, the progress curve method has shown a greater mechanistic insight when determining kinetic parameters for MBI in addition to providing a more comprehensive experimental protocol. PMID:22621802

  10. Joining the dots: Conditional pass and programmatic assessment enhances recognition of problems with professionalism and factors hampering student progress

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie Jan M; Ali Anthony N; Egan Tony G; Tweed Mike J; Wilkinson Tim J; Moore MaryLeigh; Rudland Joy R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Programmatic assessment that looks across a whole year may contribute to better decisions compared with those made from isolated assessments alone. The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate a programmatic system to handle student assessment results that is aligned not only with learning and remediation, but also with defensibility. The key components are standards based assessments, use of "Conditional Pass", and regular progress meetings. Methods The new assessmen...

  11. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Ikedichi Okpani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC. One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme.

  12. ICT use in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofagbe, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was done to evaluate the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in Nigeria with a major target on the software industries. Moreover, major focus was based on the benefits and opportunities that can be achieved in the country by individuals and corporate bodies through the development of this sector. The current state of the Nigerian economy and that of the software industries were analysed, and the barriers and security issues militating against the sustainable de...

  13. The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

  14. Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

  15. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'

  16. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24740707

  17. An Assessment of Quality of Service (QoS In Voice Communications over Four GSM Networks in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. OYEBISI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of four operators of mobile telecommunications services in voice communications in Lagos and Oyo States in South Western Nigeria for the first five years of operation. Using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU standard of measuring customer experience of voice telephony service through the voice quality scores known as the Mean Opinion Score (MOS, the study identified the quality of service in voice call between the year 2001 and 2006. The data used for the statistical analysis were obtained randomly from the subscribers of GSM services in the states. The research established that the voice quality for the first five years of operation on all the networks considered were below the ITU specified conversational voice quality of > 3.0 on the MOS scale.

  18. Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanna, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

  19. Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

  20. Assessing temporal agreement between central and local progression-free survival times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Donglin; Cornea, Emil; Dong, Jun; Pan, Jean; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2015-02-28

    In oncology clinical trials, progression-free survival (PFS), generally defined as the time from randomization until disease progression or death, has been a key endpoint to support licensing approval. In the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance for industry, May 2007, concerning the PFS as the primary or co-primary clinical trial endpoint, it is recommended to have tumor assessments verified by an independent review committee blinded to study treatments, especially in open-label studies. It is considered reassuring about the lack of reader-evaluation bias if treatment effect estimates from the investigators' and independent review committees' evaluations agree. The agreement between these evaluations may vary for subjects with short or long PFS, while there exist no such statistical quantities that can completely account for this temporal pattern of agreements. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new method to assess temporal agreement between two time-to-event endpoints, while the two event times are assumed to have a positive probability of being identical. This method measures agreement in terms of the two event times being identical at a given time or both being greater than a given time. Overall scores of agreement over a period of time are also proposed. We propose a maximum likelihood estimation to infer the proposed agreement measures using empirical data, accounting for different censoring mechanisms, including reader's censoring (event from one reader dependently censored by event from the other reader). The proposed method is demonstrated to perform well in small samples via extensive simulation studies and is illustrated through a head and neck cancer trial. PMID:25393731

  1. Fifteen years of sector-wide approach (SWAp) in Bangladesh health sector: an assessment of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Karar Zunaid; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Ijdi, Rashida-E-; Escudero, Gabriela Maria; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Reza, M M

    2016-06-01

    The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) of the Government of Bangladesh embarked on a sector-wide approach (SWAp) modality for the health, nutrition and population (HNP) sector in 1998. This programmatic shift initiated a different set of planning disciplines and practices along with institutional changes in the MOHFW. Over the years, the SWAp modality has evolved in Bangladesh as the MOHFW has learnt from its implementation and refined the program design. This article explores the progress made, both in terms of achievement of health outcomes and systems strengthening results, since the implementation of the SWAp for Bangladesh's health sector. Secondary analyses of survey data from 1993 to 2011 as well as a literature review of published and grey literature on health SWAp in Bangladesh was conducted for this assessment. Results of the assessment indicate that the MOHFW made substantial progress in health outcomes and health systems strengthening. SWAps facilitated the alignment of funding and technical support around national priorities, and improved the government's role in program design as well as in implementation and development partner coordination. Notable systemic improvements have taken place in the country systems with regards to monitoring and evaluation, procurement and service provision, which have improved functionality of health facilities to provide essential care. Implementation of the SWAp has, therefore, contributed to an accelerated improvement in key health outcomes in Bangladesh over the last 15 years. The health SWAp in Bangladesh offers an example of a successful adaptation of such an approach in a complex administrative structure. Based on the lessons learned from SWAp implementation in Bangladesh, the MOHFW needs to play a stronger stewardship and regulatory role to reap the full benefits of a SWAp in its subsequent programming. PMID:26582744

  2. Strengthening non-state climate action: a progress assessment of commitments launched at the 2014 UN Climate Summit

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Sander; Falkner, Robert; van Asselt, Harro (Prof. Dr. ); Goldberg, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This report provides the first progress assessment of climate actions launched at the 2014 UN Climate Summit in New York. It considers the distribution and performance of climate actions along multiple dimensions that are relevant to both mitigation and adaptation. While it is too early for a conclusive assessment of the effectiveness of climate actions, this study makes a first and indispensable step toward such an assessment. Initial findings are encouraging. One year after their launch, mo...

  3. The World Bank in Nigeria, 1998-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2010-01-01

    This country assistance evaluation assesses the outcomes of the World Banks program in Nigeria during the period 1998–2007. The Country Assistance Evaluation focuses on the objectives of that assistance and the extent to which outcomes were consistent with those objectives. It looks at the Banks contribution to the achievement of those outcomes and at the lessons for the Banks future activ...

  4. Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

  5. Fun, Fizzy and Formative Approaches to Assessment: Using Rapid Digital Feedback to Aid Learners' Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Blair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the early observations and findings from a small-scale exploratory project titled e-scape scotland. This project builds on earlier research into the use of mobile devices to enable learners to create authentic, real-time e-portfolios which allowed for summative assessment. The e-scape scotland project explores the feasibility of using e-portfolios for evidence collection and a range of formative assessment purposes during design and technology activities. It examines the responses of teachers and learners and the technical issues in implementation. Four schools are participating. Data are being collected through observation, learner and teacher responses, and evaluation. The preliminary results from this study indicate that learners respond positively to using mobile devices to support their learning activity. The e-portfolios being constructed offer high quality insight into the learners' approach to the design projects tackled. Teachers are delighted by the potential immediacy of the system in offering timely feedback to aid progression.

  6. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

  7. CORRUPTION, SOCIAL VIOLENCE AND ETHICAL CULTURE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dime...

  8. Biofuel development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of fuel use in urban and rural centres in Nigeria is reviewed. The special problems posed to rural dwellers is examined. Agricultural wastes and some wood processing wastes are examined as source of fuel. Rice husk and sawdust are identified as promising sources of solid fuel which are currently unexploited because the rural people lack the technology to utilise particulate or powdery fuels. In this work rice husk, sawdust and other wasted particulate fuels are turned into briquettes to render them more useable by the rural communities. The local briquette production process as well as preliminary tests on and trials of the briquettes are reported. (author)

  9. Nigerias Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y Dutse

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigerias economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI, which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigerias industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigerias Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigerias domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

  10. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  11. Surgery in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, O O; Adebamowo, C A

    1999-02-01

    Nigeria, like most other developing countries, is today experiencing an increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases and the unsolved problem of infectious diseases. The role of surgery in the management of these diseases has continued to increase. Surgical training has traditionally been of a high standard, and this has made it possible for surgeons trained in Nigeria to cope with this change in the spectrum of diseases. A low success rate at the diploma examinations and an increasing loss of local talent to foreign countries has increased calls for a modification of the training programs. There is a need to improve the working conditions and environment of surgeons to stem the attrition. Surgery in a poor resource environment demands more, rather than less, skill from the surgeon, and the training programs must ensure that the specialist is adequately equipped to deal with conditions that may not be considered general surgery. While the unavailability of modern technology has limited the scope of research, it is still possible to conduct appropriate, "low-tech," and relevant research that is subject to excellent study design, proper controls, and scientifically valid interpretations. PMID:10025465

  12. Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 μg/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

  13. Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

  14. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40K, 238U and 232Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 μSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 μSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  15. Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in the work environments of a secondary iron and steel smelting and a paint industry in Lagos, Nigeria, were investigated using gravimetric sampling techniques and TXRF spectrometric analysis. The TXRF was used to analyse the concentration of toxic trace elements and heavy metals in the air-borne particulate. The elements detected included Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. Toxicity potentials of PM10 and PM2.5 suspended particulate matter and that of Pb were determined using USEPA national ambient air quality standards. Results were used to evaluate the possible occupational exposure for workers in the sampling areas, as well as those of the general public. These indicate that the concentrations of respirations dust and heavy metals in the work environments, especially the iron and steel smelter are high enough to affect the health of workers and the general public who reside in the neighbourhood. If combined with the effect of traffic pollution in this areas, the total air pollution load may be much higher than values recommended by WHO for general public protection. The need to investigate the options for emission reduction and the management of occupational and general public exposure was highlighted. (author)

  16. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing...

