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Assessing the progress of malaria control in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

One third of the world's malaria deaths occur in Nigeria. It is doubtful whether Nigeria will meet the malaria control target of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, having failed to meet the Abuja target to halve the burden of malaria by 2010. This paper assesses the current malaria burden and progress toward malaria control. Substantial data were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and other secondary sources. Data showed that the malaria burden is still enormous because of inadequate control efforts. In 2008, only 17% of Nigerians owned at least one net, compared with 12% in 2003. Eight percent owned an insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN), but only 6% of under-five children and 5% of pregnant women slept under an ITN. Only one third of under-five children with fever received antimalarial drugs, while one fifth of pregnant women took antimalarial drugs for prevention. Chloroquine is still the most common drug used in malaria treatment, despite its ban in first-line treatment since 2005. The paper concludes that scaling up home management of malaria and a community-centred approach to ITN and artemisinin-based combination therapy provisioning should be prioritized. PMID:21677528

Amzat, Jimoh

2011-01-01

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Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and children under five years of age since 2000. The survey was the first nationally representative study of ITN use assessing progress towards the Abuja target amongst vulnerable groups. Population and Method A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 7,200 households, selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique from 12 randomly selected states from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data collection was done during the malarious rainy season (October 2005 using a modified WHO Malaria Indicator Survey structured questionnaire about household ownership and utilization of mosquito nets (treated or untreated from household heads. Results Household ownership of any net was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%–25.1% and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%–10.9%. Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%–12.6% and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2% for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion, presence of health facility and wealth index by caregiver's education predicted the use of ITN among this group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the substantial increase in ITN utilization among children under five years of age in Nigeria is still far from the Abuja targets.

Sofola Olayemi T

2008-07-01

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Nigeria's environmental impact assessment laws  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency, NESREA, established in November, 2006 with the mission to ensure a cleaner and healthy environment for Nigerians and to inspire personal and collective responsibility in building an environmentally conscious society for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. Nigeria has put in place appropriate institutional mechanism including legal framework for environmental management in collaboration with NESREA to work closely with all stake holders to facilitate the EIA process in the nuclear industry in Nigeria and ensure that the Nigerian environment and its people benefit maximally from nuclear power generation development

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The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The [...] study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to determine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

Olusegun Ayodele, Akanbi.

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Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, january 2013-september 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria. PMID:25412063

Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-11-21

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An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music  

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Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

Nkechi M. Christopher

2012-05-01

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Assessing Manual and Online Course Registration in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions  

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Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing the perceptions of male and female students on manual and online course registration systems in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. One research question was formulated to guide the study. A questionnaire containing 20 items on assessing the perceptions of students on manual and online course registration was drawn. This was validated by experts in test and evaluation in Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The instrument was tested for reliability using the test re-test method. The data collected was analysed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and it was established at 0.88 which shows that the instrument is reliable - 750 male and 750 female students were randomly selected from 3 notable Universities in the 3 regions in Nigeria. The data collected from the administered questionnaire was analysed using the t-test statistics and mean ( scores as well as standard Deviation (SD. It was discovered that there is no significant difference in the perceptions of male and female students on manual and online course registration systems. The respondents hold that online registration saves time, it is cost effective, information can easily be retrieved, high storage capacity, easily accessible and it is in line with the digital age. The manual registration only encourages mutual cooperation among students and errors made can be easily corrected. Suggestions were made for better improvement of online course registration system.

Oladunjoye Patrick

2013-11-01

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Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%, Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%, Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%, Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%, excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%, Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%, Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9% and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%. There were 9 mortalities (17.6% in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria.

Falase Bode

2013-01-01

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Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations. The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1, all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO, the European Union (EU and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA. The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations.

A. Uzairu

2008-04-01

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Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

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Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

2014-01-01

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An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme (TTTP) in Katsina State, Nigeria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

TVET is key solution to poverty eradication, job creation, reducing unemployment, economic expansion, and improve social and economic well-being of a nation. For years TVET programme in Nigeria has been confronting with unresolved problems such as, misconception of the TVET by the public, low status of TVET teachers, less concern by the government. Thus, this study present “An Assessment of The Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme in Katsina State, Nigeria” the specific o...

SagirIlliyasuRafukka; Dr.CheKum Clement; Dr. Md. Abu Raihan,

2013-01-01

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ASSESSMENT OF SANITATION FACILITIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS WITHIN ILORIN, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Appropriate sanitation in primary schools is fundamental for effective learning and prevention of diseases prone to children. This study was undertaken to assess the state of sanitation facilities in primary schools within Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select primary schools for the survey and 200 schools eventually participated. Data for the study was obtained from physical inspection of sanitation facilities and semi structured questionnaire. The result of the study reveals that 5.5% - 26.5% of the assessed schools have sanitation facilities in adequate quantity, quality or usage; 23% have less number of facilities compared to pupil population, 42% have grossly inadequate facilities, and 12.5% have no sanitation facility. The quality of facilities in 24.5% of the schools is tolerable while the facilities in 57.5 % of the schools are in deplorable condition. Also 26.5% of the schools effectively use the toilets and urinals, 22.5% seldom use them while 38.5% do not use them at all because they are objectionable or risky. Therefore, raising the status of schools lacking behind in quantity, quality or usage of sanitation facilities should be a top priority in order to achieve developmental goals.

AREMU, A.S.

2012-03-01

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Using UNAIDS’s organizing framework to assess Nigeria’s national HIV monitoring and evaluation system  

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Full Text Available The Nigeria National Response Management Information System (NNRIMS, developed in 2004 as a framework for monitoring and evaluating the country’s response to HIV, does not function at an optimum level due to several challenges, including a confusing proliferation of vertical reporting systems, competition among sectors, and the nascent nature of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E sub-systems within many institutions. An assessment of the existing M&E system was conducted to verify whether the system has the capacities to provide essential data for monitoring the epidemic and identifying critical programming gaps. Nigeria’s National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA used an organizing framework for a national HIV M&E system developed by UNAIDS, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the NNRIMS to generate data for evidence-based decisionmaking. The participatory approach used during an assessment workshop ensured that the process was country-led and -owned to build consensus and local capacity, and that it encouraged adoption of a single national-level multisectoral HIV M&E system. The assessment found an operable M&E system at the national level but a much weaker system at the state and local levels and across seven other sectors. There are multiple data collection and reporting tools at the facility level that lead to vertical reporting systems, which increases the burden of reporting at lower levels, especially by service providers. Human resources are being developed, but problems remain with the quantity and quality of staff. Data use, though evident at the national level, is still very weak among five of the seven sectors assessed. The assessment results have been used to develop a national costed M&E workplan to which all stakeholders contributed in a coordinated response to strengthen the system.

Kayode Ogungbemi

2012-08-01

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Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

Tijani, M.'n.

1994-11-01

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Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact  

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Full Text Available Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaire’s disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled water became a major source of drinking water. Although, portable and affordable, the problems of its purity and other health concerns have begun to manifest. Sachet water have been reported to contain bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidia sp. Apart from environmental contaminants, improper storage and handling by vendors also poses a serious threat to the health of the ignorant consumers. This paper tends to review the quality of these ‘pure water’; its physical examination, microbial assessments, its impacts on health, and the various strategies adopted by the concerned authorities to regulate this thriving industry.

Omalu ICJ

2011-01-01

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Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major public health and social problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study focuses on the assessment of nutritional status of 40 Queens College Students of Lagos State age 10-19 years. It was glaringly shown that most of the nutrients are lacking with inadequate energy intake especially among students of younger ages.

O. Akinyemi

2009-01-01

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Gender and Family Structure on Career Progression in Public Audit Firms in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Gender and family structure are important variables in the growth and promotion of auditors in public audit firms to be partners and managing partners. Therefore, this study examines the effect of gender and family structure on the career progression of individuals in public audit firms in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, relevant primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was collected from a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty three respondents with an average reliability of 0.83 and the secondary data from published scholarly articles. The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using regression, t-test, granger causality test and diagnostic test. The statistical analysis reveals the linkage between gender and technical competence of auditors in public audit firms; family structure and productivity of auditors in public audit firms; family structure and dedication to duty of auditors in public audit firms and the difference between male and female on the career progression in public audit practice. On the basis of the empirical result, the study concludes that gender of an individual does not affect the technical competence of auditors, but rather what is important is the level of education and experience of the auditor; family structure affects the productivity of auditors. This is particularly in respect to women that are married; family structure affects the dedication of auditors in public audit firms and there are differences between the growth and promotion of male or female in public audit firms. On the basis of the conclusion, useful recommendations were presented to improve the role of gender and family structure on career progression in public audit firms.

Ukuta Ayakiri Jeake

2013-09-01

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Assessing the relevance, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV/AIDS in-service training in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than three million people in Nigeria are living with HIV/AIDS. In order to reduce the HIV/AIDS burden in Nigeria, the US Government (USG) has dedicated significant resources to combating the epidemic through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In-service training (IST) of health workers is one of the most commonly used strategies to improve the quality and coverage of HIV/AIDS services. At USAID/Nigeria's request, the USAID-funded CapacityPlus project conducted an assessment of PEPFAR-funded IST for all cadres of health workers in Nigeria. Using the IST Improvement Framework, developed by the USAID Applying Sciences to Strengthen and Improve Systems Project (ASSIST), as a guide, the authors developed a survey tool to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of IST provided between January 2007 and July 2012 by PEPFAR-funded implementing partners in Nigeria. The instrument was adapted to the Nigerian context and refined through a stakeholder engagement process. It was then distributed via an online platform to more than 50 PEPFAR-funded implementing partners who provided IST in Nigeria. A total of 39 implementing partners completed the survey. Our survey found that PEPFAR implementing partners have been providing a wide range of IST to a diverse group of health workers in Nigeria since 2007. Most trainings are developed using national curricula, manuals and/or other standard operating procedures. Many of the partners are conducting Training Needs Assessments to inform the planning, design and development of their training programs. However, the assessment also pointed to a number of recommendations to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of PEPFAR-funded IST. These actions are as follows: improve collaboration and coordination among implementing partners; apply a more diverse and cost-effective set of training modalities; allocate funding specifically for the evaluation of the effectiveness of training; improve links between IST and both continuing professional development and pre-service education; require implementing partners to create sustainability plans to transition training from PEPFAR funding to other funding sources; and develop a training information management system to track key aspects of IST, such as the number and types of providers, courses, and participants of PEPFAR-funded IST. PMID:24739511

Burlew, Randi; Puckett, Amanda; Bailey, Rebecca; Caffrey, Margaret; Brantley, Stephanie

2014-01-01

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Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

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Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria  

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The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the...

Nwachokor, M. A.; Oviasogie, P. O.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria  

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In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters we...

Banjoko, O. B.; Gbadebo, A. M.; Adetunji, M. T.; Adekunle, I. M.

2007-01-01

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Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria  

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The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Insti...

Ojo, O. D.; Adebayo, O. S.; Olaleye, O.; Orkpeh, U.

2012-01-01

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Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: ?The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. ?Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Goveods and then compared against the Government's plans. ?These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. ?The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. ?Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

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Water resources in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

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Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

Alonzo, Alicia C.

2011-01-01

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Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

L. O. Ogunsumi

2007-04-01

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Promotion of Non-Oil Export in Nigeria: Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF was established in 1977 with the aim of enhancing commercial banks’ loans to the agricultural sector in Nigeria with focus on agro-allied and agricultural production. Many years down the line, the country has witnessed poor participation in the international market with regards to non-oil export. The above stance was assessed with a view to establishing interaction between ACGSF and non-oil export using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR technique. The study found, among others, that there exist a long-run relationship between the ACGSF and export, but the magnitude is minimal. It was therefore recommended, inter alia, that adequate infrastructural and storage facilities, which increase the shelf-life of agricultural outputs are needed to improve non-oil exports in Nigeria.

U.R. Efobi

2011-02-01

28

Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis

29

Assessment of natural radionuclide content of cements used in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in seven brands of Portland cement used in Nigeria have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a hyperpure germanium detector. A total of 22 samples were collected from suppliers. The mean activity concentrations varied between 19.2 and 85.1 Bq kg-1, 12.9 and 31.7 Bq kg-1, and 31.5 and 116 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, which are lower than the world averages for building materials. The average values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K content of all the cement samples are 43.8, 21.5 and 71.7 Bq kg-1, respectively. The results of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index calculated were all within the recommended limits for safety, and compare well with results obtained in some other countries of the world.

30

Consecutive interpreting in class – assessing students’ progress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with the linguistic and paralinguistic problems that arise in the process of interpreter training and discusses the methods of assessing students’ progress. The data was collected during the practical courses in consecutive interpreting for the 3rd-year students of the Institute of Applied Linguistics in Pozna? and comprises the period of five years. Additionally, different methods of evaluating students’ progress are analyzed with respect to their effectiveness and pot...

B?aszkowska, Hanka; Sto?ckmann, Britta

2011-01-01

31

An Assessment of Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Federal Mortgage Bank Scenario  

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Full Text Available In recent times the federal mortgage bank spite of it role in housing delivery has recorded little or no success which is the major concern of this paper to critically assess the extent to which the federal mortgage bank has recorded success in housing delivery in Nigeria. Information on the extent of housing delivery was obtained from federal ministry of statistic and federal mortgage banks. However, findings indicate that in 2002 to 2005, the mortgage finance bank was able to mobilized N19.175 billion compared to 1992 to 2002 with a value of N11.451 billion showing a growth rate of 82%. It was discovered that the bank granted loan value of N4.531 billion to 4,151 national housing fund to contributors to either build or renovate their houses. Nevertheless, the mortgage finance bank has recorded little or no success but has appreciably improved in terms of fund mobilization which has aided increase in housing delivery in Nigeria.Key words: Housing delivery; Mortgage bank; Finance; Nigeria; Government

Joseph K. Ukwayi

2012-12-01

32

Assessment of attitudes of University of Nigeria pharmacy students toward pharmaceutical care  

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Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the attitude of University of Nigeria pharmacy students towards pharmaceutical care.Method: A survey of pharmacy students in their second to fifth year was conducted. A modified 13-item standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey (PCAS was used for the study. Reliability and factorial validity of the modified instrument were assessed. Results: Modification of the instrument did not alter its validity. Students of the University of Nigeria had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care as attitude score of all the items were above the midpoint score of 2.5. The mean scale score of second and third year students were significantly lower than that of the fifth year’s (Oneway ANOVA, p<0.001. Females had a higher positive attitude score compared to male students (Students t-test, p=0.005. There was no significant difference in the mean scale score among those that had work experience and those without work experience. Marital status did not influence attitude score. Conclusion: University of Nigeria pharmacy students had a positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care. However, it is necessary to provide sites were students could acquire practice experience and these sites should be designed to enable students observe the integration of pharmaceutical care activities into pharmacy practice.

Udeogaranya PO

2009-09-01

33

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

34

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (PV can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these systems have been jeopardized. The objective of this work is to embark on performance assessments of in- stalled Solar PV system in Oke-Agunla, Akure local government of Ondo State in Nigeria. Visits were conducted to the village; equipments on ground were examined while the people were interviewed. Both functional and non-functional facilities were traced to their manufacturers using the identification data on them and rated to ensure their efficiencies. Energy demands were also prorated, and observed the need to improve on the present energy supplied. Results of the assessments shows that PV facilities used were inadequate, trained technicians were not available giving room for quacks working on the facilities occasionally resulted in further complications and poor facilities maintenance. The assessment result shows that just 14.52% of the 4.5 kW installed solar PV was utilized due to significant malfunctioning and deterioration in performance. It can be concluded from this study that the installed solar PV systems was inefficient as a result of poor maintenance, lack of technical know-how and inability of the project contractors or managers to take these factors into consideration while embarking on the solar PV installations.

Olawale Saheed Ismail

2012-08-01

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Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended

36

Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

Parvaz Madadi

2012-10-01

37

An Assessment of the Impact of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Structural Adjustment Programme on Cotton Production and Utilization in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available At Nigerias independence, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy. It provided employment, food, raw materials for industry and foreign exchange. However, within 20 years of Independence the country became unable to cope with the overall needs of its food and raw materials. Increased foreign exchange earnings from the export of crude oil were implicated as leading to the neglect and subsequent decline in the performance of the Nigerian agricultural sector. The Structural Adjustment Programme SAP was adopted to restructure and diversify the productive base of the economy in such a way as to reduce dependency on the oil sector and imports. One of the key policy strategies designed to achieve the Nigeria's SAP goals was the adoption of a market-determined exchange rate. This paper set out to assess the impact of exchange rate deregulation and SAP on cotton production and utilization in Nigeria. Time series data on aggregate cotton production, Nairas average cross exchange rates with the US dollar and average capacity utilization rate of textile manufacturers in Nigeria for the period 1973-2007 were collected and analysed using Multiple-regression and the students t test technique. Findings includes: exchange rate deregulation per se has no significant effect on cotton production in Nigeria; more cotton was produced in Nigeria during the post-SAP period; the average capacity utilization of domestic textile industry in Nigeria during the pre-SAP period was higher than during the post-SAP period. Based on the findings of the study some noteworthy lessons were highlighted.

Aliyu A. Ammani

2012-01-01

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An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme (TTTP in Katsina State, Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available TVET is key solution to poverty eradication, job creation, reducing unemployment, economic expansion, and improve social and economic well-being of a nation. For years TVET programme in Nigeria has been confronting with unresolved problems such as, misconception of the TVET by the public, low status of TVET teachers, less concern by the government. Thus, this study present “An Assessment of The Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme in Katsina State, Nigeria” the specific objectives were to find out the problems confronting TTTP and to suggest necessary measures for improvement on the basis of the assessment. The population of the study comprised of a total number of 57 instructional staff used for the study. 38 samples were chosen from this population using stratified random sampling techniques. The findings of this study revealed that, there have no enough instructional/workshop attendants, women have underrepresented in instructional staff, no constant supply of electricity to the instructional spaces, lack of awareness for youth about the TVET programme etc. Base on the findings the study recommends to create the provision of in-service training, and to construction of alternative source of electricity establishing educational guidance offices in secondary schools among other.

SagirIlliyasuRafukka

2013-10-01

39

Assessing E-Government Implementation in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assessed e-Government adoption in Ekiti state government ministries, agencies and departments. It determined the availability of e-Government resources and infrastructure, the stage of e-government implementation and the challenges. Gartner’s four phase of e-Government model was used for analysis. Social sur vey design approach was adopted. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire administered to the Director of IT and administration in the 29 ministries, agencie...

Wole Michael Olatokun; Adebayo, Busola M.

2012-01-01

40

Assessment of Multi-band Capabilities in the Detection of Built-up Areas in Northwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Corrected and uncorrected SPOT XS imageries are used to achieve comparative assessment of built-up areas land use and land cover classes in Northwestern Nigeria. The built-up environment showed on both imageries. The PAVM was used to determine the ability of the data sets to produce similar results over the area. Results indicate a low PAVM value for the tertiary level urban land use and land cover classes except the commercial areas. Vacant lands, industrial areas and open spaces showed zero values. The results have implications on the planning of urban and natural resources development in the ecologically fragile region of Northwestern Nigeria.

Njoku, D. John

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) assessment of oil and gas production installations in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) assessment was carried out at oil production platforms and gas processing units in Nigeria with the aim of establishing baseline levels and problem areas. The assessment consisted of external radiation measurements on production units, from the wellheads to the product outlets, sampling and gamma spectrometric analysis of scales and sludge from pig stations and of replaced pipes and vessels. The NORM levels on the installations and associated equipment ranged from 0.1 to 15 ?Sv/h and gamma spectrometric analysis indicates the presence of 226Ra, 214Bi and 214Pb in the scales and sludge, having a maximum concentration of 200 Bq/g. The levels may seem low but there is still the need to establish a routine monitoring programme for the industry, which presently is non-existent. (author)

42

An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken meats as well as motivational and preferred methods of preparation of the meat. Duck meat was nevertheless acceptable and rated fairly by most of the respondents. Consumption of duck meat was however constrained by non-availability, non-familiarity, inability to slaughter the live duck and some traditional and religious taboos associated with the meat. There was a significant indication that consumption level of the meat will improve considerably when established duck meat shop and processed meat products are available.

I.T. Oteku

2006-01-01

43

Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment  

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Full Text Available The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, it is argued that this is not the case in Nigeria. With the aid of the elite and class analytical models, it is contended that the opinions of the Nigerian masses hardly impinge on the policy-making process, and the “public” policies churned out of this process are often designed to promote and protect the class interests of those who control the Nigerian State. It is concluded that the extreme poverty and illiteracy which pervade the Nigerian society have emasculated and disempowered the majority of the people and made them inconsequential observers in the policy-making process in the country.

Ugumanim Bassey Obo

2014-06-01

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An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effects of SAP on poultry production in Nigeria between 1985 - 1990. It was observed that the Structural Adjustment Programme has had tremendous effects on poultry industry in Nigeria. The farmers have not adjusted favourably to the effect of SAP with 75 % of them operating between 20 - 50 % and 19 % below 20 % of production capacity. Currently the industry is being operated below 30 % mainly due to the high cost of chicks and inputs some of which have risen to over 1000 %. Productivity of the birds has also been affected with about 30 % reduction in the number of eggs laid per bird per year. Age at maturity has also increased to about 30 % among broilers. Farmers found it difficult to buy feed and drug resulting in increased mortality of about 80 % among broilers. The rise in the prices of product of about 500 % does not match the increase cost of production. Recommendations are therefore made to help stabilise the poultry industry.

Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

1996-01-01

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Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

Irohibe Ifeoma

2014-03-01

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Natural Radionuclide Concentrations and Radiological Impact Assessment of River Sediments of the Coastal Areas of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out to measure the radioactivity level in the coastal areas of Nigeria by gamma counting of river sediment samples and assess the radiological impact associated with the use of the river sediments as building material. The method of gamma spectrometry with a 7.6 cm by 7.6 cm NaI(Tl detector was employed in determining 40K, 238U and 232Th levels in 95 and 38 sediment samples respectively collected from representative sites in the oil producing and non oil producing coastal areas of Nigeria. Results of the samples assayed showed that the radioactivity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the sediment samples of oil producing areas range from 95.4 to 160.0; 7.6 to 31.0 and 9.5 to 41.6 Bq kg–1, respectively. The respective means were calculated as 122.39 ± 47.49; 18.93 ± 12.53 and 29.31 ± 18.67 Bq kg–1. In the sediment samples from the non oil producing areas, the respective mean values are 88.48 ± 8.22, 14.87 ± 3.51 and 16.37 ± 3.87 Bq kg–1. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there is no significant difference between the radionuclide concentration of the sediment samples from different rivers in the oil producing and non oil producing coastal areas, except for 40K. The values of the natural radionuclide concentrations however translate to the determina-tion of the radiological impact assessment values. The values of the radiological assessment indices obtained were ob-served to be lower than limits internationally reported and recommended for building materials. It could therefore be reported that the operations of the oil companies in the coastline, involving use of radioactive materials have not contributed adversely to the radioactivity level of the river sediments and that the use of river sediments as building mate-rial in the coastal areas of Nigeria poses no radiological risk.

Ayodeji Oladiran Awodugba

2011-06-01

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Assessment of the Impact of Extension Services on Fish Farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the impact of access to extension services on fish farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio–economic characteristics of fish farmers, information disseminated to fish farmers, attributes of extension agents, and farmers’ access to extension services and farmers profitability. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the farmers and a sample size of 90 fish farmers was selected from the six local government selected. Analysis of data was carried out using frequency and percentage tables and Gross Margin analysis was used to determine the profitability of the farmers. There was relationship between farmers’ access to extension services and their profitability. It was recommended that extension agents should intensify their efforts in reaching farmers and passing useful information to them in order to increase farmers’ profitability.

Agbebi, F. O.

2012-03-01

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Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

2013-01-01

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Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

2013-01-01

50

Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality in parts of the niger delta, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed hydrogeochemical analysis of several samples of groundwater collected from parts of the Niger Delta, Nigeria has been carried out in an effort to assess the quality of groundwater in the area. Results obtained showed the groundwater in the area to be enriched in Na+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, HCO{3/-}, and SO{4/-}. The concentration of these ions as well as such parameters as salinity, total hardness, and TDS are below the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water. The concentration of Ca++ was found to be higher than Mg++ except in some areas very close to the coast suggesting the encroachment of saltwater. This encroachment of saltwater is further indicated by the general increase in Cl- and a decreased in HCO{3/-} content towards the coast and Na/Cl ratios. On the basis of the present hydrogeochemical studies, five groundwater types have been recognized to occur in the area of study. These are (1) Sodium-Calcium-Magnesium-Bicarbonate type (Na-Ca-Mg-5HCO3), (2) Iron-Calcium-Bicarbonate type (Fe-Ca-4HCO3), (3) Sodium-Calcium-Magnesium-Sulfate type (Na - Ca - Mg - tfrac{5}{2}SO_4 ), (4) Iron-Chloride-Bicarbonate (Fe-Cl-HCO3), and (5) Magnesium-Chloride type (Mg-2Cl). The assemblage of groundwater types in the area shows that both compound and single groundwater types occur. The geochemical characteristics of the groundwaters are thought to be closely related to the peculiar geologic and hydrologic conditions that prevail in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

Amadi, P. A.; Ofoegbu, C. O.; Morrison, T.

1989-11-01

51

IOP Nigeria  

...IOP Nigeria Nigeria Branch, IOP This branch has been established in order to organise lectures, meetings and conferences for its members in ... Nigeria, and will also work locally to promote physics, physics education and public understanding of physics. This site uses cookies. ...Careers Policy Resources You are here Activities IOP in your area IOP Nigeria IOP in your area East Midlands North West South East South ...West Yorkshire and North East Ireland Scotland Wales India IOP Nigeria Officers Nigeria calendar South Eastern USA IOP Nigeria . IOP Nigeria is ...