  17. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    OpenAIRE

    J.F. Kirsten

    1996-01-01

    Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-...

  18. EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magaji, Nanle

    2015-01-01

    The study is an assessment of the effect of job enrichment on non-academic staff motivation in private universities in Nigeria; a survey of selected private universities in South-western Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between job enrichment and employees motivation. This study employed a crosssectional survey design. Data was collected from 547 non-academic staff and was analyzed using Descriptive Statistics (mean, standard deviati...

  19. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; DR. MRS. I. S. MADUEME

    2012-01-01

    This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

  20. Gender and Reproductive Outcomes: The Effects of a Radio Serial Drama in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fatou Jah; Scott Connolly; Kriss Barker; William Ryerson

    2014-01-01

    A large body of evidence has documented the effectiveness of mass-media communication programs in increasing family planning use and changing reproductive behavior. But the potential impact of these programs on the mediating role of gender norms has not been systematically assessed in Nigeria. Regionally representative cross-sectional end line data collected for the evaluation of a long-running entertainment-education radio serial drama program aired in northern Nigeria are examined for progr...

  1. The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippolite Onyejiaka Amadi; Jonathan C. Azubuike; Etawo, Uriah S.; Offiong, Uduak R.; Chinyere Ezeaka; Eyinade Olateju; Adimora, Gilbert N; Akin Osibogun; Ngozi Ibeziako; Edna O. Iroha; Dutse, Abdulhameed I.; Chukwu, Christian O.; Okpere, Eugene E.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted...

  2. Community Perception of Afforestation Programme in Desert Encroach Area Toshia, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaji Abdu Geidam; Marof Rudzwan; Asnarulkhadi Abusamad

    2012-01-01

    Desert encroachment, a global problem, is serious in Nigeria especially in the northern part. To assess the community perception towards afforestation programs and desert encroachment, a survey was conducted in Toshia northern Nigeria; the objective of this study was to determined factors that influence rural communitys perception towards desert encroachment. A self design questionnaire was used for the data collection from the participants of the study comprised 60 residents selected across...

  3. Severity and impact of acne vulgaris on the quality of life of adolescents in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedegbe EE; Henshaw EB

    2014-01-01

    Evelyn E Ogedegbe,1 Eshan B Henshaw2 1Cedarcrest Hospital, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, which affects most adolescents at some point in their lives. It has been found to have a significant impact on their psychological well-being and has been associated with depression and suicide ideation. Many studies have assessed...

  4. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Sadiq Umar, MBBS, MPH, MHPM, FWACP; Samuel Bitrus Bawa, MBBS, MPH, FWACP

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether womens biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey ...

  5. Economics and Technical Efficiency of Dry Season Tomato Production in Selected Areas in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Adenuga

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) is one of the major fruit vegetables in Nigeria. In view of its seasonal availability and the need to make it available all-year round, effort must be made to increase efficiency of its production especially during the dry season. A study was therefore carried out to examine the economics of dry season tomato production in Kwara state, Nigeria. It estimated the costs and returns and assessed the technical efficiency of dry season tomato production. A two-...

  6. CLAPPING WITH ONE HAND: THE CASE OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    OLUWOLE DARAMOLA

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounded the relevance of community participation in the achievement of sustainable urban environmental sanitation in Nigeria. Conceptually, it discussed community participation and urban environmental sanitation and expressed the interface between the two. The paper also discussed the evolution of environmental sanitation practices in Nigeria before, during and after the colonial era. It went further to assess the situation of community participation in urban environmental sanita...

  7. The impact of the open access movement on medical based scholarly publishing in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Alasia Datonye

    2007-01-01

    The open access movement and its initiatives -- which advocate a shift from predominant print-based publication to electronic and Internet sources -- is expected to improve the global distribution of scholarly research and impact positively on the current state of scholarly publications in the developing world. This review examines the current state of medical journals in Nigeria and assesses the impact of the open access movement and its initiatives on medical scholarly publishing in Nigeria...

  8. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  9. Developing higher resolution climate change scenarios for agricultural risk assessment: progress, challenges and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Climate change presents perhaps the greatest economic and environmental challenge we have ever faced. Climate change and its associated impacts, adaptation and vulnerability have become the focus of current policy, business and research. This paper provides invaluable information for those interested in climate change and its impacts. This paper comprehensively reviews the advances made in the development of regional climate change scenarios and their application in agricultural impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessment. Construction of regional climate change scenarios evolved from the application of arbitrary scenarios to the application of scenarios based on general circulation models (GCMs). GCM-based climate change scenarios progressed from equilibrium climate change scenarios to transient climate change scenarios; from the use of direct GCM outputs to the use of downscaled GCM outputs; from the use of single scenarios to the use of probabilistic climate change scenarios; and from the application of mean climate change scenarios to the application of integrated climate change scenarios considering changes in both mean climate and climate variability.

  10. Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success. PMID:22118149

  11. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems SYSTEMS APPROXIMATE SIMULATOR: FISCAL YEAR 1982 PROGRESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devary, J. L.; Petrie, G. M.

    1982-05-01

    The ISystemsl task of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing a Systems Approximate Simulator (SAS); a computer code of low-level technical complexity that incorporates the most significant waste-package, repository, and site processes affecting geologic nuclear waste isolation. This report discusses the AEGIS 1982 fiscal year progress toward building a SAS. A computer code, SAS(82), has been developed as the site module of the SAS development effort. The SAS(82) is an efficient and accurate simulator of one-dimensional radionuclide transport. Features of the SAS(82) are direct (Monte Carlo) simulation, linear decay and sorption models, spatially and temporally varying hydrologic and geochemical variables, general travel-time distributions (possibly non-Fickian), and multinuclide release. The SAS(82) was used to simulate radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository located within the Hanford basalts. A {sup 99}Tc analysis along a thermally influenced path through the Grande Ronde Formation demonstrated the complexity of modeling near-field transport. Perturbed hydrologic conditions corresponding to "Hanford Basalt Geologic Simulation Model" results (Petrie et al. 1981) were evaluated, using the SAS(82). Future work will include the development of SAS waste-package and repository modules as simplified process models become available. The SAS may eventually be used as the basis for parametric sensitivity and uncertainty studies for the entire geologic nuclear waste isolation system.

  12. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

  13. Poverty and Christian Welfare Scheme: Evidence from the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Awoniyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory  levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.

  14. Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea, On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L. P. BEAUV in North-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. S. Turaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea, on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05 the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.

  15. Compliance with topical glaucoma medications in Owo, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    BO OMOLASE; OA ADEOSUN; AK AKINWALERE; OA SOTILOYE; OT OGUNLEYE; CO OMOLASE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Poor compliance with medications is a major challenge in the management of primary open angle glaucoma as it can lead to deterioration of eyesight. This study assessed the compliance with glaucoma medications among patients attending an Eye Clinic in Nigeria. We also assessed the problems encountered during the applications of topical medications. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of one year (October 2011 to October 2012) at the Eye Clinic of the Fed...

  16. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  17. Nutritional quality assessment and antiplasmodial activity of Cajanus cajan (L. Huth., Crescentia cujete L. and Myrianthus preussii Engl. from Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Adeniyi Olusi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose of the Study: Many plants are now considered to have dual purpose usefulness in terms of their therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits. Cajanus cajan (L. Huth., Crescentia cujete L. and Myrianthus preussii Engl. are combined for use in the treatment of malaria in Akure, Southwestern Nigeria.Materials and Methods: The powdered plant samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, proximate composition and mineral elements according to standard protocols. Plasmodium berghei infected mice were administered with water and ethanol extracts of plant samples and blood samples screened for parasitemia. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: Alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, and polyphenols were present in all the three samples. Anthraquinones and flavonoids were altogether absent. C. cajan had the highest ash (11.69%, crude protein (17.76% and fat (17.34% whereas C. cujete was richest in carbohydrate (58.52%. Calcium was found to be highest in C. cujete (22672.43mg/kg and least in C. cajan (13288.33mg/kg. C. cujete was richest (898.37mg/kg and C. cajan (304.22mg/kg least in iron. However, magnesium was found to be highest in M. preussii (5837.03mg/kg and least in C. cujete (2166.48mg/kg. The ethanol extract of the recipe was most active at 200mg/kg.Conclusions and Application of Findings: Dietary or mineral elements serve structural, functional and biochemical roles. The three plants contained appreciable major and minor elements. The leaf of C. cajan could serve as a complement for animal protein. The activity observed in the ethanol extract could be as a result of the complete dissolution of the phytochemicals in ethanol. Toxicity studies on the plants will confirm their safe application, although lead tested negative in the plant samples.

  18. Lagdo Dam Flood Disaster of 2012: An Assessment of the Concentrations, Sources, and Risks of PAHs in Floodplain Soils of the Lower Reaches of River Niger, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Godswill O; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Emuh, Fidelis N; Nwajei, Godwin E

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of the USEPA 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the floodplain of the lower reaches of River Niger, Nigeria, were investigated following the Lagdo Dam flood disaster of 2012. The aim was to provide information on the extent of contamination, sources, and risks of PAHs in these soils. The concentrations of Σ16 PAHs in the floodplain soils ranged from 812 to 10,700 μg kg. The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) toxic equivalence and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) factors were used to evaluate the risk of human exposure to PAHs in these soils. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenic equivalence (BaP) and benzo(a)pyrene mutagenic equivalence (BaP) ranged from not detected to 4090 μg kg and not detected to 4150 μg kg, respectively. The total ILCR for children and adults was calculated as the summation of the individual risks through the three routes of exposure, (ingestion, dermal, and inhalation of vapor or dust). The values obtained indicate that there are 6450 and 4480 chances in one million equally exposed persons to develop the risk of cancer for children and adults, respectively, which were higher than the USEPA acceptable guideline value of one cancer case in one million (10) equally exposed persons. The PAHs source evaluation, using the diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA), indicated that the major sources of PAHs in these soils were fossil fuel combustion, gas flaring, wood combustion, traffic emissions, and input from petroleum. PMID:26828186

  19. Assessment of radionuclide concentration and absorbed dose from consumption of community water supplies in oil and gas producing areas in delta State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area 14 were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCI per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photo peaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49.15±15.35 BqL-1 with a range of 6.03 and 177.04 Bq L-1 while for 226Ra, the mean specific activity was 3.36±1.28 Bq L-1 with a range of 1.29 and 12.08 BqL-1 and the mean specific activity for 228Ra was 3.21± 2.69 BqL-1 with a range of 1.61 and 9.83 BqL-1 and the total annual effective dose did not show any significant health impact. (author)

  20. Beyond the Rhetorics of Statecraft in Africa: Searching for a New Paradigm of Leadership in Nigeria

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    J. David Agaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership question features most prominently in virtually all reported analyses, comments and interviews in the media, especially the print media. One thing that is evident is the recognition of leadership deficit as an important factor in understanding Africa and indeed Nigerias predicament. Chinua Achebe, in The Trouble with Nigeria identified leadership failure as the bane of development in Nigeria and by implication in most of Africa. As a matter of fact, even honest African leaders like the late Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria, late Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana, and Nelson Mandela (South Africa had in the past pointed at the leadership malaise in development in the continent. This paper therefore examines leadership and governance in Nigeria within the framework of servant- leadership. We noted that for Nigeria to evolve a positive and focus leadership with morals, values and accountability, there is the need for selfless in the form of putting others above self in service delivery, which is the essence of servant-leadership. The creating of a culture of servant leader-leadership in Nigeria would mean the replacement of the top-bottom culture with one where attributes of servant-leadership as already identified flourish. It would require having in place a leadership that has worked well enough to be considered valid. It is, therefore, an evidence of internalization of values and a stabilizing force which creates social reality for its techniques for creating a culture of servant-leadership which is not possible except there is progress in evolving a team of servant-leaders.

  1. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  2. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and

  3. Fish Breeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

  4. Nigerias Educational System in a Globalizing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy-Telu Hamilton-Ekeke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is in the midst of an electronic communications revolution. Electronic information flows across national boundaries. But not every nation is in this information technology jamboree at the same paste and frequency. Many people in Nigeria for reasons of technology, infrastructure, or socioeconomic status do not have access to electronic information. Telecommunication has changed the speed and method of doing the business of education all over the globe. It has transformed the world into a computerized global village with easy access to scholarly publications and new academic innovations round the globe. Thus, information technology is an inevitable tool in the 21st Century Education. Nigerian scholarly articles as well as Nigeria universities information on the internet is very scanty. It is therefore a challenge for Nigeria to haste and computerize her educational system so that she can compete effectively in the global market place. It will be erroneous to argue that modern technology is the answer to all of human problems. And it is unassailably true that Nigerias educational problems are not from the 'harshness and the niggardliness of nature'. Obviously, the Nigerian attitude towards information technology is a major part of the problem. In fact, a big chunk of it lies, on how to restructure the educational system in line with current technology development and its adoption and acceptability as along with the new information technologies are new challenges in getting accurate and reliable information from around the world.

  5. Nigeria's energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study critically assessed the various policy issues of sustainable energy development in Nigeria. The basic focus was to discuss and analyze some of the laws of the federation as it relates to the development of Renewable Energy in Nigeria. It surveyed the nation's energy policy statement and the vision 20:2020 of the federal government. The Renewable Energy Master Plan developed by the joint efforts of the Energy Commission of Nigeria and United Nations Development Programs were also appraised. The level of development and the index of renewable energy production as stated by the policy statement, the vision 20:2020 and the Renewable Energy Master Plan were highlighted. The study found some policy challenges which include weak government motivation, lack of economic incentives, multiple taxations, non-existent favorable customs and excise duty act to promote renewable energy technologies. Further to this, some legal reforms which may aid the promotion of renewable energy development in Nigeria and also make robust the nation's energy policy were proposed. Some of the laws that require amendment to promote renewable energy include the land use act, environmental impact assessment decree and the investment laws of the federation of Nigeria. - Highlights: • The study exposed the energy policy issues of Nigeria. • The various policy documents and the energy statement of vision 20:2020 were surveyed. • Various challenges impinging growth or renewable energy were highlighted. • Some suggestions for policy reformation were proposed

  6. Appraisal of Construction Project Procurement Policies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Abubakar Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of performance of public sector projects in Nigeria is tied to the impact of procurement strategy or policy used in providing the building. Procurement policies significantly influence the success of construction projects since they are designed to provide solutions to specific project needs or conditions. The Nigerian construction industry was analyzed with particular emphasis on public sector procurement. The general performance of public sector projects in Nigeria was broadly assessed and quite unfortunately the literature review has criticized public sector procurement in Nigeria of been inefficient for efficient project delivery. Equally the respondents to the survey data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and oral interview conducted suggest that projects are affected by the procurement strategy adopted for project delivery. A significant number of the questionnaire respondents believe that performance of projects could be improved using alternative or hybrid procurement strategies. Recommendations were proffered in order to mitigate or reduce completely the challenges and complexities faced by public project procurement schemes in Nigeria.