52

An Empirical Assessment of the Real Exchange Rate and Poverty in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigated the influence of the real exchange rate on poverty within the framework of a dependent economy model. Using data covering 1980 to 2010, the result of a Vector Error Correction model (VECM) showed that the volatility of the real exchange rate has significant influence on the level of poverty in Nigeria. Thus, government policies that targets real exchange rate could play significant role in reducing the level of poverty in Nigeria, particularly if supported by basic ins...

Omojimite, Ben U.; Oriavwote, Victor E.

2012-01-01

53

Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in southwest Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand - dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended. PMID:18180542

Adekunle, I M; Adetunji, M T; Gbadebo, A M; Banjoko, O P

2007-12-01

54

Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

O. B. Banjoko

2007-12-01

55

Radiological assessment of sediment samples from Oporoma oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out on sediment samples collected from an oil producing field in Oporoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, using HPGe detector with the aim of assessing radiological exposure and doses to workers and general public. The activity concentration of 40K varied from (58.21±4.95 - 127.07±10.90) Bq/kg whereas that of 238U varied from (5.67±0.72 - 26.46±2.21) Bq/kg and that of 232Th varied from (5.88±0.61 - 68.51±5.10) Bq/kg. The radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from radium equivalent activities which ranges between (22.68 - 133.64) Bq/kg, internal and external indices ranges from (0.08 - 0.43) Bq/kg and (0.06 - 0.36) Bq/kg respectively, and effective dose rate from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides (40K, 238Uand 232Th ) ranges from (0.01 - 0.38) mSv/y. The values obtained are lower than the internationally recommended limits. The values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the communities within this environment.

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Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals among other things that the increase in the tax rate affected the tax payers revenue generation, and the retroactive nature of our tax laws constitutes a major problem thus: resulting in double taxation during the assessment and collection of taxes. following the findings, the researchers recommends that competent laws should be passed by the government on personal Income tax collection and generation, stiff penalties should be imposed on the tax defaulters and evaders, tax laws should be made less complex, recruitment of qualified personnel to enable them cover fully the scope of work and finally the tax payers should be educated sufficiently on the importance of tax.

Uche Lucy Onyekwelu

2014-08-01

57

Basil (Ocimum basilicum Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT seed collection survey to expand NIHORT basil genetic base. The field layout was completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were: O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and the local basil. Treatments were randomly allocated per replication. There were significant phenotypic differences in the O. basilicum variety. These differences were observed in the plant coloration ranging from deep to light purple coloration of stem, leaf, leaf vein and petiole. Our observations also revealed for the first time significant tolerance to Venial Mottle Mosaic Virus (VMMV in the purple colored compared to the green O. basilicum in the early stages of growth till 50% anthesis. This is the first report of this observation in the African continent. Tolerance to VMMV symptoms increased significantly (LSD 5% with purplish coloration. We concluded that inducement of purplish coloration in Basil through breeding might improve tolerance to VMMV and thereby increase market value of Basil with sustainable pathological interventions.

O.D. Ojo

2012-01-01

58

An Assessment of Farmers’ Ability to Determine their Agricultural Extension Needs in Kwara State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The ability of farmers to determine their agricultural extension needs is important for the success of the much lauded participatory approach to agricultural extensions service. This study assessed the ability of farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria to determine their extension needs. It also evaluated the factors that affect this ability. Using a well structured questionnaire, a two stage random sampling technique was employed to collect data from 261 farmers across the four agro-ecological zones in the state. Descriptive statistics and the multiple regression model were the analytical tools used in the study. The result of the analysis revealed that farmers possess a fair ability to determine their extension needs. Farmers’ age, total income, level of education, years of farming experience and the number of extension contact were found to influence farmers’ ability to determine their extension needs at one percent level of significance. Access to training was found significant at ten percent level of significance. The study therefore recommends regular training of farmers on extension needs identification with particular emphasis on the older and often more experienced farmers. Adult learning programs should be made available to, and promoted among farmers in addition to ensuring adequate extension contacts for all farmers.

OMOTESHO KEMI FUNMILAYO

2014-09-01

59

Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the fertility constraints identified were low effective cation exchange capacity and soil acidification. In addition, the clayey texture of the subsoil made these soils susceptible to erosion as well as caused harvesting difficulties. Liming was recommended to ameliorate the acidity constraints. Liming together with incorporation of organic materials into the soils were the measures needed to enhance their effective cation exchange capacity. Soil erosion control was to be given high priority especially by maintaining adequate surface cover and ensuring that tillage was limited to only when soil was drier than the plastic limit.

M. A. Nwachokor

2013-09-01

60

Assessment of Public Perception of Greenhouse Gases as Precursor to Climate Change Mitigation in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The rising concentrations of both CO2 and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the earth's atmosphere are leading to global climate change. The need to address this climate change has gained momentum in recent times, and as a result public awareness of such greenhouse gases serves as a precursor to climatic change mitigation strategy. Therefore, this study entails collection of information about public perception of Climate Change and identification of carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons, and aerosols as contributors to climate forcing. The assessment was completed using conventional survey technique applied amid 1000 people in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The results show 34.9%, 23.6%, 4.5%, 12.3% and 0.2% levels of recognition or understanding of climate change, carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons and aerosols respectively. The results reveal that public awareness of climate change is low in the study area, while Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases as contributor to Climate Change is extremely low compared to CO2. The study is a preliminary effort to elicit public views and therefore, would assist decision makers and enhance communication with the public in the context of Science and Environment Policy.

Nwankwo, L.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Assessment of a progressive electricity tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

62

Quality Assessment of Broiler Day-old Chicks Supplied to Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Chick quality assessment was carried out on day-old chicks supplied to Maiduguri. A total of 30 broiler day-old chicks, comprising of 10 chicks each from three major suppliers were used for this study. The chicks were separately grouped according to sources, randomly designated as A, B and C. Physical, microbiological and serological qualities were assessed. Chicks from source B were found to have significantly (P< 0.05 higher mean body weight (33.8 ± 1.21g than chicks from sources A and C. Similarly, source B chicks had higher mean chick length (18.86 ± 0.21cm than chicks from other sources. Microbiological assessment revealed E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. as the common bacteria encountered from the navels and cloacal swabs, while Proteus spp. and Streptococcus spp. were only isolated from the navel and cloacal swabs of chicks from sources A and C respectively. Thirty percent of chicks from source C and 10% of chicks from source B were found with antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD. Similarly, 80%, 75% and 44.4% of chicks from sources B, C and A were found to have antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND respectively. Source B was found to supply day-old chicks of better quality to Maiduguri. Minimum standards are suggested to be set for physical, microbiological and serological qualities and a regulatory body should also be established to ensure strict adherence to the minimum standards of day-old chicks quality supplied to farmers in Nigeria.

Y.A. Geidam

2007-01-01

63

Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:24858228

Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

2014-08-15

64

Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour  

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Full Text Available Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs at Nigeria's BoP. The primary data for this study were collected using Questionnaires administered to consumers in South Western Nigeria. The secondary data used were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics Surveys; 2009/2010 Consumption Pattern and Consumer Expectation. Using a combination of primary and secondary data, the study employed multiple regression analysis on determinants of consumption at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid. Findings of the study were mostly in conflict with the positions of the BoP advocates. On the basis of the trends in Consumer Behavior and the composition of baskets of goods at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the study concluded that the BoP market would be better served by indigenous micro, small and medium enterprises than Multi-National Corporations.

Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

2013-09-01

65

Assessment of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 5-year prospective study on idiopathic scoliosis, an attempt was made to elucidate the natural history of the disease and to determine which factors contribute to curve progression. A total of 85,622 children were examined for scoliosis in a prospective school screening study carried out in northwestern and central Greece. Curve progression was studied in 839 of the 1,436 children with idiopathic scoliosis of at least 10 degrees detected from the school screening program. Each child was followed clinically and roentgenographically for one to four follow-up visits for a mean of 3.2 years. Progression of the scoliotic curve was recorded in 14.7% of the children. Spontaneous improvement of at least 5 degrees was observed in 27.4% of them, with 80 children (9.5%) demonstrating complete spontaneous resolution. Eighteen percent of the patients remained stable, while the remaining patients demonstrated nonsignificant changes of less than 5 degrees in curve magnitude. A strong association was observed between the incidence of progression and the sex of the child, curve pattern, maturity, and to a lesser extent age and curve magnitude. More specifically, the following were associated with a high risk of curve progression: sex (girls); curve pattern (right thoracic and double curves in girls, and right lumbar curves in boys); maturity (girls before the onset of menses); age (time of pubertal growth spurt); and curve magnitude (> or = 30 degrees). On the other hand, left thoracic curves showed a weak tendency for progression. In conclusion, the findings of the present study strongly suggest that only a small percentage of scoliotic curves will undergo progression. The pattern of the curve according to curve direction and sex of the child was found to be a key indicator of which curves will progress. PMID:9765033

Soucacos, P N; Zacharis, K; Gelalis, J; Soultanis, K; Kalos, N; Beris, A; Xenakis, T; Johnson, E O

1998-01-01

66

Assessment of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a 5-year prospective study on idiopathic scoliosis, an attempt was made to elucidate the natural history of the disease and to determine which factors contribute to curve progression. A total of 85,622 children were examined for scoliosis in a prospective school screening study carried out in northwestern and central Greece. Curve progression was studied in 839 of the 1,436 children with idiopathic scoliosis of at least 10° detected from the school screening program. Each child was follow...

Soucacos, P. N.; Zacharis, K.; Gelalis, J.; Soultanis, K.; Kalos, N.; Beris, A.; Xenakis, T.; Johnson, E. O.

1998-01-01

67

Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to properly place its achievements and positive contributions to the environment. The review is also to highlight the areas where more efforts are needed. An enumeration of existing trees was carried out with the aim of assessing the distribution, specie types and density of coverage. A handheld GPS device was used to acquire the coordinates of trees which were then mapped. Further analysis using GIS was done. Interviews with tree planting officials and public volunteers were also carried out. A total of 293 trees was identified within the study area which is about 8.7 km2 in size. The result indicates a paucity of trees in the area despite the various tree planting efforts. A high mortality rate of trees was observed. Further findings indicated that the public’s desire to support, manage and maintain the planted trees was poor. It was observed that the tree planting activities were seen as a curse rather than a blessing by market men and women within the study area. This study suggests more public enlightenment and that edible species should be planted in place of exotic ones being used.

Olayemi Soladoye

2013-12-01

68

Infiltration Rate Assessment of Coastal Plain (Ultisols) Soils for Sustainable Crop Production in the Frontiers of Calabar-Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study on infiltration rate assessment of coastal plain soils for sustainable crop production in the frontiers of Calabar, Nigeria, was carried out in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils in the area and its implication in the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer were driven at 5cm into the soil with the aid of a sledge hammer before water was poured simultaneously into the rings. Infiltration rates were taken at 5,10,15, and 30 minutes intervals. The as...

Egbai Oruk, O.; Uquatan, Ibor U.; Ewa, Ewa E.; Ndik, Eric J.; Okeke, O. Francis

2011-01-01

69

Preliminary Assessment of Anthropogenic Impact on Some Ecological Components of Abesan River, Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic disturbances on water quality parameters, diversity of macrophytes and benthic macro fauna of Abesan River, Lagos, Nigeria is reported. Some Physico-chemical and biological assessment were carried out at three sampling stations located at downstream (AR-1, midstream (AR-2 and upstream (AR-3 with different levels of disturbance. Results of measured physico-chemical parameters showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 in temperature, total acidity and chloride values between the sampling stations. Although, Total solids, conductivity, DO, Sulphate, BOD and COD were significantly higher (P < 0.05 at Stn.AR-1 than at Stns. AR-2 and AR-3, all physico-chemical parameters measured were within the limits of the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA and the World Health Organization (WHO regulatory standards except for high COD concentration in downstream station. Aquatic vegetation (macrophyte diversity was relatively abundant at upstream and downstream stations, suggesting possible impact of human activities on macrophyte diversity at midstream station where highest level of disturbance occurred. Chironomid larvae were the most abundant invertebrate fauna found in all three sampling stations but more abundant at sampling station AR-2 which corresponds to point of effluent entry to river where human activities is most intense. There is evidence that anthropogenic activities impact on the water quality of Abesan River. Biotic indices such as Sorensenen’s Index of Similarity and Margalef Index show that Abesan River is lightly polluted. The implications of these results and the need to monitor the water quality of Abesan River are highlighted.

Julius I. Agboola

2011-02-01

70

Assessment of the level of male involvement in safe motherhood in southern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnancy and the events surrounding it are generally viewed as feminine issues exclusively for women. In sub-Saharan Africa, believing that pregnancy and the events that follow are guided by nature, a lot of superstition is attributed in the event of complications, which result in poor maternal outcomes. Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge worldwide, and Nigeria has one of the highest levels of maternal mortality in the world (545 per 100,000 live births). The involvement of men in ensuring and enhancing maternal health was a great idea hatched at the Cairo conference in 1994, but since then, not much has been done in practical terms in most of the developing world. This study is aimed at assessing the level of male involvement in their spouses' reproductive health events before pregnancy, during pregnancy, delivery and peuperium. A descriptive cross-sectional study design in which questionnaires were incorporated with an in-depth interview was used and a multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. After house numbering, a total of 400 houses were selected from a cluster of four quarters in Patani Town. Participants were systematically sampled from each household using random number table. Results from data collected on the study indicated that (61.1 %) of men were aware of maternal health issues and the level of education was shown to have significant relationship (?² = 5.139, df = 3, p = 0.162) with the knowledge of maternal health issues. Though the level of male involvement in safe motherhood was shown to be of good proportion, strategies to create awareness on male support for their parous spouses should be given a broader frontier, both in clinics, household and community levels. Men should be more involved than before, as they have a priceless role to play towards a significant improvement in maternal health. The Government, development partners and NGOs at all levels should be committed with a strong political will in this regard. PMID:23054420

Nwakwuo, Geoffrey Chima; Oshonwoh, Ferdinand Ebiarede

2013-04-01

71

Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices of Building Materials in Ogbomoso, South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This research study aims at assessing the radiological hazards indices of materials used for the construction of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical facility in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria. The determination was sequel to the measurement of the radionuclide contents of the materials (Granite, Cement, Sand, and Concrete used in the construction of the building, using a high-purity germanium detector gamma spectrometer. The natural radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 27.79 and 30.65 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29.22 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th, the range was 16.69-22.73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 19.71 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 132.76-276.42 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 204.59 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1.03-14.90 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 13.32 Bq kg-1. All other values of other indicators were below the maximum permissible limit (MPL. The determination carried out prior to the building being occupied, showed no evidence of artificial radionuclide. Hence, the building materials may be considered safe for building construction and the values measured can therefore serve as reference for future measurement.

Ajayi Olanipekun Jonathan

2013-01-01

72

Assessment of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Selected Oil Spilled Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A prelude radiological impact assessment of oil spillage on the oil spilled environment, those saddled with the responsibility of cleaning the spilled crude and the host/nearest communities residents in Rivers State Nigeria has been examined in-situ, using radiation meters (Digilert 100 nuclear radiation meter and a geographical positioning system (GPS. Readings were taken twice in a month for three months in the five different oil spilled site and one measurement taken at a control site where there is no oil spillage but within oil bearing community. The average radiation values in all the oil spilled site is 0.019±0.006mRh-1, this is far above the 0.011±0.003mRh-1obtained for the control and ICRP 0.013±0.005mRh-1 world background levels. The average equivalent dose rate obtained in all the five studied site is 1.6mSvy-1 while the dose rate in the control is 0.93mSvy-1. The results showed that all the oil spilled sites yearly equivalent dose rate exceeded the 1mSvy-1 maximum permissible limit recommend for the public and non-nuclear industrial environment by International Council on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1999. All the oil spilled environment radiation levels exceeded the normal world average BIR level of 0.013mRh-1and other reported values in similar environment. This shows that the oil spilled environment have been impacted radiologically. This will pose some long-term health side effects on the clean-up workers and residents of the host communities. Interim proactive measures are recommended while further and a detail study is ongoing.

U. L. Anekwe

2013-03-01

73

An Empirical Assessment of the Real Exchange Rate and Poverty in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper investigated the influence of the real exchange rate on poverty within the framework of a dependent economy model. Using data covering 1980 to 2010, the result of a Vector Error Correction model (VECM showed that the volatility of the real exchange rate has significant influence on the level of poverty in Nigeria. Thus, government policies that targets real exchange rate could play significant role in reducing the level of poverty in Nigeria, particularly if supported by basic institutions, such as those of human capital development.

Ben. U. Omojimite

2012-03-01

74

The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70. PMID:24880626

Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

2014-09-01

75

75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels...

2010-02-05

76

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

1992-05-01

77

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

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A Hospital-Based Assessment of Breast-Feeding Behaviour and Practices among Nursing Mothers in Nigeria and Ghana  

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Full Text Available Exclusive breast-feeding is recommended for infant nutrition during the first 6 months after birth. Worst still, this behaviour practices have not yet improved in Africa despite this recommendation. This study therefore, examines breast-feeding behaviour and practices among nursing mothers in two African countries: Nigeria and Ghana. A sample of 300 nursing mothers attending ante-natal clinic was randomly drawn from 4 hospitals, two in Nigeria and two in Ghana. The demographic characteristics of the respondents show that their age range between 19 - 51 years with a mean of 35 years and standard deviation of 22.6 years. A modified self-report questionnaire assessing breast-feeding attitudes, intentions and support was used for the collection of data. The reliability co-efficient yielded r = 0.82 after modification. Four research questions were raised to guide the study. The results indicate that nursing mothers do not breast-feed based on personal frustration and painful experience, fear of loosing weight, nature of job, lack of confidence in breast-feeding, long period of recommended exclusive breast-feeding and the fact that infant may become addicted to the behaviour. The result also reveal that nursing mothers may continue exclusive breast-feeding when decided to do so through the provision of social support, modeling, public enlightenment and appointment of care nursing mother. While at the same time, it was shown that there is significant difference in breast-feeding behaviour of mothers based on their occupations and of course no difference exists in the breast-feeding behaviour of Nigeria and Ghana nursing mothers. Recommendations based on the findings of the study were highlighted.

Tella Adeyinka

2008-01-01

79

Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Next Steps  

Science.gov (United States)

The report, "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress", provides a number of recommendations for addressing validity concerns about NAEP. This article identifies actions that could be taken by the Congress, the National Center for Education Statistics, and the National Assessment Governing Board--which share responsibility for…

Noell, Jay; Ginsburg, Alan

2009-01-01

80

An Assessment of the Determinants of Share Price in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Listed Firms  

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Full Text Available This study examined the determinants of share prices in the Nigerian stock exchange market. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 30 listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange market were selected and analyzed for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, the Nigerian stock exchange fact book and the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2010 were used for the study. The paper basically modelled the effects of financial performance, dividend payout and financial leverage on the share price of listed firms operating in the Nigerian stock exchange market using the regression analysis method. The study as part of its findings observed that there is a significant positive relationship between firms’ financial performance and the market value of share prices of the listed firms in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper concludes that firms’ financial performance, dividend payouts and financial leverage are strong determinants of the market value of share prices in Nigeria.

Uwalomwa Uwuigbe

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

O.J. Kamalu

2011-08-01

82

Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population, also used as the sample, consisted of 388 Business Education graduates who are currently running their postgraduate programme in universities in the south-east and south-south geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The questionnaire was adequately validated by experts in Business Education and measurement and evaluation. The internal consistency of the instrument was determined using Cronbach alpha which has a reliability coefficient of 0.94. The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that Business Education graduates are competent in ability to plan for small or medium scale businesses, ability to source funds for the running of a small scale business among others. However, they are not competent in preparation of tax codes and setting up of a currency. It was recommended that Business Education graduates should undergo training in conferences and workshops to enable them possess more effective accounting knowledge.

James Okoro

2013-12-01

83

Assessing Principals’ Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examined principals’ quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. ‘Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance Questionnaire’ (SSPQAQ) and ‘Students’ Academic Performance Checklist’ (SAPC) were used to collect data for the study. The instruments were validated,...

Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed

2014-01-01

84

Preliminary Assessment of Flourine Level of Spring and Stream Water in South West Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four water samples from each of spring and stream in some locations across South-West, Nigeria, were analyzed for their fluoride levels and some other quality parameters. The samples coded 101, 202, 303, 404 representing spring water and 505, 606, 707, 808 representing stream water were analyzed for fluoride levels using Ion Selective Electrode method (ISE) while other quality parameters such as calcium, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and pH were determined using standard methods. The results...

Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

2012-01-01

85

Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

- The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional) and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Co...

Yohanna Irimiya,

2013-01-01

86

Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

Erim Daniel O

2012-09-01

87

Assessment of Chemical/phytotoxin and Microbial Contamination of Pasta Foods Marketed in Nigeria  

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The possible chemical/phytotoxin and microbial contamination of nine brands of pasta foods (macaroni, spaghetti and noodles) commonly consumed in Nigeria were investigated following identification of pesticide residues in Indomie noodles (a brand of pasta food) and contamination of baby foods (SMA) with some poisonous cassava materials. Enzymatic and spectrophotometric analysis of these foods for cyanide content indicate the presence of this compound ranging from 7.60-70.65 mg CN-&...

Okafor, P. N.; Omodamiro, O. D.

2006-01-01

88

Research progress in dynamic security assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

1982-12-01

89

Habitat assessment for seasonal variation of river pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria, in a geographic information systems interface  

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Full Text Available More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposure in environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management authorities. Using habitat assessment protocol, the author assesses the pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data used include hydrographic feature data and habitat assessment data. These basic environmental components are the result of the integration of a wide range of relatively independent factors which enable a more complex analysis of the environment in urban areas. Geographic information systems were used for data management, input and output of data and visualisation. The pollution status of the inland rivers assessed during the rainy season (July to September and dry season (October to March in the eleven local government areas in Ibadan suggested that out of the twenty-two sample points, seven (31.8% and six (27.3% were slightly polluted and nine (40.9% and ten (45.4% were moderately polluted during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The environmental models are focused on the assessment of surface-water quality of habitat in relation to human activities. Although the models are calibrated and tested by application in the metropolitan area of Ibadan, the structure of this project is applicable to other similar areas.

Olanike K. Adeyemo

2008-06-01

90

Assessing anthropogenic contamination in surface sediments of Niger Delta, Nigeria with fecal sterols and n-alkanes as indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of sterols and n-alkanes in surface sediments from rivers and canals in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the area. The concentrations of total sterols (??Sterol) and n-alkanes (???n-alkane) in the sediments ranged from 133 to 2040 ng/g and 474 to 79,200 ng/g, respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were the main contributor of n-alkanes in the samples, with minor contribution from higher plants waxes (biogenic), while the sterols were mainly of biogenic origin. The ratio of ?-cholestanone/(?-cholestanone+?-cholestanone), a commonly used source diagnostic index, implicated no fecal contamination in most of the sediment samples under investigation. These results have established the occurrence of anthropogenic contamination in Niger Delta sediments with significant contributions from petrogenic sources. PMID:23137973

Sojinu, Samuel O; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, O; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-12-15

91

Trace Element Assessment of Stream Sediments Around the Aluminium Smelting Company in Ikot-Abasi, South-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study to assess the trace element chemistry in the vicinity of a recently established aluminium smelting complex in Ikot Abasi, south-eastern Nigeria was carried out, using stream sediments as sampling media. Twenty three trace elements; Ag, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Ga, La, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, W, Y and Zr, were analysed for in the sediments. Results from analyses showed that concentration levels of these elements were within limits of geogenic sourcing. Correlation and factor analyses indicated associations of chemical species to be related to the adjoining geologic suites; Precambrian basement and Cretaceous sediments. Comparatively the sediments exhibit geochemical characteristics consistent with sediments from other parts of the Niger Delta. The deductions provide a baseline data set for future monitoring around the smelting site.

Azubuike S. Ekwere

2012-02-01

92

Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y-1) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy-1 and 93.60±14.4 nGyh-1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

93

Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

94

An Assessment of the State of Maintenance of Public Hospital Buildings in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examines the state of maintenance of public hospitalbuildings in Southwest Nigeria, and in the process identifi es thesignifi cant difference(s in the operational state of Federal andState-owned public hospitals within the study area. In achievingthe aim, the study adopts a survey technique with a total of552 questionnaires, comprising 206 sampled maintenancestaff and 346 users of public hospitals. The survey covers 46public hospitals representing 40% of the total number of publichospitals existing in Southwest Nigeria. The 46 public hospitalsconsist of all the 11 Federal-owned hospitals and 35 randomlyselected State-owned. Data collected are analysed using theKendall Coeffi cient of Concordance and Pearson Chisquare. Thefi ndings of the study reveal that the state of maintenance of publichospital buildings is good. While the structure/fabric and physicalconditions are rated highly, the services are poorly rated. Thisstudy, which hypothesises that there is no difference in the stateof maintenance, fi nds statistical difference in the performance ofthe services. It recommends that Federal and State governmentsaddress neglect in the services sector and plan their maintenanceprogrammes more effectively.