  7. Equity in Health Care Expenditure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olaniyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Equity isone of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in theNigerian health financing policy. Despite acclaimed commitment to theimplementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes andinterventions, the level of inequity in health status and access to basichealth care interventions remain high. This paper examines the equity of healthcare expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocketspending( OOP for the country and separately for the six geopolitical zones ofthe country.The methodological framework rests onKakwani Progressivity Indices (KPIs, ReynoldSmolensky indices andconcentration indices (CIs using data from the 2004 Nigerian National LivingStandard Survey( NLSS collected by the National Bureau of Statistics. .The results reveal that health financing isregressive with the incidence disproportionately rest on poor households withabout 70% of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket paymentsby households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in theevent of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some intopoverty, and aggravate the poverty of others.The paper therefore suggests that thecountry’s health financingsystems must be designed not only to allow people to access services when theyare needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, byreducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within thehealth system.Keywords:                            Equity, Health careexpenditure, Kakwani progressivity index, Nigeria.

  8. Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

  9. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

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    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live births by the year 2015.

  10. French RPV PTS assessment: An overview of the EDF research and development in progress on thermalhydraulics, materials and mechanical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A significant extensive R and D work is conducted by Electricite de France (EDF) related to the structural integrity re-assessment of the French 900 and 1300 MWe reactor pressure vessels in order to increase their lifetime. Within the framework of this programme, numerous developments have been implemented or are in progress related to the methodology for the assessment of flaws during a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event. The paper will contain three aspects : a short description of the specific French approach for RPV PTS assessment, a description of some engineering mechanical methods developed for the assessment of shallow embedded flaws, and finally an overview of the present R and D programme on thermalhydraulics, materials and mechanical aspects. Regarding the last aspect on present R and D programme, several projects in progress will be shortly described. This overview includes the redefinition of some significant thermalhydraulics transients based on some new three-dimensional CFD computations (focused at the present time on small break LOCA), the assessment of vessel materials properties, and the improvement of the RPV PTS structural integrity assessment including several themes such as warm pre-stress (WPS), crack arrest, constraint effect... (author)

  11. ?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.25.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.27.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.05.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.13.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.55.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.74Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.010.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.438.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.520.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.512.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

  12. Gamma spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K ) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta State, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2'x2' NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.25.6Bq/kg to 94.27.7Bq/kg with mean value of 415Bq/kg for 226Ra, 17.13Bq/kg to 47.55.3Bq/kg with mean value of 29.74Bq/kg for 232Th and 10710.2Bq/kg to 712.438.9 Bq/kg with a mean value of 412.520 Bq/kg for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.512.3Bq/kg, 0.8 Bq/kg, 54.6nGy/h, 0.07?Sv/y, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excessive exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area.

  13. ?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2? 2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 5.6 Bqkg?1 to 94.2 7.7 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 41.0 5.0 Bqkg?1 for 226Ra, 17.1 3.0 Bqkg?1 to 47.5 5.3 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 29.7 4 Bqkg?1 for 232Th and 107.0 10.2 Bqkg?1 to 712.4 38.9 Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 412.5 20.0 Bqkg?1 for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 12.3 Bq.kg?1, 0.8 Bqkg?1, 54.6 ?Gyh?1, 0.07 ?Svy?1, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. - Highlights: ? The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, Th and 40K) in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state. ? Gamma spectroscopy operated on a 2 2 NaI(TI) detector was used and the values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries. ? The calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. ? The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public.

  14. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendell Nancy R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1 in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations. Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

  15. Pollution assessment of the lower basin of Lakes Kainji/Jebba, Nigeria: heavy metal status of the waters, sediments and fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewale, A O; Musa, I

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the heavy metal status of the lower basin of Kainji dam (used for hydroelectricity generation), which includes Lakes Kainji/Jebba, Nigeria, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals from eating fish caught in the lakes. Water, sediments and fish were sampled from the lakes and evaluated for As, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn using the EDXRF technique. Fe and Mn were found to be present at high mean concentrations in the water (13 and 9 microg L(-1)), sediment (7,092 and 376 microg g(-1)) and fish (11.4 and 4.6 microg g(-1)) samples. Sb (3.2 microg L(-1)), Ti (4.1 mug L(-1)), Cr (2.2 microg L(-1)), Co (1.2 microg L(-1)), Cu (1.3 microg L(-1)) and Pb (1.2 microg L(-1)) in the water samples and Sb (29 microg g(-1)), Ti (27 microg g(-1)), V (27 microg g(-1)), Cr (27 microg g(-1)), Co (40 microg g(-1)), Ni (33 microg g(-1)), Cu (25 microg g(-1)), Zn (59 microg g(-1)) and Pb (19 microg g(-1)) in the sediment samples were found to be of medium mean concentrations. The other metals were present at trace levels (<1 microg), including As and Hg in the fish and sediment samples. There was an appreciable increase in metal concentrations in going from the water to the sediment samples. The probable source of the pollutants is anthropogenic, arising from agricultural activities, corrosion/abrasion of the ferrous steel material and additives in the lubricants and insulation used for auxiliary services on the turbine floor of the dam constructed on the lakes. However, natural geological sourcing from the underlying lake rock cannot be totally ignored, particularly the high levels of Fe and Mn in the sediment samples. The potential risk for human exposure to these metals emanates from the fish caught in the lakes and subsequently consumed, as there are already significant levels of these metals in the two fish species analysed, Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Chrysicthys (Chrysicthys auratus). PMID:16767565

  16. Assessing the HIV Care Continuum in Latin America: progress in clinical retention, cART use and viral suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeiro, Peter F.; Carina Cesar; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Raquel B De Boni; Cortés, Claudia P.; Fernanda Rodriguez; Pablo Belaunzarán-Zamudio; Pape, Jean W; Denis Padgett; Daniel Hoces; McGowan, Catherine C; Pedro Cahn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed trends in HIV Care Continuum outcomes associated with delayed disease progression and reduced transmission within a large Latin American cohort over a decade: clinical retention, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use and viral suppression (VS). Methods: Adults from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology clinical cohorts in seven countries contributed data between 2003 and 2012. Retention was defined as two or more HIV care visits an...

  17. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I: A multicentre longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups. To determine whether quantitative fat imaging could measure disease progression in a cohort of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) patients over a 12 month period. 32 adult patients (17 male;15 female) from 4 European tertiary referral centres with the homozygous c.826C≥A mutation in the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) completed baseline and follow up measurements 12 months later. Quantitative fat imaging was performed and muscle fat fraction change was compared with (i) muscle strength and function assessed using standardized physical tests and (ii) standard T1-weighted MRI graded on a 6 point scale. There was a significant increase in muscle fat fraction in 9 of the 14 muscles analyzed using the quantitative MRI technique from baseline to 12 months follow up. Changes were not seen in the conventional longitudinal physical assessments or in qualitative scoring of the T1w images. Quantitative muscle MRI, using the Dixon technique, could be used as an important longitudinal outcome measure to assess muscle pathology and monitor therapeutic efficacy in patients with LGMD2I. (authors)

  18. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

  19. Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment: Progress toward a Seamless System? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may provide valuable data for decision makers at school and

  20. Radioactivity in Zircon from Jos, Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining and processing of zircon along with other minerals, generally for export purposes, have been taking place in Jos, central Nigeria, for several decades. Over the years, there has been increasing concern about the radiological impact resulting from these activities. A previous assessment in the vicinity of processing areas reported an annual dose of 50 mSv which by far exceeds the 1 mSv dose limit for members of the public. In the study, the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th in 28 samples of zircon from Jos were determined using neutron activation analysis. The results gave concentrations of 466 μg/g (5.75 Bq/g) for 238U and 7054 μg/g (28.62 Bq/g) for 232Th. These results complement the results of earlier assessments and may assist in the proper management of these activities and the choice and implementation of appropriate protective measures. (author)

  1. “Think of it as a Challenge”: Problematizing Pedagogical Strategies for Progression When Assessing Web-based University Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Svensson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse how a taxonomy-based course design can support students’ qualitative learning processes in online university courses. The paper presents a case study based on two online courses in comparative literature in Swedish and English. A document analysis has been applied to analyse the empirical material, which includes the syllabuses, study guides, and examination assignments connected to the courses. Socio-cultural aspects of learning processes, assessment and feedback, course design using a taxonomic structure (SOLO, and a progressive theory of literary studies (Langer’s theories of envisionment function as a framework. The results show that the examination assignments aim to further the students’ educational processes from stage 2 to stage 5 of the SOLO-taxonomy and, at the same time, through Langer’s four stances. While the course structure has a positive effect on the students’ general as well as literary progress, there are some pedagogical challenges with online teaching in literature that are discussed. In addition, the examination assignments could have been used as ways to strengthen the students’ socio-cultural learning. Furthermore, with little alterations, the examination assignments, which were all used as means of summative assessment, could also have been used formatively to assess the students’ progress.