Olumide Adenuga

2012-11-01

95

Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement  

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There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

Jim Berkley

2013-12-01

96

Science Assessment and Item Specifications for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Science Assessment and Item Specifications for the 2009 NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress)" (the "Specifications") translates the "Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP" (the "Framework") into guidelines for developing items and for developing the assessment as a whole. The primary purpose of the "Specifications" is to provide…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2007

2007-01-01

97

Assessment of Qualities of Surface Water, Sediments and Aquatic Fish from Selected Major Rivers in South-Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Available sources of portable water for drinking, domestic and industrial chores in Nigeria are dwindling because of concomitant increase in population, urbanization and industrial activities. This study assessed the qualities of Surface Water (SW, Sediment (SD and Tilapia Fish (Oreichromis niloticuss (TF samples collected from Asejire, Oni, Ona, Ogun, Ogunpa, Eleyele and Majidun rivers and Lagos lagoon in south-western Nigeria. Samples of SW, SD and TF were collected at strategic locations from each water source and analyzed using standard procedures. SW for all locations were grossly polluted with organics as indicated by high COD (72.8-292 mg/L and BOD (30.8-143 mg/L and low DO (1.04-6.68 mg/L levels. Lead levels in SW for all locations exceeded WHO and NIS limits for drinking water. Cadmium levels in sediments from Oni, Ona, Ogun and Ogunpa rivers also exceeded Canadian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG of 0.6 mg/kg. Fish from Lagos lagoon were most polluted with Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu. Principal Component analysis showed that 86.4% of overall metal load for SW was from Ogunpa and Eleyele rivers, whereas 62.9% metal load for S was from Ogunpa, Eleyele and Ogun rivers. The metal pollution index order was Pb>Cu>Co>Ni>Cr>Cd. Lead and nickel showed strong positive correlation between SW and SD, suggesting common source while Pb and Cr showed strong negative correlation with Cd between SW and TF. Unsafe disposal practices of wastes into or within the vicinity of water bodies should be discourage.

E.U. Etim

2012-12-01

98

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.

OSUJI, U. S. A

2010-10-01

99

????????????——?????????? Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Service——Theory, Method and Progress  

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Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Ecosystem service is a new approach for human beings to understand forest ecosystems, and an important part of forestry sustainable development. By analysis of ecosystem service concept, value source and characteristics, the study indicates that: ecosystem services value is from of large amount of human’s labor to maintain the normal functions of ecosystem; ecosystem services are characterized by society and nature compound, secondary, multidimension, dynamic and commonweal. The main contents and value assessment methods of forest ecosystem services are introduced as well. Based on forest ecosystem service value assess-ment study progress at home and abroad, weak link and development trend of forest ecosystem services value assessment are predicted as follow: standardized indicator system, market mechanism and negative effect as-sessment.

???

2011-03-01

100

An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion: The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities. Keywords: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptives, patent medicine vendors, mystery client, PPMV, quality of care, Nigeria

Ujuju C

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard was not made available. This study attempted to assess the spatial impact of the October 2012 flooding of the Niger-Benue basin on the surrounding areas using the moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometre (MODIS data of NASA Terra satellite and developed a geospatial methodology for detecting and extracting the flood risk areas and the vulnerable population to flooding within the basin. The integration of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data within the GIS platform was able to produce series of thematic maps which was used to generate a geospatial database for flood risk analysis and assessment. The result of the analysis effectively demonstrated the contribution of geospatial methods in mitigating and monitoring the effect of flooding along the Niger-Benue basin. It was therefore, suggested that government agencies and policy makers should adopt this powerful technique for reliable and well synthesized information which is a vital component of flood risk assessment and planning.

Felix Ndidi Nkeki

2013-04-01

102

On the Assessment of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examines the management of both solid and hazardous waste constituents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. For this purpose, the study area was divided into four zones and were further classified into low, medium and high income groups. For effective analysis, the frequency of refuse collection from various location and waste disposal methods were also considered. Results in general indicate that there are no organized pattern of wastes disposal. Indiscriminate dumping of waste into open drains was prevalent among the low income group. The waste composition analysis indicate that metals constitute over 20% of the major component of waste from the low and medium income group while garbage accounts for 23% of the solid waste in the high-income group. Food waste such as fruits, remnants and other similar material are commonly found in the high-income group while their low-income counterparts litter the surroundings with such waste materials.

Arimieari, L.W.

2014-08-01

103

Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in the business, majority of them are retailers selling less than four cartons of fish on daily basis and most of them have formal education. From the gross margin analysis and t-test, marketing of frozen fish is profitable in the area. However, it was recommended that major constraints like poor storage/preservation, inadequate capital and marketing costs should be tackled to improve the efficiency of marketing system of frozen fish in the State.

Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

2013-09-01

104

Assessment of the Perception of Benefits of Organic Gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the perception of benefits of organic gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from 166 respondents through multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage and mean scores. The study indicates that the respondents had perceived a relatively neutral (mean score = 2.87 socio-economic benefits of organic gardening. Nevertheless, they agreed (mean score = 3.84 with the ecological benefits or organic farming. The result, equally reports that the intension of conversion to organic farming was relatively neutral (mean score = 3.49. The most important constraint to organic gardening conversion was lack of knowledge and skills regarding organic gardening. Policy recommendations were made to include: the creation of awareness on the consequences of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides among others, and adequate government support for organic gardening in the study area.

Mustapha, S. B.

2012-06-01

105

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-09-01

106

CONCAWE's market fuel survey. Assessing progress in biofuel blending  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the coming decade, more bio-components, especially ethanol and ethers in gasoline and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in diesel fuel, will be blended into transport fuels in order to meet the EU's 2020 mandate for renewable energy. This survey of gasoline and diesel market fuels from 17 countries evaluates the oxygenate concentrations in service station fuels from the winter of 2010-11 in order to assess progress toward meeting the EU's objective.

107

An assessment of the eye care workforce in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and distribution of an appropriate eye care workforce are fundamental to reaching the goals of "VISION 2020: The right to sight", the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness launched jointly by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness with an international membership of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations. Periodic evaluation of these parameters is important in the journey towards achieving these goals. The objectives of the study were to determine the availability and distribution of human resources for eye care delivery in Enugu Urban, south-eastern Nigeria. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey, the setting for which was all public and privately owned eye care facilities in Enugu Urban, Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, in October 2006. The health map of Enugu Urban and the hospital register of the Public Health Department of the Enugu State Ministry of Health were used to identify the eye health care facilities in Enugu Urban. A structured, pretested, researcher-administered questionnaire was used to capture data on cadre and distribution of the eye care personnel in these facilities. Relevant population data were obtained from the Enugu Regional Office of the National Population Commission. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to generate percentages and proportions. Eye care personnel-to-population ratios were calculated and compared to World Health Organization recommendations. Results Out of Enugu State's population of three million, Enugu Urban accounts for 22%. The population of Enugu Urban is distributed between the three-component Local Government Areas comprising Enugu North (31%, Enugu South (30% and Enugu East (39%. There are 45 eye care facilities (public: 31 (69%; private: 14 (31% employing 252 eye care workers (public: 226 (90%; private: 26 (10% aged 18 to 63 (mean = 36.1 years, SD = 2 years comprising males (36: 14% and females (216: 86%, giving a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:6. The available eye care workforce is unevenly distributed between Enugu North (128: 51%, Enugu South (65: 26% and Enugu East (59: 23% Local Government Areas. Conclusion Using broad and crude World Health Organization standards for minimum provider-to-population ratios, there is a sufficient eye care workforce in Enugu Urban. However, the maldistribution of the workforce creates a major barrier to uptake of eye care services. Policy modifications could reverse this maldistribution.

Maduka-Okafor Ferdinand

2009-05-01

108

An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

P.C. Mmom

2011-07-01

109

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ttitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

110

Radioactivity and dose assessment of marble samples from Igbeti mines (Nigeria))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration and distribution of natural radionuclides in marble around Igbeti marble mines (Nigeria)), were measured to evaluate the environmental radioactivity and health effects which the marble samples may posses. The concentration of radionuclides was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl) detector. The measured values of the activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the marble samples were found to lie in the ranges 2.0-2.7, 0.3-1.2 and 5.7-7.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The samples were also found to have radium equivalent activity in the range 3.4-4.6 Bq kg-1, external hazard indices of 0.009-0.012 and internal hazard indices of 0.014-0.019. The estimated representative (I ?r) hazard index is 0.028. The measurements show that marble samples from Igbeti mine have low level of natural radioactivity and therefore the use of these types of marble in construction of dwellings is safe for inhabitants. (authors)

111

Metal pollution assessment of surface sediments along a new gas pipeline in the Niger Delta (Nigeria).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromium, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium were determined in sediments of the Niger Delta (Nigeria) in order to discriminate between natural metal sources and anthropogenic ones. Surface sediments were collected at seven sites along a new gas pipeline near Port Harcourt, between the New Calabar River and the Bonny River towards Bonny town. Chemical characterisation is obtained by hydrofluoric-nitric acid digestion procedure, providing the 'total' ('residual') metal contents. Information about the anthropogenic metal fraction was obtained by cold diluted hydrochloric acid extraction procedure. This 'labile' acid soluble fraction of metals, perhaps due to relatively recent inputs in the sediments, constitutes the fraction more likely to be available to marine organisms, and furnishes a first evaluation of the possible toxicity of sediments of this sensitive ecosystem. Zinc appears to be the most available of all the heavy metals: its 'labile' fraction attains 40-50% of the 'total' zinc in sediment. Sites near Port Harcourt city are the most contaminated. All the examined metals are one order of magnitude below the respective values proposed as a limit for toxicity and are comparable with those observed by other authors in similar Niger Delta areas. Some anomalous data found near Port Harcourt city suggest that zinc and cadmium are the metals that require further monitoring. Their anthropogenic source could be derived from urban and industrial sewage. PMID:17219239

Adami, Gianpiero; Cabras, Igino; Predonzani, Sergio; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Reisenhofer, Edoardo

2007-02-01

112

Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05 higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

Okwoche J. Ode

2012-09-01

113

Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic systems for telecommunications in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing countries seeking relevance in the international community have to adopt programmes in order to achieve cost-effective economic growth. Telecommunications is one area where emphasis must be laid because of its impact on development. Since the power supply forms an essential part of any communication system it is important to chose the power supply option that has the lowest life-cycle cost. The life-cycle costs of several power supply alternatives to some telecommunication systems in Nigeria have been evaluated. A hybrid (Solar/Gen. Set) power supply option is shown to be cost-effective when compared with diesel generating systems powering telecommunication equipment and airconditioning loads. The cost of PV power supply option used for a celluphone system is about 10% of the cost of the alternative of daily battery replacement and haulage. The low teledensity in the country creates a need for bold initiatives to incorporate solar power in telecommunications network, particularly in the remote rural communities where conventional electricity is not only unavailable, but is unreliable and very costly to maintain.

Oparaku, O. U.

2002-03-01

114

Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

Ofuoku Albert U.

2014-01-01

115

Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Conventional and Green features in the six study areas. From the study, the annual energy intensity of Kaduna for conventional buildings is 25.24 kwh/m2. With the introduction of green appliances, a drastic reduction in the buildings annual energy consumption was recorded which stood at 20.57 kwh/m2representing about 18.26% reduction in annual energy consumption which indicates a significant energy saving. In Kano VAC consumed the highest energy 12.49 kwh/m2of the total consumption of all end-users. When replaced with energy efficient appliances the consumption dropped to 7.95 kwh/m2representing 34.14% reduction. The use of energy efficient appliances is recommended.

Yohanna Irimiya,

2013-10-01

116

Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of bituminous soil in Agbabu, southwest Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in bituminous soil samples and viscous bitumen sample from Agbabu bitumen deposit, southwest Nigeria, has been measured using a high-resolution (HpGe detector) ?-spectrometry. The average values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K obtained are lower than the global average values. The Th/U activity ratio is comparable to values reported in literature. The average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was found to be 12.65±3.19nGyh-1, which is below the corresponding worldwide population weighted average value of 60nGyh-1. Both radium equivalent and representative level index values measured are lower than the internationally accepted limits for building and road construction materials. The results of the study indicate that the area has low background radiation level; as such no significant radiological hazard is expected in the area

117

A baseline investigation and safety assessment of dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced. A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of 40K found in soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.6±17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0±16.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of 238U ranged from 0.10±17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1±64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from 1.8±17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7±17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of 232Th was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba eku). The average value of the total absorbed dose rates for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.0±44.0nGy/h and 32.0±36.3nGy/h respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety recommended world mean by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

118

Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m?3 and 117 Bq m?3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m?3. - Highlights: ? Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ? The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m?3. ? The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ? This value is elevated though below the action level. ? Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

119

Preliminary Assessment of Flourine Level of Spring and Stream Water in South West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Four water samples from each of spring and stream in some locations across South-West, Nigeria, were analyzed for their fluoride levels and some other quality parameters. The samples coded 101, 202, 303, 404 representing spring water and 505, 606, 707, 808 representing stream water were analyzed for fluoride levels using Ion Selective Electrode method (ISE while other quality parameters such as calcium, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and pH were determined using standard methods. The results obtained showed low fluoride concentrations of 0.15 ppm and 0.03 ppm in samples 101 and 202 respectively (spring water while other water samples contained no traces of fluoride. These values are far below World Health Organization (WHO limits of 1.50 ppm fluoride for drinking water. The water contained low calcium and chloride contents, ranging from 20.0 mg/l to 37.5 mg/l (hardness indicating that the water is soft. pH values of between 5.6 and 6.0 were also obtained in contrast to 6.5-8.5 as stipulated in the World Health Organization guideline (WHO for drinking water.

Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

2012-01-01

120

Assessment of Water Quality in Asa River (Nigeria and Its Indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish  

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Full Text Available Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

Anthony I. Okoh

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessing Principals’ Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper examined principals’ quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. ‘Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance Questionnaire’ (SSPQAQ and ‘Students’ Academic Performance Checklist’ (SAPC were used to collect data for the study. The instruments were validated, and test-retest method used to determine their reliabilities yielded 0.74 and 0.71 respectively. One main hypothesis and five operational hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The study further showed that principals’ gender and school location had no significant impact on students’ academic performance. The implication of the findings is that ability of the principals to put in place strategies that would ensure quality in the production of school output is a critical factor in determining school effectiveness. It is against this background that the paper concludes that quality assurance is a function for all stakeholders within the school system. Because it is a management function, the principal should coordinate teachers and other staff members to see that their activities are geared towards ensuring quality in the schools. As part of quality assurance strategies, the principal should recognize the philosophy of education in all aspects of school activities.

Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi

2014-01-01

122

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02±0.13 to 1.56±0.06 mg L-1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg L-1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

J.C. Akan

2007-01-01

123

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

Adewuyi Alfred

2006-05-01

124

Assessment of the Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment of Selected Communities in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growth, soil infertility, ill-health to members of the community, displacement of the people of the area, constant protestation of host communities, socio-economic deprivation, and perceived marginalization of the people are associated with oil resource exploration. This research concludes that the oil bearing communities have not adequately been compensated for harm done them through degradation of the ecosystem caused by several years of oil exploration. Their oil resource wealth has been turned to oil resource curse as they are disempowered, and condemned to perpetual underdevelopment. It is recommended that Federal Government should exert maximum efforts in assuring strict compliance of its legal instruments by the oil participating industries for a sustainable development in the region.

Christiana Kayinwaye Omorede

2014-06-01

125

An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI  

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Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

Musa Haruna D.

2011-11-01

126

Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001. The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

Jibiri Nnamdi N.

2007-01-01

127

Assessment of Use of Selected Information Communication Technologies (ICTs for Extension Service Delivery: Implication for Agricultural Development in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the implication of the useof selected Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs for extension service delivery in Nigeria. The simplerandom technique was used to select fifty percent of the total extensionagents which equivalent to forty-two respondents assample size for the study. Frequency counts, percentages, meanand standard deviation were used as descriptive statistic. Also,Chi-Square test and Spearman’s rho correlation were employedas inferential statistic to test for the hypotheses. Findings indicatedthat access to various ICTs tools especially Radio and Mobilephone and were found to be relevant to farming operations. Theresult of Chi square test revealed that significant relationshipexist between sex, age, level of education, years of working experienceof the extension agents and level of use of ICTs. Furthermore,the result of Spearman rho Correlation showed thatthere was no significant relationship between ICT training of extensionworkers and the level of use of ICTs. The study recommendedamong others that, there should be a periodic review ofthe use of current ICTs in extension service delivery to facilitateeffectiveness in the use of ICTs for extension service and adequatefunding of extension service should also be ensured to enhancethe maintenance of ICTs made available to extension personnel.

Adetumbi, Saheed.Ige, Olaniyi, Olumuyiwa.,Akin

2013-06-01

128

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41% which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13 on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%. A significant percentage (48% does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.

2012-05-01

129

Prevalences of loiasis in Ondo state, Nigeria, as evaluated by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to assess the prevalences of loiasis among 4800 subjects in 60 villages in Ondo state, south-western Nigeria. Coverages for community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) were assessed in the same communities, which were located in the Owo, Akure North, Ifedore, Akure South, Ondo East and Ondo West local government areas (LGA). In addition, fingerprick blood samples were collected from 80 individuals in each of six villages (i.e. one village in each LGA investigated) and checked for Loa loa microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemias were only detected in three of the villages where blood samples were collected and then only at low prevalences (1.25%-5.0%) and intensities (267-1600 microfilariae/ml). No serious adverse events were or ever had been related to the CDTI but mild or moderate adverse reactions were quite common, especially in Akure North (55.0%) and Owo (40.2%). A female subject was more likely to report an history of eye worm than a male subject (20.3%-35.7% v. 20.8%-26.5%, according to LGA). Although the subjects aged 41-50 years formed the age-group most likely to report an history of eye worm (32.7%), the highest CDTI coverage was recorded in the subjects aged 61-70 years (54.7%). The results indicated that CDTI had helped to reduce the prevalence and intensity of Loa microfilaraemia and that ivermectin can continue to be used for mass administrations in Ondo state with little risk of serious adverse events. PMID:18348776

Adeoye, G O; Akinsanya, B; Otubanjo, A O; Ibidapo, C A; Atalabi, T; Okwuzu, J; Adejai, E O; Braide, E I

2008-04-01

130

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-10-01

131

Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Lead (Pb levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June, mid rain (July–August and late rain seasons (September–October for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.

John Kanayochukwu Nduka

2010-06-01

132

Radiological assessment of flooded Kudenda soil samples, Kudenda, Kaduna State Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiological survey of flooded soil of Kudenda area located at latitude 10.4800N and 10.4810N and longitude 7.3940E and 7.3950E in Kaduna State, Nigeria was conducted. In situ measurement and samples were taken in each of the grid area at depth 0 to 226Ra, ( 238U), 232Th and 40K) were measured by means of gamma ray spectrometry system using (NaI(Tl)) detector. The recorded ranges of activity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K were found to be 8.1±3.6 - 45±4.4, 38±1.3 - 149.6±3.9 and 400.5±3.9 - 873.7±11.6Bqkg-1, respectively. The results of this current study have been compared with the world mean values of 35, 30 and 400 Bqkg-1, respectively, specified by the UNSCEAR (2000). Concerning radiological risk to human health, the absorbed gamma dose rate (D) in air at 1 metre above the ground surface was estimated to lie in the range 47.4±2.2 to 141.2±4.4nGyh-1; the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) was evaluated to vary from 0.06±0.003 to 0.17±0.005mSvy-1, with the arithmetic mean value of 0.11±0.004mSvy-1. This is slightly higher than the worldwide effective dose of 0.07mSvy-1. Also, the values of the Raeq and the Hex for all soil samples in the present work are lower than the accepted safety limit value of 370 Bqkg-1 and below the limit of unity, respectively. Generally, the obtained radiological data gave an indication of non significant radiological hazard in the area of study.

133

Assessment of Pollutants in Water and Sediment Samples in Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the levels of some physicochemical parameters in water and sediment samples from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from five point designated as S1 to S5 for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO total dissolved solid (TDS, total suspended solid (TSS anions and trace element. Sediment samples were also collected for the determination of heavy metals and total organic carbon (TOC. These parameters were determined using approved standard procedures. The levels of heavy metals in the water and sediment samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The concentrations of DO, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, TOC, nitrite, nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, and Chloride in the water samples from the five sampling point were higher than the WHO limits for the protection of fish and other aquatic life. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Co in the water samples were higher than the WHO guideline limits, indicating severed pollution of this portion of Lake Chad. This high level of heavy metals in the water samples is expected owing to runoff of wastewater from agricultural activities within the study area. However, the concentrations of all the metals in the sediment samples were higher than the recommended values stipulated by WHO; indicating that the sediment samples from this portion of Lake Chad were also polluted by heavy metals. Results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the concentrations of all the parameters studied were statistically significant among the sampling points. The prolonged presence of heavy metals in the water and sediment samples from this portion of Lake Chad give course for concern with time. The results of the study implies that continuous monitoring has to be carried out to ascertain the long-term impact of anthropogenic inputs to take remedial measures so as to ensure the health of aquatic life.

Fanna Inna Abdulrahman

2012-11-01

134

Assessment of Growth and Cellulase Production of Wild-Type Microfungi Isolated from Ota, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and identify filamentous microfungi involved in wood-waste decomposition in Canaanland, Ota, South-West Nigeria and to evaluate their potentials for cellulose saccharification. Microbiological techniques were used to isolate and identify the fungi. Four filamentous microfungi, identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma sp., were isolated. All the isolates, particularly Trichoderma sp., grew rapidly on Sabouraud’s agar and Czapek-Dox agar. Two of the isolates, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp., was cultivated for 168 h by submerged fermentation in modified Czapek-Dox liquid medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source and harvested at 24 h intervals. The mycelia weight of the harvested cultures, and the protein content and cellulase activity of the filtrates were determined. The peak mycelia weight of 4.6 and 3.0 mg mL-1 was, respectively obtained for Trichoderma sp. and A. niger at 48 h. The protein and cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. peaked at 72 h whereas for A. niger, the peak protein content and peak cellulase activity was obtained at 96 and 72 h, respectively. The peak protein and cellulase activity values of A. niger were 0.175 and 0.077 unit mL-1, respectively. Trichoderma sp. yielded a protein peak of 0.180 mg mL-1 and peak cellulase activity of 0.108 unit mL-1. There is a correlation between the protein content and cellulase activity of the culture filtrates. The strains of A. niger and Trichoderma sp. obtained from this study are potential tools for the saccharification and bioconversion of cellulosic materials.

S. Nwodo Chinedu

2010-01-01

135

GIS Based Assessment of Flood Risk and Vulnerability of Communities in the Benue Floodplains, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The focus of this study is to assess the 2012 floods incidence that swept the communities along the coastal areas of Nigeria as well as those along the valleys of the major rivers in the country. It was observed in the study that the floods at the valleys and downstream of River Benue were seriously devastating following the release of water from the Lagdo dam that was located at the upstream of River Benue in the Republic of Cameroon. The method of data collection employed in this study is the application of Geo-information techniques which involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS to capture the coordinates of 120 communities which cut across the seven LGAs located along the valleys of River Benue in Adamawa State. These communities were linked to a generated digital map of River Benue valley using ArcGIS software to assess each of the communities for flood vulnerability. Vulnerability was classified into four: highly vulnerable, vulnerable, marginally vulnerable and not vulnerable. The major findings revealed that all the 120 communities in the area were described as vulnerable to flood, that is, they are either highly vulnerable, vulnerable or marginally vulnerable. 29 communities representing 32.5% were located on highly vulnerable areas, 35 communities (representing 29.17% were found to be located within the Benue Basin but outside the buffer zones which are classified as vulnerable areas, while the remaining 46 communities (38.33% were located on the plains which are classified as marginally vulnerable areas. Escape routes and good sites for refugee camps during floods were also identified while database creation and analysis for flood vulnerability were also developed. It is therefore, recommended that all the settlements that were highly vulnerable be relocated to higher grounds to prevent future occurrence, while the communities that are located within the Benue Basin but outside the buffer zones should employ the use of GIS tool for effective planning and proper early warning systems.

Ikusemoran Mayomi

2013-12-01

136

Infiltration Rate Assessment of Coastal Plain (Ultisols Soils for Sustainable Crop Production in the Frontiers of Calabar-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study on infiltration rate assessment of coastal plain soils for sustainable crop production in the frontiers of Calabar, Nigeria, was carried out in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils in the area and its implication in the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer were driven at 5cm into the soil with the aid of a sledge hammer before water was poured simultaneously into the rings. Infiltration rates were taken at 5,10,15, and 30 minutes intervals. The assessment or determination of infiltration rate was preceded by laboratory analysis of soil samples for the particle size distribution. The mean values of 74.0, 12.0: and 12.6 for sand, silt and clay were obtained respectively. While infiltration rates were well above the recommended values for crop production. Result from different locations proved that the area has monolithic soil characteristics. The result equally showed that the least range of infiltration rate of 14.4-60.0 was well above the optimal range of 0.7-3.5 or the suitable infiltration range of 3.5 - 7.5. It would be said, that, given the increasing need for food production to cope with the demand in Calabar Metropolis, the effect of excessive water infiltration as evidence in this study, will continue to impede sustainable crop production except appropriate measures are contemplated. These measures may include adequate cover cropping, temporary abandonment of farm land or skeletal crop farming with compost, green or farmyard manures. This will help improve the structure and restore soil potentials. Apart from these, suitability evaluation of land in order to effectively categorize soils on the basis of their potential for optimal use could as well be imperative.

EGBAI ORUK O.

2011-08-01

137

Oil and Debt Management in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nigeria’s debt at independent was put at about N488.8 million which was mainly long-term development soft loans. The world economic recession and fall in price of oil in 1982 were identified as major factors that led many countries to debt crisis. Nigeria’s debt accumulated due to gross mismanagement of resources and loans contracted as well as failure of governments to keep-up with repayment schedules. This paper assesses the management of Nigeria’s debt. It examined the role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs in discussing the politics of Nigeria’s debt management vis-à-vis motivational factor behind consideration for loans, disbursement and at what rate? The paper employed both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was sourced from Debt Management Office, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria and National Institute for Social and Economic Research while secondary data was sourced from journals, books, official government gazettes and internet. Data was analyzed using descriptive method. The result of the analyses revealed that 79% of the respondents agreed that Nigeria’s oil contributed to its huge debt accumulation and denied it debt cancellation. Also 65% believed that government has been prudent in managing the nation’s debt with every action taking in the interest of the people even when it failed to keep up with repayment schedules. The dependency theory formed the basis of discussion and analyses in this work. It concluded that, oil was a major factor behind the granting of loans to Nigeria as well as responsible for fiscal irresponsibility on part of the government which led to the failure of efficient management of such loans. This paper recommended that there should be prudent management of the economy while all forms of corruption must be eradicated to bring about real development.

Ako-Nai R. I.

2013-05-01

138

Assessing the contributions of private health facilities in a pioneer private-public partnership in childhood immunization in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The vision of Nigeria’s immunization program is to reach and sustain routine immunization coverage of greater than 90% for all vaccines by 2020. In order to achieve this, Abia state embarked on a unique private-public partnership (PPP between private health facilities and the Abia state ministry of health. The aim of this partnership was to collaborate with private health facilities to provide free childhood immunization services in the state - the first of its kind in Nigeria. This is a retrospective study of the 2011 Abia state, Nigeria monthly immunization data. In the 4 local governments operating the PPP, 45% (79/175 of the health facilities that offered immunization services in 2011 were private health facilities and 55% (96/175 were public health facilities. However, 21% of the immunization services took place in private health facilities while 79% took place in public health facilities. Private health facilities were shown to have a modest contribution to immunization in the 4 local governments involved in the PPP. Efforts should be made to expand PPP in immunization nationally to improve immunization services in Nigeria.

Chukwuemeka Oluoha

2014-02-01

139

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.

Veronica O. Ameh

2014-04-01

140

Assessment of Challenges in Developing Self-Instructional Course Materials at the National Open University of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is Nigeria’s only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university’s vision and mission. There are delays and difficulties in developing and distributing materials to students and Study Centres. Many pioneer students cannot graduate because of this challenge. This paper examines the process of developing self-instructional course materials at NOUN. It reflects on the challenges associated with the quantity, quality, and timely production of course materials, labelled “the hills, the wills, and the skills” obstacles. The paper concludes that there is a need for better professional development in order to provide efficient ODL delivery.

Charity Akuadi Okonkwo

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%, 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%, and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%. But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4% when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.

Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

2011-01-01

142

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution based on hydro-geological condition and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors incorporated into DRASTIC model and the geographic information system (GIS were used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The output map shows that the southeast of the aquifer is under very high vulnerability while central parts of aquifer have high vulnerability. Other parts (north, northwest and south of the study area have moderate vulnerability to pollution. For testing of the vulnerability assessment, groundwater quality data were collated from literature for the different vulnerability zones of the study area. The chemical analysis results show that both the southeast and northwest west parts of study area aquifer (very high and moderate vulnerability zones have higher nitrate concentration relative to the rest of aquifer, that are located in high vulnerability zone. The validation of the DRASTIC models was accomplished through pair wise comparison of DRASTIC vulnerability maps (using Pearson’s r correlation coefficient with a total of 14 layers representing original DRASTIC input data, Land cover (LC features, and groundwater TDS, Cl- and NO3 data. Results from the correlation analysis indicate a significant association between high groundwater TDS, NO3 concentrations and distances from certain LC types.

Olufunmilola T. Bankole

2013-05-01

143

Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90 volunteer patients; comprising (30 patients with malaria only, (30 with typhoid only and (30 with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20 healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23, AST (31.33±12.80, ALT (23.10±11.84, TB (19.43±5.02, CB (5.91±3.03 and ALP(116.69±48.68, AST (28.33±11.72, ALT (22.8±5.94, TB (19.31±5.84,CB (5.60±2.50 were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62, AST (33.97±8.43, ALT (24.40±4.37,TB (21.27±2.96,CB (6.58±3.10 while the control subjects had mean serum levels of ALP (71.05±18.18, AST (16.65±7.45, ALT (13.85±6.09,TB (10.05±4.85 and CB (3.00±1.67. These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05.The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT,TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

B.N. Enemchukwu

2014-01-01

144

GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary forest, secondary forest and mangrove. The area in square kilometers of each land use type in each year was calculated and thereafter the change was determined by subtracting the area of the same land use type in 1986 from 2000 and the percentage of change is therefore calculated. In addition, the probability of change of twenty years was also determined from one land use type to another using Markovian Transition Estimator (MTE from IDRISI Andes. The study reveals that farmland, mangrove, primary forest and sparse vegetation reduced over time by 45.34, 37.06, 43.06 and 8.09%, respectively while secondary forest, built up area and water increased by 5.88, 74.55 and 3.43%, respectively. It is also projected by MTE that in 2020 farmland has the probability of 0.570 (57% of changing to secondary forest and 0.154 (15.4% of changing to built up area. Primary forest has the probability of 0.186 (18.6% to change to built up area. It is recommended among others that laws should be promulgated to prevent unlawful expansion of construction of any form and that the people in the communities in the study area should be enlightened and educated on the effects of deforestation on the environment.

O.S. Eludoyin

2011-06-01

145

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

146

Child Spacing and Parity Progression: Implication for Maternal Nutritional Status among Women in Ekiti Communities, Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The evolving dynamics that face maternal health in developing countries are worrisome. The achievement of the desirable Millennium Development Goals on maternal and child health in Ekiti will remain a mirage if women nutrition is compromised. Short birth spacing and high frequency of childbearing adversely affect maternal health through maternal depletion syndrome. This study was a cross-sectional house-hold survey where a stratified multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1450 women of childbearing age as respondents. Body Mass Index (BMI measurement was used as indicator of nutritional status. Results showed that the median birth interval was 33.0 months. Parity progression rate was higher among under-nourished mothers and births after an interval of less than 24 months (short birth interval was accounted for by 38.3% of undernourished mothers. Taking into account of several potentially confounding variables, the Cox-regression model showed that mothers who left birth interval of less than 24 months are 2.0 (p<0.01, 4.4 (p<0.001, 5.71 (p<0.001 at risks of undernourishment than their counterparts who left 24-35, 36-59 and 60+ months interval between births respectively. The strength of the association remains unchanged when the potential confounding variables were controlled. Births interval of at least 36 months will produce best health outcomes for mothers in terms of nutrition as evidence in this study. Strategies should be adopted to improve women knowledge on the effect of short birth spacing on maternal nutrition.

F.A. Fagbamigbe

2011-01-01

147

An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

Osuji

2010-01-01

148

EIA systems in Nigeria: evolution, current practice and shortcomings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amidst mounting criticism of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) carried out in Nigeria under the three independent EIA systems--the EIA Decree 86 (1992), the Town and Country Planning Decree 88 (1992) and the Petroleum Act (1969)--the paper traces the evolution of Nigeria's systems and appraises current practice and shortcomings. The path of development of the systems was traced within the framework of Gibson's model of EIA evolution [Impact Assess. Proj. Apprais., 20 (3) 2002, 151-159], while current practice and shortcomings were explored in random interview surveys of consultant firms, approval authorities and the academia. It was seen that Gibson's four-stage model is not exactly representative of the Nigerian situation, and a more appropriate six-stage model was developed. It was also established that the current practices of the three EIA systems were at different stages of evolution: one of the EIA schemes (the Town and Country Planning Decree) has not evolved satisfactorily, while the other two EIA systems have produced intricate legislations and guidelines, but fall short of first-rate practice. The other discovery was that the simultaneous use of three independent systems creates unnecessary duplication of EIA preparation with considerable time and money costs. The paper advises that Nigeria can make substantial progress along the evolutionary path through a correction of observed system shortcomings and a merger of the three systemsr of the three systems

149

Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

2009-01-01

150

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discus...

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

2007-01-01

151

Assessment of blood and urine lead levels of some pregnant women residing in Lagos, Nigeria.  

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Assessment of lead in blood (BLL) and lead in urine (ULL) of some non-occupationally exposed, nonsmoking 214 pregnant Nigerian women, aged 17 to 49 years, and resident in Lagos was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with control subjects consisting of 113 nonpregnant women. From results, the mean BLL and ULL (?g/dL) for pregnant women (59.5±2.1; 29.4±1.1) were significantly (p0.10). Study is a contribution to blood and urine lead status of Nigerian pregnant women, being relevant for healthcare management purposes, public health decision making, and possible primary prevention activities. PMID:19915952

Adekunle, Iheoma M; Ogundele, Joseph A; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Akinloye, Oluseyi A

2010-11-01

152

Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin  

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Full Text Available The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and judges accountable without undue harm to their independence. It also started to address the scepticism about the courts among a significant part of the public, through efforts to improve media coverage, make information about courts more available, and make courts user friendly. While praiseworthy and bound to improve the reality and the perception of the administration of justice overall, these initiatives did not end attempts to exert influence on judges and case outcomes by powerful people (in the public and private sectors or the mechanisms that facilitated their efforts. This essay begins by identifying criteria for assessing the quality of the administration of justice in any country, including in the post-soviet world and suggesting specific markers (usually qualitative connected to each of the criteria developed above. Then, the essay provides an account of relevant policy initiatives in judicial reform undertaken first under Yeltsin and then in the Putin years. The essay goes to provide an assessment of the state of the courts in the Russian federation in 2007 in the light of the criteria and markers supplied in the first section. It concludes with a look to the future, and the identification of crucial markers of change for the post-Putin era.

Peter H. Solomon

2008-10-01

153

Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

154

Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no library. Sixty-three (63 percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

T.T. Youngu

2012-03-01

155

ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL SAFETY OF FRESH SHRIMPS OFFERED FOR SALES AT ALESINLOYE AND ELEYELE MARKETS IN IBADAN, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Microbial assessment of different fresh shrimp sold at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria was carried out. Ten fresh shrimp samples bought at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan Oyo state were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of micro-organisms. Total plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were enumerated using Nutrient Agar (NA, Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB Agar and Salmonella-shigella Agar (SSA respectively. The total counts obtained from sample ranged between 2.7x107 to 7.6x107 cfu/mL and 1.2x107 to 1.38x108 cfu/mL for Eleyele and Alesinloye samples respectively. These were generally high exceeding the limit of 1.0x102 cfu/mL. The coliform count ranged between 7.0x106 to 2.32x108 cfu/mL for Eleyele samples and between 7.6x106 to 1.39x108 cfu/mL for Alesinloye samples also exceeding the limit of zero cfu/mL. The Salmonella-Shigella (SS count ranged between 2.7x107 to 1.10x108 for Eleyele samples and between 7.0x106 to 3.7x107 for Alesinloye samples. Twenty-one isolates were obtained from the Alesinloye samples while twenty-nine isolates were obtained from Eleyele samples. Percentage occurrences of different micro-organisms characterized are as follows: Bacillus sp 1 (4.76%, Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (9.52%, Flavobactreium sp 7 (33.3%, Micrococcus sp 1 (4.76%, Salmonella sp 7 (33.3%, Shigella sp 1 (4.76% and Staphylococcus aureus 2 (9.52% for Alesinloye while that of Eleyele is Bacillus sp 8 (27.6%, Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (6.9%, Flavobactreium sp 4 (13.8%, Micrococcus sp 0 (%, Salmonella sp 7 (24.1%, Shigella sp 7 (24.1% and Staphylococcus aureus 1 (3.4%. Consumption of fresh shrimps and shrimp products processed with unhygienic water should be discouraged.

ADEDEJI O.B.

2011-09-01

156

Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES ampersand H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES ampersand H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES ampersand H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES ampersand H issues

157

Ground Water Quality Assessment in the Basement Complex Areas of Kano State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The research aimed at assessing the quality of underground water for safe drinking in the basement complex region of Kano state. In achieving this aim a total of twenty (20 boreholes were selected at random across the state. Thirteen (13 relevant parameters on the test of water quality were taken into consideration. The research found out that underground water in the area is safe for drinking due natural filtration process that the water undergo, because, the soil chemistry and mineralogy alters the chemistry of the water there by making it safe for drinking by meeting the standard requirement of World Health Organisation (WHO 1984. It is therefore recommended that, more boreholes should be constructed through the intervention of both government and other relevant organsations. Also surface water source should also be improve to reduce the burden that underground water source might have encountered.

Adamu G.K

2013-07-01

158

Risk based assessment for offshore jacket platform in Niger delta, Nigeria (corrosion and fatigue hazards  

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Full Text Available Offshore structures are imperative for uninterrupted crude oil production which is the main stay of Nigerian economy. Fatigue and corrosion have been identified to be the most prevalent structural hazards in offshore environment. Jacket platform may be exposed to certain seawater wave which often leads to structural failure, particularly when the platform is subjected to corrosion and fatigue hazards. Therefore, corrosion and fatigue damage requires detail evaluation to prevent jacket platform from untimely failure. Risk based assessment method has been identified as the appropriate tool to determine the risk levels associated with component damages acted upon by several hazards with different scenarios. The results of this work revealed that simultaneously corroded and fatigued components exhibit unacceptable risk level and is the appropriate limiting damage scenario for marine structures underwater inspection. This technique is proved to be accurate and the most appropriate procedure for management of hazards, safety and environmental protection.

M. A. Salau

2011-12-01

159

Assessment of the Chemical Characteristics of a Spring Water Source at Ife-Owutu, Ezinihite-Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria.  

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The chemical characteristics of the Giri Giri Nwanjoku Spring in Owutu Ezinihitte-Mbaise, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated to carefully determine some basic geochemical constituents of the water sourcewith a view to identifying those constituents whose concentrations are unacceptably high, compared with the maximum permissible level of a regulatory body and as such determine its wholesome portability for diverse usage. The resultant data conform to the Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007...

Ibeneme, S. I.

2013-01-01

160

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and e...

Osuji, U. S. A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC. Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed high values of both enterobacteriacea and TAVC on surfaces of the processing facilities and a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in mean enterobacteriacea and TAVC before and after processing of the wall, knife, table and floor. There was significant increase in both the enterobacteriacea (96% and TAVC (98% on the carcass after evisceration. The mean TAVC for the water and effluent was 1.16±0.1 and 13.79±0.06 logcfu/ml respectively. This study showed the need to maintain good management practice, good hygienic condition and role of sanitation in our abattoirs

V. O. Adetunji

2011-07-01

162

Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the stock market were also x-rayed. Also highlighted were the trading, clearing and settlement process of the Nigerian stock exchange and the short comings. The study concluded that for the Nigerian stock exchange to contribute significantly in the development of the Nigerian economy through mobilization and utilization of funds for expansion of business enterprises in the country, it should intensify efforts in creating public awareness as regards its services to the economy, effective investor education, fostering and stimulating speculation in the market and reforms that would compel investors to take due diligence when funds are to be raised by government to eliminate the buying and selling culture that exists in the market should be carried out.

Okoh, Lucky

2011-04-01

163

Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

Imoobe T.O.T.

2009-01-01

164

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105 cfu/ml and fungal counts ranged from 3.0 103 cfu/ml – 36.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of Klebsiella and Bacillus while fungi isolated include Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and species of Candida and Mucor. The most frequently occurring bacteria was S. aureus while the most frequently occurring fungal was species of Mucor. Conclusion: The results suggested that the soybean cheese samples were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and could cause health hazard to the consumers. There is need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation as a good hygienic practice in the production and preparation of the soybean cheese since it serves as a good source of protein, carbohydrate and fat being of great nutritional value to the consumers.

N. U Adabara

2011-02-01

165

Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

Braide Wesley

2012-04-01

166

Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

Ezechiel Longe

2010-05-01

167

RELATIVE BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER IN BOSSO TOWN, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Background: Water is an essential requirement for the survival of living organisms especially human but is also important in the transmission chain of many human diseases since certain pathogens which are capable of causing life-threatening disease survive in water. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the relative bacteriological quality of borehole and well water supplies within Bosso town. Method: Twenty (20 water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and well samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique. Result: The results obtained showed that most (60.0% of the water samples from the boreholes sources except the samples from Rafin-Yashi, Maikunkele, F.U.T Minna, Tudun Fulani, contained coliform counts below 10cfu/100ml while the majority (90.0% of the well water sampled had coliform counts above 10cfu/100ml. The organisms isolated included species of Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Clostridium, Bacillus, Yersinia, Serratia e.t.c.  E.coli had the highest frequency of occurrence (25% followed in descending order by Staphylococcus aureus (8.3%, Salmonella spp (8.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.3%, Bacillus subtilis (8.3%,Clostridium spp (6.7%,Streptococcus feacalis (6.7%, Shigella spp (6.7%, Streptococcus pyogenes (5%, Klebsiella spp (5%, Proteus vulgaris (5%, Yersinia spp (3.3% and Serratia spp (3.3%. Conclusion: This study reveals that well water and borehole water samples were contaminated with greater contamination observed with well water. This highlights the need for a continuous assessment of the quality of public water supply and intervention measures to prevent outbreak of water-borne diseases.

Jagaba A.

2011-11-01

168

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011 in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the rainy season than in the dry season, while pH and Biological Oxygen Demand were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the dry season than in the rainy season. Apparent colour, Total Solids (TS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, K+ Cl-, total acidity, total hardness, NO3- and PO43- decreased (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site, while water transparency, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, SO42 and Mg2+ showed an increase (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site. Apparent colour, TS, TSS, total acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ NO3- and PO43- increased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom, while pH, Mg2+ and DO decreased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom at the lacustrine section of the lake. Cluster analysis of the parameters showed major clusters between the major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and the general chemical characteristics (TDS, alkalinity, conductivity, acidity and hardness and also between the nutrient compounds (Organic matter, NO3- and PO43- and the hydro-physical parameters (TS, TSS, apparent colour, true colour and turbidity. The water quality indices and sodium absorption ratio values in the sampled stations indicated that the water is most suitable for probable applications at the lacustrine section, towards the dam site.

E. O. Akindele

2013-02-01

169

Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ?Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

E. O. Orebiyi

2010-01-01

170

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

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The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

171

Radiological assessment of fish samples due to natural radionuclides in river Yobe, Northern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12), fish became outliers with significant values of 112.53?Svy-1, 121.11?Svy-1 and 114.32?Svy-1 effective dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as well as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

172

Progress in food irradiation: Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and some of its toxic metabolites has been studied. This involved the determination of radio-sensitivity of aflatoxins to gamma radiation and the toxicity of irradiated aflatoxins, the effect of irradiation on the formation of aflatoxins in some Nigerian foodstuffs and on the macronutrients of soya-gari diet, and isolation and characterisation of radiation-induced mutants in A. flavus. A research project is now underway to investigate the effect on nutrients in foodstuffs following the destruction of fungal toxins (aflatoxins) and fungi by gamma irradiation (OGBADU, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria). (orig.)

173

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6 for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

Olanike K. Adeyemo

2012-01-01

174

Translating Research into Practice in Low-Resource Countries: Progress in Prevention of Maternal to Child Transmission of HIV in Nigeria  

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Background. Research related to prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is dynamic and rapidly changing and has provided evidence-based interventions and policies for practitioners. However, it is uncertain that research and policy guidelines are adequately being disseminated and implemented in resource-constrained countries with the largest burden PMTCT. This study examined current PMTCT practices in 27 public health facilities in Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional surve...

Ogbolu, Y.; Iwu, E. N.; Zhu, S.; Johnson, J. V.

2013-01-01

175

Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006 standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006 limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l. The concentration of sodium ion (Na+ ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water, except chloride with low values (9.5 to 158mg/l compared to W.H.O limit of 250m/l for drinking water. The low concentration is an indication of absence of salt water intrusion in the area. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is recommended that regular hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation. More importantly, hydrogeological study is very imperative to fully understand the hydrogeology of the area.

H.O Nwankwoala

2012-05-01

176

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmers’ budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the traders’ budget revealed that from an investment cost of 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders’ are making a revenue of 41,700.00 (lint + seed and a net profit of 4,954.00 ton-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors. There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

T.M. Kudi

2007-01-01

177

The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS/WHO reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on protein which might be a contributing factor to students’ poor performance in the boarding secondary school. Tests on correlation and regression show that food intakes are not associated with physical characteristics but with food intakes. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions on ways to alleviate the problems.

O. Akinyemi

2009-01-01

178

Assessment of the Food Habits and School Feeding Programme of Pupils in a Rural Community in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The food habits and school feeding programme of pupils in a rural community in Odogbolu local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria was assessed in this study. A total of 68 pupils from primaries I to III in both public and private primary schools were involved in the study. It was found that majority of the school children had three meals daily. Majority of the pupils do not bring food to school from home. The amount of money brought to school to purchase mid-day meal foods was higher with pupils from private school than those from public schools. However, generally the quantity and quality of the mid-day meal purchased on both schools were poor and therefore did not have significant contribution of their nutritional status.

J.O. Olusanya

2010-01-01

179

Multi-criteria Assessment of the Relationship between Deforestation, Rainfall and Landuse Change from Remotely Sensed Data in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to undertake an in-depth evaluation of deforestation, rainfall and landuse dynamics in Nigeria using a localized hybrid TREES/FAO deforestation model. Forty seven (47) 2002 (October 2001-March, 2002) Landsat 7 scenes covering Nigeria were assembled and processed with 376 ground control points for image rectification, reprojection, conversion to reflectance and mosaicking. We also assembled 250m and 500m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data for Nigeria for 2002. Using data from the NigerianSat1 Atlas for 2003, Nigerian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (NGSDI) 2002 and a threshold of 70% /5ha for forest cover, the Landsat and MODIS composites were classified into Rainforest, Swamp Forest, Deciduous Forest and Cropland. The overall accuracy was 88%. We developed a multi-criteria hybrid TREE/FAO model for sampling deforestation rates for 2002, 2008 and 2012 for Nigeria. For 2008 and 2012, NigerianSat1 and other satellite data sources were used to fill gaps or replace data on the scanner error of Landsat7. Accumulated patches of Rainfall Data (0.250 x 0.250) was obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for selected forest samples while land cover data from NGSDI was updated with field work data in other evaluate its relationship with the Remotely sensed data. Deforestation rates stood at 0.33% yr-1, 0.14 yr-1 and 0.17% yr-1 for the Woodland, Rainforest and Deciduous Forest respectively. Estimates for the Swamp Forest could not be effectively computed due to high cloud cover throughout the year. The relationship between forest cover change and rainfall stood at r= 0.21; p?0.05 and r=0.42; p?0.05 for the forest and Savannah zones respectively. Deforestation rate was higher in the Woodland than the Rainforest and Deciduous zones due to the better economic value of the species and the ease of felling these trees with minimal cost and favorable terrain features. The weak relationship between rainfall and forest cover in the Rainforest is associated with its location within the zone of maximum air mass convergence due to the concave landscape structure of the Niger Delta to the Atlantic. Moreover, the Rainforest region is nearly always green throughout the year with a highly variable dry season when there are no clouds; hence variability in rainfall may not affect the rate forest cover change as opposed to the Savannah landscapes where forest cover change is dependent on rainfall or moisture supply. Consequently our results show that deforestation is concentrated along the Forest-Savannah boundary of Nigeria where intensive agriculture, anthropogenic forest fires and shifting cultivation dominate. Our results could not confirm hot deforestation spots (pixels) as indicated by most continental-global scale evaluation of deforestation patches. We are going to develop a multi-criteria decision support system for identifying localized deforestation hot spots for Nigeria.

Ike, F.; Aragao, L.; Mercado, L.

2013-12-01

180

Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.

Michael Olusesan Awoleye

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

2014-02-01

182

Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

Babagana, S. A.

2010-04-01

183

Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

Furtak, Erin Marie

2012-01-01

184

Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women of northeast Nigeria on risk factors associated with cancer of the Cervix  

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Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.

John S. Bimba

2013-08-01

185

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

186

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

1992-08-01

187

Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

1992-12-31

188

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

1993-08-01

189

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

190

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973 definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986 is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991. Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999. The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999. They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999. For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP. The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on crop yields a

Joseph Gambo Akpoko

2007-01-01

191

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

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Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

J.S.C. Mbagwu

1995-06-01

192

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2010-01-01

193

The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the determinants of the real exchange rate in Nigeria. The objective of the study has been to present a dynamic model of real exchange rate determination and empirically test the implications of changes in possible determinants of the real exchange in Nigeria. With data covering 1970-2010, the parsimonious ECM result shows amongst others that the ratio of government spending to GDP, terms of trade and technological progress are not important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The result showed that capital flow, price level and nominal effective exchange rate are important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The paper suggests that the Dutch Disease syndrome holds in Nigeria. The Johansen cointegration test suggests a long relationship among the variables. It is thus recommended amongst others that policies have to be put in place to stabilize the problem of inflation.

Victor E. Oriavwote

2012-07-01

194

External Debts Management Strategies in Developing Economies: An Impact Assessment on Selected Economic Indices of Nigeria (2002–2011  

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Full Text Available This paper examines External Debts Management Strategies in developing economies and its implications on some key economic indices using Nigeria as a case study. This work has adopted both the content analysis and the empirical approach. Data for this study were basically secondary data. The quantitative data for analysis were gathered from the statistical bulletins/releases of relevant government agencies like the Debt Management Office, Central Bank and the Office of the Accountant General of the Federation. The qualitative information was sourced via textbooks, and scholarly journal publications accessed through the internet. Data were analysed using the Linear Regression and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The linear regression showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the size of External Debts and Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Capital Expenditure, External Reserves and Exports. However, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA reveals a negative correlation between External Debts and the variables studied. The study attributes this anomaly to mismanagement of credit facilities, unfavourable loan terms characterized by capitalization/compounding of interests, weak economic base, poorly co-ordinated statistics on loans and overdependence on foreign aids among others. This development has led to poor performance of almost all the key economic indices of the country resulting in dearth of infrastructural development, very weak real sector, and high unemployment rate and so on. The paper recommends that developing economies should manage credits better by appropriating the funds to sectors that would ensure diversification of their economic base. Nigeria should pursue deliberate policy that will encourage a virile productive sector, place less emphasis on external borrowings as most of the credits are given under very unfavourable credit conditions and their repayments erode the much needed funds for economic development. The various governments should see external borrowings as a last resort and when contracted must be employed to finance only self- sustaining projects that will stimulate real sector and other factors of production needed to engender sustainable economic development.

Uche Lucy Onyekwelu

2014-07-01

195

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

1993-11-01

196

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

197

Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200 pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual to collaborative learning combined to indicate three notable changes resulting from the strategy: (1) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT applied in education to address future augmented teacher - students' liaisons.

Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva

2008-01-01

198

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

199

Validity and accuracy of maternal tactile assessment for fever in under-five children in North Central Nigeria: a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This study seeks to determine not only the reliability of parental touch in detecting fever as compared to rectal thermometry in under-five children, but also the sociodemographic factors that may predict its reliability. Setting The study was carried out in the Emergency Paediatric Unit of a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria. Participants 409 children aged less than 5?years with a history of fever in the 48?h prior to presentation and their mothers were recruited consecutively. All the children recruited completed the study. Children with clinical parameters suggestive of shock, and those who were too ill, were excluded from the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of mothers who could accurately predict if their child was febrile or not (defined by rectal temperature) using tactile assessment only. Secondary outcomes were the validity and accuracy of touch in detecting fever and factors related to its accuracy. Results About 85% of the children were febrile using rectal thermometry. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values for touch as a screening tool were 63%, 54%, 88.3% and 21%, respectively. High maternal socioeconomic status and low maternal age influenced positively the accuracy of touch in correctly determining the presence or absence of fever. Conclusions This study has shown that tactile assessment of temperature is not reliable and that absence of fever in a previously febrile child should be confirmed by objective methods of temperature measurement. PMID:25304190

Abdulkadir, Mohammed Baba; Johnson, Wahab Babatunde Rotimi; Ibraheem, Rasheedah Mobolaji

2014-01-01

200

Biometric and Intelligent Self-Assessment of Student Progress System  

Science.gov (United States)

All distance learning participants (students, professors, instructors, mentors, tutors and the rest) would like to know how well the students have assimilated the study materials being taught. The analysis and assessment of the knowledge students have acquired over a semester are an integral part of the independent studies process at the most…

Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Pruskus, V.; Vlasenko, A.; Seniut, M.; Kaklauskas, G.; Matuliauskaite, A.; Gribniak, V.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Waste isolation safety assessment program. Summary of FY-77 progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective is to provide long-term safety information for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Work in FY 77 supported the development of the generic assessment method (release scenario analysis, release consequence analysis) and of the generic data base (waste form release rate data, radionuclide geochemical interaction data)

202

Assessment of Risk of Possible Exposure to Rabies among Processors and Consumers of Dog Meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan, by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6% were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4% were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9% knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6% knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8% did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49 and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43 at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9% of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure.

Leslie E. Odeh

2013-09-01

203

Assessing the Restructuring of SADC - Positions, Policies and Progress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was commissioned by Norad. The Report provides an assessment of the institutional restructuring of SADC and an input to the planning of future Norwegian assistance to regional co-operation in Southern Africa. The institutional reforms mainly revolve around the changing role and functions of the SADC Secretariat but also include the sector co-ordinating units in member states which have been found highly uneven in their ability to pursue and implement policies; the establishment of ...

Isaksen, Jan; Tjønneland, Elling N.

2001-01-01

204

1980 EHV state-of-the-art assessment progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The commercialization trend assessment will focus on vehicle and component technology which is entering the mass production phase of development. The extent to which commitments of resources toward mass production and mass marketing have been made for various EHV products reflects the selection process which is taking place in the worldwide automobile industry. It is concluded that for the next several years EHV's on the market will be similar to those available today.

Barnstead, R.

1980-09-01

205

Prediction of progression of ultrasound assessed carotid artery athersclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atherosclerosis is an important underlying cause of cardiovascular disease and death. According to the World Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease Study, ischemic heart disease and stroke combined killed 12.9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide. Ultrasound of the carotid arteries can be used to assess the burden of atherosclerosis by measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT) and total plaque area (TPA). Age, male gender, serum cholesterol, blood pressure a...

Herder, Marit

2014-01-01

206

Thorium assessment study. Quarterly progress report, second quarter fiscal 1977  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the program is to contribute to the ongoing assessment of the potential role of thorium fuel cycles for alleviating safeguards concerns. Scenarios include (1) no fuel recycle permitted, (2) fuel recycle permitted only in secure regions (''energy parks'') with denatured (chemically non-separable) fuels only outside these regions, and (3) no limits on fuel recycle. A further objective is to provide nuclear mass balance data on HTGRs required by ERDA contractors for comparative cost-benefit studies.

Spiewak, I.; Bartine, D. E.

1977-06-01

207

Micronutrient Assessment of Cocoa, Kola, Cashew and Coffee Plantations for Sustainable Production at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The micronutrient status of the soils and leaf of cocoa, kola, cashew and coffee plantations to study the soil-plant micronutrient content relationship in the plantation soils for proper management towards optimum production of the crops was investigated at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria. Soil and leaf samples were collected from these plantations and analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. The soil samples were analyzed for the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe and in addition pH, organic carbon, sand, silt and clay contents, while the leaves were analyzed for only the micronutrient contents. Results indicated that the soils were sandy loam, acidic, low in organic carbon, deficient in Cu and Mn but very high in Fe and Zn contents. This probably resulted in nutrient imbalance in the soils and the deficiency of the nutrients in the crops. The plantations therefore require application of organic manures and micronutrient fertilizers to rectify the inadequate soil organic matter and to supply sufficient amount of Cu and Mn in the soils, to obtain quality fruit yield at optimum level from the plantations.

Joseph Sunday Ogeh

2014-06-01

208

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Nigeria faces a tremendous shortfall in housing provisions, especially in its urban areas. Consequently, Public-Private Partnership in housing provisions has been adopted as a means of addressing this problem. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies in the government-provider approach to housing, but adequate attention has not been given to the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. This paper attempts to fill this gap in literature by examining the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. A study of thirteen government agencies in six selected Nigerian cities was undertaken. The findings indicate that though the agencies tended to focus on the provision of access to land and the regulatory framework for housing development, the majority of Nigerians have not benefited from this arrangement. The paper recommends that government agencies should also be involved in providing basic amenities and subsidies to ensure that Public-Private Partnership housing serves the interest of most Nigerians.

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2010-12-01

209

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

210

Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System  

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Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.?

M. Ahmad Chaudhry

2011-12-01

211

Capital Flight and Nigeria Economic Growth  

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Full Text Available

This paper provides evidence on the negative impact of the assessment of capital flight on economic growth of Nigeria for 40 years (1970-2009. It provides a comprehensive analysis of capital flight and its resultant impact on domestic investment and the growth rate of the economy. The study used cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM as its main estimation techniques. It was discovered that capital flight and its assessments are significant factors for explaining economic trends in Nigeria. It was also discovered that capital flight have negative impact on the economy. Consequently, it is recommended that funds from foreign sources in form of loans, gifts, grants and aids should be judiciously used for economic development of Nigeria. Above all, government should provide enabling environment for business to thrive thereby encouraging foreign direct investment and discouraging capital flight.

AJAYI LAWRENCE BOBOYE

2012-06-01

212

Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

213

Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS  

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Full Text Available The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Also, the potential erosion rates from the erosion classes identified ranged from 0.0 to 4185.12 ton/ac/yr. About 65.47% of the study area was under the first class with erosion rates lies between 0.0 and 10 ton/ac/yr.The most severe eroded area with erosion rates between 104.80 and 4,185.12 ton/ac/yr accounted for about 1.86% of the study area.On the whole, this study has demonstrated the significance of Satellite (RS and GIS technologies in modeling erosion.

k. Adepoju

2010-07-01

214

Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

2012-08-01

215

An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

Kola Adeyemi

2005-07-01

216

Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC. This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria.Methods:A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages.Results: There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82% PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64% PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85% of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization.Conclusion: Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother-to-child transmission, infection to others and obstetric complications.

Ezinne E. Enwereji

2010-04-01

217

Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

Oduola Ayo MJ

2008-01-01

218

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in commercially available infant formulae in Nigeria: Estimation of dietary intakes and risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commercially available infant formulae and follow-up formulae in Nigeria were determined with a view to providing information on the health risks to children from the consumption of these infant foods. The concentrations of PAHs were measured by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after extraction by ultrasonication with acetone/dichloromethane and clean-up. The concentrations of the ?16 PAHs in these infant formulae ranged from 0.102 to 1.98?gkg(-1), 0.054-1.98?gkg(-1), 0.081-2.54?gkg(-1) and 0.51-0.70?gkg(-1) for infants of ages 0-6months, 6-12months, 1-3years and 0-12months respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in all samples investigated were below the 1?gkg(-1) European Commission permissible limit for BaP in foods meant for infants. The estimated daily intake of PAHs based on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) suggested indicators of occurrence and effects of PAHs in foods were not detected (nd) to 2.67ngBaPkg(-1)bwday(-1), nd-5.29ng PAH2kg(-1)bwday(-1), nd-11.20ngPAH4kg(-1)bwday(-1) and nd-34.96ngPAH8kg(-1)bwday(-1). The estimated margin of exposure (MOE) values: BaP-MOE, PAH2-MOE, PAH4-MOE and PAH8-MOE values were greater than 10,000 which indicates that there are no health risks from the consumption of these products by infants. The concentrations and dietary exposure to PAHs from these products were similar to values reported in the literature for European Communities. PMID:25047213

Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Edeme, Justy N; Tesi, Godswill O; Bassey, Francisca I; Martincigh, Bice S; Nwajei, Godwin E

2014-10-01

219

A Checklist and Ethnobotanical Assessement of Trees Species of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU Yelwa Campus Bauchi, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The various ethnobotanical uses of tree species growing on the ATBU Yelwa Campus, Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria, was investigated with the view of documenting the intrinsic values and therapeutic properties for various ailments and other spiritual paraphernalia and subsequently inventorying all the species present. Samples were collected randomly from each sampling plots of equal sizes and the ethnobotanical information was obtained through the administration of questionnaires to the indigenous people. A total of 2,467 woody species of trees belonging to 47 species, 39 genera in 20 families were recorded with 70% being native and 30% being exotic. The distribution pattern showed members of Caesalpinoideae have highest density of occurrence with (526/21% species, Mimosoideae (411/16% and Meliaceae (381/13%, while Sterculiaceae (2/0.08% and Rubiaceae (3/0.012% were recorded with least densities of occurrence. These trees were observed to provide the inhabitants with several varieties of usage for survival and prosperity such as medicinal, edible food, fodder, timber, fuel among others. However, the utilization pattern showed that about 42 species (39.25% are used for medicinal purposes; 19 species used as edible (17.75%; 18 species (16.82% for other uses; 12 species as fuel wood (11.24%; 12 species (8% used as fodder while, 7 species (7% are used as timber. Plants parts usage categories was highlighted with bark and leaves having highest percentage of usage and subsequently followed by other plant parts. However, devising a suitable means of conserving them for posterity has thus become imperative.

I.G. Nodza

2013-01-01

220

Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity measurements have been carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the radionuclide concentrations in soil samples in the premises of the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and also in communities around it. The radionuclide contents of the crude oil and petroleum additives were also similarly determined. Results indicate that on the premises used by the company, the ranges of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Th in the soil samples were 261.3-932.3 Bq kg-1,-1 and-1, respectively. For the 13 villages studied, activity concentrations ranged from -1,-1 and-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 228Th. The lowest radionuclide concentrations were found in the crude oil relative to the petroleum additives. The highest outdoor effective dose rate obtained in the study was 47.5 ?Sv y-1 for the villages and 35.2 ?Sv y-1 within the company premises. These values are less than the world average outdoor value of 70 ?Sv y-1 given by UNSCEAR. Overall, it can be concluded that the long duration of refining activities does not seem to have affected radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Measurements also showed that the observed radiation dose rates dhat the observed radiation dose rates did not vary significantly from the previously determined Warri City outdoor gamma radiation dose rates, for which the probability of occurrence of any health effects of radiation was judged low. The measurements, therefore, are interpreted to represent baseline radiometric data for future reference and research in the area

 
 
 
 
221

Study of Exclusion and Assessibility of Students with Disabilities in the 1994 Trial State Assessment (TSA) of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a survey of national trends in educational achievement, is attempting to expand its inclusion of students with disabilities or limitations that have previously caused them to be excluded from the assessment. The study described was a precursor to the 1996 changes in NAEP inclusion procedures.…

Stancavage, Fran; And Others

222

Assessing the Impact of Varietal Resistance and Planting Dates on the Incidence of African Yam Bean Flower Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich is one of the underutilized leguminous crops in the tropics despite its nutritional potentials. One of the major reasons for the gross neglect of this crop in many parts of Africa is its low grain yield when compared to other grain legumes under monocrop. The infestation of the plant by flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti has been recorded as the major causes of low yield of the crop. M. sjostedti can cause yield losses of up to 100%. Following its current status as a minor crop, only very few researches have been undertaken in its production especially as it relates to insect control. Hence, in this study we assessed the effect of varietal resistance and three planting dates on the incidence of the thrips and crop yields in Nigeria during 2009/2010 farming seasons. The results indicated that all the varieties planted in May of each season were less infested by M. sjostedti and differed significantly from those planted in June and July of each season. Amongst the varieties assessed, TSs9 was the most resistance and differed significantly from the rest of the varieties. The results of the grain yields showed that all the varieties performed better with higher grain yields when planted in May than those planted later. The flowering and podding formation stages of AYB planted in July coincided with the peak population densities of M. sjostedti resulting in a considerable reduction in grain yields. The highest grain yields were recorded under a combination of early planting with resistant varieties. It could therefore be concluded that planting African yam bean earlier in the season has significant effect on M. sjostedti incidence and grain yield.

Emmanuel O. Ogah

2011-01-01

223

Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in Parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: The Case of Imo Shale and Ameki Formations  

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Full Text Available Hydro-geochemical survey is undertaken in parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria, particularly in the geologic formations of Imo Shale and Ameki, to assess the quality of groundwater. Eleven samples of groundwater are obtained from various boreholes in the study area and subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques. The study is aimed at the assessment of the groundwater quality indicators namely: pH, electrical conductivity (N, phosphate (PO4, sulphate (SO4, nitrate(NO3- and total dissolved solids (TDS. The result shows that the water from boreholes in Umuahia has low pH, and is therefore acidic. The pH values range between 4.40 and 5.60, which is below the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5. The acidity probably results from carbonic acid derived from the solution of CO2 from both the atmosphere and the decomposition of plant materials in the soil zone. The acidity of the groundwater gives slight sour taste to drinking water, due to the mobilization of trace metals from the aquifer material into the groundwater system, because of the corrosive effect of acidic water. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace metals end up in domestic supplies resulting in health implications and complaints. Acidic waters are typically low in buffering calcium minerals, but are high in dissolved carbon dioxide gas, which can cause the low pH or acidity. Calcite neutralizer tanks with natural crushed and screened pure calcium carbonate easily neutralize acidic water from 6.0 to 6.9. Below 6.0 a blend of calcite and Corosex is recommended. Common systems used to treat low pH: Calcite Neutralizer, calcite & Corosex Blend Neutralizer, pflow Neutralizer, Soda Ash Feed Pump Injection System.

Ifiok E. Udoinyang

2013-06-01

224

State Assessment of Educational Progress in North Carolina, 1973-74, Cultural Arts, Grade 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

A representative sample of about 2,500 third-graders took the Cultural Arts Test, a perception survey which was part of the 1973-74 State Assessment of Educational Progress in North Carolina. The test dealt with students' perceptions of their own competence, interests, preferences, and happiness in the cultural arts; of their teachers. and…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Research.

225

The National Assessment of Educational Progress in Economics: Test Framework, Content Specifications, and Results  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant event for the advancement of economic education in the schools is the development of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in economics. For the first time, national data from a representative sample of students are available to measure the achievement of high school students in economics. The achievement results are…

Buckles, Stephen; Walstad, William B.

2008-01-01

226

Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils from 12 sites in Lagos area, Nigeria impacted by anthropogenic activities were extracted by ultrasonication and analysed for the concentration of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The concentration of the sum of PAHs ranged from 0.2 to 254 ?g/g at these sites. The sum benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent dose (BaPeq) at the sites ranged from 0.0 (K, forest soil) to 16.7 ?g/g (C, the lubricating oil depot soil). Mean daily intake (MDI) for the composite soils samples when compared that of food revealed that some of the individual PAH in samples from sites A (Dump site), C (Depot and loading point for used for black oil), F (Dump site), G(petroleum depot), H (Roadside) and L (Car park) exceeded the recommended the recommended MDI threshold for food, indicating some risk associated with activities on these sites based on this ingestion estimate exceeded value. 8.2 × 10(-6), 7.1 × 10(-7), 1.2 × 10(-4), 4.9 × 10(-7), 7.3 × 10(-7), 1.4 × 10(-5), 7.9 × 10(-5), 4.6 × 10(-6), 3.4 × 10(-7), 2.4 × 10(-7), 2.2 × 10(-7) and 1.1 × 10(-4) estimated theoretical cancer risk (ER) for an adult with a body weight of 70 kg working on sites were composite soil samples A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L respectively were sampled. The ER from occupational exposure to surface soil based on oral ingestion were all higher than the target risk of 1 × 10(-6) for normal exposure but were all within the 1 × 10(-4) for extreme exposure for most of the sites except for site C and L. The differences in concentration and risk were related to the different activities (e.g., handling of petroleum products, open burning, bush burning) undertaken at these locations. However, it should be noted here that the resultant risk could be overestimated, since these calculations were based on an exhaustive extraction technique which may be different from uptake by the human guts (bioavailability study). PMID:25320853

Adetunde, Oluwatoyin T; Mills, Graham A; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

2014-12-01

227

Climate Change Reduction: A Mirage in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This paper aims at assessing the weakness of Nigeria in efficaciously dealing with the menace of climate change within the country. The researchers examined how the campaigns against climate change has been embraced in the Real Estate Development Practices in Nigeria. Various surveys were conducted on deforestation, gas flaring, planning adaptations to climate change in selected housing estates, preservation of forests and the use of badly smoking vehicles on city roads. Campaigns and policy statements to reduce the adverse effects of climate change are made but not implemented. The TPAs and CDAs were blamed for inefficiency in monitoring and supervision of real estate developments at the various housing Estates surveyed. Deforestation in the Northern Nigeria was attributed to Poverty and lack of electricity supply from the public mains. It was concluded that climate change in Nigeria may not be achieved unless practical adaptive measure are taken, and all agents of Government responsible for overseeing their enforcements rises to their responsibilities without prejudice. Way forward to achieving climate change reduction in Nigeria is proffered.

Keywords: Real estate developments; Climatic change; Implementation; Challenges; Reductive Measures

Pat-Mbano Edith C

2012-03-01

228

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Texas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 007  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the alignment between the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

229

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle. Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922 and farm size for other crops (0.550. It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde

2006-01-01

230

Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

Akintayo Opawole

2012-11-01

231

Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226Ra and 232Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 ?Sv, 8.1 ?Sv and 8.8 ?Sv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 ?Sv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

232

Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: Assessment of the effectiveness of public - private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : In an effort to increase tuberculosis (TB case detection, the Kaduna State TB program in Nigeria started Public-Private Mix (PPM DOTS in 2002. This study assessed and compared the TB case management practices and treatment outcomes of the public and private health facilities involved in the TB program. Methods : A comparative cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 5 private and 10 public health facilities providing TB services for at least two years in the four Local Governments Areas in Kaduna State where both public and private health facilities are involved in the TB program. The heads of the health facilities were interviewed and case notes of all the 492 TB patients registered in these facilities between January 2003 and December 2004 reviewed. Results : Except for the lower use of sputum microscopy for diagnosis, adherence to national TB treatment guidelines was high in both private and public health facilities. The private health facilities significantly saw more TB patients, an average of 51 patients per health facility compared to 23 patients in the public health facilities. There was better completion of records in the public health facilities while patient contact screening was very low in both public and private health facilities, 13.1% and 12.2% respectively. The treatment success rate was higher among patients managed in the private health facilities (83.7% compared to 78.6% in the public health facilities. Conclusion : Private health facilities adhere to national guidelines had higher TB patient case load and better treatment outcome than public health facilities in Kaduna State. PPM-DOTS should be scaled-up and consolidated.

Gidado M

2009-03-01

233

Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20?Sv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

234

Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence

235

Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes. PMID:23601404

Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I

2013-10-01

236

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Arkansas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 008  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technical Brief examines the current alignment between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability Program (ACTAAP) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

237

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 011  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be based. Applying…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

238

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Louisiana and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 009  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) and Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

239

An Assessment of Personal Health Protective Practices of Out-of-School Adolescents in South-South Senatorial District of Nigeria  

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The Personal Health Protective Practices of the out-of-school adolescent was investigated using a survey design. Three research questions were formulated and tested. The population consists of out-of-school adolescents in South-South Senatorial District of Nigeria. The sample consists of 320 adolescents randomly selected using purposive sampling…

Izevbigie, T. I.; Owie, Ikponmwosa

2006-01-01

240

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

1993-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

On whether foreign direct investment catalyzes economic development in Nigeria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigated the impact of Foreign Direct Investment on some selected macro-economic variables such as real GDP, gross fixed capital formation and unemployment. Data for the variables were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Statistical Bulletin. For the assessment of this impact, the author used co-integration and error correction model to arrive at a parsimonious result which revealed that foreign direct investment though impacts positively and significantly on the gross...

Okpara, Godwin Chigozie

2012-01-01

242

A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

2013-01-01

243

A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a wavelet-based on-line damage assessment approach based on the use of progressively transmitted multi-resolution sensor data. In extreme events like strong earthquakes, real-time retrieval of structural monitoring data and on-line damage assessment of civil infrastructures are crucial for emergency relief and disaster assistance efforts such as resource allocation and evacuation route arrangement. Due to the limited communication bandwidth available to data transmission during and immediately after major earthquakes, innovative methods for integrated sensor data transmission and on-line damage assessment are highly desired. The proposed approach utilizes a lifting scheme wavelet transform to generate multi-resolution sensor data, which are transmitted progressively in increasing resolution. Multi-resolution sensor data enable interactive on-line condition assessment of structural damages. To validate this concept, a hysteresis-based damage assessment method, proposed by Iwan for extreme-event use, is selected in this study. A sensitivity study on the hysteresis-based damage assessment method under varying data resolution levels was conducted using simulation data from a six-story steel braced frame building subjected to earthquake ground motion. The results of this study show that the proposed approach is capable of reducing the raw sensor data size by a significant amount while having a minor effect on the accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assee accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assessment. The proposed approach provides a valuable decision support tool for engineers and emergency response personnel who want to access the data in real time and perform on-line damage assessment in an efficient manner

244

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR AQUACULTURE USES IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physicochemical studies were conducted to assess water resources in Abeokuta NorthLocal Government Area, Ogun State in relation to their potential for aquaculture uses. Watersamples were collected from both surface and groundwater sources and analyzed for pH,colour, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, BOD, carbonate, iron, lead andcopper. The results revealed a fluctuating behaviour of different parameters throughout thestudy correlations between the physiochemical studied,...

Olaniyi Olopade

2013-01-01

245

Digitizing resources for University of Nigeria repository: Process and challenges  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on the implementation of digitization of resources at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN; the processes involved and the challenges faced. In the context of the establishment of a digital library in University of Nigeria, the study aimed to: establish progress that has been made by UNN in digitizing their resources; report the process of digitizing these materials; find out problems encountered in the digitization project; and proffer solutions to the problems encountered. To elicit the necessary information, a literature review of studies done on digitization was carried out. Additionally, information on digitization of University of Nigeria resources was gathered through the University website as it contained necessary information that guided the study. The research was started off mid 2009 and concluded in December, 2009. Researcher's personal experiences and observation methods were also employed in the course of this study. The paper gives an overview of digitization and the digitization initiative in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka including the processes. A lot of challenges are facing the successful digitization of resources in University of Nigeria. Such major deterrents in the project include legal aspect and finances. Other factors were also discussed and the ways forward to the hindrances highlighted. This paper establishes that there are challenges militating against the digitization project in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN which demands immediate attention. However, solutions are proffered, which can help in ameliorating the challenges raised.

Helen Nneka Eke

2011-06-01

246

ASSESSMENT OF COMPLIANCE TO TREATMENT AMONG AMBULATORY ASTHMATIC PATIENTS IN A SECONDARY HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the level of compliance using three different methods: pill count, self report and peak expiratory flow rate, in asthmatic patients attending a secondary health care facility. Self report (using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, peak expiratory flow rate and pill count were used to assess patient’s compliance and identify the factors which may be responsible for non compliance. Measurement of peak expiratory flow rate and the pill count were done at two different occasions. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics. The study showed that the patients were prescribed a range of one to four drugs: 54% (3 drugs, 32% (2 drugs, 8% (4 drugs and 2% (1 drug. The levels of compliance were 86.57% for self report and 83.56% for pill count (p > 0.05. Reasons given for non compliance were: apparent wellness (33.31%, forgetfulness (26.67%, cost of drugs (6.67%, dysphagia (6.67%, presence of non-disturbing symptoms (6.67%, side effects (6.67%, ignorance/fear of addiction (6.67%, perceived lack of benefit from treatment (6.67%, and lethargy towards chronic medication (6.67%. However, there was a significant difference in the readings of the peak expiratory flow rate measured at two different occasions (p < 0.05. The study showed no significant difference in the methods used to assess the level of compliance. Non compliance can be overcome by proper education of patients on the importance of complying with the administration of medication and proper usage of metered dose devices.

S. J. Showande et al.

2012-01-01

247

Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

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The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g) of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>C...

Owamah, H. I.

2013-01-01

248

Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Status of Water Samples from Major Dams in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical status of water samples from four major dams in Ekiti was assess for a period of three years (dry and wet seasons. Result showed that the physico-chemical parameters determined were higher in the dry season than wet season. The statistical analysis revealed that most of the physico-chemical parameters are significantly different except for temperature, conductivity and dissolved solid whose values are lower than the table value (0.4975 at P = 0.05. The value increased from one year to another. The result obtained fell within the maximum allowable limit set by United State Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization.