  2. The search for underlying principles of health impact assessment: progress and prospects: Comment on "Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment"

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Jürg Utzinger

    2014-01-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Is...

  3. Performance of computer-based analysis using temporal subtraction to assess joint space narrowing progression in rheumatoid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shota; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Okubo, Takanobu; Katayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Our computer-based method can detect the chronological change in joint space width between baseline and follow-up images as the joint space difference index (JSDI). The aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of our computer-based method in assessment of joint space narrowing progression in rheumatoid patients. Twenty-seven patients (24 women and 3 men) with rheumatoid arthritis underwent radiography of the bilateral hand at baseline and at 1year. The joint space narrowing (JSN) of a total of 252 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and 229 carpal joints was assessed by our computer-based method, setting the Sharp/van der Heijde method as the gold standard. We constructed a receiver operating characteristic curve by using the Sharp/van der Heijde method as the gold standard and set the optimal cutoff on JSDI for MCP, carpal, and MCP/carpal joints. We then calculated the sensitivity and specificity for each cutoff in assessment of JSN progression. At the most discriminant cutoff, the sensitivity and specificity of the computer-based method for MCP joints was 78.6 versus 85.3%, respectively (AUC=0.837; P<0.001). Carpal joints revealed a lower sensitivity and specificity with 64.7 and 86.8% (AUC=0.775; P<0.001). Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity for MCP/carpal joints was 71.0 versus 83.6%, respectively (AUC=0.778; P<0.001). The computer-based method presented a reliable assessment of JSN progression with high sensitivity and specificity and may be useful in follow-up assessment of the joint damage in rheumatoid patients. PMID:26298417

  4. Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna, J. K.; V.I. UMOGBAI

    2010-01-01

    The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance ...

  5. Ideation and intention to use contraceptives in Kenya and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Babalola; Neetu John; Bolanle Ajao; Ilene Speizer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use remains low to moderate in most African countries. Ideation, or the ideas and views that people hold, has been advanced as a possible explanation for differences in contraceptive use within and across countries. Objective: In this paper, we sought to identify the relevant dimensions of ideation and assess how these dimensions relate to contraceptive use intentions in two illustrative countries, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods: Using factor analysis, we first ide...

  6. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  7. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  8. Radiographic assessment of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing early disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic disease predominantly involving the joints. Since the pathogenesis, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of RA have only been partially elucidated, a definitive therapy has not been established. Precise diagnosis and follow-up therapy requires objective quantification, and radiological analyses are considered to be the most appropriate method. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the time-dependent progression of joint damage in patients with pharmacologically-treated RA, and to determine which therapeutic agents demonstrate the highest efficacy. Outpatient records, laboratory values, therapy schemes and radiographs from hands and feet of 150 RA patients were collected, analyzed and statistically evaluated. Radiographs were quantified using the Larsen score and supportively using the 'RheumaCoach-Rheumatology' computer software. Our observations reveal that radiologically-detectable damage is most pronounced during the first year of disease, while mitigated and generally progressing linearly thereafter. Overall Larsen scores linearly increased from year 0 to 10 (r=0.853), during which the mean Larsen score increased 7.93 ± 0.76 per year. During the first year, RA progression was similar regardless of the medication administered (gold-compounds, AU; chloroquine, CQ; methotrexate, MTX; sulfasalazine SSZ). While MTX and CQ treatment showed no difference when examined as mean 5-year increment of Larsen score, AU and SSZ showed up to 3 fold higher RA progression compared with MTX. The Larsen score in year 1 did not correlate with that of years 2 to 5. In contrast, Larsen scores in year 2 were linearly related to each of the subsequent 3 years. Despite similar ESR values in various medication groups, cumulative ESR correlated with RA progression, and its reduction with therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this study found that, (i) early DMARD-treated RA progressed more rapidly during the first than in subsequent years, and (ii) a linear increase during the first ten years after diagnosis upon retrospective assessment using the original Larsen score, (iii) therapy with methotrexate and chloroquine yielded equal results, and were superior to sulfasalazine or oral gold-compounds, and (iv) despite the effectiveness of cumulative ESR in evaluating RA progression, (v) radiographs of the hands and feet to predict RA were most useful when assessed using the original Larsen score at baseline, after one and two years. (author)

  9. Appendix 4. Member Churches of Christian Council of Nigeria (CCN)1

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Methodist Church Nigeria The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion) The Presbyterian Church of Nigeria The Nigerian Baptist Convention The Salvation of Army Qua Iboe Church of Nigeria The African Church The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria Ekklesiyar Yan'uwa a Nijeria Church of Christ in Nigeria Church of the Lord (Aladura) The Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim Affdiated Bodies The Boys' Brigade Nigeria The Girls' Brigade Nigeria Young Men's Christian Association of Nigeria Yo...

  10. Research in the geosciences related to resource assessment. Interim progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) development of a field data acquisition and processing system for use in exploration geophysics; (2) analysis of seismic data from Imperial Valley and Mt. Etna; and (3) the genesis of uranium ore deposits

  11. Longitudinal Assessment of Progress in Reasoning Capacity and Relation with Self-Estimation of Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Anne; Mlot, France; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally

  12. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  13. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

    2011-12-01

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  14. Threat to Nigeria Since 1960: A Retrospection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andy Afinotan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-independence Nigerian state was faced with the intractable task of governing a multifaceted nation, comprised of 36 regional states which were divided along ethno-religious lines, up to 300 ethnic groups and a plethora of linguistic dialects, in addition to three (3 distinct religious groupings. The challenge of the post-colonial Nigerian state was the efficient administration and governance of a broad-based society with a multiplicity of interests, values, traditions and cultural inclinations. The culmination of an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and dissatisfaction from different regions of Nigeria came with the advent of the Biafra secessionist battle of 1967. Following the end of the Biafra conflict, the Nigerian society became characterised with struggles and resistance against the state system in various forms, with the gripes and disquiets of various groups coming to the fore in various, often violent ways. Making use of library research and content analysis methologies, the authors trace the sequence of crises faced by the Nigerian state since independence, with a keen focus on the Biafra War of 1967, the Niger Delta crisis (particularly, the botched Amnesty Programme of 2009, as well as the current threat of Boko Haram terrorism which has taken hold of the Nigerian society since 2009. The paper concluded that, for the high ideals of Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress to be attained in Nigeria, the State must deal with corruption, ethnicity, religious fundamentalism and security related crimes, while doing more to restructure the polity and enthrone free and fair elections.

  15. Hope and violence in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

  16. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  17. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Frozen Fish Scomber scombrus Species Sold in Nigeria: A Case Study in Zaria Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Abubakar; Adamu Uzairu; Patricia Adamma Ekwumemgbo; Oluwole Joshua Okunola

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the likely health risks to human contamination of heavy metals from fish consumption. The analysis of the idea of fish destination and status (fishing area) for heavy metals was determined by the assessment of its risk limits (daily intake of metal and health risk index). Variations in the accumulation of heavy metals concentrations were between various tissues/organs (skin, muscle, gills, liver, intestine, kidneys, brain, and bones) across the batches of two fishing origi...