O.S. Adefemi

2007-01-01

249

Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

250

An Assessment of the Changes in the Landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki Development Prone Area of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Landscape assessment is the analysis of the evolution of a landscape, an examination of the basic natural and human processes with ecological interrelationships which jointly shape that landscape and determine values for its uses. This paper is an assessment of the landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki development prone area on the North-East of Lagos Metropolis. It utilized the analytical tool of ArcGIS with topographic maps and Ikonos imaging to examine changes in the land use/land cover of the area over a period of 40 years from 1965 to 2004. Existing landscape which are suitable and compatible with the landscape of the area were identified through analysis of their conformity with the physiographic units. Results show that the landscape of the area has been gravely altered as urban development, mostly residential, displaced natural land, mostly wetland from 141.90 ha to 38.20 ha in 2004 at the annual rate of 2.60 ha. The implication of the results and findings are highlighted.

Jerry N Obiefuna

2011-09-01

251

Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

252

GIS and remote sensing applications in the assessment of change within a coastal environment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables. PMID:16823081

Twumasi, Yaw A; Merem, Edmund C

2006-03-01

253

GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

Edmund C. Merem

2006-03-01

254

Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>Cr>Cu>Co> Cd >Hg, while those of the sediments is in the order of Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg > Co. The control analysis was carried out in a non- oil polluted river (Ikpoba River and the values served as base line values for the study.

H.I Owamah

2013-02-01

255

The use of the partograph in labor monitoring: a cross-sectional study among obstetric caregivers in General Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Udeme Asibong,1 Ita B Okokon,1 Thomas U Agan,2 Affiong Oku,3 Margaret Opiah,4 E James Essien,5 Emmanuel Monjok1,5 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 4Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 5Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA Background: Prolonged and obstructed labor is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, one of the six countries contributing significantly to the global maternal mortality crisis. The use of the partograph would engender a remarkable reduction in the number of these deaths since abnormal markers in the progress of labor would be identified early on. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the non-physician obstetric caregivers’ (OCGs knowledge of partograph use, assess the extent of its use, determine the factors that impede its usage, and unravel the relationship between years of experience and partograph use among the respondents (OCGs in General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology: Using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 130 purposely selected and consenting OCGs working in the General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Results: The majority of the respondents (70.8% had good general knowledge of the partograph but lacked detailed and in-depth knowledge of the component parts of the partograph. Knowledge of partograph (?2=12.05, P=0.0001 and partograph availability (?2=56.5, P=0.0001 had a significant relationship with its utilization. Previous training (?2=9.43, P=0.002 was significantly related to knowledge of partograph. Factors affecting utilization were: little or no knowledge of the partograph (85.4%, nonavailability (70%, shortage of staff (61.5%, and the fact that it is time-consuming to use (30%. Conclusion: Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, nonavailability of the partograph, poor staff numbers, and inadequate training are factors that work against the effective utilization of the partograph in the study facility. Usage of this tool for labor monitoring can be enhanced by periodic training, making partographs available in labor wards, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policy. Keywords: knowledge, utilization, partograph, obstetric caregivers, labor monitoring, Nigeria

Asibong U

2014-10-01

256

Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Oklahoma and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 010  

Science.gov (United States)

This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…

Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

2008-01-01

257

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing ...

Mendell Nancy R; Zeitlyn David; Plaster Christopher A; Powell Adam; Pour Naser; Connell Bruce A; Veeramah Krishna R; Weale Michael E; Bradman Neil; Thomas Mark G

2010-01-01

258

Anthropometric Assessment of Nutritional Status and Growth of 10 - 20 Years Old Individuals in Benin City (Nigeria Metropolis  

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Full Text Available Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status and growth of 2,012 randomly selected males and females between the ages of 10 - 20 years was carried out by cross-sectional method in Benin City Metropolis. Anthropometrical indices considered were weight, height and arm circumference. Percentile values (10th, 50th, 90th which represent the growth standards of males and females were established from this study. Comparisons were made by comparing the 50th centile curves for height and weight of males and females obtained from this study with those of the WHO/NCHS standards. The results of the comparison revealed that the 50th centile curves of subjects from Benin City consistently lagged behind those of WHO/NCHS standards for all the anthropometric variables considered, except the 50th centile curve of females for height which showed that the 50th centile curve of females from Benin City compared favourably with the WHO/NCHS standards, and do not fall below them. The interrelationship between the various anthropometric variables revealed that the correlation coefficients for males and females respectively were: Age and Weight (0.99 and 1.0, Age and Arm circumference (0.95 and 0.99, Height and Arm circumference (0.91 and 0.97 and,(0.97 and 0.98 for Weight and height. The age of puberty was determined from this study to be 15.5 years for females and 18 years for males.

Nwokoro

2006-01-01

259

Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria  

CERN Document Server

The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

2012-01-01

260

Assessment of Empowerment Support Initiative (ESI Programmes on Women Participation in Community Development Programmes, Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the Empowerment Support Initiative (ESI programmes on women participation in community development programmes in selected Local Government Areas of Rivers State. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consist 520 registered members of Empowerment Support Initiative programmes in Port Harcourt, Khana and Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Areas of Rivers State. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire supported by focus group discussion method. Three research assistants were used to administer the questionnaire.  Two hypotheses were formulated and tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that significant relationship exists between the forms of empowerment support Initiate programmes and the level of women participation in ESI programmes and that there is significant relationship existing between the impact of ESI programmes on women participation and their level of participation in Community Development programmes in Rivers State. It was recommended amongst others that ESI programmes should be expanded to benefit non participants of empowerment support initiative.

M.A. Oyebamiji

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

ENERGY FROM THE WEST: A PROGRESS REPORT OF A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME IV. APPENDICES  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a progress report of a three year technology assessment of the development of six energy resources in eight western states. Volume 4 presents two appendices, on air quality modeling and energy transportation costs....

262

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

2004-12-02

263

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a ''client'' of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

264

An Assessment of the Trend and Projected Future Values of Climatic Variables in Niger Delta Region, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the trend and projected future values of climatic variables in the Niger Delta Region. Annual mean time series data of climatic variables from 1971 to December 2007 were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET for the study. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the random selection of states, local government, communities and rural farming households. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the rural farming households in the region. Line graph was used to determine the trend of the climatic variables (temperature, and rainfall and Growth model was used to predict the future values of climatic variables (temperature, and rainfall in the Niger Delta Region. Most rural farming households were married and headed by male with a mean household size of 10 persons. Primary school level of education dominated rural farming households with a low annual income of N73, 896 ($480 per annum. There was an increasing trend in mean annual temperature but a decreasing and increasing trend in mean annual rainfall values. The statistical projected future values of mean annual temperature and mean annual rainfall show an increasing trend in the Region. It is recommended that Meteorological station units should be established in the rural farming area especially in the Niger Delta region where accessibility is extremely difficult. This will make available meteorological data (information to the reach of the poor rural farming household for their Agricultural production and for the attainment of food security status in the Region.

P.O. Emaziye

2012-03-01

265

Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

Mmom Prince Chinedu

2010-10-01

266

Geology and Geochemical Assessment of Metal Contamination of Stream Sediments at Igun and Its Environs, Ilesha Area South Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The cause of heavy metal contamination in stream sediments is probably related to mining activities in Igun study area. Hence the degree of contamination of major and trace elements was carried out to ascertain environmental impact assessment of Igun and its environs, the geology of the study area shows that talc schist, quartzite, amphibolite and granite are the major rock types within the study area, while petrographic studies show quartz, microcline feldspar, biotite, muscovite and hornblende as the main mineral constituents. Total numbers of ten (10 stream sediment samples were collected, air dried at room temperature and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS techniques. From the result of geochemical analysis of the stream sediment samples, the mean concentration for trace elements revealed that Manganese (Mn, Strontium (Sr, Zinc (Zn, Gold (Au Nickel (Ni, Cobalt (Co and Lead (Pb have the mean values of 1704 ppm, 75.11 ppm, 55.80 ppm, 40.22 ppm, 26.15 ppm, 20.94 ppm, 10.60 ppm respectively. The contamination of metals was noticed from the geo accumulation index (Igeo, for stream sediments such as Nickel (0.1, copper (0.5, Manganese (0.6 with Igeo < 1 depicting that these metals are practically uncontaminated. Cobalt (0.1, Zinc  (1.1 with Igeo number > 1 < 2 are moderately contaminated and Gold with Igeo of (9.6 indicate very high contamination. In conclusion the results shows that some part of the study area are contaminated and this includes Imoo (location 4, Owena (location 9 and Oke - Ipa (location 1 compared to other locations in the study area which are not contaminated.

Akintola A. I.

2014-01-01

267

Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

2012-02-01

268

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria; Mesure des radionucleides naturels et de l'evaluation de la dose de granits de l'Etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th contents were lower, whereas the {sup 40}K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ayeni, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-10-15

269

Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the density irrespective of the compaction level to be utilized in the field. In addition, the permeability of 2.14 - 9.12 x 10-5cm/s is higher than 1 x 10-7 cm/s recommended for typical isolation barriers, which implies negative impacts in respect of possible attendant contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater by the leachates. The geochemical analyses of the samples reflect relatively high SiO2 values of 52.1-55.8% compared to Al2O3 of 16.96-27.45% and Fe2O3 of 3.10-7.19%, which suggest the dominance of kaolinite as confirmed by the XRD. Nonetheless, the occurrence of illite in Enugu and Nkporo shales and smectite in Imo shale is a confirmation of the relatively high plasticity indices mentioned earlier and indication of good sorption properties. The CEC of the samples have relatively low value of 2.6 - 5.1 cmol/kg, which is less than the recommended minimum of 10 meq/100 g. The sorption capacity of the samples with respect to Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni ranges from 24.4 to 34.7 ppm with metal sorption in the order of Zn >Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni. The overall assessment revealed that the metal uptake, CEC and plasticity index of the shale samples are positively correlated suggesting strong influence of the clay mineralogy on the sorption characteristics of the samples. In spite of the observed relatively high permeability and swelling potential as well as moderate good sorption properties, the study shale units could be enhanced to the required specification through appropriate amendment technology. Though the shale units do not generally satisfy the requirements of compacted clay liners, however, based on the sorption characteristics, Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shales can be adequately employed for attenuation of contaminant leachates in double, composite or and multiple lining systems

270

Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

271

Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

272

Local Residents’ Perception on the Causes and Effects of Deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views The aim of this study was to assess the local residents’ understanding of the causes of deforestation in Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain the views

A. M. Ba,

2014-07-01

273

Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis  

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Full Text Available The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010 (AMCON Act and employs as a method, analytical exposition of the Act in this work. The paper finds that lack of corporate governance and incentive problems caused Nigeria's banking sector crisis. It argues that though the provisions of the AMCON Act are aimed at compelling corporate governance and international best practices, inherent weaknesses and inconsistencies with superior legislations leave a big question mark on its applicability and effectiveness. The paper calls for legislative rethink if Nigeria must prevent future failures in the banking sector and rebuild confidence in the investing public as well as in bank depositors.

Mmadu, R. A. O.

2012-12-01

274

Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products  

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Full Text Available This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with product made-in-Nigeria. Survey study was carried out through questionnaire administration on 120 respondents; using purposive sampling technique to select the three popular markets in Lagos (Yaba, Oshodi and Eko to gather the required data for empirical analysis. The population of this study were the textile products consumers in Lagos State where Textiles customers were randomly sampled in each of these markets. Ordinary Least Square method (OLS, t-test, f-statistics, coefficient of determination (R2 and Durbin Watson Statistics were used to estimate the data. The results showed: (a significant relationship between product quality and desire to buy made-in-Nigeria at 0.05 level (r = .984, P<0.05; (b a significant, high positive relationship between the perceived cost of individual purchases and the satisfaction derived from made -in-Nigeria goods ( r = .961 and (c a correlation coefficient of 0.979, for cultural believes and buying behaviour of Nigerians. The results necessitated the formulation of required strategies for implementation in concluding the study

Ph. D. Sunday Abayomi Adebisi

2011-05-01

275

Radiological assessment of the alpha and beta content of water resources of Ogba industrial area (OML- 58 and OML - 61) of Rivers State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of the alpha and beta content of water resources of Ogba industrial areas (OML-58 and 61) of River State, Nigeria were done using gas-flow proportional counter (EURlSYS MEASURE IN 20 low background multiple channel alpha/beta counter). Background measurement and plateau test was done to determine the background radioactivity and optimal operational voltage and frequencies. The alpha activity concentration in well water ranges from 0.012±0.001 to 5.140±0.083Bq/l with a mean value of 0.987±0.035Bq/l. Similarly, the range of gross beta activity concentration spanned from 0.340±0.046 to 16.196±0.126 Bq/l with a mean value of 4.585±0.211Bq/l. For tap water, the gross alpha and beta activity concentration ranges from 0.022±0.001 to 2.300±0.040Bq/l and 0.00 to 5.890±0.025Bq/l respectively. Their mean values are 0.379±0.012Bq/l and 2.815±0.32Bq/l respectively. The gross alpha activity concentration of river water ranges from 0.016±0.001 to 10.064±0.230Bq/l with a mean value of 1.284±0.102Bq/l while the gross beta activity ranges from 2.090±0.019Bq/l to 15.800±0.325Bq/l with a mean value of 7.033±1.020Bq/l. Comparing the results with the WHO safe limit of 0.1Bq/l and 1.0Bq/l for alpha and beta activity in drinking water respectively, the obtained values of all the water sources (well, tap and river) exceeded the maximum permissible limit. Also the control values were lower than the obtained activities. The effective equivalent dose calculated from gross alpha activity for adult and infant to ascertain the health implication of the elevated alpha activity concentration was found to be higher than ICRP limit of 0.1mSvyr-1 in well and river water but the dose equivalent for tap water in infants is lower than the safe limit. However, oil and gas production in the area has contributed to increased activity concentration of alpha and beta in water bodies in the area and therefore may pose serious detrimental health side effects to the public users of these water bodies. Therefore, companies operating in the area should reduce the use of radionuclide in their operations and provide remedial measure to improve the quality of water and reduce the risk of cancer and other related ailments.

276

Assessment of NORM-containing food crops/stuffs in OML 58 and OML 61 within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment of the levels of natural radionuclide in some commonly consumed cereals, fruits, vegetables and tubers within OML 58 and OML 61 in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been carried out. The areas under study were divided into six (6) zones (A,B,C,D,E,F) and investigated. An insitu measurement approach was adopted using Nuclear Radiation Meter (Radarlert-100) and a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS 76 CSX) equipment. Sixteen(16) readings each was taken in each of the six zoned areas making a total of ninety-six (96) food crops samples which was randomly selected. Measured average radiation levels in each of the six zones ranges between 0.009±0.001mRhr-1 (0.479±0.038mSvyr-1) to 0.020±0.001mRhr-1(1.064±0.065mSvyr-1) for zone A, 0.011±0.001mRhr-1, (0.585±0.041mSvyr-1) to 0.022±0.002mRh-1 (1.170±0.105mSvyr-1) for zone B, 0.010±0.001mRhr-1 (0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.025±0.002mRhr-1 (1.330±0.016mSvyr-1) for zone C, 0.010±0.001mRhr-1(0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.028±0.002mRhr-1 (1.490±0.134mSvyr-1) for Zone D, 0.005±0.000mRhr-1 (0.266±0.021mSvyr-1) to 0.022±0.002mRhr-1 (1.170±0.105mSvyr-1) for Zone E, 0.01± 0.001mRhr-1(0.532±0.048mSvyr-1) to 0.016±0.001mRhr-1(0.851±0.068mSvyr-1±0.068mSvyr-1) for Zone F. The mean food crop radiation levels ranges from 0.012±0.001mRhr-1(0.798±0.065mSvyr-1) to 0.016±0.001mRhr-1(0.849±0.067mSvyr-1) while the mean background radiation levels ranges from 0.011±0.001mRhr-1 (0.585±0.041mSvyr-1) to 0.015±0.001mRhr-1(0.798±0.065mSvyr-1). The annual equivalent dose estimated were in the range of 0.613mSvyr-1 to 0.849mSvyr-1 far below the dose limits for radiological workers (20mSvyr-1) and the dose limit for the public (1mSvyr-1) (ICRP,1994). Comparison of the measured radiation levels of the food crops samples with the normal background levels show that 45 samples which represent 46.8% of the whole sample exceeded the normal background level of 0.013mRhr-1 (ICRP,1994). These values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the populace consuming these food crops/stuffs but may have some long-term health side-effects.

277

Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

J. K. Yohanna.

2012-03-01

278

Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

2008-01-01

279

What is wrong in Nigeria?; Security Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite massive government efforts at putting an end to crime and militancy targeting its petroleum industry, Nigeria's oil production is still falling. Daily crude output now hovers around the 1.7 million barrels per day mark, perhaps even lower, as MEND - a network of militant groups saying they are fighting for the rights of the Niger Delta's people - has picked up hatchet. Again. The government's declared ambition of pumping 4 million barrels by next year is not only a distant dream, it is a delirious illusion. (Author)

Nodland, Arild

2009-07-01

280

Assessment of calving progress and reference times for obstetric intervention during dystocia in Holstein dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this observational study were (1) to assess the time from the appearance of the amniotic sac (AS) or feet outside the vulva to birth in Holstein cows (primiparous and multiparous) with (dystocia) or without assistance (eutocia) at calving, and (2) to estimate reference times to be used as guidelines for obstetric intervention in Holstein cows that need assistance during difficult births. Cows (n=92) from 1 commercial dairy operation were used in this study. Periparturient dairy cows (primiparous, n=58; multiparous, n=34) were placed in a maternity pen and constantly monitored until birth. The calving ease of cows, time from AS or feet appearance to birth, calving progress from a subset of 15 cows (frequency and duration of abdominal contractions during labor), calf birth weight, calf sex, and stillbirths (born dead or died within 24h after birth) were recorded. The reference times for obstetric intervention during dystocia were estimated based on values from unassisted births (normal). The normal range of times from the appearance of AS or feet outside the vulva to birth was estimated based on the mean+2 standard deviations (SD) of unassisted births. According to farm protocol, assistance was provided to cows without calving progress 80 min after AS appearance or earlier (e.g., to correct malpositions). Cows with dystocic births had a longer time from AS appearance to birth and increased incidence of stillbirth compared with cows with eutocic calvings. After the appearance of the AS, calving progress was evident every 15 min for eutocic births. The estimated reference times (mean+2 SD) from AS appearance to birth were 69.7 min and from feet appearance to birth were 64.6 min for eutocic births. Findings from this study suggested that calving personnel should start assisting cows 70 min after AS appearance (or 65 min after feet appearance) outside the vulva. The time spent in labor (straining) combined with the time from the appearance of the AS or feet to birth, and the assessment of calving progress (as described for eutocic births) should be used as guidelines for obstetric intervention during difficult births under field conditions. These reference times should be interpreted in combination with adequate obstetrical knowledge and examination. PMID:22032372

Schuenemann, G M; Nieto, I; Bas, S; Galvão, K N; Workman, J

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

High prevalence of hepatitis B virus among female sex workers in Nigeria Alta prevalência de hepatite pelo vírus B entre trabalhadoras do sexo feminino na Nigéria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and constitutes a public health menace. The prevalence of HBV infection in many professional groups has been described in Nigeria. However, literature on HBV infection among female sex workers (FSW) in Nigeria is scanty. FSW in Nigeria are not subjected to a preventive control of HBV infection. This study assesses the extent of spread of HBV among FSW in Nigeria. Seven hundred and twenty (n = 720) FSW (mean age = 26.7 years) were tested ...

Forbi, J. C.; Onyemauwa, N.; Gyar, S. D.; Oyeleye, A. O.; Entonu, P.; Agwale, S. M.

2008-01-01

282

Cybercrime in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of some key organizations. We investigated these crimes and noted some useful observations. From our observations, we profound solution to the inadequacies of existing enabling laws. Prevention of cybercrime requires the co-operation of all the citizens and not necessarily the police alone who presently lack specialists in its investigating units to deal with cybercrime. The eradication of this crime is crucial in view of the devastating effect on the image of Nigeria and the attendant consequence on the economy. Out of over 140 million Nigerians less than 5x10-4% are involved in cybercrime across Nigeria.

Okonigene Robert Ehimen, Adekanle Bola

2010-01-01

283

Maternal mortality at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Southeast Nigeria: a 10-year review (2003–2012  

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Full Text Available NJ Obiechina, VE Okolie, ZC Okechukwu, CF Oguejiofor, OI Udegbunam, LSA Nwajiaku, C Ogbuokiri, R Egeonu Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria Background: Maternal mortality is high the world over, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. Nigeria has consistently demonstrated one of the most abysmally poor reproductive health indices in the world, maternal mortality inclusive. This is a sad reminder that, unless things are better organized, Southeast Nigeria, which Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH represents, may not join other parts of the world in attaining Millennium Development Goal 5 to improve maternal health in 2015. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess NAUTH'S progress in achieving a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR and to identify the major causes of maternal mortality. Materials and methods: This was a 10-year retrospective study, conducted between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012 at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria. Results: During the study period, there were 8,022 live births and 103 maternal deaths, giving an MMR of 1,284/100,000 live births. The MMR was 1,709 in 2003, reducing to 1,115 in 2012. This is to say that there was a 24.86% reduction over 10 years, hence, in 15 years, the reduction should be 37%. This extrapolated reduction over 15 years is about 38% less than the target of 75% reduction. The major direct causes of maternal mortality in this study were: pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (27%, hemorrhage (22%, and sepsis (12%. The indirect causes were: anemia, anesthesia, and HIV encephalopathy. Most of the maternal deaths occurred in unbooked patients (98% and within the first 48 hours of admission (76%. Conclusion: MMRs in NAUTH are still very high and the rate of reduction is very slow. At this rate, it will take this health facility 30 years, instead of 15 years, to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. Keywords: maternal mortality, MDG-5, 2015, achievability, causes, NAUTH, Southeast Nigeria

Obiechina NJ

2013-07-01

284

Nigeria's youth at risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498

Igwe, S A

1992-05-01

285

Maternal mortality at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Southeast Nigeria: a 10-year review (2003-2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Maternal mortality is high the world over, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. Nigeria has consistently demonstrated one of the most abysmally poor reproductive health indices in the world, maternal mortality inclusive. This is a sad reminder that, unless things are better organized, Southeast Nigeria, which Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) represents, may not join other parts of the world in attaining Millennium Development Goal 5 to improve maternal health in 2015. Objectives This study was conducted to assess NAUTH’S progress in achieving a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and to identify the major causes of maternal mortality. Materials and methods This was a 10-year retrospective study, conducted between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012 at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria. Results During the study period, there were 8,022 live births and 103 maternal deaths, giving an MMR of 1,284/100,000 live births. The MMR was 1,709 in 2003, reducing to 1,115 in 2012. This is to say that there was a 24.86% reduction over 10 years, hence, in 15 years, the reduction should be 37%. This extrapolated reduction over 15 years is about 38% less than the target of 75% reduction. The major direct causes of maternal mortality in this study were: pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (27%), hemorrhage (22%), and sepsis (12%). The indirect causes were: anemia, anesthesia, and HIV encephalopathy. Most of the maternal deaths occurred in unbooked patients (98%) and within the first 48 hours of admission (76%). Conclusion MMRs in NAUTH are still very high and the rate of reduction is very slow. At this rate, it will take this health facility 30 years, instead of 15 years, to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. PMID:23901299

Obiechina, NJ; Okolie, VE; Okechukwu, ZC; Oguejiofor, CF; Udegbunam, OI; Nwajiaku, LSA; Ogbuokiri, C; Egeonu, R

2013-01-01

286

Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY 04 Year-end Progress Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL), along with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), are developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology for the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This CY04 report describes the latest developments and progress with the development of the Pulsed, Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) nuclear material inspection system, such as: (1) the identification of an optimal range of electron beam energies for interrogation applications, (2) the development of a new ''cabinet safe'' electron accelerator (i.e., Varitron II) to assess ''cabinet safe-type'' operations, (3) the numerical and experimental validation responses of nuclear materials placed within selected cargo configurations, (4) the fabrication and utilization of Calibration Pallets for inspection technology performance verification, (5) the initial technology integration of basic radiographic ''imaging/mapping'' with induced neutron and gamma-ray detection, (6) the characterization of electron beam-generated photon sources for optimal performance, (7) the development of experimentally determined Receiver-Operator-Characterization curves, and (8) several other system component assessments. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security and is a technology component of the Science and Technology Active Interrogation Portfolio entitled ''Photofission-based Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization.''

287

Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY 04 Year-end Progress Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL), along with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), are developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology for the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This CY04 report describes the latest developments and progress with the development of the Pulsed, Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) nuclear material inspection ystem, such as: (1) the identification of an optimal range of electron beam energies for interrogation applications, (2) the development of a new “cabinet safe” electron accelerator (i.e., Varitron II) to assess “cabinet safe-type” operations, (3) the numerical and experimental validation responses of nuclear materials placed within selected cargo configurations, 4) the fabrication and utilization of Calibration Pallets for inspection technology performance verification, 5) the initial technology integration of basic radiographic “imaging/mapping” with induced neutron and gamma-ray detection, 6) the characterization of electron beam-generated photon sources for optimal performance, 7) the development of experimentallydetermined Receiver-Operator-Characterization curves, and 8) several other system component assessments. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security and is a technology component of the Science & Technology Active Interrogation Portfolio entitled “Photofission-based Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization.”

J.L. Jones; W.Y. Yoon; K.J. Haskell; D.R. Norman; J.M. Zabriskie; J.W. Sterbentz; S.M. Watson; J.T. Johnson; B.D. Bennett; R.W. Watson; K. L. Folkman

2005-05-01

288

Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007  

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Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government embarked on a number of public sector reform programmes aimed at blocking leakages of all sorts in public sector service delivery and transactions. The official instrument designed to achieve this much desired honesty, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business especially in the award of contracts and procurement in the ministries, parastatals and departments in Nigeria is the introduction of the Due Process Policy.


Key words: Due process; Public procurement; Administration

Stephen Ocheni

2012-09-01

289

Nigeria: human trafficking and migration  

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Full Text Available Readmission agreements between Nigeria and migrant destination countries fail to comply with international standards for the protection of migrants’ and trafficked persons’ rights.

Victoria Ijeoma Nwogu

2006-05-01

290

TRADE OPENNESS AND ITS IMPACT ON NIGERIA’S NON-OIL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: 1979-2009  

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Full Text Available The growth of the industrial sector and the resultant export witnessed in Nigeria in the 1960s and 1970s was largely the outcome of a policy of import substitution which precipitated the overvaluation of the domestic currency partly through the encouragement of low return investments by preferential credit policies and direct public investment in industrial ventures. The ‘fait accompli’ adoption of the IMF – induced structural economic reforms whose main trust is trade openness among others was targeted at restructuring the economy away from over dependence on the oil sector. This study focused on the impact of trade openness on Nigeria’s industrial performance with a view to determining the spill over effect of the policy on the major contending sectors in the economy. This study therefore examined the relationship between trade openness and industrial performance,armed with secondary time series data and using an ordinary least square multiple regression analytical method. The study found that the unilateral trade openness of 1986 produced the sustainable impact on the nonoil industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. It was observed that Public domestic investment, saving rate, capacity utilization and infrastructure has negative impacts on Nigeria’s industrial performance. Our findings and conclusion support the need for the government to consolidate and maintain the credibility of the trade policies for sustainable growth and development. More progress will be achieved if the conditions needed for a deregulated trade system to work properly are set in place.

Bakare A.S Ph.D

2011-10-01

291

Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities  

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Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope

2010-12-01

292

Groundwater evolution modeling for the second progress performance assessment (PA) report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Japanese program for research and development of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal defined by Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the second progress report (i.e., H-12 report) for performance assessment (PA) of HLW disposal is to be published by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and submitted to the Japanese government before the year 2,000 (AEC, 1997). This report presents the establishment of generic groundwater chemical compositions for the PA supporting the H-12 report. The following five hypothetical groundwaters are categorized for PA based on the results of the first progress report (i.e., H-3 report) and binary statistical analyses of the screened groundwater dataset. FRHP (Fresh-Reducing-High-pH) groundwater. FRLP (Fresh-Reducing-Low-pH) groundwater. SRHP (Saline-Reducing-High-pH) groundwater. SRLP (Saline-Reducing-Low-pH) groundwater. MRNP (Mixing-Reducing-Neutral-pH) groundwater. In order to define representative groundwater compositions for the PA for the H-12 report, JNC has established the representativeness of the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the following hypothetical reference groundwaters are selected for the performance assessment analysis in H-12 report, respectively: Reference Case groundwater. FRHP groundwater, and Alternative Geological Environment Case groundwater. SRHP groundwater. In addition, JNC has consulted with overseas experts on the concepts used in groundwater evolution modeling. This modeling effort has focussed on simulating equilibrium water-rock interactions to predict groundwater compositions resulting from reactions between initial water compositions and rock mineral assemblages. These discussions have centered on recommendations for developing more realistic groundwater evolution models. As the results, JNC has obtained important knowledge to develop more realistic groundwater evolution models in future. (author)

293

Progress on seismic margin assessment and fire PSA for Lepreau refurbishment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On July 29, 2005 it was announced that the Province of New Brunswick would proceed with the $1.4 Billion project to refurbish the Point Lepreau Generating Station with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the general contractor. The major activity during the outage would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channels, Calandria Tubes and connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power Nuclear would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of additional repairs, replacements, inspections and upgrades. These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. As part of Refurbishment, NB Power is performing a Level II PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) to complement the current safety analysis, which supports the existing Operating License for the station. The events considered in the PSA include internal fires and seismic events. The approach adopted for fire events is the conventional fire PSA and that for the seismic events analyses is a PSA-based Seismic Margin Assessment (SMA). The PSA is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2007. This paper discusses the progress on the fire PSA and the PSA-based SMA. (author)

Lee, B.; Jaitly, R.; Comanescu, L.; Aprodu, S.; Ha, J.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mullin, D.; Jean, A.; Basque, D.; Thompson, P.D. [New Brunswick Power Nuclear Corp., Point Lepreau Nuclear Power Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)

2006-07-01

294

Seismicity in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismicity is the likelihood of an area being subject to natural earthquakes. Natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and earth tremors have manifested through fractures. Thus monitoring and prediction of these hazards could begin by a proper documentation of the pathways through which they emanate, using geophysical methods, and these could be useful in planning and in population control in a suspected hazard-ridden environments.This work has reviewed seismicity in Nigeria and has been able to show that Nigeria may not be aseismic as has hitherto been believed.Therefore, henceforth it is necessary to incorporate seismic criteria in the site investigations for design and construction of major and sensitive structures whose sudden damage can lead to disruption of major essential services, loss of lives and property and general degradation of the environment. A geophysical survey of the site for the nuclear power plant is mandatory

295

Assessing the WHO 50% prevalence threshold in school-aged children as indication for treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis in adults in central Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is recommended in adults by the World Health Organization when prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children (SAC) is ? 50%. This study ascertained the value of this threshold in predicting prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma hematobium (SH) infection in adults in central Nigeria. We evaluated urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence in 1,164 adults: 659 adults in 12 communities where mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 26.6% and 505 adults in 7 communities where the mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 70.4%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of adults in prevalence of hematuria, prevalence of SH eggs, or intensity of infections. We conclude that, in this setting, the SAC threshold is not useful for treatment decisions in adults. Given the increased risk of subtle morbidity or urogenital schistosomiasis as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), more liberal treatment of adults with praziquantel is warranted. PMID:23382170

Evans, Darin S; King, Jonathan D; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Adamani, William; Alphonsus, Kal; Sambo, Yohanna; Miri, Emmanual S; Goshit, Danjuma; Ogah, Gladys; Richards, Frank O

2013-03-01

296

An Assessment of Quality of Service (QoS In Voice Communications over Four GSM Networks in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of four operators of mobile telecommunications services in voice communications in Lagos and Oyo States in South Western Nigeria for the first five years of operation. Using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU standard of measuring customer experience of voice telephony service through the voice quality scores known as the Mean Opinion Score (MOS, the study identified the quality of service in voice call between the year 2001 and 2006. The data used for the statistical analysis were obtained randomly from the subscribers of GSM services in the states. The research established that the voice quality for the first five years of operation on all the networks considered were below the ITU specified conversational voice quality of > 3.0 on the MOS scale.

T. O. OYEBISI

2011-09-01

297

The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

2014-01-01

298

Recent progress in structural integrity assessment techniques for components subject to service-induced degradation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant components are exposed to a wide range of environmental and loading conditions which can cause degradation over time. Aging embrittlement, erosion-corrosion, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue are examples of aging mechanisms which could reduce structural margins in reactor components. The degradation effects from these mechanisms have been seen more frequently with the aging of the early nuclear plants. Since there is a strong incentive for keeping these older plants running for longer periods of time without compromising safety, proper plant management to minimize damage from degradation mechanisms is extremely important. Structural margin assessment, monitoring, and maintenance are important elements of such a management plan. Significant progress has been recently made in the understanding, evaluation and monitoring of these degradation mechanisms. This has led also to new requirements in the ASME Code design basis for nuclear plants. Current state of understanding and new developments in the ASME Code to address some of these degradation mechanisms are covered in this paper. Cast stainless steels used in pump casings and valve bodies have been known to experience thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperatures. Recent predictive models of thermal aging effects on material toughness, developed at Argonne National Lab are reviewed and applied to assess ASME Code structural margins of a reactss ASME Code structural margins of a reactor pump casing. A recent ASME Code Case provides methods for the evaluation and acceptance criteria for reactor pressure vessels having ductile fracture toughness values reduced below the requirements of 10CFR50 due to irradiation embrittlement. Background and application of this code case to an older BWR vessel is described. The occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel piping highlighted the need for evaluation methods for structural margin assessment in piping

299

Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) accordingP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

300

Taking Stock of Poverty Reduction Efforts in Nigeria  

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This study is an evaluation of the Poverty Eradication Programmes in Nigeria. It tries to assess their effectiveness in helping to improve on the lives of the poor. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administered to randomly selected adult male and female residents in Enugu State of Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from the Poverty Eradication office in the State. The analysis shows that most of the poverty reduction efforts had no significant impact on the lives of the poor. Even those that were recorded as effective had negligible impact on the populace to have reduced poverty. The study enumerates among others inadequate funding, mismanagement of resources and inadequate infrastructures as problems stifling most poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria. The study recommends that in addition to establishing these Poverty alleviation programmes, Nigeria should strive to move away from import dependent economy to an export oriented one.

Key words: Poverty eradication programmes; Nigeria; Effectiveness

Flora O. Ntunde

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

E-BANKING IN DEVELOPING ECONOMY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper empirically examines the impact of e-banking in Nigeria’s economy using Kaiser-Meyar-Olkin (KMO) approach and Barlett’s Test of Sphericity which support the use of factor analysis in order to extract independent variables associated with e-banking. The paper explores the major factors responsible for internet banking based on respondents’ perception on various e-banking applications. It also provides a framework of the factors which are taken to assess the e-banking perceptio...

Auta, Elisha Menson

2010-01-01

302

Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

303

Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture  

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Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

Yohanna, J. K.

2010-12-01

304

SERVICE TRADE AND NON-OIL EXPORT IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The paper was set to examine the relationship between different aspects of service trade and non oil export in Nigeria as well as assess the impact of capacity development on value of service trade and the implications for improving value of non oil export in Nigeria. Secondary data 1980 to 2010 were used. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results show that total service trade value in Nigeria has increased from $1126.59 million in 1980 to $3076.19 million in 2010. Significant correlations existed between the total value of service trade and all the types of service trade except with other service trade value. Road network, government (domestic capital expenditure on services, agricultural credit and domestic service GDP positively determine exportable services. Recommendations include improvement of service GDP and agricultural credit/loan facilities.

Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

2013-01-01

305

Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.

Philip Chimobi Omoke

2012-04-01

306

Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK  

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The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

2012-01-01

307

Examining the Technical Adequacy of Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report # 41  

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In this technical report, the authors describe the development and piloting of reading comprehension measures as part of a comprehensive progress monitoring literacy assessment system developed in 2006 for use with students in Kindergarten through fifth grade. They begin with a brief overview of the two conceptual frameworks underlying the…

Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald

2007-01-01

308

The Development of Word and Passage Reading Fluency Measures for Use in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report # 40  

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In this technical report, the authors describe the development alternate forms of Word and Passage Reading Fluency measures as part of a comprehensive progress monitoring literacy assessment system developed in 2006 for use with students in Kindergarten through fourth grade. They begin with a brief overview of the two conceptual frameworks…

Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2007-01-01

309

Television and Reading Achievement: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the 1979-80 National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

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During the 1979-80 school year, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) surveyed approximately 29,000 nine-year-old students regarding attitudes and achievement in reading and literature. Findings from this study were used for an analysis of the relationship between reading achievement and television viewing. The following…

Fetler, Mark

310

Closing the Achievement Gap for Economically Disadvantaged Students? Analyzing Change since No Child Left Behind Using State Assessments and the National Assessment of Educational Progress  

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A critical state-level indicator of progress in public education is student achievement annual performance and change over time. The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) has been very active in tracking and reporting on student achievement results and using state assessment scores and other data to analyze achievement trends. A central…

Blank, Rolf K.

2011-01-01

311

Progression of diffuse myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance T1 mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate long-term changes in diffuse myocardial fibrosis using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping. Patients with chronic stable cardiomyopathy and stable clinical status (n = 52) underwent repeat CMR at a 6 month or greater follow up interval and had LGE and left ventricular (LV) T1 mapping CMR. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis (excluding areas of focal myocardial scar) was assessed by post gadolinium myocardial T1 times. Mean baseline age of 52 patients (66 % male) was 35 ± 19 years with a mean interval between CMR examinations of 2.0 ± 0.8 years. CMR parameters, including LV mass and ejection fraction, showed no change at follow-up CMR (p > 0.05). LVT1 times (excluding focal scar) decreased over the study interval (from 468 ± 106 to 434 ± 82 ms, p = 0.049). 38 Patients had no visual LGE-, while 14 were LGE+. For LGE- patients, greater change in LV mass and end systolic volume index were associated with change in T1 time (? = -2.03 ms/g/m(2), p = 0.035 and ? = 2.1 ms/mL/m(2), p = 0.029, respectively). For LGE+ patients, scar size was stable between CMR1 and CMR2 (10.7 ± 13.8 and 11.5 ± 13.9 g, respectively, p = 0.32). These results suggest that diffuse myocardial fibrosis, as assessed by T1 mapping, progresses over time in patients with chronic stable cardiomyopathy. PMID:24903343

Yi, Colin J; Yang, Eunice; Lai, Shenghan; Gai, Neville; Liu, Chia; Liu, Songtao; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Lima, João A C; Bluemke, David A

2014-10-01

312

DOE progress in assessing the long term performance of waste package materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA)[1], the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) is conducting activities to select and characterize candidate sites suitable for the construction and operation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. DOE is funding three first repository projects: Basalt Waste Isolation Project, BWIP; Nevada Nuclear Waste Isolation Project, NNWSI; and Salt Repository Project Office, SRPO. It is essential in the licensing process that DOE demonstrate to the NRC that the long-term performance of the materials and design will be in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.113 on substantially complete containment within the waste packages for 300 to 1000 years and a controlled release rate from the engineered barrier system (EBS) for 10,000 years of 1 part in 105 per year for radionuclides present in defined quantities 100 years after permanent closure. Obviously, the time spans involved make it impractical to base the assessment of the long term performance of waste package materials on real time, prototypical testing. The assessment of performance will be implemented by the use of models that are supported by real time field and laboratory tests, monitoring, and natural analog studies. Each of the repository projects is developing a plan for demonstrating long-term waste package material performance depending on the particular materials and the package-perturbed, time-dependent environment under which th time-dependent environment under which the materials must function. An overview of progress in each of these activities for each of the projects is provided in the following

313

An evaluability assessment of a West Africa based Non-Governmental Organization's (NGO) progressive evaluation strategy.  

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While program evaluations are increasingly valued by international organizations to inform practices and public policies, actual evaluation use (EU) in such contexts is inconsistent. Moreover, empirical literature on EU in the context of humanitarian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) is very limited. The current article focuses on the evaluability assessment (EA) of a West-Africa based humanitarian NGO's progressive evaluation strategy. Since 2007, the NGO has established an evaluation strategy to inform its maternal and child health care user-fee exemption intervention. Using Wholey's (2004) framework, the current EA enabled us to clarify with the NGO's evaluation partners the intent of their evaluation strategy and to design its program logic model. The EA ascertained the plausibility of the evaluation strategy's objectives, the accessibility of relevant data, and the utility for intended users of evaluating both the evaluation strategy and the conditions that foster EU. Hence, key evaluability conditions for an EU study were assured. This article provides an example of EA procedures when such guidance is scant in the literature. It also offers an opportunity to analyze critically the use of EAs in the context of a humanitarian NGO's collaboration with evaluators and political actors. PMID:22885653

D'Ostie-Racine, Léna; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry

2013-02-01

314

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and strengths in the HIV research output from Nigeria, it is difficult to plan substantial improvements in HIV/AIDS research that could enhance population health. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends in Nigeria's SCI publications in HIV/AIDS from 1980 to 2006. Special attention was paid to internationally collaborated works that were identified based on the countries of the authors' affiliation. Methods A bibliometric analysis regarding Nigerian HIV/AIDS research was conducted in the ISI databases for the period of 1980 to 2006. An attempt was made to identify the patterns of the growth in HIV/AIDS literature, as well as type of document published, authorship, institutional affiliations of authors, and subject content. International collaboration was deemed to exist in an article if any co-author's affiliation was located outside Nigeria. The impact factors in the 2006 Journal Citations Reports Science Edition was arbitrarily adopted to estimate the quality of articles. Results Nigeria's ISI publications in HIV/AIDS increased from one articles in 1987 to 33 in 2006, and the articles with international collaboration increased from one articles in 1980 to 16 in 2006. Articles with international collaboration appeared in journals with higher impact factors and received more citations. A high pattern of co-authorship was found. Over 85% of the articles were published in collaboration among two or more authors. The USA, as the most important collaborating partner of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS researchers, contributed 30.8% of articles with international collaboration. Conclusion Nigeria has achieved a significant increase in the number of SCI publications and collaborations in HIV literature from 1987 to 2005. There is need to challenge the status, scientists from Nigeria should forge multiple collaborations beyond historical, political, and cultural lines to share knowledge and expertise on HIV/AIDS.

Uthman Olalekan A

2008-02-01

315

The Food Industry in Nigeria: Development and Quality Assurance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nigeria, the food processing sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises, as well as multinational food companies. Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. These standards are essential elements for local and international businesses which contribute to economic progress through industrial development and trade. This review takes a critical look on the Nigerian ...

Ojinnaka, M. C.

2011-01-01

316

Non-invasive diagnostic methods for atherosclerosis and use in assessing progression and regression in hypercholesterolemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the wall thickening and stenosis rate (ASI), the calcification rate (ACI), and the wall thickening and calcification stenosis rate (SCI) of the lower abdominal aorta calculated by the 12 sector method from simple or enhanced computed tomography. The intra-observer variation of the calculation of ASI was 5.7% and that of ACI was 2.4%. In 9 patients who underwent an autopsy examination, ACI was significantly correlated with the rate of the calcification dimension to the whole objective area of the abdominal aorta (r=0.856, p<0.01). However, there were no correlations between ASI and the surface involvement or the atherosclerotic index obtained by the point-counting method of the autopsy materials. In the analysis of 40 patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases, ASI and ACI were also highly correlated with the percentage volume of the arterial wall in relation to the whole volume of the observed artery (r=0.852, p<0.0001) and also the percentage calcification volume (r=0.913, p<0.0001) calculated by the computed method, respectively. The percentage of atherosclerotic vascular diseases increased in the group of both high ASI (over 10%) and high ACI (over 20%). We used SCI as a reliable index when the progression and regression of atherosclerosis was considered. Among patients of hypercholesterolemia consisting of 15 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 6 non-FH patients, the change of SCI (d-SCI) was significantly correlated with the change of toificantly correlated with the change of total cholesterol concentration (d-TC) after the treatment (r=0.466, p<0.05) and the change of the right Achilles' tendon thickening (d-ATT) was also correlated with d-TC (r=0.634, p<0.005). However, no correlation between d-SCI and d-ATT was observed. In conclusion, CT indices of atherosclerosis were useful as a noninvasive quantitative diagnostic method and we were able to use them to assess the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. (author)

317

E-banking and Bank Performance: Evidence from Nigeria  

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Full Text Available he resultant of technological innovation has been the transformation in operational dimension of banks over some decades. Internet technology has brought about a paradigm shift in banking operations to the extent that banks embrace internet technology to enhance effective and extensive delivery of wide range of value added products and services. However, the fact that e-banking is fast gaining acceptance in Nigerian banking sector does not assuredly signify improved bank performance nor would conspicuous use of internet as a delivery channels make it economically viable, productive or profitable. Whether progression is made in the use of internet technology (e-banking or not, there should be parameter to empirically assess its impact over specified period of adoption. Consequently, the study examined the impact of electronic banking on banks’ performance in Nigeria. Panel data comprised annual audited financial statements of eight banks that have adopted e- and retained their brand name banking between 2000 and 2010 as well as macroeconomic control variables were employed to investigate the impact of e-banking on return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE and net interest margin (NIM. Result from pooled OLS estimations indicate that e-banking begins to contribute positively to bank performance in terms of ROA and NIM with a time lag of two years while a negative impact was observed in the first year of adoption. It was recommended that investment decision on electronic banking should be rational so as to justify cost and revenue implications on bank performance.

Oginni Simon Oyewole, Mohammed Abba, El-maude, Jibreel Gambo, Arikpo, I. Abam

2013-08-01

318

Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40K, 238U and 232Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 ?Sv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 ?Sv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

319

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 ?g/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

320

Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.  

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The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848

Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in the work environments of a secondary iron and steel smelting and a paint industry in Lagos, Nigeria, were investigated using gravimetric sampling techniques and TXRF spectrometric analysis. The TXRF was used to analyse the concentration of toxic trace elements and heavy metals in the air-borne particulate. The elements detected included Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. Toxicity potentials of PM10 and PM2.5 suspended particulate matter and that of Pb were determined using USEPA national ambient air quality standards. Results were used to evaluate the possible occupational exposure for workers in the sampling areas, as well as those of the general public. These indicate that the concentrations of respirations dust and heavy metals in the work environments, especially the iron and steel smelter are high enough to affect the health of workers and the general public who reside in the neighbourhood. If combined with the effect of traffic pollution in this areas, the total air pollution load may be much higher than values recommended by WHO for general public protection. The need to investigate the options for emission reduction and the management of occupational and general public exposure was highlighted. (author)

322

Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

323

Diabetes care in Nigeria: time for a paradigm shift.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is becoming a major public health problem in Africa and its burden is expected to increase. Persons with diabetes mellitus require continuing medical care and self-management education to prevent complications. In both developed and some resource-poor countries, the management of persons with diabetes has been undergoing rapid changes in order to improve standards of care, through restructuring of clinics or through the establishment of diabetes centres with a multidisciplinary team approach to care. There has been a progressive increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and the burden is expected to increase even further. In view of the looming burden of diabetes in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to examine existing healthcare structures, revise the delivery process of healthcare programmes for persons with diabetes and effectively implement a process that facilitates accessibility to such programmes. Well-structured community-based care, appropriate to the local situation and resources, would provide for this, making it more accessible and realistic to the needs of persons with diabetes living in urban and rural areas of Nigeria. Various models have been adopted for the delivery of diabetes care. This article aims to highlight some of these various models of diabetes care. It concludes with a proposed model for the care of persons with diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. PMID:17209311

Adeleye, J O; Agada, N O; Balogun, W O; Adetunji, O R; Onyegbutulem, H O

2006-06-01

324

Cleft care in Nigeria: past, present, and future.  

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Objective: To review the progress of orofacial cleft care in Nigeria and propose a viewpoint for the future. Design: Review of the available literature on cleft care in Nigeria and survey of the status of ongoing cleft care in Nigerian centers. We employed a pretested self-administered questionnaire sent and returned through electronic mail. Participants: Coordinators of cleft care centers in Nigeria. Main Outcome Measures: Findings of literature search and responses to mailed questionnaires. Results: Available literature suggests that the fate of orofacial cleft patients during the precolonial era in Nigeria remains unclear. However, there is evidence of surgical care delivery just before the end of the colonial era. We identified and contacted 39 existing cleft care delivery centers, of which 30 (76.9%) responded. The majority (69.2%) of the responding centers began cleft care delivery between 2006 and 2010; 73.3% have designated cleft clinic locations and 66.7% offer interdisciplinary care. All responding centers offer cheiloplasty, while 86.7% offer palatoplasty. Other aspects of cleft care are provided sparingly in most centers due to paucity of manpower. Challenges with hospital administration, securing bed and theater spaces, drug availability, and performing laboratory investigations were the common limitations reported. Conclusions: We advocate for improved cleft care delivery through removing administrative bottlenecks, fortifying existing centers, and mentoring younger colleagues for entry into underserved specialties. Concerted effort and international collaborations aimed at transforming some of the existing cleft centers to standard pediatric craniofacial centers are desirable. PMID:22906387

Oginni, F O; Oladele, A O; Adenekan, A T; Olabanji, J K

2014-03-01

325

Report on TRP Analyses of Issues Concerning Within-Age versus Cross-Age Scales for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

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The National Assessment Governing Board of Educational Progress has recently adopted the position that the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) should employ within-age scaling whenever feasible. The NAEP Technical Review panel (TRP) has studied the issue at some length, and reports on it in this analysis. The first section reviews…

Haertel, Edward H.

326

The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

2014-01-01

327

Gender Perspectives in Self-Assessment of Quality of Life of the Elderly in South-Western Nigeria. Are there variations in quality of life among ageing men and women?  

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Full Text Available This study examined gender variations in self reported quality of life among randomly selectedelderly populations in selected Yoruba communities in three local government areas of Osun StateNigeria. Data was generated through cross-sectional survey of 947 elderly population aged 60 yearsand above. Two internationally tested instruments were used to assess quality of life status amongthe respondents- Activities of Daily Life (with 14 items scales (ADL and Aging Male Symptoms(AMS (with 17 items scales and adapted for both males and females. Findings showed that elderlyfemale fared better than the male counterparts on some of the measures. Also, females were morelikely than their spouse to be able to cope without any assistance. Results from males with a livingspouse showed that majority of the spouse (females were more likely to need assistance for usualdaily activities compared with the male (husband. This trend was also confirmed among femalerespondents as a fewer proportion of spouse (male can cope without any help compared withfemales. The AMS showed that male reported a better health status in the domains of sexual,psychosocial and somatic measures. The study concluded that measures of quality of life were likelyto favour elderly females than males because of many challenges and responsibilities of males. Thestudy raised the need for more in-depth studies to investigate the role of social –cultural factors ofmale dominance and patriarchal system on quality of life of the elderly from the gender lens.

Akanni Akinyemi

2010-03-01

328

Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea, On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L. P. BEAUV in North-eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea, on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05 the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.

Z. G. S. Turaki

2014-02-01

329

Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI, which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigeria’s domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

A Y Dutse

2008-09-01

330

Solar energy implementation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing...

Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

2008-01-01

331

Assessment of Radionuclide Concentrations and Absorbed Dose from Consumption of Community Water Supplies in Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCl per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photopeaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49 ± 15 Bq L–1 with a range of 6 - 177 Bq L–1 while for 238U, the mean specific activity was 3 ± 1 Bq L–1 with a range of 1 - 12 Bq L–1 and the mean specific activity for 232Th was 3 ± 2 Bq L–1 with a range of 2 - 10 Bq L–1 and the total annual effective dose, which vary between 0 - 2 ?Sv y–1, did not show any significant health impact.

Pascal Tchokossa

2011-10-01

332

Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

333

French RPV PTS assessment: an overview of EDF research and development in progress on thermalhydraulic, materials and mechanical aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant extensive Research and Development work is conducted by Electricite de France (EDF) related to the structural integrity re-assessment of the French 900 and 1300 MWe reactor pressure vessels in order to increase their lifetime. Within the framework of this programme, numerous developments have been implemented or are in progress related to the methodology to assess flaws during a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event. The paper contains three aspects: a short description of the specific French approach for RPV PTS assessment, a presentation of recent improvements on thermalhydraulic, materials and mechanical aspects, and finally an overview of the present R and D programme on thermalhydraulic, materials and mechanical aspects. Regarding the last aspect on present R and D programme, several projects in progress will be shortly described. This overview includes the redefinition of some significant thermalhydraulic transients based on some new three-dimensional CFD computations (focused at the present time on small break LOCA transient), the assessment of vessel materials properties, and the improvement of the RPV PTS structural integrity assessment including several themes such as warm pre-stress (WPS), crack arrest, constraint effect. (author)

334

Gender differences in national assessment of educational progress science items: What does i don't know really mean?  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress Science Assessment has consistently revealed small gender differences on science content items but not on science inquiry items. This assessment differs from others in that respondents can choose I don't know rather than guessing. This paper examines explanations for the gender differences including (a) differential prior instruction, (b) differential response to uncertainty and use of the I don't know response, (c) differential response to figurally presented items, and (d) different attitudes towards science. Of these possible explanations, the first two received support. Females are more likely to use the I don't know response, especially for items with physical science content or masculine themes such as football. To ameliorate this situation we need more effective science instruction and more gender-neutral assessment items.

Linn, Marcia C.; de Benedictis, Tina; Delucchi, Kevin; Harris, Abigail; Stage, Elizabeth

335

Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment: Progress toward a Seamless System? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 58  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may provide valuable data for decision makers at school and…

Looney, Janet W.

2011-01-01

336

An indirect assessment of the effects of oil pollution on the diversity and functioning of turtle communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available There are many documented cases of oil spillage in the Niger Delta region, southern Nigeria (West Africa. Due to both habitat characteristics and omnivorous habits, the freshwater turtles are important vertebrates species in the trophic chain. They are therefore considered to play a significant role as ecological indicators for areas subjected to oil spillage events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oil spillage and consequent pollution on the abundance, complexity and functioning of freshwater turtle communities of the Niger Delta, by comparing the turtle fauna found in two areas with similar environmental characteristics, one unpolluted and the other polluted by a case of oil spillage in 1988. A total of 510 turtle specimens belonging to four different species (Trionyx triunguis, Pelusios castaneus, Pelusios niger, and Pelomedusa subrufa were captured in the unpolluted area, whereas 88 specimens, from two different species (P. castaneus and P. niger were captured in the polluted area. The dominant species was P. castaneus followed by P. niger in the unpolluted area, and P. niger in the polluted area. A marked shift in habitat use was observed in one species (P. niger after the oil spillage event. This study revealed both direct and indirect effects of oil pollution on the complexity and habitat use of Nigerian freshwater communities of turtles. The main direct effect was a considerable reduction in the specific diversity of the turtles; 50% of species were lost after oil spillage and there was a very strong decline in the numbers of turtle specimens also for those species which were able to survive the catastrophic pollution event. The shift in habitat use after oil spillage by P. niger may have a significant effect on the long-term persistence of this species, independently of the pollution effects of the oil spillage event, because it considerably reduced habitat niche separation between this species and the closely related P. castaneus, a potential competitor. It is therefore stressed that eco-ethological modifications in populations of animals subjected to catastrophic events such as oil pollution should be taken into account when evaluating the long-term effects of these devastating phenomena.

Luiselli, L.

2003-01-01

337

Gamma spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K ) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta State, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2'x2' NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2±5.6Bq/kg to 94.2±7.7Bq/kg with mean value of 41±5Bq/kg for 226Ra, 17.1±3Bq/kg to 47.5±5.3Bq/kg with mean value of 29.7±4Bq/kg for 232Th and 107±10.2Bq/kg to 712.4±38.9 Bq/kg with a mean value of 412.5±20 Bq/kg for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5±12.3Bq/kg, 0.8 Bq/kg, 54.6nGy/h, 0.07?Sv/y, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excessive exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area.

338

Pollution assessment of the lower basin of Lakes Kainji/Jebba, Nigeria: heavy metal status of the waters, sediments and fishes.  

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The objective of this investigation was to examine the heavy metal status of the lower basin of Kainji dam (used for hydroelectricity generation), which includes Lakes Kainji/Jebba, Nigeria, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals from eating fish caught in the lakes. Water, sediments and fish were sampled from the lakes and evaluated for As, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn using the EDXRF technique. Fe and Mn were found to be present at high mean concentrations in the water (13 and 9 microg L(-1)), sediment (7,092 and 376 microg g(-1)) and fish (11.4 and 4.6 microg g(-1)) samples. Sb (3.2 microg L(-1)), Ti (4.1 mug L(-1)), Cr (2.2 microg L(-1)), Co (1.2 microg L(-1)), Cu (1.3 microg L(-1)) and Pb (1.2 microg L(-1)) in the water samples and Sb (29 microg g(-1)), Ti (27 microg g(-1)), V (27 microg g(-1)), Cr (27 microg g(-1)), Co (40 microg g(-1)), Ni (33 microg g(-1)), Cu (25 microg g(-1)), Zn (59 microg g(-1)) and Pb (19 microg g(-1)) in the sediment samples were found to be of medium mean concentrations. The other metals were present at trace levels (<1 microg), including As and Hg in the fish and sediment samples. There was an appreciable increase in metal concentrations in going from the water to the sediment samples. The probable source of the pollutants is anthropogenic, arising from agricultural activities, corrosion/abrasion of the ferrous steel material and additives in the lubricants and insulation used for auxiliary services on the turbine floor of the dam constructed on the lakes. However, natural geological sourcing from the underlying lake rock cannot be totally ignored, particularly the high levels of Fe and Mn in the sediment samples. The potential risk for human exposure to these metals emanates from the fish caught in the lakes and subsequently consumed, as there are already significant levels of these metals in the two fish species analysed, Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Chrysicthys (Chrysicthys auratus). PMID:16767565

Oyewale, A O; Musa, I

2006-06-01

339

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

2012-07-01

340

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1 in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations. Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

Mendell Nancy R

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES FOR NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

Mary Gloria C. Njoku

2013-10-01

342

The Food Industry in Nigeria: Development and Quality Assurance  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, the food processing sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises, as well as multinational food companies. Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. These standards are essential elements for local and international businesses which contribute to economic progress through industrial development and trade. This review takes a critical look on the Nigerian food industry development in terms of quality standards that are necessary to be given consideration in the production of food and also ways of improving food production in Nigeria through the use of Total Quality Management (TQM technique and the use of computerized systems to produce high quality and high value products while at the same time reducing production time and cost.

M.C. Ojinnaka

2011-01-01

343

A Functioning Approach to Well Being Analysis in Rural Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Nigerian rural population is described by low productivity, little formal education and poverty. The need for more studies on the issue of wellbeing of rural population is hinged on the continued development of approaches that give better understanding of the phenomenon. This paper attempted to use Amartya Sen’s capability approach to assess multidimensional well being in rural Nigeria in six functioning dimensions obtained from the Nigerian Core Welfare Indices Survey using the fuzzy set theory. A binary logistic regression was also carried out to isolate the factors that determine the attainment of a pre determined level of well being after computation with the fuzzy set analysis. The results showed that rural Nigeria is an agrarian society; the functioning with the highest level of achievement out of the six dimensions studied was Housing, while asset ownership/income was the least achieved dimension in rural Nigeria. Results further revealed that belonging to female headed households, increasing age and being employed in the private (formal sector as well as having some form of post secondary education enhances well being while being employed within the agricultural sector significantly reduced the well being of rural households in Nigeria.

Temitayo Adenike Adeyemo

2012-08-01

344

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

2011-12-01

345

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

346

Variations in under-five mortality estimates in Nigeria: explanations and implications for program monitoring and evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 aims at reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. However, monitoring this goal is a challenging task. With an estimated 162 million people in 2011, Nigeria is Africa's most populous country with generally poor maternal and child health indicators. Maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 545 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008 and recent data show that under-five mortality rates have varied tremendously. This paper provides a synthesis of the data collection and estimation procedures used by the two major sources of child mortality data in Nigeria (the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys; and Demographic and Health Surveys) and the importance of reflecting on these dynamics in order to utilize the mortality estimates in program monitoring and evaluation. While efforts to seek explanations for the unstable trends in mortality rates are ongoing, this study calls for stakeholders to seek studies that employ more detailed and robust disaggregation methods that take into account the relative impact of socio-demographic, medical, and public health variables on mortality rates. This will be crucial in assessing the effectiveness of selected interventions in reducing mortality. Further, the study encourages collection, use, and triangulation of health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and other available data which could assist in monitoring progress towards achieving MDGs since HDSS as well as census or survey data would provide an opportunity to measure and evaluate interventions through longitudinal follow-up of populations. PMID:23073663

Doctor, Henry Victor

2013-10-01

347

Assessing Progress during Treatment for Young Children with Autism Receiving Intensive Behavioural Interventions  

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This study examined progress after 1 year of treatment for children with autism who received a mean of 36 hours per week one-to-one University of California at Los Angeles Applied Behavior Analysis (UCLA ABA) treatment. Two types of service provision were compared: an intensive clinic based treatment model with all treatment personnel (N = 23),…

Hayward, Diane; Eikeseth, Svein; Gale, Catherine; Morgan, Sally

2009-01-01

348

Activity Based Costing System and Nigeria’s March towards VISION 20: 2020  

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Full Text Available The paper examines the need to develop Activity Based Costing Systems (ABC in accounting practices among manufacturing firms in Nigeria as a tool for product costing as Nigeria marches to the top 20 economics of the World come 2020. With the aid of a structured questionnaire, a total of 50 copies of questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of Accountants, Managers and Auditors in the manufacturing sector but only 45 copies were returned. T-test of difference between means was used to statistically test hypotheses one, two and three. Based on these, the study found among other things that there is extreme low adoption of ABC among manufacturing firms in Nigeria, possibly because of low level of ICT. Secondly, ABC improves efficiency, reduces operational costs, and properly cost products better than traditional cost accounting systems. The implication of these on the study is that in this era of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT and ICT development, traditional cost accounting systems used decades ago when the manufacturing sector was labour intensive and less automated may no longer give the required result. This should give way to Activity Based Costing system, an offshoot of the new manufacturing innovation with capabilities to cost product properly, recognizing causality and transactions involved. Consequent upon these, the study recommends that with expectations of the country to march towards a vision of attaining the height of top 20 economies of the world, Activity Based Costing systems are the challenges we need to face now. The system is in tandem with progressive ideas and new way of thinking in accounting in the manufacturing sector.

Amaechi Patrick Egbunike

2013-10-01

349

Management of technological risks in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of the risks associated with technological development in Nigeria called for an evaluation of the counter measures. The Government, affected organisations, and insurance companies are the three main bodies concerned with risk management. Legislative control by Government is hardly enforced due to a limited number of enforcement agents and resources. The laws do not keep pace with increasing technological risks and are reactive rather than proactive. The industries tend to insure all identified risks mainly due to the lack of competent safety personnel and the low level of corporate awareness of the importance of risk management. Risk reduction is marginally practised and the legal requirements are hardly attained. Risk transfer of a non-insurance nature from lesser to lessee is quite common. There are hardly any advisory or supervisory services by the insurance companies. The insurance industry hardly creates awareness or promotes risk reduction practices. The paper prescribes the roles of various groups in improving risk management in Nigeria including the establishment of a commission which among other functions will promote co-operation and co-ordinate the risk management efforts of the various organisations. PMID:9050286

Ezenwa, A O

1997-02-01

350

Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management  

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Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

Lawal Bello Dogarawa

2012-11-01

351

Assessing the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease: current trends and future directions  

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With the advent of advances in biomarker detection and neuropsychological measurement, prospects have improved for identifying and tracking the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from its earliest stages through dementia. While new diagnostic techniques have exciting implications for initiating treatment earlier in the disease process, much work remains to be done to optimize the contributions of the expanding range of tools at the disposal of researchers and clinicians. The present pape...

Brooks, Larry G.; Loewenstein, David A.

2010-01-01

352

The physiologic climate of Nigeria  

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This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

353

Correspondence between Single versus Daily Preference Assessment Outcomes and Reinforcer Efficacy under Progressive-Ratio Schedules  

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Research has suggested that a daily multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessment may be more sensitive to changes in preference than other assessment formats, thereby resulting in greater correspondence with reinforcer efficacy over time (DeLeon et al., 2001). However, most prior studies have measured reinforcer efficacy…

Call, Nathan A.; Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Findley, Addie J.; Reavis, Andrea R.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice

2012-01-01

354

Reaching Equity in Systemic Reform: How Do We Assess Progress and Problems? Research Monograph.  

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This paper provides an analysis of educational equity in science and mathematics and proposes a practical way to assess equity in systemic reform. A synthesis of major national and international studies as well as a comprehensive review of the literature is used to suggest a way to assess when educational systems, particularly those involved in…

Kahle, Jane Butler

355

Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

Alakija, W.

1981-01-01

356

Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse  

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Full Text Available Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will commence. By the time a column is eliminated from the structure as a result of a sudden motor vehicle strike or earthquake or fire or any other internal or external factor that could take one column out of the system, the weight of the building (gravity load will be distributed among other columns within the structure. Failure commences in the part of the structure that has lost a column unless other columns are designed appropriately against gravity loads and are capable of redistribution of additional loads imposed on them. Failure of vertical load bearing elements will continue until the stabilization of extra loading. Hence, this could lead to serious damage and collapse of the building which will lead to higher damage to the building than the primary damage. This research is based on the regulations conforming to the specifications of UFC guidelines and the structures have been modeled using SAP2000 (2012. In order to study the effects of the progressive collapse on the seismic design of special steel moment frames, SMRF, two 5-story and 15-storystructures are modeled in SAP2000 (2012. In order to have a better understanding of progressive collapse and obtain reliable results, Linear Static (LS, Nonlinear Static (NLS and Nonlinear Dynamic analyses (NLD procedure for single and 2 adjacent columns removal have been implemented in this study. Having a good perception of the possibility of progressive collapse involves incorporation of demand capacity ratio, plastic hinges formation and vertical displacements of removed column’s location plus axial force in columns adjacent to the removed column. Other factors such as number of stories and the amount of local damage resulted from the removal of 2 adjacent columns could also lead to a better understanding of the structural behavior.

Azlan Bin Adnan

2014-02-01

357

Can Creativity Be Assessed? Towards an Evidence-Informed Framework for Assessing and Planning Progress in Creativity  

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This article considers the role of constructions of creativity in the classroom and their consequences for learning and, in particular, for the assessment of creativity. Definitions of creativity are examined to identify key implications for supporting the development of children's creativity within the classroom. The implications of…

Blamires, Mike; Peterson, Andrew

2014-01-01

358

PCNA in assessment of progression rate of chronic renal allograft rejection  

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Full Text Available Chronic graft failure may occur due to CR, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity repeated acute rejection, recurrent glomerular diseases, surgical and urological complications, but CR was recognized as the most common cause of chronic graft failure and renal graft loss [7]. Progression of renal disease reflects the interactive effects of changes in the structure and function. This notion has been examined many times in the native kidneys by studies correlating glomerular filtration rate with architectural deterioration in the glomerular or interstitial compartment [8-10]. Meanwhile, the similar studies in human renal allograft are scarce. Increased PCNA immunodetection in glomerular cells as well as in interstitial infiltrates was described in acute and chronic renal graft rejection and diagnostic value of this finding was analyzed [12,15]. Similarly, PCNA was often examined immunohistochemically in lymphoma and solid tumors as a marker of cell proliferation, but its reliability as a prognostic factor was also evaluated [18-20]. In the present study the prognostic value of PCNA expression in different tissue compartments of renal grafts experiencing CR was examined for the first time. The present study revealed that two groups examined with the different chronic graft failure progression rate as the main difference had significantly different proliferation of cells in glomerular, TIN and vascular compartments. PCNA immunoreactivity scores in these three compartments were significantly higher in the fast than in slow progression group. The significant positive correlation between the slope of the regression line plotting 1/sCr vs. time and cell proliferation in glomerular, TIN and vascular compartments was also found. Therefore, it was suggested that the measurement of PCNA expression in renal graft tissue might be used as a prognostic index.

Simi?-Ogrizovi? Sanja P.

2002-01-01

359

Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

Hamlin, Teri L.

2011-01-01

360

Reliability assessment of austenitic steel ultrasonic inspections - progress report on a UKAEA programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliable volumetric inspection of austenitic welds is essential for the satisfactory fabrication of components for several designs of nuclear reactor. It may also be necessary for periodic in-service inspection of some critical components. In order to supplement radiography during fabrication and to meet the requirements of ISI there is a need to provide appropriate ultrasonic procedures. However, parts of austenitic structures can be uninspectable using the conventional ultrasonic techniques developed for use with ferritic structures. This paper is a progress report on part of a UKAEA programme involving a laboratory test of alternative procedures using longitudinal wave beams. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework in the sense that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are. This paper aims to provide suggestions for improving the sustainability evaluation part of a sustainability assessment. In particular it will provide a comprehensive review of different sustainability evaluation tools (from a reductionist perspective) as well as the feasibility of incorporating them within a sustainability assessment framework. Reviewed tools include monetary tools, biophysical models and sustainability indicators/composite indices that have been developed within different disciplines such as economics, statistics, ecology, engineering and town planning

362

Assessment of progression of secondary bone lesions following cancer of the breast or prostate using serial radionuclide imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A serial study on 32 patients with bone metastases following cancer of the breast or prostate was performed over three years. Up to ten sets of images (average of four) per patient were obtained during this period using 99Tcsup(m) methylene diphosphonate as the radiopharmaceutical. Ninety-three paired serial images of individual lesions were qualitatively assessed for change by three physicians in nuclear medicine and the results were compared with the quantitative results from computer analysis. The reproducibility of the quantitative approach was determined by the analysis of 20 paired lesions by three physicists. It was found that quantitative changes in uptake of less than 20% between images were generally not detected by the medical observers; a change of 41% had only a 95% probability of being identified as change by the physicians. Although much more reproducible in determining changes in individual lesions, the quantitative approach was found to be inferior to the qualitative assessment of overall change in the majority of cases which involve multiple lesions. The basic assumption that uptake varies proportionally with progression of the bone lesion is discussed and is considered in some instances to be untenable. The conclusion is drawn that the determination of progression from changes of uptake in longstanding lesions is uncertain and is subsidiary in importance to the detection of new lesions (U.K.)

363

Towards the Restructing and Commercialization of University Theatres in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Despite the fact that theatres are economically viable nationally and globally, the potentials of university theatres in government owned universities (Federal and State in Nigeria, are yet to be fully maximized to generate financial resources for their development and the university in general. Contextually, the Department of Theatre/Performing Arts are programmed towards academic exercise than commercial or business construct and making of professional artists. However, with the establishment of private universities and adjunct Department of Theatre/Performing Arts, the university theatres in government owned universities would be facing stiff opposition and competition in the production and sell of artiste goods and services. Perhaps, these arguments generate further questions, thus; what are university theatres in government owned universities for? How resourceful are university theatres in Nigerian government owned universities? This paper posits that theatre is a business venture and the university theatres in government owned universities have the potentials to be made economically vibrant ventures in Nigeria through proper approaches and adoption of the ideas of commercialization. In terms of research design, the paper relied on content analysis and personal observation to advance its position. The paper concludes that the university theatres in Nigeria could benefit from adopting partial commercialization by selling some artistic goods and services to generate income for its sustenance and progressive development.Keywords: Commercialization; Restructuring; University Theatres; Public and Private Universities; Artistic Goods and Services

Charles U. Adora

2010-06-01

364

The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Conflict Management in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study takes a critical look at the roles CSOs in Nigeria can play in conflict management. It holds that the monopolization of conflict management process by the instruments of the State characterized the Nigerian political landscape since the attainment of independence in 1960 ; due largely to the long years of military rule in the nation and that the return to democratic rule has fueled the clamor by citizens for the inclusion of CSOs in the management of conflicts in Nigeria. The paper argues that the cost implication of overlooking the contributions of CSOs in the management of conflicts is that, there will be an increase in violent confrontations between armed groups and soldiers, economy will suffer given the absence of peace, authoritarianism will thrive, abuse of human rights will be the order of the day. This paper notes the complacency of successive administrations in according the citizens their basic democratic rights in the political system during this period. It concludes that even though progress has been made by current administrations to open up the political system by allowing CSOs in Nigeria to play active roles in the management of conflicts in Nigeria, such efforts have had little or no impact on issues bothering on conflict resolution in Nigeria, this we argue is due largely to the fact that; the State preferred to use the aristocratic model which restricts the involvement of CSOs in the management of conflicts. The paper then presents the roles CSOs can play in the management of conflicts in Nigeria that will usher in an atmosphere of peaceful co-existence and sustenance of same in Nigeria.

Fatile Jacob Olufemi

2012-05-01

365

The Nigeria Independent Accountability Mechanism for maternal, newborn, and child health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 2010 launch of the UN Secretary-General's Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, worldwide political energy coalesced around improving the health of women and children. Nigeria acted on a key recommendation emerging from the Global Strategy and became one of the first countries to establish an independent group known as the Nigeria Independent Accountability Mechanism (NIAM). NIAM aims to track efforts on progress related to Nigeria's roadmap for the health of women and children. It includes eminent people from outside government to ensure independence, and is recognized within government to analyze and report on progress. The concept of NIAM received approval at various national and international forums, as well as from the Nigeria Federal Ministry of Health. This experience provides an example of connecting expertise and groups with the government to influence and accelerate progress in maternal, newborn, and child health. Engagement between government and civil society should become the norm rather than the exception to achieve national goals. PMID:25179169

Garba, Aminu Magashi; Bandali, Sarah

2014-10-01

366

Threat to Nigeria Since 1960: A Retrospection  

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Full Text Available The post-independence Nigerian state was faced with the intractable task of governing a multifaceted nation, comprised of 36 regional states which were divided along ethno-religious lines, up to 300 ethnic groups and a plethora of linguistic dialects, in addition to three (3 distinct religious groupings. The challenge of the post-colonial Nigerian state was the efficient administration and governance of a broad-based society with a multiplicity of interests, values, traditions and cultural inclinations. The culmination of an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and dissatisfaction from different regions of Nigeria came with the advent of the Biafra secessionist battle of 1967. Following the end of the Biafra conflict, the Nigerian society became characterised with struggles and resistance against the state system in various forms, with the gripes and disquiets of various groups coming to the fore in various, often violent ways. Making use of library research and content analysis methologies, the authors trace the sequence of crises faced by the Nigerian state since independence, with a keen focus on the Biafra War of 1967, the Niger Delta crisis (particularly, the botched Amnesty Programme of 2009, as well as the current threat of Boko Haram terrorism which has taken hold of the Nigerian society since 2009. The paper concluded that, for the high ideals of Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress to be attained in Nigeria, the State must deal with corruption, ethnicity, religious fundamentalism and security related crimes, while doing more to restructure the polity and enthrone free and fair elections.

L. Andy Afinotan

2014-06-01

367

Assessment methods as effective tools for learning outcomes of students in senior secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, south western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Different methods of assessment on the students learning outcomes in Agricultural Science at five different secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, Osun State were studied. An arm of a class was used for each test; Continuous Assessment (CA and Conventional Method (CM were used for each arm. Students were taught during their normal school times for the maximum time of forty minutes thrice a week. There were ten objective questions weekly for each assessment of the students in the CA method for six weeks. The same questions were used throughout for all the schools, done simultaneously for CA. Also, sixty questions at once at the end of the sixth week for CM. Standard deviation and regression equations for the mean values were used in the analysis. The results show that CA could be adjudged to be better off than the CM because of its higher mean values in all the schools than the CM. The higher R2 values of 0.99 and 0.88 revealed stronger correlation between different methods of assessment and the targeted learners. The CA test should be used instead of CM; the CM does not make learners to gain much cognitive knowledge when compare with what CA does to students.

Lamidi W.A

2013-06-01

368

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Ondo State being the highest producer of Cocoa in Nigeria constitutes the most probable area with the highest use of chemical pesticides to enhance cocoa production. As effective as these chemicals may be in achieving this goal, the incidence of their residues on non-targeted substances and the total environment, with the attendant adverse effects have being of serious concerns. Our objective in this paper is to assess contamination of farm soils by organochlorine pesticides applied on cocoa farms within the Central Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from selected cocoa farms and analysed for organochlorine pesticides residues using GC-MS. Some soil physicochemical properties including pH, particle size and organic matter that may influence the dynamics of the pollutants were also determined. Organochlorine compounds detected at varied concentrations include Endosulfan I and Endosulfan II occurring most frequently with highest concentrations of 350.10 mg/kg and 3.55 mg/kg respectively. Other organochlorine compounds detected were Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Aldrin, Deldrin,, isomers of Benzene hexachloride: ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, and ?-BHC (lindane. The concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (mg/kg measured in the soil samples showed significant (p<0.05 correlation with the total organic matter contents of the soil. Findings from this research thus, provide information on the current and health risk residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in soil from this region with which future environmental performance on the use of pesticides on cocoa farms could be progressively monitored.

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi

2012-05-01

369

A CAD system for assessment of MRI findings to track the progression of multiple sclerosis  

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease affecting myelin pathways. MRI has become the medical imaging study of choice both for the diagnosis and for the follow