  18. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  19. Managing Nigeria's Image Crisis: Akunyilis Rebranding Programme to the Rescue (?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Egwemi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the current image problem in Nigeria, the attem pt to launder this im age via rebranding, the kind of reactions that rebranding has elicited and a prognosis on w hat can be done. This is against the background of the image crisis that the country suffered from between 1993 and 1999. The image crisis in that period was largely attributed to Nigerias lack of democratic progress. This image crisis was again compounded by the fraud that characterized the 2007 general elections. While arguing that the rebranding programme seems to be more of a cosmetic remedy, the paper recommends among other things that beyond sloganeering, the Nigerian government needs to address the issues that gave rise to the image crisis in the first place. This is the only way that N igeria can get out of the image quagmire.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

  1. Using Hand Bone Mass Measurements to Assess Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Mari; Haugeberg, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) bone involvement presents as joint erosions in addition to generalized and periarticular osteoporosis. Joint erosions on radiographs of the hands and feet are considered to be the gold standard to evaluate progression of bone and joint damage in RA, even though erosions on radiographs are not used as a marker of early bone involvement. Periarticular bone loss seen on radiographs may be the first sign of bone involvement in RA. Over the last decade there has been a...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging for accelerated assessment of drug effect and prediction of subsequent radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: a study of patients receiving combined anakinra and methotrexate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    stergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Nielsen, H; Johansen, JS; Narvestad, E; Ejbjerg, BJ; Baslund, B; Mller, JM; Thomsen, HS; Petersen, J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By MRI to assess the efficacy of addition of anakinra for controlling synovitis and stopping erosive progression in patients with clinically active RA despite receiving methotrexate, and to determine the predictive value of MRI for subsequent radiographic erosive progression. METHODS...... evaluation) at weeks 0 and 36. RESULTS: MRI synovitis scores were not significantly changed. Radiography of both hands and wrists after 36 weeks showed erosive progression in 11 patients, and MRI after 12 weeks in 10 patients. Nine of 10 patients with MRI progression at 12 weeks had radiographic progression...... at 36 weeks. Baseline MRI synovitis and erosion scores, but no clinical/biochemical parameters, correlated significantly with subsequent erosive progression. CONCLUSION: Addition of anakinra did not significantly reduce MRI signs of synovitis, and most patients had progressive joint destruction...

  3. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curve...

  4. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu O; Lawoko S; Dalal K

    2011-01-01

    Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of ...

  5. Ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central Nigeria: where Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorusso, Vincenzo; Picozzi, Kim; de Bronsvoort, Barend MC; Majekodunmi, Ayodele; Dongkum, Charles; Balak, Gyang; Igweh, Augustine; Welburn, Susan C

    2013-01-01

    Background Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau ...

  6. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. Annual progress report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.; Riordan, C.; Hammond, E.; Ismailidis, T.

    1993-06-01

    This annual report summaries the activities and accomplishments of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1992 (1 October to 30 September 1992). Managed by the Analytic Studies Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, this project is the major activity of the US Department of Energy`s Resource Assessment Program.

  7. 2014 Abridged Technology and Engineering Literacy Framework for the 2014 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing importance of technology and engineering in the educational landscape, and to support America's ability to contribute to and compete in a global economy, the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) initiated development of the first NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy (TEL) Assessment. Relating to national efforts in…

  8. Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Bin Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will commence. By the time a column is eliminated from the structure as a result of a sudden motor vehicle strike or earthquake or fire or any other internal or external factor that could take one column out of the system, the weight of the building (gravity load will be distributed among other columns within the structure. Failure commences in the part of the structure that has lost a column unless other columns are designed appropriately against gravity loads and are capable of redistribution of additional loads imposed on them. Failure of vertical load bearing elements will continue until the stabilization of extra loading. Hence, this could lead to serious damage and collapse of the building which will lead to higher damage to the building than the primary damage. This research is based on the regulations conforming to the specifications of UFC guidelines and the structures have been modeled using SAP2000 (2012. In order to study the effects of the progressive collapse on the seismic design of special steel moment frames, SMRF, two 5-story and 15-storystructures are modeled in SAP2000 (2012. In order to have a better understanding of progressive collapse and obtain reliable results, Linear Static (LS, Nonlinear Static (NLS and Nonlinear Dynamic analyses (NLD procedure for single and 2 adjacent columns removal have been implemented in this study. Having a good perception of the possibility of progressive collapse involves incorporation of demand capacity ratio, plastic hinges formation and vertical displacements of removed column’s location plus axial force in columns adjacent to the removed column. Other factors such as number of stories and the amount of local damage resulted from the removal of 2 adjacent columns could also lead to a better understanding of the structural behavior.

  9. TQM STRATEGIES AND HEALTH CARE DELIVERIES: LESSONS FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the TQM Strategies and health care delivery in Nigeria, and the various means of measuring service quality. Nigeria continues to suffer outbreaks of various diseases cholera, malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis, measles, yellow fever, Bird flu e.t.c., all these diseases combine to cause high morbidity and mortality in the population. To assess the situation this paper looks at the relevant indicators like Annual Budgets by Government, Individual’s income, the role of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA and various health care agencies vested with the sole responsibility for elaborating standards for products and processes in Health care Delivery.The paper also examines the implication of Government Budget estimates on the Life expectancy of an average Nigerian. The findings necessitated the need for the government to seek support from WHO to assist in strengthening the health care system by advocating and providing technical support to health sector reforms.

  10. State financed PV technology projects in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)

  11. MRI biomarker assessment of neuromuscular disease progression: a prospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jasper M; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Fischmann, Arne; Machado, Pedro M; Reilly, Mary M; Yousry, Tarek A; Thornton, John S; Hanna, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A substantial impediment to progress in trials of new therapies in neuromuscular disorders is the absence of responsive outcome measures that correlate with patient functional deficits and are sensitive to early disease processes. Irrespective of the primary molecular defect, neuromuscular disorder pathological processes include disturbance of intramuscular water distribution followed by intramuscular fat accumulation, both quantifiable by MRI. In pathologically distinct neuromuscular disorders, we aimed to determine the comparative responsiveness of MRI outcome measures over 1 year, the validity of MRI outcome measures by cross-sectional correlation against functionally relevant clinical measures, and the sensitivity of specific MRI indices to early muscle water changes before intramuscular fat accumulation beyond the healthy control range. Methods We did a prospective observational cohort study of patients with either Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A or inclusion body myositis who were attending the inherited neuropathy or muscle clinics at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK. Genetic confirmation of the chromosome 17p112 duplication was required for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A, and classification as pathologically or clinically definite by MRC criteria was required for inclusion body myositis. Exclusion criteria were concomitant diseases and safety-related MRI contraindications. Healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls were also recruited. Assessments were done at baseline and 1 year. The MRI outcomesfat fraction, transverse relaxation time (T2), and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)were analysed during the 12-month follow-up, by measuring correlation with functionally relevant clinical measures, and for T2 and MTR, sensitivity in muscles with fat fraction less than the 95th percentile of the control group. Findings Between Jan 19, 2010, and July 7, 2011, we recruited 20 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A, 20 patients with inclusion body myositis, and 29 healthy controls (allocated to one or both of the 20-participant matched-control subgroups). Whole muscle fat fraction increased significantly during the 12-month follow-up at calf level (mean absolute change 12%, 95% CI 0519, p=0002) but not thigh level (02%, ?02 to 06, p=038) in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A, and at calf level (26%, 1340, p=0002) and thigh level (33%, 1849, p=00007) in patients with inclusion body myositis. Fat fraction correlated with the lower limb components of the inclusion body myositis functional rating score (?=064, p=0002) and the Charcot-Marie-Tooth examination score (?=063, p=0003). Longitudinal T2 and MTR changed consistently with fat fraction but more variably. In muscles with a fat fraction lower than the control group 95th percentile, T2 was increased in patients compared with controls (regression coefficients: inclusion body myositis thigh 40 ms [SE 05], calf 35 ms [06]; Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A thigh 10 ms [03], calf 20 ms [03]) and MTR reduced compared with controls (inclusion body myositis thigh ?15 percentage units [pu; 02], calf ?11 pu [02]; Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A thigh ?03 pu [01], calf ?07 pu [01]). Interpretation MRI outcome measures can monitor intramuscular fat accumulation with high responsiveness, show validity by correlation with conventional functional measures, and detect muscle water changes preceding marked intramuscular fat accumulation. Confirmation of our results in further cohorts with these and other muscle-wasting disorders would suggest that MRI biomarkers might prove valuable in experimental trials. Funding Medical Research Council UK. PMID:26549782

  12. Can Creativity Be Assessed? Towards an Evidence-Informed Framework for Assessing and Planning Progress in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Mike; Peterson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the role of constructions of creativity in the classroom and their consequences for learning and, in particular, for the assessment of creativity. Definitions of creativity are examined to identify key implications for supporting the development of children's creativity within the classroom. The implications of…

  13. Making Instruction and Assessment Responsive to Diverse Students' Progress: Group-Administered Dynamic Assessment in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) x 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control

  14. Democracy in Nigeria: the challenge of infectious disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Anya,1 Chikwe Ihekweazu.2

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between democracy and health outcomes has been the focus of recent research interest [1,2]. With an estimated 140 million people, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. In May 2007, it marked eight years of unbroken civilian government, the longest period of civilian rule in its post-independence history with the noticeably peaceful handover of power from President Obasanjo to President Yar’adua. These eight years of relative peace and democratic governance in Nigeria have seen changes in the economy with steady growth, a large reduction in external debt, and structural reforms of the financial and telecommunications sectors. These changes, however, have had little impact on the lives of ordinary Nigerians [3]. In the health sector, progress has been slow and many challenges remain: from weak health systems to tackling HIV/AIDS; from improving immunization coverage (which in the past has impeded the global goal of eradicating polio to implementing the new International Health Regulations (IHR; from achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs to preparing for pandemic flu. We examine the progress made and challenges faced from an infectious diseases perspective in Nigeria over the past eight years.In northern Nigeria in 2003, concerns about vaccine safety, i.e. rumours that the polio vaccine caused sterility, led to a halt in polio immunization. This led to the resurgence of the disease in Nigeria, and the re-infection of several neighbouring countries, setting back the entire global eradication programme [4]. While the last two years have witnessed a renewed response with reinvigorated vaccination campaigns, the disease has persisted and Nigeria remains one of four countries in which the circulation of the wild poliovirus has never been interrupted, recording the highest number of confirmed polio cases in 2006 and 2007 [5]. Routine immunisations for other vaccine preventable diseases remain below 50% (most recent data 2005 [6]. Outbreaks of measles, for which a cheap, safe and easily administered vaccine has been available for two decades, continue to occur with unacceptable mortality rates [7].In February 2006, the first case of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in domestic birds in Africa was reported from a poultry farm in Nigeria [8]. The case took 5 weeks to be confirmed. Health officials were quickly overwhelmed by the challenge of culling thousands of chickens, responding too late and with too little as the disease spread. Each week brought new anxiety and weird responses [9]. The response to this outbreak provided a troubling illustration of what can happen when H5N1 hits a developing country with a weak health care system and limited capacity in infectious disease control.Nigeria has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world [10]. In 1999 the new civilian government set up a National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA charged with coordinating various activities related to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in the country. The committee has recently been transformed by legislative act into a statutory agency. The prevalence rate based on national sentinel surveys rose from 1.8 per cent in 1991 to 5.8 % in 2001 but in 2006 it was estimated at 3.9 per cent [11]. However, marked variation within the country persists with prevalence rates as high as 12 per cent in some states [12]. In 2005, the Nigerian government committed to universal provision of free antiretroviral therapy, the implementation of which has been largely funded by the Global Fund, PEPFAR [12] and the World Bank. While some progress has been made, with an estimated 92,000 people currently on treatment [12], poor management, shoddy coordination, and capacity issues have impeded further progress in this area.In Nigeria, there is no broad technical agency with the capacity for the surveillance and response to infectious disease. This responsibility lies with technocrats in the Ministry of Health. Most surveillance and response activities are managed via disease specific vertical programmes, with little coordination between them, leading to inefficient use of scarce human resources. The recent announcement that a National Disease Control and Prevention Centre (NDCPC is to be created out of the current Central Public Health Laboratory in Lagos [13] is a welcome development but the challenge will lie in its implementation.Nigeria must face up to the challenge of building the capacity to rapidly respond and manage infectious disease threats. The availability of several international funding sources and advances in technology have made infectious disease control activities significantly easier in recent times. However, accessing and optimizing the use of these resources requires bold, visionary and strategic leadership. The most recent Minister of Health ordered a rapid review of the health system and requested legislative review of how past donor funds have been expended [14]. The case for investing in health, not just as an altruistic service to a population but to promote economic development, has been elucidated by the World Health Organization’s report on Macroeconomics and Health [15]. Nigeria, with its huge population, cannot afford to neglect the health of its people as it seeks economic development in a stable democratic environment.

  15. An assessment of recent Iranian fertility trends using parity progression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2013 a draft population bill was introduced in the Iranian Parliament. Based on the presumption that fertility in Iran had fallen to a very low level, the bill proposed a wide range of pronatalist policies with the aim of increasing fertility to 2.5 births per woman. The draft law called for restrictions on the employment of women and young single people and inducements for women to marry in their late teens. New estimates of fertility, such as those provided in this paper, cast doubt upon the view that fertility had fallen to a very low level. In May 2014 a statement issued by the Supreme Leader provided guidelines for a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility at around the replacement level. Objective: To measure the trend in fertility in Iran, especially from 2000 onwards. Methods: Using the 2010 IDHS, the synthetic cohort parity progression ratio method is used to measure the fertility trend in Iran. Synthetic parity progressions are compared with real cohort parity progressions to examine the presence of tempo effects. Comparison is made with age-based measures from surveys, censuses, and the birth registration system. Results: This paper demonstrates that fertility in Iran was constant for the decade 2000-2009, at a level of around 1.8-2.0 births per woman. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence supporting a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility in Iran at around the replacement level. Comments: The paper demonstrates the advantages of parity-based measurement over age-based measurement when tempo effects may be involved.

  16. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

  17. Research progress on assessment of reactor vessel integrity under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a representative method of reactor vessel integrity (RVI) under severe accident conditions, In-vessel retention of molten core debris (IVR) is an important severe accident management strategy employed in the AP1000 generation-3 Pressurized Water Reactor. In this paper, research progress on the test and theoretical analysis based on RVI is reviewed. Test facilities and techniques, as well as the modeling are summarized. In addition, tools for numerical simulation for RVI are evaluated. Finally, based on the applications in thermal hydraulic technology for the generation-3 Pressurized Water Reactor in China, the potential research direction of thermal-hydraulics under RVI conditions are discussed. (authors)

  18. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  19. A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework in the sense that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are. This paper aims to provide suggestions for improving the sustainability evaluation part of a sustainability assessment. In particular it will provide a comprehensive review of different sustainability evaluation tools (from a reductionist perspective) as well as the feasibility of incorporating them within a sustainability assessment framework. Reviewed tools include monetary tools, biophysical models and sustainability indicators/composite indices that have been developed within different disciplines such as economics, statistics, ecology, engineering and town planning

  20. Using the Malcolm Baldrige "are we making progress" survey for organizational self-assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Judith A; Jennings, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    A national healthcare company applied the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and its "Are We Making Progress?" survey as an annual organizational self-assessment to identify areas for improvement. For 6 years, Liberty Healthcare Corporation reviewed the survey results on an annual basis to analyze positive and negative trends, monitor company progress toward targeted goals and develop new initiatives to address emerging areas for improvement. As such, the survey provided a simple and inexpensive methodology to gain useful information from employees at all levels and from multiple service sites and business sectors. In particular, it provided a valuable framework for assessing and improving the employees' commitment to the company's mission and values, high standards and ethics, quality of work, and customer satisfaction. The methodology also helped the company to incorporate the philosophy and principles of continuous quality improvement in a unified fashion. Corporate and local leadership used the same measure to evaluate the performance of individual programs relative to each other, to the company as a whole, and to the "best practices" standard of highly successful companies that received the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. PMID:22571768

  1. The Global Sustainability Index: An Instrument For Assessing The Progress Towards The Sustainable Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    There is rarely an optimal solution in sustainable development but most frequently a need to build compromises between conflicting aspects such as economic, social and environmental ones and different expectations of stakeholders. Moreover, information is rarely available and precise. This paper will focus on how to use indicators to monitor sustainable development, integrating the information provided by many of them into a complex general sustainability index. Having this general indicator is essential for decision makers as it is very complicated to evaluate the performance of the organization based on multiple indicators. The objective of this paper is to find mathematical algorithms for simplifying the decision-making process by offering an instrument for the evaluation of the sustainability progress.

  2. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  3. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  4. Nigeria - Consultations for Improved Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1999-01-01

    The World Bank-assisted Nigeria Primary Education Project aims at assisting the Government of Nigeria to improve the quality of the subsector through the supply of instructional materials, upgrading of infrastructural facilities, enhancing teachers' competence, facilitating school management, inspection, planning and data gathering. This is being achieved by involving stakeholders at all l...

  5. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura; Niero, Monia; Anton, Assumpcio; Bare, Jane; Boulay, Anne-Marie; Cherubini, Francesco; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Henderson, Andrew; Levasseur, Annie; McKone, Thomas E; Michelsen, Ottar; i Canals, Llorenç Milà; Pfister, Stephan; Ridoutt, Brad; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Verones, Francesca; Vigon, Bruce; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  6. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  7. E-waste in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dam, Peter Rosendahl; Kristensen, Mia; Hansen, Gustav Egede; Sørensen, Peter Christian Taro; Friis, Christian Grønberg

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the technological industry has undergone massive growth. Electrical and electronic equipment reaches obsolescence faster than ever before. If internationally accepted rules of safe processing are adhered to, recycling is not profitable. It is often exported and recycled primitively, a profitable and attractive occupation for the poor. However, primitive recycling is extremely harmful to the environment as well as the personal health of the recycler. Focusing on Nigeria, this p...

  8. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolu Lawal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  9. Challenges Facing Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeka Uche Ofili

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is critical to the development of societies. Entrepreneurs however, cannot work in isolation; they need the right environment to thrive. The judicial system, the educational system, the financial system and generalgovernment policies should be such that encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Basic infrastructures such aspower, water, and transport systems are necessary to boost entrepreneurship. This paper looks at the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria and recomm...

  10. Structural capacity assessment of WWER-1000 MW reactor containment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to provide assessment of the structural behaviour and safety capacity of the WWER-1000 MW Reactor Building Containment at Kozloduy NPP under critical combination of loads according to the current international requirements. The analysis is focused on a realistic assessment of the Containment taking into account the non-linear shell behaviour of the pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure. Previous assessments of the status of pre stressing cables pointed out that the efficiency of the Containment as a final defence barrier for internal and external events depends on their reliability. Due to this, the experimental data obtained from embedded sensors (gauges) at pre-stressed shell structure is to be compared with the results from analytical investigations. The reliability of the WWER-1000 MW accident prevention system is under evaluation in the project. The Soviet standard design WWER-1000 MW type units installed in Kozloduy NPP were originally designed for a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.1g. The new site seismicity studies revealed that the seismic hazard for the site significantly exceeds the originally estimated and a Review Level Earthquake (RLE) anchored to PGA=0.20g was proposed for re-assessment of the structures and equipment at Kozloduy NPP. The scope of the study is a re-assessment of the Containment structure under critical combination of loads according to the current safety and reliability requirements, including comparison between the Russian design requirements and the international regulations. Additionally, an investigation of the pre-stressing technology and the annual control of the cables' pre-stressing of the Containment is to be made. The crane influence on the dynamic behaviour of the Containment will be done as well as a study of the integrity of the Containment as a final defence barrier

  11. Technological Capability in Metal Fabricating Firms in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Oluwasina Sobanke; Matthew Olugbega Ilori; Stephen Akinade Adegbite

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed the technological capability in the metal fabricating firms in southwestern Nigeria. A technology capability index (TCI) was used in assessing 200 randomly sampled firms. Data for the study was analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The results showed a variation in the TCI scores of firms with micro, small and medium fabricating firms scoring an average of 0.82, 1.10 and 1.54 respectively. Firms which reported that process innovation were incremental are 24.8%; new to the...

  12. Gender and environmental influences on visual acuity in Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerole, C G; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the gender and environmental influences on visual function among adults in Owerri, Nigeria. Visual acuity (V.A.) is a measure of visual function in health and disease. Visual disability together with other disabling conditions is a barrier to development, yet there is little known about the visual acuity and determinants of visual function in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Results of a cross-sectional analytical study conducted between September 2007 and November 2009 using 3451 adults living in Owerri, Nigeria consisting of 2606 persons (test) and 845 persons( control), randomly selected are presented. Data were obtained using interviewer administered structured - questionnaires and standard procedures were used to determine gender and environmental influences on visual acuity. There were more females with poor vision than males in both study and control groups. The majority of the subjects were aged 40-49. At 6 metres, 20.9% and 39.1% of study and control groups in the right eye; 31.8% and 41.2% of study control groups respectively in the left eye had unaided V.A. ≥ 6/6. Similarly at 6m, 18.0% and 4.3% of study and control groups in the right eye; 15.2% and 5.0% of study and control groups respectively in the left eye had unaided V.A. education on diet, drug use and safe environmental health practices especially for persons living in rural areas in developing countries are recommended. PMID:26196561

  13. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  14. Collaboration between paediatric surgery and other medical specialties in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon E Okoro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of service and success of patient care and research in most fields of medicine depend on effective collaboration between different specialties. Paediatric surgery is a relatively young specialty in Nigeria and such collaborations are desirable. This survey assesses the nature and extent of collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire survey carried out in November 2008 among paediatric surgeons and their trainees practising in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed and retrieved either by hand or e-mailing. The responses were then collated and analysed using the SPSS 17.0. Results: Forty-seven respondents were included in the survey. Forty-five (95.7% respondents thought that there was inadequate collaboration and that there was a need for an increased collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties. Anaesthesia, paediatrics and radiology are among the specialties where collaborations were most required but not adequately received. Collaboration had been required from these specialties in areas of patient care, training and research. Reasons for inadequate collaboration included the paucity of avenues for inter-specialty communication and exchange of ideas 33 (70.3%, lack of awareness of the need for collaboration 32 (68.1%, tendency to apportion blames for bad outcome 13 (27.7%, and mutual suspicion 8 (17%. Conclusion: There is presently inadequate collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. There is a need for more inter-specialty support, communication, and exchange of ideas in order to achieve desirable outcomes.

  15. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

  16. Integrating life cycle assessment into managing potential EHS risks of engineered nanomaterials: reviewing progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 National Nanotechnology Initiative’s Environmental Health and Safety Research Strategy stressed the need for research to integrate life cycle considerations into risk management and, then, to better integrate risk assessment into decisionmaking on environmental, health, and safety (EHS) dimensions of nanomanufacturing. This paper reviews scholarly articles published 2010–2015 that in some way apply life cycle analysis to nanotechnology to assess the extent to which current research reflects the priorities lain out in the NNI report. As the NNI’s focus was primarily on the “responsible development of nanotechnology” we also focus our examination on the ways in which LCA, in concert with other methodologies, can provide utility to decision makers facing the challenge of implementing that broad goal. We explore some of the challenges and opportunities inherent in using LCA, a tool built to optimize manufacturing decisions, as a guide for policy formulation or tool for policy implementation

  17. Commentary: Progress and Challenges in Evidence-based Family Assessment in Pediatric Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that families are integral to biopsychosocial, social ecological, and other systemic approaches for understanding families and pediatric health. Pediatric psychologists are among the strongest advocates for families. At the same time, families pose challenges that we (pediatric psychology as a field) struggle with in terms of theoretical conceptualizations, assessment and intervention approaches, and training. We primarily use individual frameworks in our practice and re...

  18. Assessing the impact of nuclear-power plants on the environment. Second annual research progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report makes an assessment of the wide-ranging effects that nuclear-power plants can have on the environment. The effects include mortality to fish and other organisms resulting from impingement and entrainment in the cooling system; changes in behavioral and physiological characteristics of aquatic animals by higher temperatures present in the discharge plume; and toxic effects of biocides, heavy metals and radionuclides released in the aquatic or atmospheric environment

  19. Reconnaissance Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Crude Oil Spill on Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Composition at Kwawa, Ogoni, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B.G. Tanee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effects on soil chemical properties and plant composition of a crude oil polluted site were assessed using random surface soil samples and quantitative vegetation data collection methods. Results showed that total hydrocarbon content (542.50±28.58 mg kg–1 and total organic carbon (1.06±0.18% of polluted site were significantly (p = 0.05 higher than the unpolluted site of 27.90±22.10 mg kg–1 and 0.73±0.06%, respectively. Plant species composition showed that Aspillia busei and Heterotis rotundofolia were abundant at polluted site and absent in unpolluted site while Panicum maximum and chromolaena odoratum were absent in polluted site. Species diversities records were 0.37 (polluted site and 0.64 (unpolluted. Aspillia busei recorded the highest frequency of occurrence (90% and density (28.2 m–2 in the polluted site while Starchytarpheta jamaicensis recorded the highest frequency of occurrence (40% and Andropogon tectorum the highest density (3.9 m–2 at the unpolluted site. It can be concluded that the effects of crude oil pollution persists for a long time and negatively affect soil chemical properties, plant species composition and species diversity.

  20. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl detector. The mean activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg−1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l -1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites.