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Sample records for nigeria assessing progress

  1. Assessment of Community Banks in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    This study on community banks in Nigeria was undertaken in June 2004 by the FAO Investment Centre, with financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Department for International Development (DFID), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Ford Foundation (FF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank (WB), and in collaboration with the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The objective of the study was to assess th...

  2. The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olusegun Ayodele, Akanbi.

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The [...] study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to determine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

  3. Planning law versus the right of the poor to adequate housing: A progressive assessment of the Lagos State of Nigeria's Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law of 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Akinola E, Akintayo.

    Full Text Available The notion of the neutral application of law is the very foundation of liberal societies, in spite of the fact that this notion has been debunked as a myth by a large body of scholarship. This notion continues to pervade liberal societies, operates discriminately against the poor and less privileged [...] members of society and impedes poverty reduction efforts. The article demonstrates the exclusionary and discriminatory operation and impact of the myth of the neutral application of law on the right of the poor to adequate housing through a progressive assessment of the Lagos State of Nigeria's Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law, 2010, a supposedly neutral planning statute. It concludes that, for the fight against poverty to make any headway in Africa, poverty reduction must continually be mainstreamed. There must constantly be a pro-poor approach to laws and policies.

  4. Empirical Assessment of Nigeria’s Agricultural Export and Economic Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi; Ehumadu, Felix; Mejeha, Remy; Nwaru, Jude; Agwu, Nnanna; Onwumere, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This paper assessed empirically Nigeria’s agricultural export and economic welfare. Data used for the study were obtained from secondary sources, bulk of which was collected from institutional and national databases over 1990-2005 and were analyzed using multiple regression and growth rate analysis. The results showed that agricultural output, inflation, subsidy, exchange rate, food import and export were statistically significant at various risk levels and have major implications on the ec...

  5. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi M. Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

  6. Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falase Bode

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%, Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%, Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%, Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%, excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%, Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%, Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9% and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%. There were 9 mortalities (17.6% in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria.

  7. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  8. Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obe Bernardine Wuraola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

  9. Assessment of Healthcare Waste Management Practices in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Ukamaka Uwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the health care waste management practices by hospital staff. The study involved the survey of a cross section of four (4 tertiary health institutions. The study showed that there is significant variation in healthcare waste management practices and the sustainability factors (reduce, reuse recycle(3Rs. The test showed that there prominent method of healthcare waste management at the studied institutions was practice of incineration and frequency of waste disposal, leaving out other new and improved technologies for proper waste management. The study showed that the health institutions adopts minimal activities of recycling, reduce and reuse, although not regularly. It is therefore imperative that new technologies and innovations should be put in proper place for improved healthcare management practices, in Enugu metropolis. The aim of this research therefore is to assess the healthcare management practices using it tertiary health institutions (teaching and specialist hospital in southern Nigeria, state of Enugu as a case study. This paper therefore sets out to assess the healthcare waste management practices of health workers in those health institutions.

  10. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  11. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  12. Solar photovoltaic-based home electrification system for rural development in Nigeria: domestic load assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeoti, O.; Oyewole, B.A.; Adegboyega, T.D. [Federal Polytechnic, Agricultural Engineering Dept., Ado-Ekiti (Nigeria)

    2001-09-01

    To alleviate the growing need for power in rural households not connected to grid electricity in Nigeria, this paper has assessed the domestic load demand of rural areas which will serve as input data in the design of photovoltaic-based rural home electrification systems, and also assist governments in their rural electrification planning framework. The result of this study shows that rural households in Nigeria will require 2324.5 Wh/day or 850.8 kWh/yr to meet their basic power requirements for such loads as lighting and electronic appliances - radios and televisions. It is recommended that solar photovoltaic-based rural home electrification application should be encouraged by the three tiers of government; Local, State, and Federal in Nigeria, especially for those rural households without access to a grid supply. (Author)

  13. Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Longe, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals) of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration valu...

  14. Anthropometric and other assessment indices of the newborn in Jos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mutihir J; Pam S

    2006-01-01

    Background : Certain neonatal measurements are potential tools for evaluating the status of the newborn. The neonatal anthropometrics measurements and other assessment indices are therefore religiously performedby the attending midwife and entered into the labour room register. Method :This was a retrospective analysis of the infants delivered between January 2004 and December 2005 in the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Results :There were 4,266 deliveries during the study period. ...

  15. Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices of Building Materials in Ogbomoso, South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi Olanipekun Jonathan; Paul Jere; Bashiru Bolaji Balogun

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims at assessing the radiological hazards indices of materials used for the construction of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical facility in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria. The determination was sequel to the measurement of the radionuclide contents of the materials (Granite, Cement, Sand, and Concrete) used in the construction of the building, using a high-purity germanium detector gamma spectrometer. The natural radionuclides det...

  16. Assessment of Management and Health Practices in Some Selected Poultry Establishments in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. Badiru; Z. Jaji; Nusirat Elelu; F. Olowoleni; A. G. Ambali

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to assess certain management and health practices in some selected poultry establishments in Ilorin, Kwara state with the view to improving poultry production. Structured questionnaires were distributed via the Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN), Kwara state chapter. The mean age of respondents was 47.93(±12.397) years. Majority (60.5%) of the respondents were large holder farmers with greater than 200 birds; Deep litter (48.7%) was ...

  17. Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayemi Soladoye; Oromakinde, Oluwafemi O.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to properl...

  18. An Assessment of Farmers’ Ability to Determine their Agricultural Extension Needs in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OMOTESHO KEMI FUNMILAYO; OGUNLADE ISRAEL; ADENUGA ADEWALE HENRY

    2014-01-01

    The ability of farmers to determine their agricultural extension needs is important for the success of the much lauded participatory approach to agricultural extensions service. This study assessed the ability of farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria to determine their extension needs. It also evaluated the factors that affect this ability. Using a well structured questionnaire, a two stage random sampling technique was employed to collect data from 261 farmers across the four agro-ecological zone...

  19. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Banjoko, O. B.; Gbadebo, A. M.; Adetunji, M. T.; Adekunle, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters we...

  20. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

  1. Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: ?The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. ?Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Goveods and then compared against the Government's plans. ?These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. ?The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. ?Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

  2. Assessing E-Government Implementation in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole Michael Olatokun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed e-Government adoption in Ekiti state government ministries, agencies and departments. It determined the availability of e-Government resources and infrastructure, the stage of e-government implementation and the challenges. Gartner’s four phase of e-Government model was used for analysis. Social sur vey design approach was adopted. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire administered to the Director of IT and administration in the 29 ministries, agencies and departments. Collected data were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Findings revealed that Ekiti state had made an entrance into e-Government. Resources and infrastructure for e-Governance were available and the State was found to be at the second phase (interaction of e-Government process and has not successfully demonstrated its ability to progress towards the higher phases of e-government. Infrastructural constraints topped the list of challenges militating against successful application of e-Government in Ekiti state. The study recommended that the stateshould have a policy for bandwidth optimization and an effective legal framework that could create an environment conducive for promoting and executing e-government.

  3. Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Ogunsumi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

  4. An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Ntiwunka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples’ Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.

    Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political development

    Résumé Cet article a évalué la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitulé “Le militaire à la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance émergente au Nigeria” pour le Nigéria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examiné le pouvoir et l’influence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers à la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de l’économie en raison de leur richesse,l’ex-militaire de connexion, la compétence, le prestige et l’expérience. Il pose en principe que les retraités militaires sont regroupés en deux catégories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retraité militaire a été en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraités se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de l’activité humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scène politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle élite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considérable dans la prise de décision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothèses étaient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraités militaires ont émergé depuis 1999 que l’élite dirigeante et même si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure déterminée qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples «Parti démocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont été fortement influencés par ces riches et influents officiers à la retraite qui, à tout prix veiller à ce que leurs candidats à remporter les élections. Avec la nomination d’un nouveau président CENI, la révision de la loi électorale, et la campagne pour l’élection libre et équitable, il est estimé que d’un nouvel ensemble de l’élite émergera qui va réveiller le développement politique au Nigeria.

    Mots clés: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire à la retraire comme puissance émergente au Nigeria; développement politique

  5. Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis

  6. Power generation scenarios for Nigeria. An environmental and cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. (author)

  7. A pilot study assessing litigation in health care services in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunde, M O

    2011-03-01

    Litigation in healthcare system especially in nursing practice is rapidly increasing globally. Litigation affords an individual explanation and compensation for perceived wrong acts. It also serves to control all service providers. However, observation shows that health care providers in Nigeria behave as if they are litigation proof even in the presence of gross malpractice and negligence. The prime concern of this study attempts finding out Nigerians attitudes to litigation. This paper reports the result of the qualitative aspect of the study. In-depth interviews were conducted from January, 2006- March, 2007 for purposive and randomly selected fifty (50) adults from different ethnic, cultural, and social backgrounds. The study was carried out in Ibadan, the largest city of Nigeria. The instrument was a semi structured interview guide designed to assess the use of orthodox medical practice by Nigerians; examine Nigerians experience of unethical practice or injustice; identify Nigerians' attitude to litigation in health care practices and identify factors responsible for their attitudes to litigation. Data were analysed using content analysis. The result shows that Nigerians utilize the hospitals and are aware of their rights as consumers of healthcare services but show poor attitudes to litigation for different reasons. This attitude was found to be a function of the prevailing socio-cultural factors in Nigeria. Litigation is at low ebb in Nigeria, health care providers should endeavour to deliver safe and ethically sound care despite the prevailing circumstances. Health care is a fundamental human right and so, should be provided with dignity and people should have access to dignified treatment always. PMID:21834266

  8. Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3-84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

  9. Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Wachukwu; Confidence, K.; Eleanya, E. U.

    2007-01-01

    The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the sam...

  10. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

  11. Habitat assessment for seasonal variation of river pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria, in a geographic information systems interface

    OpenAIRE

    Olanike K. Adeyemo

    2008-01-01

    More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposure in environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management authorities. Using habitat assessment protocol, the author assesses the pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data used include hydrographic feature data and habitat assessment data. These basic environmental components are the result of the integration of a wide range of relatively independent factor...

  12. Progress in MELCOR development and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Elsbernd, A.E.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Modeling and Analysis Dept.

    1995-04-01

    MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned.

  13. Progress in MELCOR development and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned

  14. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme (TTTP in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SagirIlliyasuRafukka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available TVET is key solution to poverty eradication, job creation, reducing unemployment, economic expansion, and improve social and economic well-being of a nation. For years TVET programme in Nigeria has been confronting with unresolved problems such as, misconception of the TVET by the public, low status of TVET teachers, less concern by the government. Thus, this study present “An Assessment of The Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme in Katsina State, Nigeria” the specific objectives were to find out the problems confronting TTTP and to suggest necessary measures for improvement on the basis of the assessment. The population of the study comprised of a total number of 57 instructional staff used for the study. 38 samples were chosen from this population using stratified random sampling techniques. The findings of this study revealed that, there have no enough instructional/workshop attendants, women have underrepresented in instructional staff, no constant supply of electricity to the instructional spaces, lack of awareness for youth about the TVET programme etc. Base on the findings the study recommends to create the provision of in-service training, and to construction of alternative source of electricity establishing educational guidance offices in secondary schools among other.

  15. Overcoming Incompatible Practices And Procedures In Assessment Of Increasing Multi-culaturalism And Student Diversity In Schools In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskay M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of learners in schools for various purposes is flawed by some practices and procedures which do not favor multiculturalism and diversity that characterize the learners in schools in Nigeria. Those practices and procedures are explored and solutions proffered.

  16. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  17. An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effects of SAP on poultry production in Nigeria between 1985 - 1990. It was observed that the Structural Adjustment Programme has had tremendous effects on poultry industry in Nigeria. The farmers have not adjusted favourably to the effect of SAP with 75 % of them operating between 20 - 50 % and 19 % below 20 % of production capacity. Currently the industry is being operated below 30 % mainly due to the high cost of chicks and inputs some of which have risen to over 1000 %. Productivity of the birds has also been affected with about 30 % reduction in the number of eggs laid per bird per year. Age at maturity has also increased to about 30 % among broilers. Farmers found it difficult to buy feed and drug resulting in increased mortality of about 80 % among broilers. The rise in the prices of product of about 500 % does not match the increase cost of production. Recommendations are therefore made to help stabilise the poultry industry.

  18. Public Opinion and the Public Policy Making Process in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugumanim Bassey Obo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of making public policies is often influenced by a number of factors and considerations, one of which is public opinion. But the relationship between public opinion and the public policy-making process is a difficult one. This essay critically assesses the role of public opinion in the policy-making process in Nigeria, and while it is acknowledged that responsive and genuinely democratic governments are hugely sensitive to the opinions of the citizens on issues of public policy, it is argued that this is not the case in Nigeria. With the aid of the elite and class analytical models, it is contended that the opinions of the Nigerian masses hardly impinge on the policy-making process, and the “public” policies churned out of this process are often designed to promote and protect the class interests of those who control the Nigerian State. It is concluded that the extreme poverty and illiteracy which pervade the Nigerian society have emasculated and disempowered the majority of the people and made them inconsequential observers in the policy-making process in the country.

  19. Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confidence, Wachukwu K.; Eleanya, E. U.

    The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the same age bracket who are not exposed. A well structured questionnaire was also given to all the solid waste disposal workers to assess their health profile. Haematological parameters, liver function test (LFT) and toxic substance (Pb, Cu, Zn) concentration in the blood were carried out. There were slight decrease in the haematological parameters and liver function test (LFT) results, as compared with the control subjects. The values obtained are: Hb 13.43±1.14 g dL-1, HCT 37.13±3.22%, WBC6.35±1.86x109 L-1, platelet 236.15±104.33x109 L-1, neutrophil 42.60±11.11% and monocyte 3.05±2.41% for solid waste workers. While the values for control subjects are: Hb 14.69±0.4 g dL-1, HCT 41.77±2.74%, WBC 7.23±1.21x109 L-1, platelets 282.40±33.76x109 L-1, neutrophil 58.65±5.87% and monocyte 5.77±2.03%. The lymphocyte counts for waste disposal workers was significantly higher (50.42±11.30%) and (32.83±5.32%) for the control subjects. The AST values increased significantly for solid waste workers with a mean AST concentration of (11.19±2.36 µ L-1) and 8.97±4.07 µL-1 for the control subjects. And mean total bilirubin increased progressively as the number of years of exposure increased (19.00 μmol L-1). The peak value was for workers exposed for about 7 year. The result also showed that mean lead, copper and Zinc concentrations were high for the solid waste workers (Pb = 0.07±0.05 mg L-1, Cu =0.22±0.08 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.56±0.48 mg L-1) while that of control subjects were Pb = 0.02±0.01 mg L-1, Cu =0.11±0.04 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.30±0.04 mg L-1. Malaria parasitaemia was high amongst the solid waste disposal workers. Adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be provided to avoid epidemic among the workers. It can be inferred that the lymphocytosis observed in this category of workers may indicate the presence of bacterial and protozoal infections, while a mild eosinophilia might be as a result of allergic disorders and helminthic infections.

  20. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo; C. A. Ike-Amadi; C. Ibebuike; F. U. Okike-Osissiogu; N. G. Agomoh

    2013-01-01

    A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

  1. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Veronica O.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Umoh, Jarlath U.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought inf...

  2. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from <0.3 in the lowly vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested. PMID:25736831

  3. Assessment of andropause awareness and erectile dysfunction among married men in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatusi, A O; Ijadunola, K T; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adeyemi, M O; Omideyi, A K; Akinyemi, A; Adewuyi, A A

    2003-06-01

    Andropause (also known as androgen decline in aging males) has implications for the reproductive health and quality of life of older males. Very few studies have, however, been reported among the Nigerian population on andropause-related issues. This study assesses the perspective and level of awareness of married men in Ile-Ife, South-west Nigeria, of andropause. We also assessed their experience of erectile dysfunction, using a questionnaire based on the review of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction. The study involved 355 married men, aged between 30 and 70 years. Our result shows a high level of misconception about andropause among our respondents, with 38.9% indicating that it is a myth, and another 23.6% attributing it to various causes other than being a natural aging process. We recorded a prevalence of erectile dysfunction of 43.8% (8.0% severe dysfunction and 35.8% moderate dysfunction). The prevalence of erectile dysfunction increased significantly with age, varying from 38.5% for age 31-40 years to 63.9% for the older age group of 61-70 years. The trend in prevalence of erectile dysfunction with age was significant (p < 0.05). An odds ratio of 2.82 (95% confidence interval 1.19-6.76) was recorded for the prevalence of erectile dysfunction at age 61-70 years compared with age 31-40 years. Our findings indicate a need for health education about andropause in Nigeria, and increased attention to the reproductive health concerns of males, and the older population. PMID:12898791

  4. Tailored Functional Recipe (TFR Approach to Delay the Progression of HIV to AIDS among People Living with HIV (PLWH in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Mainaji Amlogu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS is a pandemic disease and its scourge has had a devastating impact on health, nutrition, food security and overall socioeconomic development in affected countries. Moreover, intervention programmes, which simply employ antiretroviral drugs, have been found to lack effectiveness particularly when the patient is under-nourished. Aim and Purpose: This presented pilot intervention provides evidence that suggests use of local resources as therapeutic nutrition. This can act as a fundamental part of the comprehensive package of care at the country level. Methodology: Local ingredients, which were known for their availability, accessibility, micro and macro-nutrient strengths were selected and optimised into a nutritional functional meal (Amtewa. Daily consumption was ascertained to assess its effects on nutritional status and biomedical indices of the study participants (n = 100 who were/were not taking Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART. Findings: Mean CD4 count for ART-Test group at baseline and sixth months increased by 40.8 cells/mm3 while the ART-Control group decreased 18.12 cells/mm3. This positive outcome qualified Amtewa meal to the next phase of intervention (400 participants to ascertain its effectiveness on health status of HIV infected subjects and appraise its position within the National Health Services framework as innovative approach to attenuate the progression of HIV to AIDS in Nigeria. Conclusion: Amtewa-based approach in HIV management is innovative, culturally relevant, reliable and requiring low technology in order to assure compliance, sustainability and cost effectiveness. Although the achieved results take the form of specific technology, it suggests that a prolong consumption of the intervention meal (Amtewa will be suitable to sustain the gained improvements in MUAC and CD4 cell counts thereby slowing the progression of the disease.

  5. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    OpenAIRE

    Adewuyi Alfred; Meekers Dominique; Keating Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based ...

  6. Assessment of Groundwater Potential and Aquifer Characteristics in the Vicinity of Igun, Eku and Oria in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ochuko Anomohanran

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the groundwater potential and aquifer characteristics of locations in Igun, Eku and Oria in Delta State, Nigeria. Nine vertical electrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration were conducted to assess the geoelectric properties of the subsurface, while down-hole loggings and pumping test were employed to evaluate the aquifer characteristics of the area. The geoelectric data were interpreted by partial curve matching ...

  7. Assessment of the Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment of Selected Communities in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Christiana Kayinwaye Omorede

    2014-01-01

    This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growt...

  8. Assessment of Use of Selected Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Extension Service Delivery: Implication for Agricultural Development in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adetumbi, Saheed.Ige, Olaniyi, Olumuyiwa.,Akin; Adewale, Jacob.,Gbemiga

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the implication of the useof selected Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs) for extension service delivery in Nigeria. The simplerandom technique was used to select fifty percent of the total extensionagents which equivalent to forty-two respondents assample size for the study. Frequency counts, percentages, meanand standard deviation were used as descriptive statistic. Also,Chi-Square test and Spearman’s rho correlation were employedas inferen...

  9. Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    James Okoro

    2013-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university postgraduate Business Education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five hypotheses guided the study...

  10. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.T. Youngu; Y.A. Aliyu; J.O. Sule

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) providing information about primary and secondary schools, ...

  11. Enhancing Leadership and Governance Competencies to Strengthen Health Systems in Nigeria: Assessment of Organizational Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    Uneke, Chigozie J.; Ezeoha, Abel E.; Ndukwe, Chinwendu D.; Oyibo, Patrick G.; Onwe, Fri Day

    2012-01-01

    The lack of effective leadership and governance in the health sector has remained a major challenge in Nigeria and contributes to the failure of health systems and poor development of human resources. In this cross-sectional intervention study, leadership and governance competencies of policy makers were enhanced through a training workshop, and an assessment was conducted of organizational activities designed to promote evidence-informed leadership and governance to improve human resources f...

  12. Assessment of Safety Management System Implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization: A Case Study of Nigeria Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Kole Osaretin Uhuegho; Okafor Ekene Gabriel; Steve Bond

    2013-01-01

    In this study survey data was used to assess employees’ perceptions of Safety Management System (SMS) implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO) in the aviation industry. AMOs in Nigeria were used as a case study. Results show that over 80% of the population used for this study accord to the existence of plans to implement SMS. However, results indicated a lack of safety management education, training and motivation, which are key concepts that influence all the safety man...

  13. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh Ekaete Dennis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF without enzymes. The dissolution efficiency (DE and predicted availability equivalence (PAE of the various brands were used to estimate their likely in-vivo bioavailability. The dissolution profile showed that none of the samples attained 70% dissolution in 45 minute in SGF and SIF while only samples A and E in 1 hour in SGF There was no significant difference in the mean values of the DE for the products in SGF and SIF in the range 0.33-0.41 and 0.32-0.43 respectively (p=0.2. Significant difference exists between the values of T70 of the products in both SGF and SIF (p< 0.5. Products E and A (innovator are equivalent and demonstrate comparable quality standards. The method is simple and rugged for evaluation of quality control parameters of amlodipine for consistent batch to batch production of generic product.

  14. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awofisayo Sunday Olajide

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF without enzymes. The dissolution efficiency (DE and predicted availability equivalence (PAE of the various brands were used to estimate their likely in-vivo bioavailability. The dissolution profile showed that none of the samples attained 70% dissolution in 45 minute in SGF and SIF while only samples A and E in 1 hour in SGF There was no significant difference in the mean values of the DE for the products in SGF and SIF in the range 0.33-0.41 and 0.32-0.43 respectively (p=0.2. Significant difference exists between the values of T70 of the products in both SGF and SIF (p< 0.5. Products E and A (innovator are equivalent and demonstrate comparable quality standards. The method is simple and rugged for evaluation of quality control parameters of amlodipine for consistent batch to batch production of generic product.

  15. Towards assessing the social sustainability performance of the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.M., Bubou; A.C., Brent; C., Tredoux.

    Full Text Available Unresolved social issues between the local community and the petroleum industry plague the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. These concerns are addressed by introducing a social sustainability assessment framework for the petroleum industry. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are identified, through a s [...] takeholders' engagement process, for social performance measurement purposes. A five-year time-frame is proposed for the periodic assessment of the state of social sustainability. It is recommended that the petroleum industry make the accounting of social sustainability performance measures a priority before beginning projects, especially greenfield projects, since this can assist in resolving the volatility in the region.

  16. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  17. Assessment of Public Perception of Greenhouse Gases as Precursor to Climate Change Mitigation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, L.

    2013-12-01

    The rising concentrations of both CO2 and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the earth's atmosphere are leading to global climate change. The need to address this climate change has gained momentum in recent times, and as a result public awareness of such greenhouse gases serves as a precursor to climatic change mitigation strategy. Therefore, this study entails collection of information about public perception of Climate Change and identification of carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons, and aerosols as contributors to climate forcing. The assessment was completed using conventional survey technique applied amid 1000 people in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The results show 34.9%, 23.6%, 4.5%, 12.3% and 0.2% levels of recognition or understanding of climate change, carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons and aerosols respectively. The results reveal that public awareness of climate change is low in the study area, while Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases as contributor to Climate Change is extremely low compared to CO2. The study is a preliminary effort to elicit public views and therefore, would assist decision makers and enhance communication with the public in the context of Science and Environment Policy.

  18. Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche Lucy Onyekwelu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals among other things that the increase in the tax rate affected the tax payers revenue generation, and the retroactive nature of our tax laws constitutes a major problem thus: resulting in double taxation during the assessment and collection of taxes. following the findings, the researchers recommends that competent laws should be passed by the government on personal Income tax collection and generation, stiff penalties should be imposed on the tax defaulters and evaders, tax laws should be made less complex, recruitment of qualified personnel to enable them cover fully the scope of work and finally the tax payers should be educated sufficiently on the importance of tax.

  19. Radiological assessment of sediment samples from Oporoma oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were carried out on sediment samples collected from an oil producing field in Oporoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, using HPGe detector with the aim of assessing radiological exposure and doses to workers and general public. The activity concentration of 40K varied from (58.21±4.95 - 127.07±10.90) Bq/kg whereas that of 238U varied from (5.67±0.72 - 26.46±2.21) Bq/kg and that of 232Th varied from (5.88±0.61 - 68.51±5.10) Bq/kg. The radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from radium equivalent activities which ranges between (22.68 - 133.64) Bq/kg, internal and external indices ranges from (0.08 - 0.43) Bq/kg and (0.06 - 0.36) Bq/kg respectively, and effective dose rate from external exposure to terrestrial radionuclides (40K, 238Uand 232Th ) ranges from (0.01 - 0.38) mSv/y. The values obtained are lower than the internationally recommended limits. The values obtained will not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the communities within this environment.

  20. Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogaboh Agba, A. M.; Mboto, W. A.; Agba, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The st...

  1. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  2. Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs at Nigeria's BoP. The primary data for this study were collected using Questionnaires administered to consumers in South Western Nigeria. The secondary data used were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics Surveys; 2009/2010 Consumption Pattern and Consumer Expectation. Using a combination of primary and secondary data, the study employed multiple regression analysis on determinants of consumption at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid. Findings of the study were mostly in conflict with the positions of the BoP advocates. On the basis of the trends in Consumer Behavior and the composition of baskets of goods at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the study concluded that the BoP market would be better served by indigenous micro, small and medium enterprises than Multi-National Corporations.

  3.  Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sirajo Aminu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4?0were females; while of the 20 controls,50?0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4?20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05?20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31?20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

  4. Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2011-01-01

    ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, es...

  5. Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Olayemi Soladoye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to properly place its achievements and positive contributions to the environment. The review is also to highlight the areas where more efforts are needed. An enumeration of existing trees was carried out with the aim of assessing the distribution, specie types and density of coverage. A handheld GPS device was used to acquire the coordinates of trees which were then mapped. Further analysis using GIS was done. Interviews with tree planting officials and public volunteers were also carried out. A total of 293 trees was identified within the study area which is about 8.7 km2 in size. The result indicates a paucity of trees in the area despite the various tree planting efforts. A high mortality rate of trees was observed. Further findings indicated that the public’s desire to support, manage and maintain the planted trees was poor. It was observed that the tree planting activities were seen as a curse rather than a blessing by market men and women within the study area. This study suggests more public enlightenment and that edible species should be planted in place of exotic ones being used.

  6. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  7. Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants

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    Chukwuma Dim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

  8. GIS Based Assessment of Flood Risk and Vulnerability of Communities in the Benue Floodplains, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikusemoran Mayomi; Anthony Dami; Maryah U. M

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study is to assess the 2012 floods incidence that swept the communities along the coastal areas of Nigeria as well as those along the valleys of the major rivers in the country. It was observed in the study that the floods at the valleys and downstream of River Benue were seriously devastating following the release of water from the Lagdo dam that was located at the upstream of River Benue in the Republic of Cameroon. The method of data collection employed in this study is t...

  9. An Assessment of the Growth of Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria, Using Multi-Temporal Imageries

    OpenAIRE

    Ajala, O. A.; Olayiwola, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the use of GIS and Remote Sensing in monitoring the growth and development pattern of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria over a period of 21 years with a view to predicting its direction of growth. In effect, the study sought to identify and explain the rate and extent of changes in the study area between 1986 and 2007; measure the rate of urban growth in the study area between 1986 and 2007; assess the impact of urban growth on land use patterns; and predict the trend of urban ...

  10. GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eludoyin, O. S.; Wokocha, C. C.; Ayolagha, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles) in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary...

  11. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

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    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  12. Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices of Building Materials in Ogbomoso, South-West Nigeria

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    Ajayi Olanipekun Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study aims at assessing the radiological hazards indices of materials used for the construction of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical facility in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria. The determination was sequel to the measurement of the radionuclide contents of the materials (Granite, Cement, Sand, and Concrete used in the construction of the building, using a high-purity germanium detector gamma spectrometer. The natural radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 27.79 and 30.65 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29.22 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th, the range was 16.69-22.73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 19.71 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 132.76-276.42 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 204.59 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1.03-14.90 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 13.32 Bq kg-1. All other values of other indicators were below the maximum permissible limit (MPL. The determination carried out prior to the building being occupied, showed no evidence of artificial radionuclide. Hence, the building materials may be considered safe for building construction and the values measured can therefore serve as reference for future measurement.

  13. Assessment of the level of male involvement in safe motherhood in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwakwuo, Geoffrey Chima; Oshonwoh, Ferdinand Ebiarede

    2013-04-01

    Pregnancy and the events surrounding it are generally viewed as feminine issues exclusively for women. In sub-Saharan Africa, believing that pregnancy and the events that follow are guided by nature, a lot of superstition is attributed in the event of complications, which result in poor maternal outcomes. Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge worldwide, and Nigeria has one of the highest levels of maternal mortality in the world (545 per 100,000 live births). The involvement of men in ensuring and enhancing maternal health was a great idea hatched at the Cairo conference in 1994, but since then, not much has been done in practical terms in most of the developing world. This study is aimed at assessing the level of male involvement in their spouses' reproductive health events before pregnancy, during pregnancy, delivery and peuperium. A descriptive cross-sectional study design in which questionnaires were incorporated with an in-depth interview was used and a multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. After house numbering, a total of 400 houses were selected from a cluster of four quarters in Patani Town. Participants were systematically sampled from each household using random number table. Results from data collected on the study indicated that (61.1 %) of men were aware of maternal health issues and the level of education was shown to have significant relationship (?² = 5.139, df = 3, p = 0.162) with the knowledge of maternal health issues. Though the level of male involvement in safe motherhood was shown to be of good proportion, strategies to create awareness on male support for their parous spouses should be given a broader frontier, both in clinics, household and community levels. Men should be more involved than before, as they have a priceless role to play towards a significant improvement in maternal health. The Government, development partners and NGOs at all levels should be committed with a strong political will in this regard. PMID:23054420

  14. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

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    Achor Justin U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of the nurses (t = -2.23, df = 78, p = 0.03 and there was also significant relationship between previous involvement in managing children with childhood autism as a specialist paediatric or psychiatric nurse and the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire (t = 6.90, df = 78, p = 0.00. Conclusion The scores reflect deficits in knowledge about childhood autism among the study cohorts. Paediatric and psychiatric nurses as members of multidisciplinary teams that care for children with childhood autism are expected to provide holistic care and adequate counselling to the families of these children. Unfortunately in this environment, they are not fully equipped with enough knowledge about childhood autism. Education on childhood autism is therefore needed and can be provided through continuing medical education and emphasizing childhood autism in their training curriculum. This will enhance early identification and diagnosis of childhood autism with early interventions that are known to improve prognosis.

  15. Modeling Disease Progression in Acute Stroke Using Clinical Assessment Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Justin J.; Jonsson, Fredrik; Zingmark, Per-Henrik; Karlsson, Mats O.; Jonsson, E Niclas

    2010-01-01

    This article demonstrates techniques for describing and predicting disease progression in acute stroke by modeling scores measured using clinical assessment scales, accommodating dropout as an additional source of information. Scores assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the Barthel Index in acute stroke patients were used to model the time course of disease progression. Simultaneous continuous and probabilistic models for describing the nature and magnitude of sco...

  16. Post-Disaster Damage Assessment using Remotely Sensed Data for Post Disaster Needs Assessments: Pakistan and Nigeria case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keiko; Lemoine, Guido; Dell'Oro, Luca; Pedersen, Wendi; Nunez-Gomez, Ariel; Dalmasso, Simone; Balbo, Simone; Louvrier, Christophe; Caravaggi, Ivano; de Groeve, Tom; Slayback, Dan; Policelli, Frederick; Brakenridge, Bob; Rashid, Kashif; Gad, Sawsan; Arshad, Raja; Wielinga, Doekle; Parvez, Ayaz; Khan, Haris

    2013-04-01

    Since the launch of high-resolution optical satellites in 1999, remote sensing has increasingly been used in the context of post-disaster damage assessments worldwide. In the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster, particularly when extensive geographical areas are affected, it is often difficult to determine the extent and magnitude of disaster impacts. The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) has been leading efforts to utilise remote sensing techniques during disasters, starting with the 2010 Haiti earthquake. However, remote sensing has mostly been applied to extensive flood events in the context of developing Post-Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNAs). Given that worldwide, floods were the most frequent type of natural disasters between 2000 and 2011, affecting 106 million people in 2011 alone (EM-DAT) , there is clearly significant potential for on-going use of remote sensing techniques. Two case studies will be introduced here, the 2010 Pakistan flood and the 2012 Nigeria flood. The typical approach is to map the maximum cumulative inundation extent, then overlay this hazard information with available exposure datasets. The PDNA methodology itself is applied to a maximum of 15 sectors, of which remote sensing is most useful for housing, agriculture, transportation. Environment and irrigation could be included but these sectors were not covered in these events. The maximum cumulative flood extent is determined using remotely sensed data led by in-country agencies together with international organizations. To enhance this process, GFDRR hosted a SPRINT event in 2012 to tailor daily flood maps derived from MODIS imagery by NASA Goddard's Office of Applied Sciences to this purpose. To estimate the (direct) damage, exposure data for each sector is required. Initially global datasets are used, but these may be supplemented by national level datasets to revise damage estimates, depending on availability. Remote sensed estimates of direct damage are used to confirm field estimates of the magnitude of the damage; thus, the speed of assessment can be balanced not having to achieve high accuracy results. In the future, to increase the speed of remote sensed damage assessments, there is a need for existing exposure information - which can also be used for risk prediction as well as disaster response. However, advances in this area vary significantly by country and sector and therefore efforts to move this agenda forward will significantly improve disaster reduction and recovery.

  17. Liver Damage Risk Assessment Study in Workers Occupationally Exposed to E-waste in Benin City, South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaretin God Igaro Igaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Large volumes of mostly irreparable electronic waste (e-waste are shipped to Africa on a monthly basis, of which Nigeria receives the largest share. E-waste management practices in Nigeria have remained completely primitive until date; and e-waste workers have little or no occupational safety knowledge and devices. The thousands of chemicals in e-waste have been reported to be toxic to human health in any degree of exposure. The present study has assessed the risk of liver damage in workers occupationally exposed to e-waste in Benin City, South-south Nigeria in 2014. Serum activities of liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]; and levels albumin (ALB, total bilirubin (T/Bil and conjugated bilirubin (C/Bil were determined using standard colorimetric methods. Serum Alpha fetoprotein (AFP was determined using ELISA in Nigerian e-waste workers (n=63 and in age-matched unexposed participants (n=41 in Benin City. The results showed significantly raised activities of enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in the e-waste group compared with the unexposed participants. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALB, T/Bil and C/Bil between exposed and unexposed participants. AFP levels in e-waste workers (3.56 ± 0.34 ng/mL were significantly different compared with the unexposed group (2.14 ± 0.80 ng/mL (P< 0.045. The significantly elevated cancer risk biomarker (AFP and the enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage observed in the Nigerian e-waste workers studied may be associated with occupational exposure to known carcinogens and hepatotoxic metals in e-waste. 

  18. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

  19. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

  20. Geochemical Assessment of Source Rock Qualities Penetrated by Nasara-1 Well (Gongola Basin), Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasara-1 is one in a set of 3 exploratory wells drilled in the ] Gongola basin of the upper Benue trough in Nigeria. Nasara-1 well was dry. Organic geochemical studies have been carried out to assess the qualities of source rocks penetrated by the well. The well penetrated entirely Cretaceous sequences of the Pindiga, Yolde and probably Bima formations. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents are generally very low, with none of the values in the siliciclastic sequences exceeding 1.0w%. About 50% of all TOC values lie between 0.50 -0.87wt%. Hydrogen indices (His) correlated against Tmax indicate source qualities that are of entirely gas-generative potential. However, at depths of between 4710- 4770 ft, TOC values of between 55.10 and 55.20wt% characteristic of coals have been recorded; with His of between 564 -589 mgHC/gTOC and Tmax of 423 -4280C. This is the first report of coal deposition in either the Pindiga, Yolde or Bima Formation. Extract yields (SOM) gave values of 360 -447mgHC/gTOC. Petrographic studies on the samples from this interval reported macerals of the amorphous bituminite group, indicating that the very high His and SOM resulted from migration of oil from probably deeper or laterally located yet to be identified source rocks. The total ion chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the extracts from this interval (4710 -4770ft) show some ramping of unresolved complex mixtures, attributable to biodegradation. Further biomarker date to biodegradation. Further biomarker data indicate a dominance of low molecular weight n-alkanes (C15 - C25)' pristane/phytane ratios of bewteen 0.8 tp 1.3 and very high contents of C28 regular steranes. These attributes indicate that the source Irock that generated the migrated oil was deposited in a lacustrine environment (C28) with high algal-bacterial contents, whose generated hydrocarbons have been intermittently subjected to anoxic to suboxic biodegradation processes

  1. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Orish

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  2. Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Kamalu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

  3. Assessment of Growth and Cellulase Production of Wild-Type Microfungi Isolated from Ota, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nwodo Chinedu; Angela O. Eni; Adebayo I. Adeniyi; Janet A. Ayangbemi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and identify filamentous microfungi involved in wood-waste decomposition in Canaanland, Ota, South-West Nigeria and to evaluate their potentials for cellulose saccharification. Microbiological techniques were used to isolate and identify the fungi. Four filamentous microfungi, identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma sp., were isolated. All the isolates, particularly Trichoderma sp., grew rapidly on Sabour...

  4. Assessment of the Water Quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria, Using Selected Physico-Chemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAPHA, Moshood Keke

    2008-01-01

    The variations in selected physico-chemical factors were investigated for two years to determine the water quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria for drinking and fish production. Three stations were chosen on the reservoir to reflect the effect of human activities, lacustrine and lotic habitats. Temperature, transparency, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium,...

  5. Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka; Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June), mid rain (July–August) and late rain seasons (September–October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was c...

  6. Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna Irimiya,

    2013-01-01

    - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional) and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Co...

  7. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erim Daniel O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

  8. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Craig W.; Onyeneho, Sylvester N.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contam...

  9. Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofuoku Albert U.; Albert Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help gr...

  10. An assessment of households’ vulnerability to economic shocks in south western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad-lawal, A.; Omotesho, O. A.; Kolade, F. T.

    2012-01-01

    High level of vulnerability of small-scale farmers and poor rural households to economic shocks occasioned by the economic policies of the Federal Government of Nigeria often hampers their effective participation in economic activities. Even though, social protection programmes are often advocated for reducing the vulnerability to economic shocks and stresses, lack of information of the determinants of households’ vulnerability often limit the effectiveness of such programmes. This study wa...

  11. Assessing Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011: Effects on Revenue Generation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uche Lucy Onyekwelu; Uche Boniface Ugwuanyi

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the effects of Personal Income Tax Amendment Act 2011 on revenue generation in Nigeria, with a view to exposing the possible challenges and prospects it poses to the Nigerian tax payers. The primary data for this study were sourced using a structured questionnaire while secondary data were sourced through relevant textbooks, academic journals and the internet. The data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. The study reveals am...

  12. Assessment of groundwater recharge in semi-arid region of northern nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average annual groundwater recharge value of three sites, representing the major geological basins of Northern Nigeria, ranged from 169 mm for Maiduguri to 837 mm in Kano area and the recharge coefficient for the zone ranged from 0.26 to 0.56. The month of August accounted for about 53% of the average annual estimate. About 69 mm (70%) of average annual potential natural groundwater recharge was lost, as a result. (author)

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Flourine Level of Spring and Stream Water in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

    2012-01-01

    Four water samples from each of spring and stream in some locations across South-West, Nigeria, were analyzed for their fluoride levels and some other quality parameters. The samples coded 101, 202, 303, 404 representing spring water and 505, 606, 707, 808 representing stream water were analyzed for fluoride levels using Ion Selective Electrode method (ISE) while other quality parameters such as calcium, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and pH were determined using standard methods. The results...

  14. Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2008-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of GOES. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Accordingly, a diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is designed to infer attributes of a favorable microburst environment. In addition, a GOES-West imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3 (upper level water vapor), band 4 (longwave infrared window), and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived products. This paper provides an updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst algorithms, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and presents validation results for the 2008 convective ...

  15. Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and developments

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of GOES. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Accordingly, a diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is designed to infer attributes o...

  16. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-01-01

    To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following l...

  17. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in prospective ore deposit sites in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the natural radioactivity was conducted in three Southwestern states, Ekiti, Kogi and Kwara in Nigeria spanning over approximately a 9,000 km2 on earmarked prospective ore deposits sites where thirty six (36) top soil samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for analysis so as to determine and deduce its radiological hazards and health implication prior to exploitation/exploration. The samples collected at 36 locations, mainly undisturbed and virgin lands could determine the annual effective dose (mSv.y-1) and the average absorbed dose (nGy/h) for a person living in the rural community along the axis and this was found to be approximately 0.114 mSvy-1 and 93.60±14.4 nGyh-1 respectively. Other health indices are drawn up in the tables found below.

  18. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  19. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  20. Early Growth Assessment of Selected Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ossai Onefeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which majority of them are native while few are exotic. Report shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast growing. However, this study investigated the growth of indigenous trees in tandem with that of exotic species with a purpose to clarify the assumption about the growth and conservation of indigenous species in natural forests. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the nursery unit of the Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Five (5 different one year old tree species seedlings were used for the study. Two of the species (Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea are exotic while the other three species (Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia and Afzelia africana are native to Nigeria. They were planted on the field in a completely random design and then replicated eight times. Data were collected every month on their height growth, collar diameter and leaf number. Data obtained were subsequently analyzed with ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Results show that K. grandifolia (45.39 cm grew significantly better (p<0.05 in height than G. arborea (38.11 cm and T. grandis (22.36 cm, while A. africana (40.03 cm closely followed K. grandifolia. Based on the results, the selected indigenous species displayed promising potentials for conservation purpose. Hence, further research in this aspect is encouraged to confirm the findings.

  1. Evaluation of NORM and Dose Assessment in an Aluminium Industry in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Ayobami Ademola; Michael Adekunle Olatunji

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in bauxite ore, alumina, dross tailing, aluminium scraps and soil samples collected from an aluminium industry in Nigeria were determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K content of the samples ranged from 16 ± 6 (alumina) to 31 ± 10 (scrap), 41 ± 0.12 (scrap) to 134 ± 21(bauxite) and 47 ± 14 (bauxite) to 354 ± 8 (scrap) Bq·kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concen...

  2. Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad-Lawal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

  3. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

  4. An assessment of stillbirths in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwa, Emmanuel A; Ashimi, Adewale

    2014-09-26

    Abstract Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the stillbirth rate and causes in Birnin Kudu, North-west, Nigeria. Method: This was a retrospective study. It involved 705 women who presented for delivery in Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu and had stillbirths. The hospital maternity and theatre registers were used to identify the women who had stillbirth during the study period from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Significant association between socio-demographic/obstetrics factors and stillbirth were tested using the chi-square test and p?Nigeria and obstructed labour was the common cause. PMID:25204335

  5. Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

  6. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (?g/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (?g/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb?>?Cr?>?As?>?Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr?>?Cd?>?As?>?Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health. PMID:25971518

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSUJI, U. S. A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.

  8. Communicative challenges in assessing progress towards environmental quality objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wibeck

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of trends in the state of the environment constitutes one important aspect of efforts to achieve environmental sustainability. Assessments are often undertaken via indicators which measure progress towards environmental objectives and interim targets. This paper starts from the assumption that different types of environmental indicators have different implications for the public communication and the societal dialogue about the state of the environment and the measures needed to increase ecological sustainability.The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate environmental indicators on the basis of their communicative potential. It is demonstrated how science-based assessment of progress towards environmental objectives may fulfil different aims. Each of these aims may be linked to particular types of indicators, as well as to particular ideas of how to communicate uncertainties, and to particular views of the role of the public in the system of environmental objectives.

  9. The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemi, O.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS/WHO reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on protein which might be a contributing factor to students’ poor ...

  10. Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ndidi Nkeki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard was not made available. This study attempted to assess the spatial impact of the October 2012 flooding of the Niger-Benue basin on the surrounding areas using the moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometre (MODIS data of NASA Terra satellite and developed a geospatial methodology for detecting and extracting the flood risk areas and the vulnerable population to flooding within the basin. The integration of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data within the GIS platform was able to produce series of thematic maps which was used to generate a geospatial database for flood risk analysis and assessment. The result of the analysis effectively demonstrated the contribution of geospatial methods in mitigating and monitoring the effect of flooding along the Niger-Benue basin. It was therefore, suggested that government agencies and policy makers should adopt this powerful technique for reliable and well synthesized information which is a vital component of flood risk assessment and planning.

  11. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion: The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities. Keywords: oral contraceptive pills, contraceptives, patent medicine vendors, mystery client, PPMV, quality of care, Nigeria

  12. Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Berkley

    2013-12-01

    There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

  13. Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in the business, majority of them are retailers selling less than four cartons of fish on daily basis and most of them have formal education. From the gross margin analysis and t-test, marketing of frozen fish is profitable in the area. However, it was recommended that major constraints like poor storage/preservation, inadequate capital and marketing costs should be tackled to improve the efficiency of marketing system of frozen fish in the State.

  14. Geospatial Assessment and Monitoring of the Dynamics of Urban Expansion of Ogbomoso, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Jesuleye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the dynamics of urban expansion along with the Landuse/Landcover changes in Ogbomoso North and South LGAs, Oyo State, Nigeria, using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Technology. Ogbomoso has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development of large infrastructural facilities such as highway/expressway, power stations as well as the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, the University Teaching Hospital Complex, modern markets, very many schools, a number of low cost housing estates, local authority offices, etc. This has therefore, resulted in loss of agricultural land, modification and alterations in the land use/land cover over time without any detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the changes. There is therefore, need for synoptic analyses of patterning, change and expansion at regional scales over time in the environment. LandSat imageries of 1990, 2000 and NigeriaSat-1 imagery of 2007 of the environment were subjected to supervised image classification using IDRISI Selva 17.0 software. Results obtained from classifications were cross-tabulated for change detection. The results reveal that water body appreciated from 1.2% (1990, 3.1% (2000 to 3.7% (2007. Built-up area appreciated from 6.4 to 20.3% (1990-2007. Arable land remained the largest land cover, with the value of 57.8% in 1990, 47.8% in 2000 and 62% in 2007. Compound Interest formula was used to determine the rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso town and the expansion of the town was projected for the year 2020 and 2025. The average rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso was found to be significantly high with a value of 8.92%.

  15. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  16. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  17. An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

  18. Performance needs assessment of maternal and newborn health service delivery in urban and rural areas of Osun State, South-West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluwaseun T; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health (MNH) services in urban and rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria, to inform decisions for improved services. This study involved 14 urban and 10 rural-based randomly selected PHC facilities. Using a Performance Needs Assessment framework, desired performances were determined by key stakeholders and actual performances measured by conducting facility survey. Questionnaire interview of 143 health workers and 153 antenatal clients were done. Performance gaps were determined for the urban and rural areas and compared using Chi-square tests with SPSS version 17. PHC facilities and health workers in Osun State, Nigeria, were found to have significant gaps in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. Root cause of most of the performance gaps was poor political will of local government authorities. Improved government commitment to MNH is needful to address most of the gaps. PMID:25022147

  19. CONCAWE's market fuel survey. Assessing progress in biofuel blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the coming decade, more bio-components, especially ethanol and ethers in gasoline and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in diesel fuel, will be blended into transport fuels in order to meet the EU's 2020 mandate for renewable energy. This survey of gasoline and diesel market fuels from 17 countries evaluates the oxygenate concentrations in service station fuels from the winter of 2010-11 in order to assess progress toward meeting the EU's objective.

  20. Assessing and monitoring student progress in e-learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Meyen, Edward L.; Aust, Ronald J.; Bui, Yvonne N.; Isaacson, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    E-learning has emerged as a form of pedagogy and as a delivery system with broad implications for meeting personnel needs nationally in special education. At present, it is important to make investments in research and development to ensure that this new pedagogy becomes fully developed and is appropriately applied. Assessment and monitoring of student progress in e-learning environments is an important element of this new form of pedagogy that requires research attention to ma...

  1. Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, especially in the oil and gas sector, accelerate the loss of topsoil and deforestation, loss of habitat, loss of species and loss of biodiversity, as well as degeneration of wetlands. Water shortages and floods lead to deterioration of urban environmental quality and play a major role in transmission of communicable diseases. Corruption in the water sector is another major player in environmental degradation worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Weak implementation has rendered EIA Act a paper Tiger.

  2. An assessment of the eye care workforce in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria

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    Maduka-Okafor Ferdinand

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and distribution of an appropriate eye care workforce are fundamental to reaching the goals of "VISION 2020: The right to sight", the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness launched jointly by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness with an international membership of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations. Periodic evaluation of these parameters is important in the journey towards achieving these goals. The objectives of the study were to determine the availability and distribution of human resources for eye care delivery in Enugu Urban, south-eastern Nigeria. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey, the setting for which was all public and privately owned eye care facilities in Enugu Urban, Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, in October 2006. The health map of Enugu Urban and the hospital register of the Public Health Department of the Enugu State Ministry of Health were used to identify the eye health care facilities in Enugu Urban. A structured, pretested, researcher-administered questionnaire was used to capture data on cadre and distribution of the eye care personnel in these facilities. Relevant population data were obtained from the Enugu Regional Office of the National Population Commission. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to generate percentages and proportions. Eye care personnel-to-population ratios were calculated and compared to World Health Organization recommendations. Results Out of Enugu State's population of three million, Enugu Urban accounts for 22%. The population of Enugu Urban is distributed between the three-component Local Government Areas comprising Enugu North (31%, Enugu South (30% and Enugu East (39%. There are 45 eye care facilities (public: 31 (69%; private: 14 (31% employing 252 eye care workers (public: 226 (90%; private: 26 (10% aged 18 to 63 (mean = 36.1 years, SD = 2 years comprising males (36: 14% and females (216: 86%, giving a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:6. The available eye care workforce is unevenly distributed between Enugu North (128: 51%, Enugu South (65: 26% and Enugu East (59: 23% Local Government Areas. Conclusion Using broad and crude World Health Organization standards for minimum provider-to-population ratios, there is a sufficient eye care workforce in Enugu Urban. However, the maldistribution of the workforce creates a major barrier to uptake of eye care services. Policy modifications could reverse this maldistribution.

  3. Assessment of energy use pattern in residential buildings of Kano and Kaduna Northern Nigeria

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    Yohanna Irimiya,

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - The energy consumption end use of some selected residential buildings in Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria was studied by comparing their energy consumption pattern. The energy usage and intensities of the buildings as-built (Coventional and when retrofitted with green features were studied and the impact of the green retrofits documented. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted at 0.05% which indicates a significant difference in the Energy consumption between the Conventional and Green features in the six study areas. From the study, the annual energy intensity of Kaduna for conventional buildings is 25.24 kwh/m2. With the introduction of green appliances, a drastic reduction in the buildings annual energy consumption was recorded which stood at 20.57 kwh/m2representing about 18.26% reduction in annual energy consumption which indicates a significant energy saving. In Kano VAC consumed the highest energy 12.49 kwh/m2of the total consumption of all end-users. When replaced with energy efficient appliances the consumption dropped to 7.95 kwh/m2representing 34.14% reduction. The use of energy efficient appliances is recommended.

  4. Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria

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    Ofuoku Albert U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

  5. A baseline investigation and safety assessment of dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations and radiation dose contributions due to three naturally occurring primordial radionuclides: 40K, 238U and 232Th in soil samples from selected dump sites in Ibadan and environs, Nigeria has been deduced. A baseline data has been obtained due to forensic investigation of selected dump sites and the average radiation dose contributions to the environment has been estimated. Activity concentration of 40K found in soil samples from dump sites in use ranged from 153.6±17.4Bq/Kg to 315.0±16.7Bq/Kg, with the highest found in location 2 (Lapite). The activity concentrations of 238U ranged from 0.10±17.1Bq/Kg to 48.1±64.0Bq/Kg with the highest found in location 26 (Ajakanga). The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from 1.8±17.8Bq/Kg to 252.7±17.5Bq/Kg. The highest concentration of 232Th was found in location 19 (Awotan) while the lowest was found in location 40 (Aba eku). The average value of the total absorbed dose rates for the use and abandoned dump sites are 31.0±44.0nGy/h and 32.0±36.3nGy/h respectively. Fifty nine (59) sampled locations were within the safety recommended world mean by UNSCEAR while one location was above it.

  6. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

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    Craig W. Hedberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  7. Reliability of the Mid Upper Arm Circumference for the Assessment of Wasting among Children Aged 12-59 Months in Urban Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dairo, M.D.; Fatokun, Modupeoluwa E.; Kuti, Modupeoluwa

    2012-01-01

    Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, leng...

  8. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

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    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

  9. Assessment of Use of Selected Information Communication Technologies (ICTs for Extension Service Delivery: Implication for Agricultural Development in Nigeria

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    Adetumbi, Saheed.Ige, Olaniyi, Olumuyiwa.,Akin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the implication of the useof selected Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs for extension service delivery in Nigeria. The simplerandom technique was used to select fifty percent of the total extensionagents which equivalent to forty-two respondents assample size for the study. Frequency counts, percentages, meanand standard deviation were used as descriptive statistic. Also,Chi-Square test and Spearman’s rho correlation were employedas inferential statistic to test for the hypotheses. Findings indicatedthat access to various ICTs tools especially Radio and Mobilephone and were found to be relevant to farming operations. Theresult of Chi square test revealed that significant relationshipexist between sex, age, level of education, years of working experienceof the extension agents and level of use of ICTs. Furthermore,the result of Spearman rho Correlation showed thatthere was no significant relationship between ICT training of extensionworkers and the level of use of ICTs. The study recommendedamong others that, there should be a periodic review ofthe use of current ICTs in extension service delivery to facilitateeffectiveness in the use of ICTs for extension service and adequatefunding of extension service should also be ensured to enhancethe maintenance of ICTs made available to extension personnel.

  10. Using Landsat 5 imagery in the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks around Dutsin-Ma, northwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsat's TM imagery of January 1986 covering Dustin - Ma and the surrounding areas in northwestern Nigeria was used for the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks (Basement Complex) terrain. Employing ER Mapper (5.2), surface indicator for the occurrence of groundwater such as thriving vegetation in non - irrigated lands, and fracture were identified. These were interpreted vis - a - vis the tectonic development of the are. Lineaments interpreted as fractures show two prominent strike maxima that lie between 0000 and 0300, with the more common lying between 0000 and 0100. These strike maxima correspond to the stress axis of the Pan African orogeny. The lushness of vegetation along these strikes is higher than in the neighbouring areas and indicate the presence of groundwater. On the basis of lineament density and relative lushness of the vegetal cover, the area was divided into three main hydrogeological zones namely, the zones with the highest, intermediate, and least groundwater potential, for which ground truthing is recommended for their confirmation. Geophysical surveys for the siting of boreholes are also recommended parallel to strikes between 270oand 300o. It is judged that the groundwater resource for this area is low because of the general lack of moist or seepage areas, the low threshold value. (0.12) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the generally dispersed nature of the vegetationpersed nature of the vegetation

  11. An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI

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    Musa Haruna D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

  12. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

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    Jibiri Nnamdi N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001. The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

  13. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  14. ON THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN PREFERENCE ASSESSMENT OUTCOMES AND PROGRESSIVE-RATIO SCHEDULE ASSESSMENTS OF STIMULUS VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Deleon, Iser G.; Frank, Michelle A.; Gregory, Meagan K.; Allman, Melissa J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether stimuli of different preference levels would be associated with different amounts of work maintained by the stimuli, as determined through progressive-ratio schedule break points. Using a paired-choice preference assessment, stimuli were classified as high, moderate, or low preference for 4 individuals with developmental disabilities. The stimuli were then tested three times each using a progressive-ratio schedule (step size of 1; the break-point criterion w...

  15. Improving quality of malaria treatment services: assessing inequities in consumers' perceptions and providers' behaviour in Nigeria

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    Obikeze Eric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about quality of malaria treatment services of different healthcare providers is needed to know how to improve the treatment of malaria since inappropriate service provision leads to increased burden of malaria. Hence, the study determined the technical and perceived quality of malaria treatment services of different types of providers in three urban and three rural areas in southeast Nigeria. Methods Questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected healthcare providers about the technical quality of their malaria treatment services. Exit polls were used to obtain information about perceived quality from consumers. A socio-economic status (SES index and comparison of data between urban and rural areas was used to examine socio-economic status and geographic differences in quality of services. Results The lowest technical quality of services was found from patent medicine dealers. Conversely, public and private hospitals as well as primary healthcare centres had the highest quality of services. Householders were least satisfied with quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops and were mostly satisfied with services rendered by public and private hospitals. The urbanites were more satisfied with the overall quality of services than the rural dwellers. Conclusion These findings provide areas for interventions to equitably improve the quality of malaria treatment services, especially for patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops, that are two of the most common providers of malaria treatment especially with the current change of first line drugs from the relatively inexpensive drugs to the expensive artemisinin-based combination therapy, so as to decrease inappropriate drug prescribing, use, costs and resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  16. Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region

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    Jasper Agbakwuru

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

  17. Assessment of sanitation levels of sources of water in Osun State Capital, Nigeria

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    Felix A. Oginni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the physicochemical and bacteriological analysis including BOD and COD was carried out for sources of water in Oshogbo the Capital of the State of Osun. Seven water sampling areas were selected to cover the low, medium and high population density areas of the State Capital. Water samples were collected from five sources of water, namely, shallow well, borehole, stream, rain and river. Water samples were collected from the well, borehole and stream water sources from Dada Estate and Isale Oshun for low density population, Ayetoro, Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe for medium density, and Oke-Bale and Igbona for high density population areas. Three sampling points were undertaken for the rain water source while River Oshun source at Isale-Oshun was the 25th water sampling point. A total of 25 water quality parameters were analyzed for each of the 25 water sources sampled using the facility at the Rural Water And Environmental Sanitation Agency, RUWESA in Osun State Government Secretariat in Abere. Results indicated that 8 of the water quality parameters, pH, Turbidity; Magnesium hardness, Free Chlorine, Nitrite, Bacteriological, BOD and COD were not within Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON permitted water quality standards and are of concern to sanitation of potable water in the State Capital. The level of each parameter differs from source to source as well as from level of population densities. The sources that were adjudged polluted were Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe well sources; Ogo-Oluwa, Oke-Bale and Igbona stream sources Oke-Bale Rain source.R and the River source at Isale-Oshun. The polluted sources are all within the medium and high population density areas of the State Capital.

  18. Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria

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    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June, mid rain (July–August and late rain seasons (September–October for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.

  19. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA

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    Kasim, L. S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  20. Assessing the psychological well-being of caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem A; Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Udobang, John A

    2011-04-01

    Despite the availability of anti-retroviral drugs and treatment, the care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS has continued to be a major challenge, with greater impact not only on the people living the disease. The burden associated with care often results in high level of stress among caregivers, usually manifesting as anxiety and/or depression. This study assesses the levels of stress among caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in order to determine their coping strategies. Between July and December 2008, 322 caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS attending HIV clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were randomly assessed for stress (anxiety and depression), using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). A total of 293 caregivers comprising 98 (33.4%) males and 195 (66.6%) females were analysed. Mean age of males was 44.0 ± 4.5 years and females was 39.3 ± 4.0 years. The difference in the mean was statistically significant (p<0.001). Of the 293 caregivers, 191 (65.2%) and 115 (39.2%) were scored high on SDS and SRQ-20, respectively (representing the levels of stress). Using SDS groups on SRQ-20 subscales, 134 (45.7%) had anxiety only, 23 (7.8%) depression only, 52 (17.7%) had a mixture of anxiety and depression, while 11 (3.7%) exhibited suicidal tendencies. There is increasing level of stress in caregiving. Therefore, adequate attention must be given to the psychological well-being of caregivers to enable them contribute positively to the care of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:21271394

  1. GIS Based Assessment of Flood Risk and Vulnerability of Communities in the Benue Floodplains, Adamawa State, Nigeria

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    Ikusemoran Mayomi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to assess the 2012 floods incidence that swept the communities along the coastal areas of Nigeria as well as those along the valleys of the major rivers in the country. It was observed in the study that the floods at the valleys and downstream of River Benue were seriously devastating following the release of water from the Lagdo dam that was located at the upstream of River Benue in the Republic of Cameroon. The method of data collection employed in this study is the application of Geo-information techniques which involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS to capture the coordinates of 120 communities which cut across the seven LGAs located along the valleys of River Benue in Adamawa State. These communities were linked to a generated digital map of River Benue valley using ArcGIS software to assess each of the communities for flood vulnerability. Vulnerability was classified into four: highly vulnerable, vulnerable, marginally vulnerable and not vulnerable. The major findings revealed that all the 120 communities in the area were described as vulnerable to flood, that is, they are either highly vulnerable, vulnerable or marginally vulnerable. 29 communities representing 32.5% were located on highly vulnerable areas, 35 communities (representing 29.17% were found to be located within the Benue Basin but outside the buffer zones which are classified as vulnerable areas, while the remaining 46 communities (38.33% were located on the plains which are classified as marginally vulnerable areas. Escape routes and good sites for refugee camps during floods were also identified while database creation and analysis for flood vulnerability were also developed. It is therefore, recommended that all the settlements that were highly vulnerable be relocated to higher grounds to prevent future occurrence, while the communities that are located within the Benue Basin but outside the buffer zones should employ the use of GIS tool for effective planning and proper early warning systems.

  2. Oil and Debt Management in Nigeria

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    Ako-Nai R. I.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria’s debt at independent was put at about N488.8 million which was mainly long-term development soft loans. The world economic recession and fall in price of oil in 1982 were identified as major factors that led many countries to debt crisis. Nigeria’s debt accumulated due to gross mismanagement of resources and loans contracted as well as failure of governments to keep-up with repayment schedules. This paper assesses the management of Nigeria’s debt. It examined the role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs in discussing the politics of Nigeria’s debt management vis-à-vis motivational factor behind consideration for loans, disbursement and at what rate? The paper employed both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was sourced from Debt Management Office, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria and National Institute for Social and Economic Research while secondary data was sourced from journals, books, official government gazettes and internet. Data was analyzed using descriptive method. The result of the analyses revealed that 79% of the respondents agreed that Nigeria’s oil contributed to its huge debt accumulation and denied it debt cancellation. Also 65% believed that government has been prudent in managing the nation’s debt with every action taking in the interest of the people even when it failed to keep up with repayment schedules. The dependency theory formed the basis of discussion and analyses in this work. It concluded that, oil was a major factor behind the granting of loans to Nigeria as well as responsible for fiscal irresponsibility on part of the government which led to the failure of efficient management of such loans. This paper recommended that there should be prudent management of the economy while all forms of corruption must be eradicated to bring about real development.

  3. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica O. Ameh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.

  4. Multifactorial assessment of predictors for prevention of periodontal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmke, Benjamin; Beikler, Thomas; Haubitz, Imme; Karch, Helge; Flemmig, Thomas Frank

    2003-12-01

    Univariate approaches have identified single factors influencing periodontal disease progression. The aim of this explorative approach was to assess the influence of various predictive factors responsible for the prevention of periodontal disease progression in the same patient sample. Patients with untreated chronic periodontitis underwent subgingival debridement alone or in combination with adjunctive antimicrobial therapy (systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole/7 days plus supragingival CHX irrigation). Supportive periodontal therapy was performed over a 24-month period. As predictors, clinical, microbial, immunological, and genetic parameters were assessed. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of teeth without attachment loss >/=2 mm over the study period (stability of attachment). At 24 months, multiple regression analysis identified adjunctive antimicrobial therapy for teeth with initially at least one site showing a pocket probing depth of >/=7 mm and IgG(4) reactivity against a 110-kDa protein of A. actinomycetemcomitans at teeth with initial pocket probing depths

  5. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.; Emuh, F. N.; Ezeonu, O.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%), noise pollution (98.3%), bush burning (93.3%), land degradation/pollution (87.5%), water pollution (80.3%), air pollution (62.5%), massive deforestation (62.5%) and acid rain (52.5%) were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the stu...

  6. Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    k. Adepoju; A.M. Tukur; A. ADEDIJI

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P) were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Als...

  7. Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

  8. Assessment of Veterinary Extension Services Rendered to Poultry Farmers by the Agricultural Development Project, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matanmi B. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the veterinary extension services rendered by the Kwara State Agricultural Development Project (KWADP to poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure produced the sample size of 110 from five villages in the study area. A well structured interview schedule was administered to the respondents to produce data which was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that majority of the poultry farmers in the study area were male (73.3%, aged between 31 and 50 (70.9% and had over 10 years experience in poultry farming (74.5%. Only 17.3% of the farmers had secondary school education. Almost all the respondents (97.35% were aware of the veterinary services of the (KWADP. The frequency of extension contact was monthly for 59.1% of the respondents. The t-test at 1% level of significance revealed significant differences in the means of meat yield and egg yield before and after extension contact. The study concluded that though there was strong level of awareness of the veterinary services of the KWADP and there was evidence of positive impact of the extension contact on productivity, the extension service was not meeting the needs of the farmers in some aspects of poultry production such as facilitating credit facilities for expansion. The study recommended that the frequency of extension contact be improved upon. Lastly, the study suggested that farmers should be encouraged to form or join cooperative societies to brighten their chances of securing rural credit.

  9. Assessment of indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin east local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study made use of well-structured questionnaire to collect data from 180 respondents by means of four-stage random sampling technique. Analytical tools used include frequency, percentage and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Findings showed that the majority of respondents had no formal education (73.3%, were middle aged (52.2%, and married (81.1%. The indigenous processing techniques commonly used by the respondents include: picking/harvesting of fruits, washing of fruits, de-pulping, drying, seed selection, seed cracking, roasting of kernels, milling of kernels, boiling of ground kernels, kneading, mixing, filtration, solidification and packaging. The majority (75% of sources for information on indigenous shea butter processing came from family members. Factors limiting the majority of respondents were: inadequate water supply (95%, inadequate processing equipment (86.1% and inadequate credit facilities (81.7%. Correlation analysis results revealed that age (-0.153, p<0.05 and the years of experience (-0.270, p<0.01 of respondents showed a significant relationship with the indigenous techniques of processing shea butter. It was concluded that indigenous methods of processing shea butter are widespread among respondents, knowledge is acquired through family members and that they are faced with several challenges. Among others, the study recommends the need for extension agents to be posted to rural areas to educate rural women and build on their indigenous knowledge of processing shea butter in order to produce high quality butter.

  10. An Assessment of the Growth of Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria, Using Multi-Temporal Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ajala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the use of GIS and Remote Sensing in monitoring the growth and development pattern of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria over a period of 21 years with a view to predicting its direction of growth. In effect, the study sought to identify and explain the rate and extent of changes in the study area between 1986 and 2007; measure the rate of urban growth in the study area between 1986 and 2007; assess the impact of urban growth on land use patterns; and predict the trend of urban growth in the study area. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Remote Sensing Imagery of Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM 2002 and ALOS 2007 were used to measure the extent of growth and to show the effects of this growth on other Land use/Land cover types. Multi-temporal approach was adopted for the study to detect the changes in the imageries. Pixel analysis was employed to identify and compare the type, nature, trend and magnitude of change that occurred in the study area within the slated dates. The observed land use/land cover and population were projected to the next 15 years. The results showed the growth of Ile-Ife and its effects on other land use classes. Pixel analysis revealed that changes occurred in the magnitude and rate of urbanization in the study area between 1986 and 2007. The results were discussed mainly focusing on the trend of urban growth expansion and its effect to the Environment natural resources, farmland and food security and its contribution to climate change. Its implications to urban planning were also discussed and the recommendations made.

  11. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola T. Bankole

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution based on hydro-geological condition and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors incorporated into DRASTIC model and the geographic information system (GIS were used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The output map shows that the southeast of the aquifer is under very high vulnerability while central parts of aquifer have high vulnerability. Other parts (north, northwest and south of the study area have moderate vulnerability to pollution. For testing of the vulnerability assessment, groundwater quality data were collated from literature for the different vulnerability zones of the study area. The chemical analysis results show that both the southeast and northwest west parts of study area aquifer (very high and moderate vulnerability zones have higher nitrate concentration relative to the rest of aquifer, that are located in high vulnerability zone. The validation of the DRASTIC models was accomplished through pair wise comparison of DRASTIC vulnerability maps (using Pearson’s r correlation coefficient with a total of 14 layers representing original DRASTIC input data, Land cover (LC features, and groundwater TDS, Cl- and NO3 data. Results from the correlation analysis indicate a significant association between high groundwater TDS, NO3 concentrations and distances from certain LC types.

  12. GIS Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A., Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Eludoyin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the spatio-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1986 and 2000 for the whole Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria covering about 270.86 km2. Landsat images of 30 m × 30 m resolution of both 1986 and 2000 were used whereby seven land use types were detected and captured as polygons (shapefiles in Arcview 3.3 version after the images have been geo-rectified. The land use types include farmland, built up area, water, sparse vegetation, primary forest, secondary forest and mangrove. The area in square kilometers of each land use type in each year was calculated and thereafter the change was determined by subtracting the area of the same land use type in 1986 from 2000 and the percentage of change is therefore calculated. In addition, the probability of change of twenty years was also determined from one land use type to another using Markovian Transition Estimator (MTE from IDRISI Andes. The study reveals that farmland, mangrove, primary forest and sparse vegetation reduced over time by 45.34, 37.06, 43.06 and 8.09%, respectively while secondary forest, built up area and water increased by 5.88, 74.55 and 3.43%, respectively. It is also projected by MTE that in 2020 farmland has the probability of 0.570 (57% of changing to secondary forest and 0.154 (15.4% of changing to built up area. Primary forest has the probability of 0.186 (18.6% to change to built up area. It is recommended among others that laws should be promulgated to prevent unlawful expansion of construction of any form and that the people in the communities in the study area should be enlightened and educated on the effects of deforestation on the environment.

  13. Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Adesola Obafemi; Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin; Dozie Richard Opara

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road ju...

  14. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

  15. Development, Implementation and Assessment of a Progressive Reading Log System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Daniel

    Students in upper-level Engineering classes such as Fluid Mechanics often find themselves faced with over 60 pages of reading a week in addition to assigned problems and exam preparation. Since the reading of the textbook is often infrequently assessed, this aspect of course learning is often postponed or omitted. In addition, with this amount of reading, many students quickly find themselves so far behind in the reading that they can no longer catch up. A reading log system where content responsibility is progressively shifted from the instructors questions to student identification and reflection has been developed and implemented in junior-level Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics courses to address several of the issues associated with student use of the textbook. The goal of the reading log is to improve student use of resource material and to provide opportunities for students to develop skills in reading scientific material. Reflective questioning, guided identification of key concepts, probing questions and cyclic problems are some of the tools that are used to stimulate student use of the textbook. In addition, the progressive content of the reading logs is designed to transition the student from rote learning to self-reflection and synthesis of understanding. To evaluate the effectiveness of the resource, student surveys and responses to reading log questions have beenused to guide its development.

  16. Assessment of Liver Fibrosis by Transient Elastography in Patients With HIV and Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Claudia; Agbaji, Oche; Ugoagwu, Placid; Thio, Chloe L.; Auwal, Muazu M.; Ani, Charles; Okafo, Chinedum; Wallender, Erika; Murphy, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the prevalence and risk factors for advanced liver fibrosis (?9.3 kPa) using transient elastography in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–monoinfected and HIV/HBV (hepatitis B virus)–coinfected, antiretroviral naive adults in Nigeria. HBV coinfection and HBV DNA levels significantly increased the risk of advanced fibrosis in HIV and HIV/HBV patients, respectively.

  17. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

  18. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  19. Assessing progress in the development of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differenttitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

  20. Physico-chemical quality assessment of shallow well-waters in Iwo, southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin Oladele Olutona; Seun Adeola Ajisekola

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters of shallow well waters of Iwo have been assessed. Nine different locations in parts of Iwo were considered for this study. The physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard methods and methods described by Ademoroti (1996). Generally, results compare favourably with WHO (2006) standards for drinking water, except water temperature with slight high values compared with WHO limits of < 25 ºC for drinking water. This is an indicati...

  1. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniyan S. Y.; Sangodere T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

  2. Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Lucky; Ekane, O. R.

    2011-01-01

    The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the sto...

  3. Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    H.O Nwankwoala; C.N Nwagbogwu

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006) stan...

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    N. U. Adabara; J. A. Momoh; M. E. Abalaka; Daniyan S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu) sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL SAFETY OF FRESH SHRIMPS OFFERED FOR SALES AT ALESINLOYE AND ELEYELE MARKETS IN IBADAN, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDEJI O.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial assessment of different fresh shrimp sold at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria was carried out. Ten fresh shrimp samples bought at Alesinloye and Eleyele markets in Ibadan Oyo state were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of micro-organisms. Total plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were enumerated using Nutrient Agar (NA, Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB Agar and Salmonella-shigella Agar (SSA respectively. The total counts obtained from sample ranged between 2.7x107 to 7.6x107 cfu/mL and 1.2x107 to 1.38x108 cfu/mL for Eleyele and Alesinloye samples respectively. These were generally high exceeding the limit of 1.0x102 cfu/mL. The coliform count ranged between 7.0x106 to 2.32x108 cfu/mL for Eleyele samples and between 7.6x106 to 1.39x108 cfu/mL for Alesinloye samples also exceeding the limit of zero cfu/mL. The Salmonella-Shigella (SS count ranged between 2.7x107 to 1.10x108 for Eleyele samples and between 7.0x106 to 3.7x107 for Alesinloye samples. Twenty-one isolates were obtained from the Alesinloye samples while twenty-nine isolates were obtained from Eleyele samples. Percentage occurrences of different micro-organisms characterized are as follows: Bacillus sp 1 (4.76%, Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (9.52%, Flavobactreium sp 7 (33.3%, Micrococcus sp 1 (4.76%, Salmonella sp 7 (33.3%, Shigella sp 1 (4.76% and Staphylococcus aureus 2 (9.52% for Alesinloye while that of Eleyele is Bacillus sp 8 (27.6%, Enterobacter aerogenes 2 (6.9%, Flavobactreium sp 4 (13.8%, Micrococcus sp 0 (%, Salmonella sp 7 (24.1%, Shigella sp 7 (24.1% and Staphylococcus aureus 1 (3.4%. Consumption of fresh shrimps and shrimp products processed with unhygienic water should be discouraged.

  6. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Youngu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no library. Sixty-three (63 percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

  7. Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

    Full Text Available This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

  8. Assessment of patients' wound-related pain experiences in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilor, Helen N; Adejumo, Prisca O; Ilesanmi, Rose E

    2014-08-14

    This study was necessitated by the international recognition of wound-related pain (WRP) as a must-address issue and patient-centred concerns. The aim of this study was to assess patients' WRP experiences at rest and in relation to dressing change. This descriptive study utilised a WRP questionnaire which incorporated a visual analogue scale of 0-10 for data collection. A total of 109 patients participated in this study; 95·4% of the participants experienced wound pain at rest and during performance of activities of daily living, which were moderate (47·1%) and severe (30·8%) in intensity. Also, 91·7% of the participants experienced wound dressing change-related pain, mostly as moderate (47·0%) and severe (28·0%) pain. The major factors that worsened WRP experiences were touch/handling, change in position/movement, wound cleansing, removal of dressings and usage of honey as a dressing agent, while the use of analgesic and brief rest between dressing change were considered the major strategies that can relieve WRP. WRP experiences have been reported by patients at rest, during performance of activities of daily living and at wound dressing change. A need to incorporate WRP assessment has been observed, which is vital in improving wound care outcome. PMID:25123165

  9. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES ampersand H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES ampersand H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES ampersand H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES ampersand H issues

  10. Ground Water Quality Assessment in the Basement Complex Areas of Kano State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu G.K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at assessing the quality of underground water for safe drinking in the basement complex region of Kano state. In achieving this aim a total of twenty (20 boreholes were selected at random across the state. Thirteen (13 relevant parameters on the test of water quality were taken into consideration. The research found out that underground water in the area is safe for drinking due natural filtration process that the water undergo, because, the soil chemistry and mineralogy alters the chemistry of the water there by making it safe for drinking by meeting the standard requirement of World Health Organisation (WHO 1984. It is therefore recommended that, more boreholes should be constructed through the intervention of both government and other relevant organsations. Also surface water source should also be improve to reduce the burden that underground water source might have encountered.

  11. Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adesola Obafemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road junctions were digitized as points which are otherwise referred to as nodes while the roads as lines which are also called Arcs. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe the road condition, pavements and types of the road network in the study. The connectivity level in the road network was determined with the use of Beta Index (BI. The road density was determined with respect to the road length per unit area. The road density was high (8.07 km-1 while the connectivity level of road network was also high (0.77. In terms of road condition, the analysis revealed that road length of 26.66 km (97.19 % was tarred and in good condition out of 27.43 km of total road length in the study. In terms of road types, the analysis showed that the total length of dualized road type was 6.14 km (22.38 % while 21.29 km (77.62 % were not dualized.

  12. Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

  13. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria faces a tremendous shortfall in housing provisions, especially in its urban areas. Consequently, Public-Private Partnership in housing provisions has been adopted as a means of addressing this problem. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies in the government-provider approach to housing, but adequate attention has not been given to the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. This paper attempts to fill this gap in litera...

  15. Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Edafiaje, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs) in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part) for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured question...

  16. Assessment of Clinical Diagnosis, Microscopy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests, and Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola Ojurongbe; Olunike Olayeni Adegbosin; Sunday Samuel Taiwo; Oyebode Armstrong Terry Alli; Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe; Taiwo Adetola Ojurongbe; Oloyede Samuel Bolaji; Oluwaseyi Adegboyega Adeyeba

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the performance of clinical diagnosis and three laboratory diagnostic methods (thick film microscopy (TFM), rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Using clinical criteria, 217 children were recruited into the study out of which 106 (48.8%) were positive by TFM, 84 (38.7%) by RDT, and 125 (57.6%) by PCR. Using a composite reference method generated from the three diagnostic methods, 71 (32.7%)...

  17. External Debts Management Strategies in Developing Economies: An Impact Assessment on Selected Economic Indices of Nigeria (2002–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Uche Lucy Onyekwelu; Emma Okoye; Uche Boniface Ugwuanyi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines External Debts Management Strategies in developing economies and its implications on some key economic indices using Nigeria as a case study. This work has adopted both the content analysis and the empirical approach. Data for this study were basically secondary data. The quantitative data for analysis were gathered from the statistical bulletins/releases of relevant government agencies like the Debt Management Office, Central Bank and the Office of the Accountant General ...

  18. An Assessment of the Impact of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Structural Adjustment Programme on Cotton Production and Utilization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ammani, Aliyu A.

    2012-01-01

    At Nigerias independence, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy. It provided employment, food, raw materials for industry and foreign exchange. However, within 20 years of Independence the country became unable to cope with the overall needs of its food and raw materials. Increased foreign exchange earnings from the export of crude oil were implicated as leading to the neglect and subsequent decline in the performance of the Nigerian agricultural sector. The Structural Adjustment Progra...

  19. Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

    2010-01-01

    The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to proce...

  20. Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Ndidi Nkeki; Philip John Henah; Vincent Nduka Ojeh

    2013-01-01

    River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial inf...

  1. Assessment of the Chemical Characteristics of a Spring Water Source at Ife-Owutu, Ezinihite-Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeneme, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical characteristics of the Giri Giri Nwanjoku Spring in Owutu Ezinihitte-Mbaise, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated to carefully determine some basic geochemical constituents of the water sourcewith a view to identifying those constituents whose concentrations are unacceptably high, compared with the maximum permissible level of a regulatory body and as such determine its wholesome portability for diverse usage. The resultant data conform to the Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007...

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Osuji, U. S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and e...

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S. Y.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105 cfu/ml and fungal counts ranged from 3.0 103 cfu/ml – 36.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of Klebsiella and Bacillus while fungi isolated include Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and species of Candida and Mucor. The most frequently occurring bacteria was S. aureus while the most frequently occurring fungal was species of Mucor. Conclusion: The results suggested that the soybean cheese samples were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and could cause health hazard to the consumers. There is need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation as a good hygienic practice in the production and preparation of the soybean cheese since it serves as a good source of protein, carbohydrate and fat being of great nutritional value to the consumers.

  4. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S.Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

  5. Assessment of Surface Water Quality around Dumpsites in the City of Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Aboho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of surface water around Ring road and Orita-Aperin dumpsites were assessed for a period of one year (June 2005 to May 2009 using standards methods of analysis. The following parameters: temperature, turbidity, total dissolves solids (TDS, conductivity, hardness, nitrates, sulphates and ammonia were determined. The mean values per sampling point were temperature (28.40 oC, pH (7.20, total hardness (87.00 mgCaCO3L-1 nitrate (11.44 mgL-1 ammonia (0.12 mgL-1, sulphate (7.2 mgL-1, turbidity (431 FTU, total dissolved solids (365 mgL-1 and conductivity (47.00 mSm-2mol-1 for Ring road were not significantly different from those at Orita-Aperin and the other dumpsites. Also, mean values per samples of the same parameters from Agbowo control sites did not differ significantly from those at Ring road, the main dumpsites with the exception of their relatively, high pH, nitrate, ammonia and TDS values. The results were found to compare favourably with WHO and Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA limits, exception of turbidity. The study has revealed that surface water quality around the dumpsites has not been severely impacted as is usually assumed, even though it has been polluted to some degree. 

  6. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechiel Longe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

  7. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braide Wesley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

  8. An Assessment of Gully Erosion in Gombe Town, Gombe State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Abore Mbaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of gullies is one of the severe environmental problems in Gombe town. It has threatens urban infrastructure, properties, lives and the physical growth of the town. Knowing the rates of gully development in the last decade helped explain the reasons for current land degradation. This research work therefore assessed gully erosion in Gombe town. Data used in this study were derived from field measurements, satellite imageries, and laboratory analysis and questionnaire survey. Results from the interpretation of Spot 5(1999 and Quick Birds (2009 imageries and field measurements showed that gully variables (length, depth and widths have significantly increased in the last 10 years. Laboratory analysis of soil particle size revealed that sand proportion was 52%, silt 9.5% and clay 38.5%. The values of Atterberg limits (liquid limits; plasticity limit and the plasticity index (PI, shear strength (cohesion and angle of internal friction and bulk density values were low, soil chemical properties also showed that the soils are moderately acidic, contained low organic matter, and low exchangeable cations, with serious implication on biological methods of erosion control.

  9. Assessment of communication skills among Pharmacy students of the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, BA; Ogunbiyi, OO

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Communication skill is the bridge between the pharmacists and the patient. Communication in health can contribute to all aspects of disease prevention and health promotion. In order to become successful pharmacists, one needs to possess excellent communication skills to serve clients. This study was conducted at the University of Lagos to assess communication skills of Pharmacy students. METHOD: The study was descriptive and cross sectional. It was carried out between May and July 2009. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The questionnaire had two sections - the bio data section and pre-formulated questions on communication skills which has three options and one of these is the best option. RESULTS: A total number of 125 respondents were involved in the study which included 25 students from 200level, 50 from 300level and 50 from 500 level. Majority of them were between 18-25 years old (89.6%). There were more females (71.2%) than males (28.8%). Also most of them were Christians (71.2%). Among the respondents, about 62% picked the best options as their answer while the rest picked other options. There was no statistical difference in the choice of best options between the different levels of study. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded from the results of this study that majority of Pharmacy Students at the University of Lagos had good communication skills and they will be able to discharge their duties as pharmacists when they eventually graduate. PMID:24826026

  10. Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, Lucky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the stock market were also x-rayed. Also highlighted were the trading, clearing and settlement process of the Nigerian stock exchange and the short comings. The study concluded that for the Nigerian stock exchange to contribute significantly in the development of the Nigerian economy through mobilization and utilization of funds for expansion of business enterprises in the country, it should intensify efforts in creating public awareness as regards its services to the economy, effective investor education, fostering and stimulating speculation in the market and reforms that would compel investors to take due diligence when funds are to be raised by government to eliminate the buying and selling culture that exists in the market should be carried out.

  11. Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoobe T.O.T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Water Quality Characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Akindele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical water quality of Lake Tiga was monitored over a two-year period (March 2009-March 2011 in order to bridge the information gap on its limnology and assess its physico-chemical condition. Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO saturation and organic matter were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the rainy season than in the dry season, while pH and Biological Oxygen Demand were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the dry season than in the rainy season. Apparent colour, Total Solids (TS, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, K+ Cl-, total acidity, total hardness, NO3- and PO43- decreased (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site, while water transparency, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, SO42 and Mg2+ showed an increase (p<0.05 from the riverine section towards the dam site. Apparent colour, TS, TSS, total acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ NO3- and PO43- increased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom, while pH, Mg2+ and DO decreased (p<0.05 from the surface down to the bottom at the lacustrine section of the lake. Cluster analysis of the parameters showed major clusters between the major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and the general chemical characteristics (TDS, alkalinity, conductivity, acidity and hardness and also between the nutrient compounds (Organic matter, NO3- and PO43- and the hydro-physical parameters (TS, TSS, apparent colour, true colour and turbidity. The water quality indices and sodium absorption ratio values in the sampled stations indicated that the water is most suitable for probable applications at the lacustrine section, towards the dam site.

  13. Chemical Water Quality Assessment in Selected Location in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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    G.G. Jidauna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examined well water quality (chemical in Jos metropolis which it collected a total of twenty water samples that were taken for laboratory analysis. The stratified systematic random method was used in the selection of sample area/location. A total of (10 out of the existing (20 wards were systematically selected, while in each of the wards, two wells with one each from higher and lower elevations were randomly selected in which water samples were collected. The samples collected were analyses at UNICEF (WATSAN Laboratory Bauchi. USEPA method of water analysis was used to test for the chemical parameters. Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient was used test for the relationship between high and low elevation in the sample elements, as well as mean and standard deviation. The results indicates that pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, As and Cyanide appears within NSDWQMPL, while NO2, Cl, F, Mn, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, CaCo3 and Cr marginally falls within acceptable standard for drinking water quality maximum permitted limit. Consequently, NO3, SO4, Fe and CaCo3 in some parts of Jos metropolis fall outside acceptable standard of NSDWQMPL. Moreover, pH, E.C, TDS, Pb, NO2, NO3, Cl, F, Mn, Cr, As, Cu, Zn, showed that there is no significant relationship within the individual elements in regards to elevation (high and low in the study area whereas, SO4, Fe, Mg, Ca, CaCo 3 and CaCo3 showed that there is significant relationship in elevation (high and low among the individual sample elements. The study concludes that well water quality through chemical assessment in Jos metropolis is not fit for drinking. It recommends sensitizations campaign on the importance of clean water, sanitation, enforcement of existing laws and more research be undertaken to cover for seasonal variation, more elements and sample size.

  14. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong, Aliyu Haliru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration exceeds in two water samples; others are beyond detection level. In all, concentration of heavy metals in groundwater is in the order Mn >Fe > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni. The implication of the elevated levels of heavy metals in some samples of groundwater is a serious cause for concern to public health. Most of the groundwater samples are good and can be used for irrigation with adequate soil management

  15. Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 ?Gyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 ?Gyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14?Svy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ? 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

  16. Radiological assessment of fish samples due to natural radionuclides in river Yobe, Northern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12), fish became outliers with significant values of 112.53?Svy-1, 121.11?Svy-1 and 114.32?Svy-1 effective dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as well as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

  17. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kudi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmers’ budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the traders’ budget revealed that from an investment cost of 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders’ are making a revenue of 41,700.00 (lint + seed and a net profit of 4,954.00 ton-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors. There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  18. Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Nwankwoala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006 standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006 limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l. The concentration of sodium ion (Na+ ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water, except chloride with low values (9.5 to 158mg/l compared to W.H.O limit of 250m/l for drinking water. The low concentration is an indication of absence of salt water intrusion in the area. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is recommended that regular hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation. More importantly, hydrogeological study is very imperative to fully understand the hydrogeology of the area.

  19. Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mmadu, R. A. O.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation ...

  20. Risk Assessment Analysis of Accelerated Gully Erosion in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aderemi Adediji; Iyamu Felix

    2012-01-01

    The problem of accelerated erosion has been on in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area (LGA) in particular and Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living around the gullies in the area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining sediment loss from the gully sites, the vulnerable areas and threat posed by impact of gullies in the study LGA. Oregbeni Housing Estate and Ede School gully e...

  1. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole, Olufunmilola T.; Ojuri, Oluwapelumi O.

    2013-01-01

    Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show...

  2. Manganese as a Reference Element for the Assessment of Zinc Enrichment and Depletion in Selected Farming Soils of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Uduma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn content was evaluated of the arable soils in the vicinity of mining and dumping sites in Nigeria. Its content the arable soils assayed by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS ranged from 48.3 to 280.4 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF calculated by using manganese as a crustal reference element fell within a range of 16.3-161.2. The mean values of the enrichment factor of 59.41 classified the soil as extremely high enrichment with zinc. Anthropogenic activities contribute significantly to the elevated level of zinc in the studied areas.

  3. Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babagana, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

  4. National Assessment of Educational Progress: Background and Status. CRS Report for Congress. 91-232-EPW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Paul M.; And Others

    The current progress of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is examined, and its background is summarized. Federally financed since the late 1960's, the NAEP is a survey of U.S. students' achievment in various subject areas. As an indicator of change in elementary and secondary educational achievement, it has received attention…

  5. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

  6. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  7. The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Oriavwote

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the determinants of the real exchange rate in Nigeria. The objective of the study has been to present a dynamic model of real exchange rate determination and empirically test the implications of changes in possible determinants of the real exchange in Nigeria. With data covering 1970-2010, the parsimonious ECM result shows amongst others that the ratio of government spending to GDP, terms of trade and technological progress are not important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The result showed that capital flow, price level and nominal effective exchange rate are important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The paper suggests that the Dutch Disease syndrome holds in Nigeria. The Johansen cointegration test suggests a long relationship among the variables. It is thus recommended amongst others that policies have to be put in place to stabilize the problem of inflation.

  8. Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gambo Akpoko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973 definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986 is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991. Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999. The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999. They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999. For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP. The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on crop yields a

  9. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

  10. The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.C. Mbagwu

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

  11. External Debts Management Strategies in Developing Economies: An Impact Assessment on Selected Economic Indices of Nigeria (2002–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche Lucy Onyekwelu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines External Debts Management Strategies in developing economies and its implications on some key economic indices using Nigeria as a case study. This work has adopted both the content analysis and the empirical approach. Data for this study were basically secondary data. The quantitative data for analysis were gathered from the statistical bulletins/releases of relevant government agencies like the Debt Management Office, Central Bank and the Office of the Accountant General of the Federation. The qualitative information was sourced via textbooks, and scholarly journal publications accessed through the internet. Data were analysed using the Linear Regression and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The linear regression showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the size of External Debts and Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Capital Expenditure, External Reserves and Exports. However, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA reveals a negative correlation between External Debts and the variables studied. The study attributes this anomaly to mismanagement of credit facilities, unfavourable loan terms characterized by capitalization/compounding of interests, weak economic base, poorly co-ordinated statistics on loans and overdependence on foreign aids among others. This development has led to poor performance of almost all the key economic indices of the country resulting in dearth of infrastructural development, very weak real sector, and high unemployment rate and so on. The paper recommends that developing economies should manage credits better by appropriating the funds to sectors that would ensure diversification of their economic base. Nigeria should pursue deliberate policy that will encourage a virile productive sector, place less emphasis on external borrowings as most of the credits are given under very unfavourable credit conditions and their repayments erode the much needed funds for economic development. The various governments should see external borrowings as a last resort and when contracted must be employed to finance only self- sustaining projects that will stimulate real sector and other factors of production needed to engender sustainable economic development.

  12. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  13. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  14. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

  15. Assessing Progress in Mastery of Counseling Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntze, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    During the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine (Murphy, Murphy & Newcomb, 1937). However, during the second half of the last century this term also came into vogue for describing social interactions between humans (Argyle, 1981). Social sk...

  16. Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and...

  17. Health insurance reform in the Netherlands: assessing the progressivity consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Richard; Doorslaer, Eddy van; Wagstaff, Adam

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the proposed Health Insurance Reform in The Netherlands on the incidence of the burden of health care finance. The focus of attention is on the measurement of the degree of progressivity of health care payments with respect to income. By means of an empirical simulation, we have examined how the regressiveness of the Dutch health care financing system would have been affected if the proposed health insurance reform had already been implemented in 1987. Th...

  18. Assessment of Risk of Possible Exposure to Rabies among Processors and Consumers of Dog Meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Odeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan, by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6% were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4% were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9% knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6% knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8% did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49 and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43 at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9% of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure.

  19. Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent testing and validation have found that the GOES microburst products are effective in the assessment and short-term forecasting of downburst potential and associated wind gust magnitude. Two products, the GOES sounder Microburst Windspeed Potential Index and the multispectral GOES imager product have demonstrated capability in downburst potential assessment. Each microburst product consists of a set of predictor variables that generates output of expected microburst ri...

  20. Capital Flight and Nigeria Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJAYI LAWRENCE BOBOYE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper provides evidence on the negative impact of the assessment of capital flight on economic growth of Nigeria for 40 years (1970-2009. It provides a comprehensive analysis of capital flight and its resultant impact on domestic investment and the growth rate of the economy. The study used cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM as its main estimation techniques. It was discovered that capital flight and its assessments are significant factors for explaining economic trends in Nigeria. It was also discovered that capital flight have negative impact on the economy. Consequently, it is recommended that funds from foreign sources in form of loans, gifts, grants and aids should be judiciously used for economic development of Nigeria. Above all, government should provide enabling environment for business to thrive thereby encouraging foreign direct investment and discouraging capital flight.

  1. Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edafiaje, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured questionnaire used as instrument for data collection. The study showed that Microfinance service, particularly, those sponsored by government, have resulted in an increased level of credit disbursement and gains in agricultural production and other activities, the effects were short- lived, due to the unsustainable nature of the programme. Microfinance banks should increase the interval between asking for loans repayment and the time of granting the loans as this renders useless the study or verification of the borrower feasibility study, more especially under an inflationary period.

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria faces a tremendous shortfall in housing provisions, especially in its urban areas. Consequently, Public-Private Partnership in housing provisions has been adopted as a means of addressing this problem. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies in the government-provider approach to housing, but adequate attention has not been given to the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. This paper attempts to fill this gap in literature by examining the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. A study of thirteen government agencies in six selected Nigerian cities was undertaken. The findings indicate that though the agencies tended to focus on the provision of access to land and the regulatory framework for housing development, the majority of Nigerians have not benefited from this arrangement. The paper recommends that government agencies should also be involved in providing basic amenities and subsidies to ensure that Public-Private Partnership housing serves the interest of most Nigerians.

  3. Risk Assessment Analysis of Accelerated Gully Erosion in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderemi Adediji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of accelerated erosion has been on in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area (LGA in particular and Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living around the gullies in the area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining sediment loss from the gully sites, the vulnerable areas and threat posed by impact of gullies in the study LGA. Oregbeni Housing Estate and Ede School gully erosion sites in the Ikpoba-Okha LGA were purposively selected for this study. Primary data were collected using GPS receiver.These include the geographic coordinates and elevation of the study gullies catchments which were integrated with the secondary data obtained from satellite image, topographic, geologic, road and lay out maps of the area using Arc GIS 9.3 software. The results of the satellite image classification analysis showed that accelerated gully erosion accounted for 2% (100466.57 m2 of the total areal extent of the study LGA (5189010.57 m2. Of this 2%, Queen Ede School gully accounted for 96957.13 m2. The total estimated sediment loss from Queen Ede School and Oregbeni Housing Estate gullies were 359,173.22 and 48,212.62 tonnes, respectively. These indicated severe land degradation in the study area.

  4. Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiri, N N; Emelue, H U

    2008-09-01

    Radioactivity measurements have been carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the radionuclide concentrations in soil samples in the premises of the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and also in communities around it. The radionuclide contents of the crude oil and petroleum additives were also similarly determined. Results indicate that on the premises used by the company, the ranges of activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Th in the soil samples were 261.3-932.3 Bq kg(-1),refining activities does not seem to have affected radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Measurements also showed that the observed radiation dose rates did not vary significantly from the previously determined Warri City outdoor gamma radiation dose rates, for which the probability of occurrence of any health effects of radiation was judged low. The measurements, therefore, are interpreted to represent baseline radiometric data for future reference and research in the area. PMID:18714134

  5. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0?µg/dL than the roadside 43.5?µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  6. Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva

    2008-01-01

      Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200 pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual to collaborative learning combined to indicate three notable changes resulting from the strategy: (1) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT applied in education to address future augmented teacher - students' liaisons.

  7. Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    Recent testing and validation have found that the GOES microburst products are effective in the assessment and short-term forecasting of downburst potential and associated wind gust magnitude. Two products, the GOES sounder Microburst Windspeed Potential Index and the multispectral GOES imager product have demonstrated capability in downburst potential assessment. Each microburst product consists of a set of predictor variables that generates output of expected microburst risk. This paper compares and contrasts the sounder and imager microburst products and outlines the advantages of each product in the nowcasting process. An updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst products, case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and validation results for the 2009 convective season over United States Great Plains is presented.

  8. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

  9. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg-1, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg-1 and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg-1, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg-1, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg-1 and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  11. An Assessment of the Effects of Root and Tuber Expansion Project (RTEP on the Livelihood of Cassava Processors in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achem, Bello Alli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the effects of the Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP on the livelihood of project beneficiaries in Kwara State, Nigeria. A 3-stage sampling technique was adopted for the study, selecting a total of 80 cassava processors from two Agricultural Development Programme (ADP zones in the State. Structured interview schedule was used as instrument to elicit primary data from processors. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socio economic characteristics of the respondents. The t-test was used to test the hypotheses on the relationship between the income and livelihood of RTEP beneficiaries and non beneficiaries, while those on the socio economic characteristics was tested using the Mann-Whitney (U test. The findings of the study showed that RTEP provided more than 73 percent of total cassava processing equipment in the study area. The study further revealed that there was no significant difference in the socio-economic characteristics and livelihood of RTEP and Non RTEP participants. There was however a significant difference in their income. Amongst others, the study recommended massive investment in subsidizing critical cassava processing equipment, and provision of micro-credit at low interest rates to cassava processors.

  12. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  13. Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. Adepoju

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Also, the potential erosion rates from the erosion classes identified ranged from 0.0 to 4185.12 ton/ac/yr. About 65.47% of the study area was under the first class with erosion rates lies between 0.0 and 10 ton/ac/yr.The most severe eroded area with erosion rates between 104.80 and 4,185.12 ton/ac/yr accounted for about 1.86% of the study area.On the whole, this study has demonstrated the significance of Satellite (RS and GIS technologies in modeling erosion.

  14. Biometric and Intelligent Self-Assessment of Student Progress System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Pruskus, V.; Vlasenko, A.; Seniut, M.; Kaklauskas, G.; Matuliauskaite, A.; Gribniak, V.

    2010-01-01

    All distance learning participants (students, professors, instructors, mentors, tutors and the rest) would like to know how well the students have assimilated the study materials being taught. The analysis and assessment of the knowledge students have acquired over a semester are an integral part of the independent studies process at the most…

  15. Patients’ Knowledge about Causes and Solutions of Infertility in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olukunmi ‘Lanre OLAITAN

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infertility inability to conceive after exposure to continuous unprotected sex for twelve months, is a major cause of marriage conflict in south west Nigeria. Knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility among selected patients were assessed in 18 hospital/fertility centre across the 6 states in south west geo-political zone of Nigeria. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge of patients about causes and solutions to infertility in south west Nigeria. Methods/study Desig...

  16. Optical Assessment of Vascular Disease Progression and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua A.

    Vascular disease manifests itself in many different forms, including chronic ulcers which do not heal, impaired blood flow to the limbs, or damage to the natural reperfusion process. The current forms of assessing vascular disease are often subjective and provide incomplete knowledge about the tissue of interest. This work focused on developing non-invasive techniques to quantitatively evaluate three specific elements of vascular disease: diabetic ulcers, venous ulcers, and peripheral arterial disease. Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) was used to predict healing (82% positive predictive value) in diabetic ulcers after 4 weeks of assessment (sensitivity of 0.9 and specificity of 0.86; pwearable applicator, was assessed using DNIRS and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS), wherein it was established that capillary flow changes over time in healing venous ulcers compared to wounds which do not heal (pdata). Finally, DNIRS and DCS were used in conjunction to assess the reactive hyperemic response in patients with suspected Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). It was found that the time between the release of cuff occlusion in the diseased limb and the first peak of reperfusion (flow mediated dilatation) correlated to PAD severity, with longer times (>30 seconds) belonging to patients with PAD (p<0.05). Additionally, it was discovered that the magnitude of the reperfusion did not relate to PAD, but rather to tobacco use. Patients who smoked had reduced hyperemic responses (p<0.02), whether or not they had PAD. Overall, this work represents an improvement over gold standard qualitative assessments of vascular health and the results obtained promise to develop new clinically relevant and quantitative techniques using non-invasive optical modalities.

  17. Assessing the Restructuring of SADC - Positions, Policies and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Jan; Tjønneland, Elling N.

    2001-01-01

    This study was commissioned by Norad. The Report provides an assessment of the institutional restructuring of SADC and an input to the planning of future Norwegian assistance to regional co-operation in Southern Africa. The institutional reforms mainly revolve around the changing role and functions of the SADC Secretariat but also include the sector co-ordinating units in member states which have been found highly uneven in their ability to pursue and implement policies; the establishment of ...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in commercially available infant formulae in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Edeme, Justy N; Tesi, Godswill O; Bassey, Francisca I; Martincigh, Bice S; Nwajei, Godwin E

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commercially available infant formulae and follow-up formulae in Nigeria were determined with a view to providing information on the health risks to children from the consumption of these infant foods. The concentrations of PAHs were measured by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after extraction by ultrasonication with acetone/dichloromethane and clean-up. The concentrations of the ?16 PAHs in these infant formulae ranged from 0.102 to 1.98 ?g kg(-1), 0.054-1.98 ?g kg(-1), 0.081-2.54 ?g kg(-1) and 0.51-0.70 ?g kg(-1) for infants of ages 0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-3 years and 0-12 months respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in all samples investigated were below the 1 ?g kg(-1) European Commission permissible limit for BaP in foods meant for infants. The estimated daily intake of PAHs based on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) suggested indicators of occurrence and effects of PAHs in foods were not detected (nd) to 2.67 ng BaP kg(-1) bw day(-1), nd-5.29 ng PAH2 kg(-1) bw day(-1), nd-11.20 ngPAH4 kg(-1) bw day(-1) and nd-34.96 ng PAH8 kg(-1) bw day(-1). The estimated margin of exposure (MOE) values: BaP-MOE, PAH2-MOE, PAH4-MOE and PAH8-MOE values were greater than 10,000 which indicates that there are no health risks from the consumption of these products by infants. The concentrations and dietary exposure to PAHs from these products were similar to values reported in the literature for European Communities. PMID:25047213

  19. An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola Adeyemi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

  20. Assessment of the Chemical Characteristics of a Spring Water Source at Ife-Owutu, Ezinihite-Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeneme, S.I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical characteristics of the Giri Giri Nwanjoku Spring in Owutu Ezinihitte-Mbaise, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated to carefully determine some basic geochemical constituents of the water sourcewith a view to identifying those constituents whose concentrations are unacceptably high, compared with the maximum permissible level of a regulatory body and as such determine its wholesome portability for diverse usage. The resultant data conform to the Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007 and the World Health Organization (2006 Standard. The water source is generally neutral with an average pH of 6.85. However, the samples gave an average Calcium and Magnesium ion concentrations of 3.205mg/l and 0.82mg/l respectively and an average hardness (as CaCO3 of 11.375mg/l, indicating that the water is relatively soft. The Stiff and Schoeller plots show at a glance the spatial variations of the chemical constituents of the spring with Tri-oxo-carbonate and Calcium dominating. From the Box and Whisker plot, the greater amount of the cations and anions lie within the second quarter of the box ranging from 0.01meq/l to 0.05meq/l indicating similarity in origin. The Piper trilinear diagram reveals an alkaline earth and weak acid group predominantly the Tri-oxo-carbonate and as suchclassified as Ca-(Mg-Na-HCO3 water facies which indicates portability. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SARand Percentage Sodium (%Na values of 0.27 and 34.20% respectively show that the water is good for Agricultural use. The Pollution Index (PI value of 0.6 (which is less than the critical value of unity shows thatthe spring water is not polluted. For industrial use, the Saturation Index (SI value of -3.41 reveals that the water may lead to moderate corrosion if not properly treated.

  1. Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements have been carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the radionuclide concentrations in soil samples in the premises of the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and also in communities around it. The radionuclide contents of the crude oil and petroleum additives were also similarly determined. Results indicate that on the premises used by the company, the ranges of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Th in the soil samples were 261.3-932.3 Bq kg-1,-1 and-1, respectively. For the 13 villages studied, activity concentrations ranged from -1,-1 and-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 228Th. The lowest radionuclide concentrations were found in the crude oil relative to the petroleum additives. The highest outdoor effective dose rate obtained in the study was 47.5 ?Sv y-1 for the villages and 35.2 ?Sv y-1 within the company premises. These values are less than the world average outdoor value of 70 ?Sv y-1 given by UNSCEAR. Overall, it can be concluded that the long duration of refining activities does not seem to have affected radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Measurements also showed that the observed radiation dose rates dhat the observed radiation dose rates did not vary significantly from the previously determined Warri City outdoor gamma radiation dose rates, for which the probability of occurrence of any health effects of radiation was judged low. The measurements, therefore, are interpreted to represent baseline radiometric data for future reference and research in the area

  2. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

  3. Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in Parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: The Case of Imo Shale and Ameki Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifiok E. Udoinyang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-geochemical survey is undertaken in parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria, particularly in the geologic formations of Imo Shale and Ameki, to assess the quality of groundwater. Eleven samples of groundwater are obtained from various boreholes in the study area and subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques. The study is aimed at the assessment of the groundwater quality indicators namely: pH, electrical conductivity (N, phosphate (PO4, sulphate (SO4, nitrate(NO3- and total dissolved solids (TDS. The result shows that the water from boreholes in Umuahia has low pH, and is therefore acidic. The pH values range between 4.40 and 5.60, which is below the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5. The acidity probably results from carbonic acid derived from the solution of CO2 from both the atmosphere and the decomposition of plant materials in the soil zone. The acidity of the groundwater gives slight sour taste to drinking water, due to the mobilization of trace metals from the aquifer material into the groundwater system, because of the corrosive effect of acidic water. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace metals end up in domestic supplies resulting in health implications and complaints. Acidic waters are typically low in buffering calcium minerals, but are high in dissolved carbon dioxide gas, which can cause the low pH or acidity. Calcite neutralizer tanks with natural crushed and screened pure calcium carbonate easily neutralize acidic water from 6.0 to 6.9. Below 6.0 a blend of calcite and Corosex is recommended. Common systems used to treat low pH: Calcite Neutralizer, calcite & Corosex Blend Neutralizer, pflow Neutralizer, Soda Ash Feed Pump Injection System.

  4. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.?

  5. Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Texas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This Technical Brief examines the alignment between the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be…

  6. Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunde, Oluwatoyin T; Mills, Graham A; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

    2014-01-01

    Soils from 12 sites in Lagos area, Nigeria impacted by anthropogenic activities were extracted by ultrasonication and analysed for the concentration of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The concentration of the sum of PAHs ranged from 0.2 to 254 ?g/g at these sites. The sum benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent dose (BaPeq) at the sites ranged from 0.0 (K, forest soil) to 16.7 ?g/g (C, the lubricating oil depot soil). Mean daily intake (MDI) for the composite soils samples when compared that of food revealed that some of the individual PAH in samples from sites A (Dump site), C (Depot and loading point for used for black oil), F (Dump site), G(petroleum depot), H (Roadside) and L (Car park) exceeded the recommended the recommended MDI threshold for food, indicating some risk associated with activities on these sites based on this ingestion estimate exceeded value. 8.2 × 10(-6), 7.1 × 10(-7), 1.2 × 10(-4), 4.9 × 10(-7), 7.3 × 10(-7), 1.4 × 10(-5), 7.9 × 10(-5), 4.6 × 10(-6), 3.4 × 10(-7), 2.4 × 10(-7), 2.2 × 10(-7) and 1.1 × 10(-4) estimated theoretical cancer risk (ER) for an adult with a body weight of 70 kg working on sites were composite soil samples A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L respectively were sampled. The ER from occupational exposure to surface soil based on oral ingestion were all higher than the target risk of 1 × 10(-6) for normal exposure but were all within the 1 × 10(-4) for extreme exposure for most of the sites except for site C and L. The differences in concentration and risk were related to the different activities (e.g., handling of petroleum products, open burning, bush burning) undertaken at these locations. However, it should be noted here that the resultant risk could be overestimated, since these calculations were based on an exhaustive extraction technique which may be different from uptake by the human guts (bioavailability study). PMID:25320853

  7. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  8. Linking Statewide Tests to the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Stability of Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Robert L.; Kiplinger, Vonda L.

    1995-01-01

    The adequacy of linking statewide standardized test results to the National Assessment of Educational Progress by using equipercentile equating procedures was investigated using statewide mathematics data from four states. Results suggest that the linkings are not sufficiently trustworthy to make comparisons based on the tails of the distribution.…

  9. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all the defined boundaries. This ensures the accuracy of the classification. Third, when item threshold parameters vary a bit, the scoring rubrics and the items need to be reviewed to make the threshold parameters similar across items. This is because one important design criterion of the learning progression-based items is that ideally, a student should be at the same level across items, which means that the item threshold parameters (d1, d 2 and d3) should be similar across items. To design a learning progression-based science assessment, we need to understand whether the assessment measures a single construct or several constructs and how items are associated with the constructs being measured. Results from dimension analyses indicate that items of different carbon transforming processes measure different aspects of the carbon cycle construct. However, items of different practices assess the same construct. In general, there are high correlations among different processes or practices. It is not clear whether the strong correlations are due to the inherent links among these process/practice dimensions or due to the fact that the student sample does not show much variation in these process/practice dimensions. Future data are needed to examine the dimensionalities in terms of process/practice in detail. Finally, based on item characteristics analysis, recommendations are made to write more discriminative CR items and better OMC, MTF options. Item writers can follow these recommendations to write better learning progression-based items.

  10. Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20?Sv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtainedh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

  11. Exchange Rate Volatility and Export Trade in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyu, Shehu Usman Rano

    2008-01-01

    The paper seeks to quantitatively assess the impact of exchange rate volatility on non oil export flows in Nigeria. Theoretically, volatility-trade link is ambiguous, although a strand of studies reported inverse link between export flow and volatility. The paper employed fundamental analysis where the flow of non oil exports from the Nigerian economy is assumed to be predicated on fundamental variables: the naira exchange rate volatility, the US dollar volatility, Nigeria’s terms of trade ...

  12. Management of protected areas in Sahel savannah ecoregion of Nigeria under the threat of desertification

    OpenAIRE

    Borokini, Temitope Israel; Ojo, Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the challenges facing 8 selected protected areas in the Sahel Savannah ecoregion and proffer solutions to these challenges in order to ensure conservation and sustainability of Nigeria’s biodiversity. Primary data were collected from randomly-selected 120 staffs using questionnaire administration from 8 Forest Reserves within Borno and Yobe states of Nigeria. A high level of encroachment of all the studied protected areas was observed, which ranged from de...

  13. Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes. PMID:23601404

  14. Bilateral Trade Talk between Nigeria and India: A Recipe

    OpenAIRE

    Shehu Usman Rano, Aliyu

    2007-01-01

    This paper on bilateral trade talk between Nigeria and India: a recipe seeks to assess the impact of exogenous factors on bilateral trade flows between the two countries. Gravity model of bilateral trade flow with import and export as regressands were estimated with income, exchange rate and index of openness as regressors in the import demand and export supply models. Results show that all the three variables were strong drivers of bilateral trade flows for India, to the exclusion of Nigeria...

  15. Using aromatic biological markers as a tool for assessing thermal maturity of source rocks in the Campano-Maastrichtian Mamu Formation, southeastern Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jude E, Ogala; Mike I, Akaegbobi.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La concentración y distribución de biomarcadores aromáticos en carbones y esquistos de cinco perforaciones en la formación Maastrichtian Mamu de la cuenca de Anambra, en el sureste de Nigeria, fueron analizados a través de un estudio de espectometría cromatográfico y de masa del gas para medir la ma [...] durez termal y la entrada de material orgánico. El estudio está enfocado en las variaciones de la abundancia relativa de naftalinas y fenantrenos, y en los esteroides monoaromáticos y triaromáticos identificados en los fragmentogramas de masas. La trimetinaftalina (TMN) es la más abundante de la familia de las naftalinas mientras el metilfenantreno (MP) es el más abundante de los fenantrenos. El tota de los fenantrenos y sus isómeros fue mayor que el de las naftalinas. La distribución de estos hidrocarbones aromáticos y sus alquilos derivados fue controlada ampliamente por un mecanismo de expulsión selectiva y de la maduración térmica de material orgánico. La baja proporción dibenziotofeno/fenantreno (DBT/PHEN) (0.01-0.06), al igual que las concentraciones mejoradas de 1,2,5-TMN relativas de 1,2,7-TMN indican que la materia orgánica se deriva principalmente de plantas mayores, y del diagrama terniario de los esteroides monoaromáticos C27, C28 y C29 sugiere un tipo III mezclado con tipos II/III de querógenos. El valor calculado de la reflectancia de vitrinita (%Rm) determinado de la proporción de isómeros de metildibenziotofeno (MDR) en los extractos rocosos oscila de 0.51 a 1.43. Estos valores de madurez indican que los extractos de carbones y esquistos son marginalmente maduros para la generación de hidrocarbono. Abstract in english The concentration and distribution of aromatic biomarkers in coals and shales from five boreholes penetrating the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess the thermal maturity and organic matter input [...] . The study focused on the variations of the relative abundances of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and monaromatic and triaromatic steroids identified on the mass fragmentograms. Trimethylnaphthalene (TMN) is the most abundant member of the naphthalene family while methylphenanthrene (MP) is the most abundant phenanthrene family member. The total of phenanthrenes and their isomers was greater than that of naphthalenes. The distribution of these aromatic hydrocarbons and their akyl derivatives was strongly controlled by a selective expulsion mechanism and thermal maturation of organic matter. The low dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene (DBT/PHEN) ratios (0.01-0.06), as well as the enhanced concentrations of 1,2,5-TMN relative to 1,2,7- TMN, indicates organic matter derived mainly from higher plants, and the extract ternary plot of C27, C28 and C29 monoaromatic steroids suggests a Type III and mixed Type II/III kerogen. The calculated mean vitrinite reflectance (%Rm), determined from the distributions of the isomers of methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR) in the rock extracts, ranged from 0.51 to 1.43. These maturity values indicate that the coal and shale extracts are marginally mature for hydrocarbon generation.

  16. Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This technical brief examines the current alignment between the New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be based. Applying…

  17. Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Arkansas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This Technical Brief examines the current alignment between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability Program (ACTAAP) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content…

  18. Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Louisiana and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This technical brief examines the current alignment between the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) and Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the…

  19. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence

  20. Rules of Origin in the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement and Nigeria’s international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Balogun, Emmanuel Dele

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues and assesses the impact of the rules of origin (RoO) and cumulation on Nigeria’s international trade within the context of Africa-EU partnerships agreements. The review of literatures shows that RoO are an important element in determining the final benefit associated with the bilateral trade relationship under preferential trade agreements. It notes that Africa-EU bilateral trade relations dates back to the Lome Conventions that gave preferential entry in...

  1. An Assessment of the Changes in the Landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki Development Prone Area of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obiefuna, Jerry N.; Idris, Semiat O.; Uduma-olugu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment is the analysis of the evolution of a landscape, an examination of the basic natural and human processes with ecological interrelationships which jointly shape that landscape and determine values for its uses. This paper is an assessment of the landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki development prone area on the North-East of Lagos Metropolis. It utilized the analytical tool of ArcGIS with topographic maps and Ikonos imaging to examine changes in the land use/land cover of the ar...

  2. Central retinal artery resistive index and optical coherence tomography in assessment of glaucoma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghany, Ahmed F. Abdel; Botros, Samer M.; El-Raggal, Tamer M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the relation between central retinal artery (CRA) resistive index (RI) and retinal nerve fiber thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessment of disease progress in cases of open angle glaucoma. METHODS Twenty-three patients with diagnosed open angle glaucoma were included in this study. They were examined by colored duplex ultrasonography of CRA with estimation of RI of CRA and ophthalmic artery (OA) with estimation of CRA/OA RI ratio as well as OCT measurement of the average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in order to assess the disease progress. RESULTS There was strong inverse relation between the increased RI in CRA as well as the increased CRA/OA RI ratio and the decrease in average RNFL thickness in cases of open angle glaucoma. CONCLUSION Assessment of CRA RI can indirectly assess the vascular changes associated with glaucoma and can assess the degree of retinal atrophy helping in evaluating prognosis thus guiding the choice of treatment. PMID:25938045

  3. A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

  4. Cybercrime in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okonigene Robert Ehimen, Adekanle Bola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of some key organizations. We investigated these crimes and noted some useful observations. From our observ...

  5. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  6. Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jibiri Nnamdi N.; Oguntade Grace T.

    2007-01-01

    The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally expo...

  7. Anthropometric Assessment of Nutritional Status and Growth of 10 - 20 Years Old Individuals in Benin City (Nigeria) Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokoro; Smart O.; Ifada, K.; Onochie, O.; Olomu, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status and growth of 2,012 randomly selected males and females between the ages of 10 - 20 years was carried out by cross-sectional method in Benin City Metropolis. Anthropometrical indices considered were weight, height and arm circumference. Percentile values (10th, 50th, 90th) which represent the growth standards of males and females were established from this study. Comparisons were made by comparing the 50th centile curves for height an...

  8. An Assessment of the Trend and Projected Future Values of Climatic Variables in Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emaziye, P. O.; Ike, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the trend and projected future values of climatic variables in the Niger Delta Region. Annual mean time series data of climatic variables from 1971 to December 2007 were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for the study. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the random selection of states, local government, communities and rural farming households. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics to describe the socio-economic characteri...

  9. Consumer assessment of perceived quality of antenatal care services in a tertiary health care institution in Osun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Olufunmilayo Asekun-olarinmoye; James Olusegun Bamidele; Bolaji Emmanuel Egbewale; Ifeoluwapo Oyebola Asekun-Olarinmoye; Ebenezer Olabamiji Ojofeitimi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe consumer assessment of the perceived-quality of antenatal care services in a tertiary health care institution in Osun State.Material and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, information was obtained (utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire) from 289 pregnant women randomly selected from the Antenatal Clinic (ANC) of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital. Chi-square statistic test was used to explore associations. Level of significance was p

  10. Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adesoji, S. A.; Farinde, A. J.; Ajayi, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 ...

  11. Assessing progressivity of out-of-pocket payment: with illustration to Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world, policy makers are considering or implementing financing strategies that are likely to have a substantial impact on the equity of health financing. The assessment of the equity implication is clearly important, given the potential impact that alternative finance sources have on households. Households incur out-of-pocket payment directly from their budget, apart from their public or private insurance. Out-of-pocket payment is the primary concern, given their undesirable impact on households. Progressivity measures departures from proportionality in the relationship between out-of-pocket payment and ability to pay. It is the most frequently used yardstick to assess the equity of out-of-pocket payments in empirical studies. This paper provides an evaluation of such progressivity measures, undertaken using four approaches (proportion approach, tabulation approach, concentration curve and Kakwani's index), in order to reveal their usefulness and underlying notion. It is illustrated empirically with data on out-of-pocket payment for health care in Malaysia for 1998/ 1999, based on the nationally representative Household Expenditure Survey. Results indicate that out-of-pocket payments are mildly progressive, whilst the four approaches have their benefits and limitations in assessing equity implications. This analysis is of interest from a policy perspective, given Malaysia's heavy reliance on out-of-pocket payments to finance health care. PMID:17044546

  12. A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a wavelet-based on-line damage assessment approach based on the use of progressively transmitted multi-resolution sensor data. In extreme events like strong earthquakes, real-time retrieval of structural monitoring data and on-line damage assessment of civil infrastructures are crucial for emergency relief and disaster assistance efforts such as resource allocation and evacuation route arrangement. Due to the limited communication bandwidth available to data transmission during and immediately after major earthquakes, innovative methods for integrated sensor data transmission and on-line damage assessment are highly desired. The proposed approach utilizes a lifting scheme wavelet transform to generate multi-resolution sensor data, which are transmitted progressively in increasing resolution. Multi-resolution sensor data enable interactive on-line condition assessment of structural damages. To validate this concept, a hysteresis-based damage assessment method, proposed by Iwan for extreme-event use, is selected in this study. A sensitivity study on the hysteresis-based damage assessment method under varying data resolution levels was conducted using simulation data from a six-story steel braced frame building subjected to earthquake ground motion. The results of this study show that the proposed approach is capable of reducing the raw sensor data size by a significant amount while having a minor effect on the accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assee accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assessment. The proposed approach provides a valuable decision support tool for engineers and emergency response personnel who want to access the data in real time and perform on-line damage assessment in an efficient manner

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.; Imoisi, O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07), EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm), t...

  14. Assessment on the Effect of pH on the Soil of Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jimoh, W. L. O.; Mahmud Imam Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to assess the level of pH in the soil of irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis using PH meter. It was found that Samples obtained from Nasarawa and Kawo ( pH = 5.8) were the lowest pH in the samples analyzed. These were similar to the pH of the control site Rigachikun with pH = 5.8 (acidic). Sample from Kurmin mashi had the highest pH value (pH = 8.5) and is alkaline. This revealed that most of the soils from the irrigation sites were acidic...

  15. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

  16. GIS and remote sensing applications in the assessment of change within a coastal environment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twumasi, Yaw A; Merem, Edmund C

    2006-03-01

    In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables. PMID:16823081

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

  18. Aligning Mathematics Assessment Standards: Oklahoma and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…

  19. An Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Potential of the Gombe Formation, Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria: Organic Geochemical Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Onoduku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gombe Formation is a heterogeneous sequence within the Upper Benue Trough consisting principally of shales with sands, clays and intercalations of coal. It is over 600 m thick maximally in some parts of the sub-basin and has been dated Maastritchtian. Fifteen (15 core samples from 3 boreholes (BA-7, BA-16 and BA-17 dug around the Maiganga Coal Mine have been studied geochemically using the Rock-Eval 6 method with the principal aim of evaluating their potential as possible source rocks for petroleum. The results of the Rock-Eval analysis for analyzed core samples from these boreholes within Gombe Formation shows that the samples in boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 contain Type II kerogen while those from borehole BA-17 contain Type III kerogen, and that the samples from boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 have very good generative potential while those from borehole BA-17 have good to very good potential. This study also reveals that the analyzed samples especially those from boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 may constitute good source rocks if the burial depth is sufficient. The Rock-Eval Tmax data available for thermal maturity assessment of the samples suggest that the analyzed samples from the three boreholes are thermally immature. This assessment is consistent with the immaturity status of their coeval Formations (Pindiga and Gongila Formations in other part of the Benue Trough, suggesting that these contemporaneous Formations may be related in depth and/or have experienced similar geothermal gradient. It is therefore recommended that the thermal maturity of the analyzed samples from the three boreholes be re-evaluated by other thermal maturity indices such as vitrinite reflectance measurement and biomarker evaluation in order to further authenticate the maturity status of the Formation.

  20. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I : a multicentre longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G

    2013-01-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Stream Sediments Contaminations Caused by Mining Activities in Ibodi and Its Environs, S/W Nigeria Using Geological and Geochemical Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Akintola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mining and related activities are sources of heavy metal contamination in streams, such as copper, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and lead . The study is focused on Ibodi, southwestern Nigeria which is located in the basement complex of Nigeria and it is to assess the stream sediments of Ibodi in order to decipher the environmental impact assessment of mining activities on the environment. A total of ten stream sediment were collected from the study area and its environs along major tributaries, air dried at room temperature, sieved with 75 micron sized sieve and analyzed in the laboratory using ICP-MS (inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry technique. The analytical results of the major elements analyses show that Iron oxide [Fe2O3] has the highest major element composition, value ranging from 2.36% - 10.61% with an average value of 5.262%. This highest concentration of Iron oxide was found in location 1, with a value of 10.61% and this can be attributed to the underlying geology of amphibolites' in the Ibodi study area, which are known to be rich in Iron as well as magnesium i.e ferromagnesian minerals. Magnesium oxide [MgO] range in composition from 0.11% - 0.92% with an average value of 0.349%, the highest concentration was found in location 3. [Al2O3] ranges in composition from 0.83% - 4.158% with an average value of 2.109% the highest value was also found at location 3, it is the next in abundance to Iron oxide in the Ibodi study area. Potassium oxide [K2O] range in composition from 0.04% - 0.65% with an average value of 0.183%, other major oxides such as [P2O5], [TiO2], [Na2O] and [CaO] have average values of 0.109%, 0.096%,0.008% and 0.162% respectively; These values are generally low within the Ibodi study area, The analytical results for trace element geochemistry of Ibodi study area show that Vanadium [V] has a high concentrations and it range from 35.00 ppm - 202.00 ppm with an average mean value of 92.50 ppm, the highest concentration of this element was found in location 1 of the Ibodi study area. Arsenic [As] range from 0.10 ppm - 1.6 ppm with an average value of 0.644 ppm, there is a significant enrichment of Cobalt [Co] and Chromium [Cr] with concentrations ranging from 4.0 ppm - 53.50 ppm and 35.20 ppm -150.70 ppm respectively, with average mean values of 17.73 ppm and 88.78 ppm respectively; Manganese [Mn] has the highest concentration in the study area, with concentration value ranging from 86.00 ppm - 2165.00 ppm having an average value of 768.20 ppm; the highest concentration of this element was found in location 1 of the study area. [Ga], [Ni] and [Pb] show considerable enrichments within the study area with concentration values ranging from 3.10 ppm - 9.50 ppm, 5.30 ppm - 37.70 ppm and 6.75 ppm - 18.44 ppm, with average values of 6.08 ppm,19.80 ppm, 12.209 ppm respectively, Rubidium [Rb] range in concentration from 6.50 ppm - 30.90 ppm with an average value of 13.41 ppm, Strontium [Sr] has concentration values that range from 4.70 ppm - 37.20 ppm with an average value of 15.06 ppm. [Y], [Zr] and [Zn] has concentration values that range from 7.99 ppm - 21.10 ppm, 1.20 ppm - 4.00 ppm and 26.20 ppm-83.60 ppm respectively with average mean values of 15.065 ppm, 2.21 ppm and 46.58 ppm, the value of zinc [Zn] is considerably high in the study area with the highest value found at location 4 of the study area indicating some level of enrichment of this metals within the study area, also [Rb], [Y] and [Sr] show some considerable enrichments within the study area. from the study of the environmental parameter such as box plot and Geo-accumulation indexes the values of the selected trace elements are all less than 1, meaning that all the selected trace metals in Ibodi study area have values less than zero and are in the negative zone. In order to determine the pollution status of the study area, the values of the elements when compared to the Muller classes of geo-accumulation suggests that the study area is practically uncontaminated with the selected trace metals, the elements fall into th

  2. Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Ocheni; Nwankwo, Basil C.

    2012-01-01

    Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government ...

  3. Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

  4. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    CERN Document Server

    Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

  5. An Assessment of Beneficiaries’ Satisfaction of the Management of Loan Contract Components by Farmer Cooperative Societies in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Oghenerobor Alufohai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed beneficiaries’ satisfaction in the managementof loag-contract components by cooperatives involved inthe farm credit delivery in Edo State. The objective was toidentify the components of the farm loan contract, examine themanagement strategies and rate the beneficiaries’ satisfaction ofsuch management strategies. This was done by purposivelyselecting 40 cooperatives involved in farm credit delivery inOredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha LGAs of Edo State where thereis a proliferation of cooperatives who are actively involved infarm credit delivery. Data were analyzed using descriptivestatistics, queuing model and satisfaction indices.Results showedthe main loan-contract components to be loan volume, repaymentregime, interest rates charged, default management, collateralrequired, timeliness and loan monitoring. Average beneficiaries’index was 4.28 out of 5 indicating high satisfaction originatingfrom good queue management with traffic density of 1.12,moderate interest rate of 9% p.a, active loan monitoring, nophysical collateral, timely disbursement of loan and accommodativerepayment regime. Only individual loan volumes were low as aresult of inadequate loanable fund. Study recommends that cooperativesocieties should take advantage of external sources offunds to boost the volume of their loanable funds.

  6. Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Adesoji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302 between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230, size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245, hour spent on farm (b = 1.469 and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567 were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

  7. A Comparative Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Ahamefula Ahiarakwem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality monitoring at five (5 different gauge stations on the course of Njaba River was undertaken to understand the variability of the physico-chemical and microbial contents of the river water within a specified period of time (2003-2008. Collected water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Digital Meters and Standard Plate Counts. Results of the analyses indicated that average pH, electrical conductivity and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS of the Njaba River in 2003 were 6.3, 22 µS/cm and 13.5 mg/l, respectively. Mean values in 2008 for the same parameters were 6.4, 24.4µS/cm and 14.7 mg/l, respectively. Mean concentrations of analyzed cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ in 2003 were 4.10, 0.15, 5.00 and 1.20 mg/l, respectively, and that obtained for same parameters in 2008 were 4.40, 0.18, 6.40 and 1.30 mg/l, respectively. The mean concentrations of analyzed anions (HCO3 - , SO4 2-, Cl- and NO3 - in 2003 were 20.0, 4.0, 1.30 and 0.20 mg/l, respectively and in 2008 the mean concentrations were 24.5, 4.20, 1.60 and 0.22 mg/l, respectively. Characterization of the river water followed the trend: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ (for the cations and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > NO3 - (for anions, showing the Njaba River is NaHCO3 water. Mean concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD of the river water were 7.2 and 2.2 mg/l, respectively in 2003, and 8.0 and 4.0 mg/l respectively, in 2008. Total Coliform Counts of the river water in 2003 ranged from 70 - 90 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 80 cfu/100ml, while the counts in 2008 ranged from 100 - 120 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 110 cfu/100 ml. Calculated Pollution Index (PI slightly increased from 0.72 in 2003 to 0.73 in 2008. These water quality determinants revealed gradual rise in the concentrations of the respective physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological constituents of the Njaba River water. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR of 1.37 in 2003 and 1.54 in 2008, however, indicated that the river remained excellent for irrigation purposes. Except for the observed low pH and poor bacteriological quality, all other measured parameters of the Njaba River water conformed to the World Health Organization (WHO standards for safe drinking water. The generally decreasing low pH value and progressively increasing Coliform Counts and nutrient contents (although still low were the major environmental problems observed in the Njaba River water. These problems are essentially associated with increased anthropogenic activities on the Njaba River Watershed within the period in focus.

  8. Geology and Geochemical Assessment of Metal Contamination of Stream Sediments at Igun and Its Environs, Ilesha Area South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintola A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause of heavy metal contamination in stream sediments is probably related to mining activities in Igun study area. Hence the degree of contamination of major and trace elements was carried out to ascertain environmental impact assessment of Igun and its environs, the geology of the study area shows that talc schist, quartzite, amphibolite and granite are the major rock types within the study area, while petrographic studies show quartz, microcline feldspar, biotite, muscovite and hornblende as the main mineral constituents. Total numbers of ten (10 stream sediment samples were collected, air dried at room temperature and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS techniques. From the result of geochemical analysis of the stream sediment samples, the mean concentration for trace elements revealed that Manganese (Mn, Strontium (Sr, Zinc (Zn, Gold (Au Nickel (Ni, Cobalt (Co and Lead (Pb have the mean values of 1704 ppm, 75.11 ppm, 55.80 ppm, 40.22 ppm, 26.15 ppm, 20.94 ppm, 10.60 ppm respectively. The contamination of metals was noticed from the geo accumulation index (Igeo, for stream sediments such as Nickel (0.1, copper (0.5, Manganese (0.6 with Igeo < 1 depicting that these metals are practically uncontaminated. Cobalt (0.1, Zinc  (1.1 with Igeo number > 1 < 2 are moderately contaminated and Gold with Igeo of (9.6 indicate very high contamination. In conclusion the results shows that some part of the study area are contaminated and this includes Imoo (location 4, Owena (location 9 and Oke - Ipa (location 1 compared to other locations in the study area which are not contaminated.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmom Prince Chinedu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

  11. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun Olowe, Ph D.

    2012-01-01

    This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to a...

  12. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water, in and around Imirigin oil field, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha and beta activity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water in and around Imirigin oil field has been carried out. Study area was subdivided into five locations, soil and water samples were collected from field undisturbed environment and oil spilled areas. Sample collection and preparation follows standard procedures. Insitu measurement was conducted for pH and electrical conductivity, heavy metal analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and gross alpha and beta activity concentration was carried out by using Gas Filled Proportional Counter. Average value for pH and electrical conductivity are 6.5±00.2 and 46.8±1.0?S/cm respectively for soil and 6.4±0.5 and 406.1±5.2?S/cm respectively for water. The mean values obtained for AAS analysis for soil are (11.9±1.0, 3.3±0.4, 1.7±0.7, 8.1±0.5, 42.5±1.9, 3.3±0.5, 8.0±0.6, 0.08±0.02 and 79.5±2.2)mg/kg. For Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr respectively. For water, mean value obtained are (8.3±0.5, 4.2±0.4, 1.6±0.4, 1.5±0.3, 1.3±0.2, 0.±0.004, 0.07±0.003, 0.05±0.01 and ND)mg/l for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Pb, Cd, Hg and As respectively. Gross alpha and beta activities mean concentrations for soil are 0.53±0.02Bq/g and 29.29±0.17Bq/g respectively, and 4.02±0.01Bq/l and 54.23±1.76Bq/l respectively for water. The results show that the level of the various metals obtained differs from location to location. Values obtained in soil are within reporte within reported values in the Niger Delta region except iron level. Heavy metals such as Ca, Fe and Cd exceed the WHO limits for drinking water. The mean values for alpha and beta activity in soil are above reported values in similar environment while mean values obtained in water samples are above WHO recommended maximum permissible limit for drinking water. These values obtained suggested that drinking water from sampled locations may pose some health hazards to the public users but soil from the area is safe as construction material for buildings.

  13. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  14. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a ''client'' of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  15. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognvironment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  16. [Progress in isokinetic technology in testing and training for assessment of muscle function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Fan, Li-Hua; Gao, Dong; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Min

    2013-02-01

    Isokinetic technology in testing and training is the most advanced practical technique in the evaluation of muscle function. This method is a continuous dynamic test in the full range of the joint motion which has strong pertinence at the aspect of assessing muscle strength, and is an objective and quantitative method for reflecting each point's muscle strength in the range of the joint motion. This article reviews the key concepts, brief history of development and influencing factors of isokinetic technology in testing and training, introduces the progress in the field of rehabilitation medicine and sport science, etc., and discusses the future exploration in forensic science. PMID:23646505

  17. Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmadu, R. A. O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010 (AMCON Act and employs as a method, analytical exposition of the Act in this work. The paper finds that lack of corporate governance and incentive problems caused Nigeria's banking sector crisis. It argues that though the provisions of the AMCON Act are aimed at compelling corporate governance and international best practices, inherent weaknesses and inconsistencies with superior legislations leave a big question mark on its applicability and effectiveness. The paper calls for legislative rethink if Nigeria must prevent future failures in the banking sector and rebuild confidence in the investing public as well as in bank depositors.

  18. Environmental Impact of Toxic Metal Load in Some Military Training Areas within the One Division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Nwaedozie; Yau Mohammed; Dahiru M Faruruwa; Jonathan M Nwaedozie

    2013-01-01

    The results of six trace metals in the three military training areas in Nigeria, within Kaduna metropolis, viz:- Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, Nigeria Air Force Base, Kaduna and Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The level of lead, copper, chromium, zinc manganese and Nickel were assessed. The samples were collected in the month of September and the highest concentration of lead was found in Nigerian Air Force base shooting ran...

  19. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus among female sex workers in Nigeria Alta prevalência de hepatite pelo vírus B entre trabalhadoras do sexo feminino na Nigéria

    OpenAIRE

    Forbi, J. C.; Onyemauwa, N.; Gyar, S. D.; Oyeleye, A. O.; Entonu, P.; Agwale, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and constitutes a public health menace. The prevalence of HBV infection in many professional groups has been described in Nigeria. However, literature on HBV infection among female sex workers (FSW) in Nigeria is scanty. FSW in Nigeria are not subjected to a preventive control of HBV infection. This study assesses the extent of spread of HBV among FSW in Nigeria. Seven hundred and twenty (n = 720) FSW (mean age = 26.7 years) were tested ...

  20. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  1. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

  2. Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  3. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Yohanna.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  4. Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

  5. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p22 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  6. Assessment of Risk of Possible Exposure to Rabies among Processors and Consumers of Dog Meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odeh, Leslie E.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Asabe Adamu Dzikwi

    2013-01-01

    Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale po...

  7. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mendell Nancy R; Zeitlyn David; Plaster Christopher A; Powell Adam; Pour Naser; Connell Bruce A; Veeramah Krishna R; Weale Michael E; Bradman Neil; Thomas Mark G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the s...

  8. Cybercrime in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonigene Robert Ehimen, Adekanle Bola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of some key organizations. We investigated these crimes and noted some useful observations. From our observations, we profound solution to the inadequacies of existing enabling laws. Prevention of cybercrime requires the co-operation of all the citizens and not necessarily the police alone who presently lack specialists in its investigating units to deal with cybercrime. The eradication of this crime is crucial in view of the devastating effect on the image of Nigeria and the attendant consequence on the economy. Out of over 140 million Nigerians less than 5x10-4% are involved in cybercrime across Nigeria.

  9. Religious Violence in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

  10. PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwe, Richard; Mboto, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recover...

  11. TRADE OPENNESS AND ITS IMPACT ON NIGERIA’S NON-OIL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: 1979-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare A.S Ph.D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the industrial sector and the resultant export witnessed in Nigeria in the 1960s and 1970s was largely the outcome of a policy of import substitution which precipitated the overvaluation of the domestic currency partly through the encouragement of low return investments by preferential credit policies and direct public investment in industrial ventures. The ‘fait accompli’ adoption of the IMF – induced structural economic reforms whose main trust is trade openness among others was targeted at restructuring the economy away from over dependence on the oil sector. This study focused on the impact of trade openness on Nigeria’s industrial performance with a view to determining the spill over effect of the policy on the major contending sectors in the economy. This study therefore examined the relationship between trade openness and industrial performance,armed with secondary time series data and using an ordinary least square multiple regression analytical method. The study found that the unilateral trade openness of 1986 produced the sustainable impact on the nonoil industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. It was observed that Public domestic investment, saving rate, capacity utilization and infrastructure has negative impacts on Nigeria’s industrial performance. Our findings and conclusion support the need for the government to consolidate and maintain the credibility of the trade policies for sustainable growth and development. More progress will be achieved if the conditions needed for a deregulated trade system to work properly are set in place.

  12. Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

  13. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good

  14. Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ocheni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government embarked on a number of public sector reform programmes aimed at blocking leakages of all sorts in public sector service delivery and transactions. The official instrument designed to achieve this much desired honesty, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business especially in the award of contracts and procurement in the ministries, parastatals and departments in Nigeria is the introduction of the Due Process Policy.


    Key words: Due process; Public procurement; Administration

  15. Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Tasneem Z

    2008-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in Western countries and is a rapidly growing problem worldwide. The majority of patients who present with acute coronary syndrome often have a low cardiovascular risk score, which is insufficient to warrant treatment prior to an acute coronary event. Alternatively, some high risk individuals never develop cardiovascular events. Identification of individuals who are truly at risk before an acute coronary event is critical. The long subclinical incubation period of atherosclerosis and the early involvement of the vessel wall in the disease provides an opportunity to evaluate the presence of atherosclerosis by imaging the arterial wall and to initiate treatment measures prior to an acute coronary event. The assessment of the thickness of the intima-media layer of the vessel wall, as well as detection of early plaques by ultrasound, is non-invasive and is the most sensitive, reliable, and safe method to detect those at risk. It is also the most validated method to detect progression of atherosclerosis. Evaluation of atherosclerosis progression by this technique has been used in large clinical trial settings, however, improvement in imaging and measurement technology may make this suitable for use in individual patients for therapeutic validity both in primary and secondary care settings. PMID:18311661

  16. Nijmegen paediatric CDG rating scale: a novel tool to assess disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouitar, Samira; Mohamed, Miski; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Wortmann, Saskia B; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Ensenauer, Regina; de Baulny, Hélène Ogier; Õunap, Katrin; Martinelli, Diego; de Vries, Maaike; McFarland, Robert; Kouwenberg, Dorus; Theodore, Miranda; Wijburg, Frits; Grünewald, Stephanie; Jaeken, Jaak; Wevers, Ron A; Nijtmans, Leo; Elson, Joanna; Morava, Eva

    2011-08-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of clinically heterogeneous inborn errors of metabolism. At present, treatment is available for only one CDG, but potential treatments for the other CDG are on the horizon. It will be vitally important in clinical trials of such agents to have a clear understanding of both the natural history of CDG and the corresponding burden of disability suffered by patients. To date, no multicentre studies have attempted to document the natural history of CDG. This is in part due to the lack of a reliable assessment tool to score CDG's diverse clinical spectrum. Based on our earlier experience evaluating disease progression in disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, we developed a practical and semi-quantitative rating scale for children with CDG. The Nijmegen Paediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS) has been validated in 12 children, offering a tool to objectively monitor disease progression. We undertook a successful trial of the NPCRS with a collaboration of nine experienced physicians, using video records of physical and neurological examination of patients. The use of NPCRS can facilitate both longitudinal and natural history studies that will be essential for future interventions. PMID:21541726

  17. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24740707

  18. The Developmental State Debate: Where Is Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict. I. Ezema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a renewed interest in the idea of the developmental state in Africa. This is partly a reaction to the failure of the pro-market reforms under the Washington Consensus to deliver socio-economic progress. Nonetheless, the Nigerian There is a renewed interest in the idea of the developmental state in Africa. This is partly a reaction to the failure of the pro-market reforms under the Washington Consensus to deliver socio-economic progress. Nonetheless, the Nigerian economy, after fifty years of political independence and economic governance and management, has suffered from fundamental structural defects and has remained in persistent stagnation. Many features in Nigeria’s economy combined with other non-economic factors have produced a weak private sector that is largely oriented towards distributive activities. The productive and technological base is weak, outdated, narrow, inflexible and externally dependent. Furthermore, infrastructure is poor, inadequate and lacks maintenance. Thus, the effectiveness of incentives has been generally low, giving rise to inadequate utilization of the factors of production. The paper blames the country’s overdependence on single product export-crude oil-without profound efforts to diversify the economy as a key weakness. Questions that the paper tries to address are; is Nigeria at present, making enough efforts to move towards the identified features of a developmental state? Does it require a sound re-thinking into the development agenda with regards to the various key issues relevant to developing countries? How can we break out of this vicious cycle? Correcting this scenario forms the crux of this paper. The paper suggests different solution scenarios to many of the problems on the platform of the developmental state paradigm. As such, the country should develop a class of entrepreneurs that possess the tacit knowledge required for rapid industrialization and development of the manufacturing sector. This proactive stance with capable institutions would move Nigerian economy to the desired direction.

  19. The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

  20. Groundwater evolution modeling for the second progress performance assessment (PA) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Japanese program for research and development of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal defined by Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the second progress report (i.e., H-12 report) for performance assessment (PA) of HLW disposal is to be published by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and submitted to the Japanese government before the year 2,000 (AEC, 1997). This report presents the establishment of generic groundwater chemical compositions for the PA supporting the H-12 report. The following five hypothetical groundwaters are categorized for PA based on the results of the first progress report (i.e., H-3 report) and binary statistical analyses of the screened groundwater dataset. FRHP (Fresh-Reducing-High-pH) groundwater. FRLP (Fresh-Reducing-Low-pH) groundwater. SRHP (Saline-Reducing-High-pH) groundwater. SRLP (Saline-Reducing-Low-pH) groundwater. MRNP (Mixing-Reducing-Neutral-pH) groundwater. In order to define representative groundwater compositions for the PA for the H-12 report, JNC has established the representativeness of the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the following hypothetical reference groundwaters are selected for the performance assessment analysis in H-12 report, respectively: Reference Case g-12 report, respectively: Reference Case groundwater. FRHP groundwater, and Alternative Geological Environment Case groundwater. SRHP groundwater. In addition, JNC has consulted with overseas experts on the concepts used in groundwater evolution modeling. This modeling effort has focussed on simulating equilibrium water-rock interactions to predict groundwater compositions resulting from reactions between initial water compositions and rock mineral assemblages. These discussions have centered on recommendations for developing more realistic groundwater evolution models. As the results, JNC has obtained important knowledge to develop more realistic groundwater evolution models in future. (author)

  1. Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    A Y Dutse

    2008-01-01

    The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI), which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign sub...

  2. Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanna, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

  3. Fish Breeding in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Akankali; E.I. Seighabo; J. F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This...

  4. Microfinance Institutions in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mejeha, Remy O.; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi N.

    2008-01-01

    The advocation of micro – financing was triggered by the poor performance of the conventional finance sector. The essence was to reach the overwhelming population of the poor to assist in the drive to alleviate poverty. Barely a million had been provided with some credit in Nigeria while a yawning 40 million poor people are yet to be attended to. In terms of supply, commercial and development finance institutions are in the fore front of the outfits that provide credits to the microfinance ...

  5. Exposure of Dentists to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Cadmus, Simeon I.; Okoje, Victoria N.; Taiwo, Babafemi O.; Soolingen, Dick

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among dental patients and to assess dentists’ risk for exposure, we conducted a study among dental patients at a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a country where tuberculosis is endemic. Ten (13%) of 78 sputum samples obtained were positive for M. tuberculosis.

  6. Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) accordingP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

  7. LINGUISTIC HEGEMONY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NIGERIA / HÉGÉMONIE LINGUISTIQUE DE L'ANGLAIS AU NIGERIA / HEGEMONÍA LINGÜÍSTICA DE LA LENGUA INGLESA EN NIGERIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abolaji Samuel, Mustapha.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available el asunto de la hegemonía y predominancia lingüística se ha discutido en muchos estudios desde los inicios del siglo XX. El común denominador entre tales estudios parece ser la hegemonía lingüística del inglés como idioma global y la supervivencia de los otros idiomas del mundo. Este artículo revisa [...] de manera crítica la tendencia que se ha reportado en Nigeria y reevalúa algunos de los mecanismos de resistencia propuestos en la literatura. El propósito es ofrecer soluciones al mencionado dominio del inglés y sus efectos en los idiomas locales de Nigeria. El autor considera que algunas miradas, a propósito de la hegemonía del inglés, pueden haberse exagerado, influenciando así algunos mecanismos de resistencia sugeridos. Así, este artículo propone un mecanismo de resistencia pragmático y ajustado al contexto que podría poner la hegemonía del inglés en la perspectiva adecuada y por lo tanto, preservar los idiomas locales en las sociedades multilingües, especialmente en Nigeria. Abstract in english the subject of linguistic hegemony and language dominance has been taken up in many studies since the wake of the twentieth century. The common denominator among these studies appears to be the linguistic hegemony of the English language as a global language and the survival of the other languages o [...] f the world. This paper critically reviews the trend that has been reported in Nigeria and re-assesses some of the proposed resistance mechanisms in literature. The aim is to proffer solutions to the reported domination of English and its effect on Nigeria's local languages. The author believes that some views about the linguistic hegemony of English might have been exaggerated thereby influencing some suggested resistance mechanisms. Thus, this paper proposes a context-sensitive and pragmatic resistant mechanism that might place the hegemony of English in the right perspective and thus conserve local languages in multilingual societies, especially in Nigeria.

  8. Fun, Fizzy and Formative Approaches to Assessment: Using Rapid Digital Feedback to Aid Learners' Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Blair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the early observations and findings from a small-scale exploratory project titled e-scape scotland. This project builds on earlier research into the use of mobile devices to enable learners to create authentic, real-time e-portfolios which allowed for summative assessment. The e-scape scotland project explores the feasibility of using e-portfolios for evidence collection and a range of formative assessment purposes during design and technology activities. It examines the responses of teachers and learners and the technical issues in implementation. Four schools are participating. Data are being collected through observation, learner and teacher responses, and evaluation. The preliminary results from this study indicate that learners respond positively to using mobile devices to support their learning activity. The e-portfolios being constructed offer high quality insight into the learners' approach to the design projects tackled. Teachers are delighted by the potential immediacy of the system in offering timely feedback to aid progression.

  9. Recent progress in structural integrity assessment techniques for components subject to service-induced degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant components are exposed to a wide range of environmental and loading conditions which can cause degradation over time. Aging embrittlement, erosion-corrosion, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue are examples of aging mechanisms which could reduce structural margins in reactor components. The degradation effects from these mechanisms have been seen more frequently with the aging of the early nuclear plants. Since there is a strong incentive for keeping these older plants running for longer periods of time without compromising safety, proper plant management to minimize damage from degradation mechanisms is extremely important. Structural margin assessment, monitoring, and maintenance are important elements of such a management plan. Significant progress has been recently made in the understanding, evaluation and monitoring of these degradation mechanisms. This has led also to new requirements in the ASME Code design basis for nuclear plants. Current state of understanding and new developments in the ASME Code to address some of these degradation mechanisms are covered in this paper. Cast stainless steels used in pump casings and valve bodies have been known to experience thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating temperatures. Recent predictive models of thermal aging effects on material toughness, developed at Argonne National Lab are reviewed and applied to assess ASME Code structural margins of a reactss ASME Code structural margins of a reactor pump casing. A recent ASME Code Case provides methods for the evaluation and acceptance criteria for reactor pressure vessels having ductile fracture toughness values reduced below the requirements of 10CFR50 due to irradiation embrittlement. Background and application of this code case to an older BWR vessel is described. The occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel piping highlighted the need for evaluation methods for structural margin assessment in piping

  10. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy for assessing progress of bone-graft incorporation in bone reconstruction and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbare, Paul I.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2011-03-01

    Allografts and other bone-grafts are frequently used for a variety of reconstructive approaches in orthopaedic surgery. However, successful allograft incorporation remains uncertain. Consequently, there is significant need for methods to monitor the fate of these constructs. Only few noninvasive methods can fully assess the progress of graft incorporation and to provide information on the metabolic status of the graft, such as the mineral and matrix composition of the regenerated-tissue that may provide early indications of graft success or failure. For example, Computed-tomography and MRI provide information on the morphology of the graft/host interface. Limited information is also available from DXA. To address this challenge, we present here the implementation of a noninvasive Raman spectroscopy technique for in-vivo assessment of allograft incorporation in animal-model. In an animal use committee approved osseointegration experiment, a 3mm defect is created in rat's tibia. The defect is reconstructed using auto or allograft and Raman spectra are collected at several time-points during healing using an array of optical-fibers in contact with the skin of the rat over the tibia while the rat is anaesthetized. The array allows excitation and collection of Raman spectra through the skin at various positions around the tibia. Raman parameters such as mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate and cross-linking are recovered and monitored. The system is calibrated against locally-constructed phantoms that mimic the morphology, optics and spectroscopy of the rat. This new technology provides a non-invasive method for in-vivo assessment of bone-graft incorporation in animal-models and can be adapted for similar study in human subjects.

  11. E-banking and Bank Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oginni Simon Oyewole, Mohammed Abba, El-maude, Jibreel Gambo, Arikpo, I. Abam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available he resultant of technological innovation has been the transformation in operational dimension of banks over some decades. Internet technology has brought about a paradigm shift in banking operations to the extent that banks embrace internet technology to enhance effective and extensive delivery of wide range of value added products and services. However, the fact that e-banking is fast gaining acceptance in Nigerian banking sector does not assuredly signify improved bank performance nor would conspicuous use of internet as a delivery channels make it economically viable, productive or profitable. Whether progression is made in the use of internet technology (e-banking or not, there should be parameter to empirically assess its impact over specified period of adoption. Consequently, the study examined the impact of electronic banking on banks’ performance in Nigeria. Panel data comprised annual audited financial statements of eight banks that have adopted e- and retained their brand name banking between 2000 and 2010 as well as macroeconomic control variables were employed to investigate the impact of e-banking on return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE and net interest margin (NIM. Result from pooled OLS estimations indicate that e-banking begins to contribute positively to bank performance in terms of ROA and NIM with a time lag of two years while a negative impact was observed in the first year of adoption. It was recommended that investment decision on electronic banking should be rational so as to justify cost and revenue implications on bank performance.

  12. Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

  13. Reporting Minority Students' Test Scores: How Well Can the National Assessment of Educational Progress Account for Differences in Social Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Koretz, Daniel M.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for taking into account dissimilarities in students' family, school, and community contexts when reporting test score differences among minority population groups was studied. Analyses show that the NAEP lacks a number of important social context measures and that the quality…

  14. Proteinuria among adult sickle cell anemia patients in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdu A; Emokpae M; Uadia P; Kuliya-Gwarzo A

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective : The life expectancy of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) has improved with modern medical care, and this has led to frequent observation of various chronic complications of the disease including abnormalities in renal function. Proteinuria is not only a marker of renal disease but is also a predictor of disease progression. This screening study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of proteinuria among adult SCA patients in Kano, Nigeria, which has not been report...

  15. Practice, Trends and Challenges of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obe, O. O.; Balogun, V. F.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications in Nigeria. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure. Now that our daily transactions have gone mobile, E-commerce has also joined the band wagon, resulting in the ability to carry out commerce while on the move via mobile devices (phones, PDA`s etc.). This is refer...

  16. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

  17. Burns in Nigeria: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oladele, A. O.; Olabanji, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview st...

  18. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; Madueme, Dr I. S.

    2012-01-01

    This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

  19. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.

    2014-01-01

    The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion ...

  20. The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippolite Onyejiaka Amadi; Azubuike, Jonathan C.; Etawo, Uriah S.; Offiong, Uduak R.; Chinyere Ezeaka; Eyinade Olateju; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Akin Osibogun; Ngozi Ibeziako; Iroha, Edna O.; Dutse, Abdulhameed I.; Chukwu, Christian O.; Okpere, Eugene E.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; El-nafaty, Aliyu U.

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted...

  1. Public Perception and Attitude towards Value Added Tax (VAT) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adesina Olugoke Oladipupo; Famous Prince Izedonmi

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the level of tax education, particularly the level of understanding of VAT law amongst three categories of taxpayers in Nigeria. The data for the study were collected by means of structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. The analysis of results showed that most of the respondents have poor knowledge of VAT law in Nigeria, irrespective of their level of literacy, and that there was no significant difference in the amount of knowledge ...

  2. Evaluation of Subscriber Attitude to Mobile Number Portability Implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tiamiyu; Osuolale Abdramon; Mejabi; Omenogo Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the attitude of mobile telephone subscribers to the implementation of mobile number portability (MNP) in Nigeria. It also identified the demographic variables that should be considered when targeting marketing or sensitization campaigns. A survey design was adopted in the form of a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data from 860 respondents across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. The data was analysed using frequency distributions and cross-tabu...

  3. The Effect of Agricultural Development Project (ADP) on the Rural Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Adamu Madu; Abba Mohammed Wakili

    2012-01-01

    Majority of communities in Nigeria are rural dwellers and agrarian by occupation. Development strategy for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without first sustained growth in rural income and standard of living primarily from agriculture. It was based on this that the state wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP) was established to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study assesses the effect of the ADP a...

  4. Analysis of Households’ Demand for Alternative Power Supply in Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Akinbode; S.O. Olaleye

    2012-01-01

    Epileptic public power supply and household quest to obtain power from alternative sources has become a daily occurrence in Nigeria. Meanwhile, little is known about household expenditure and demand pattern for these alternative sources. This study therefore assessed the demand for various sources of alternative power supply to households in Lagos state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a total of five hundred and ninety-one households who were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique...

  5. Assessing carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of diesel fuel n-alkanes during progressive evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Syahidah A; Hayman, Alan R; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis offers potential for fingerprinting of diesel fuels, however, possible confounding effects of isotopic fractionation due to evaporation need to be assessed. This study measured the fractionation of the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes in n-alkane compounds in neat diesel fuel during evaporation. Isotope ratios were measured using a continuous flow gas chromatograph/isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Diesel samples were progressively evaporated at 24 ± 2°C for 21 days. Increasing depletion of deuterium in nC12-nC17 alkanes in the remaining liquid with increasing carbon chain length was observed. Negligible carbon isotope fractionation was observed. Preferential vaporization was measured for the shorter chain n-alkanes and the trend decreased with increasing chain length. The decrease in ?(2) H values indicates the preferential vaporization of the isotopically heavier species consistent with available quantitative data for hydrocarbons. These results are most important in the application of stable isotope technology to forensic analysis of diesel. PMID:25131396

  6. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  7. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland's low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the reposito the unsaturated zone beneath the repository

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

  9. Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 ?g/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

  10. Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in the work environments of a secondary iron and steel smelting and a paint industry in Lagos, Nigeria, were investigated using gravimetric sampling techniques and TXRF spectrometric analysis. The TXRF was used to analyse the concentration of toxic trace elements and heavy metals in the air-borne particulate. The elements detected included Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. Toxicity potentials of PM10 and PM2.5 suspended particulate matter and that of Pb were determined using USEPA national ambient air quality standards. Results were used to evaluate the possible occupational exposure for workers in the sampling areas, as well as those of the general public. These indicate that the concentrations of respirations dust and heavy metals in the work environments, especially the iron and steel smelter are high enough to affect the health of workers and the general public who reside in the neighbourhood. If combined with the effect of traffic pollution in this areas, the total air pollution load may be much higher than values recommended by WHO for general public protection. The need to investigate the options for emission reduction and the management of occupational and general public exposure was highlighted. (author)

  11. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for atherosclerosis and use in assessing progression and regression in hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the wall thickening and stenosis rate (ASI), the calcification rate (ACI), and the wall thickening and calcification stenosis rate (SCI) of the lower abdominal aorta calculated by the 12 sector method from simple or enhanced computed tomography. The intra-observer variation of the calculation of ASI was 5.7% and that of ACI was 2.4%. In 9 patients who underwent an autopsy examination, ACI was significantly correlated with the rate of the calcification dimension to the whole objective area of the abdominal aorta (r=0.856, p<0.01). However, there were no correlations between ASI and the surface involvement or the atherosclerotic index obtained by the point-counting method of the autopsy materials. In the analysis of 40 patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases, ASI and ACI were also highly correlated with the percentage volume of the arterial wall in relation to the whole volume of the observed artery (r=0.852, p<0.0001) and also the percentage calcification volume (r=0.913, p<0.0001) calculated by the computed method, respectively. The percentage of atherosclerotic vascular diseases increased in the group of both high ASI (over 10%) and high ACI (over 20%). We used SCI as a reliable index when the progression and regression of atherosclerosis was considered. Among patients of hypercholesterolemia consisting of 15 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 6 non-FH patients, the change of SCI (d-SCI) was significantly correlated with the change of toificantly correlated with the change of total cholesterol concentration (d-TC) after the treatment (r=0.466, p<0.05) and the change of the right Achilles' tendon thickening (d-ATT) was also correlated with d-TC (r=0.634, p<0.005). However, no correlation between d-SCI and d-ATT was observed. In conclusion, CT indices of atherosclerosis were useful as a noninvasive quantitative diagnostic method and we were able to use them to assess the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. (author)

  12. Assessment of Radionuclide Concentrations and Absorbed Dose from Consumption of Community Water Supplies in Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Tchokossa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCl per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photopeaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49 ± 15 Bq L–1 with a range of 6 - 177 Bq L–1 while for 238U, the mean specific activity was 3 ± 1 Bq L–1 with a range of 1 - 12 Bq L–1 and the mean specific activity for 232Th was 3 ± 2 Bq L–1 with a range of 2 - 10 Bq L–1 and the total annual effective dose, which vary between 0 - 2 ?Sv y–1, did not show any significant health impact.

  13. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

  14. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  15. Beyond the Rhetorics of Statecraft in Africa: Searching for a New Paradigm of Leadership in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Agaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership question features most prominently in virtually all reported analyses, comments and interviews in the media, especially the print media. One thing that is evident is the recognition of leadership deficit as an important factor in understanding Africa and indeed Nigeria’s predicament. Chinua Achebe, in “The Trouble with Nigeria” identified leadership failure as the bane of development in Nigeria and by implication in most of Africa. As a matter of fact, even honest African leaders like the late Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria, late Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana, and Nelson Mandela (South Africa had in the past pointed at the leadership malaise in development in the continent. This paper therefore examines leadership and governance in Nigeria within the framework of servant- leadership. We noted that for Nigeria to evolve a positive and focus leadership with morals, values and accountability, there is the need for selfless in the form of putting others above self in service delivery, which is the essence of servant-leadership. The creating of a culture of servant leader-leadership in Nigeria would mean the replacement of the top-bottom culture with one where attributes of servant-leadership as already identified flourish. It would require having in place a leadership that has “worked well enough to be considered valid.” It is, therefore, an evidence of internalization of values and “a stabilizing force which creates social reality for its techniques for creating a culture of servant-leadership which is not possible except there is progress in evolving a team of servant-leaders.

  16. Nigeria's energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study critically assessed the various policy issues of sustainable energy development in Nigeria. The basic focus was to discuss and analyze some of the laws of the federation as it relates to the development of Renewable Energy in Nigeria. It surveyed the nation's energy policy statement and the vision 20:2020 of the federal government. The Renewable Energy Master Plan developed by the joint efforts of the Energy Commission of Nigeria and United Nations Development Programs were also appraised. The level of development and the index of renewable energy production as stated by the policy statement, the vision 20:2020 and the Renewable Energy Master Plan were highlighted. The study found some policy challenges which include weak government motivation, lack of economic incentives, multiple taxations, non-existent favorable customs and excise duty act to promote renewable energy technologies. Further to this, some legal reforms which may aid the promotion of renewable energy development in Nigeria and also make robust the nation's energy policy were proposed. Some of the laws that require amendment to promote renewable energy include the land use act, environmental impact assessment decree and the investment laws of the federation of Nigeria. - Highlights: • The study exposed the energy policy issues of Nigeria. • The various policy documents and the energy statement of vision 20:2020 were surveyed. • Various challenges impinging growth or renewable energy were highlighted. • Some suggestions for policy reformation were proposed

  17. Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

  18. Practice, Trends and Challenges of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Obe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications in Nigeria. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure. Now that our daily transactions have gone mobile, E-commerce has also joined the band wagon, resulting in the ability to carry out commerce while on the move via mobile devices (phones, PDA`s etc.. This is referred to as Mobile Commerce (M-commerce, the technology that holds great promises and challenges for both business and consumers alike. In this research, we consider the practice of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria, its enabling technologies and emerging applications. We envision many new e-commerce applications that will be possible and significantly benefit from emerging wireless and mobile networks. We also consider M-commerce success factors, prospects, challenges and future trends.

  19. An assessment of the disease burden of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus attending a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbera, A O; Fasanmade, O; Ohwovoriole, A E; Adediran, O

    2006-12-01

    The major part of the burden of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) is their impaired quantity and quality of life. This is due to acute and chronic complications of which diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) takes the greatest toll. Most studies on the disease burden of DFU were carried out in developed countries, and to date, no indigenous study has addressed the burden of foot ulceration in Nigerians with DM. This study attempted to determine the disease burden of this important DM complication. The study was carried out at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. The working definition of disease burden encompassed prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the direct economic costs of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS). For determination of the estimates of prevalence, the "capture-recapture" and intensive case-counting methods were used, mortality and morbidity were determined from records of admissions, and associated deaths over a 3-year period (1998-2000). The direct economic costs of foot ulceration were derived from the costs incurred from in-patient days, tests, drugs/medications, surgery, and other miscellaneous units of services. The total number of people with DM seen in LUTH from 1998 to 2000 was 1500, the hospital prevalence of DFU using the capture-recapture method being 9.5%. A total of 7253 medical admissions were made in this 3-year period, and of this number 827 (11.4%) were DM related. DFU-related admissions were 97 in number, and this made up 1.3% and 11.7% of the total medical and diabetes admissions, respectively. During this period, a total of 61 lower limb amputations were carried out and 26 (42.6%) of these were DM related. The proportion of medical deaths due to DMFS deaths was greater than the proportion of medical admissions due to DFU (P = .007). The case fatality of individuals with DFU was approximately 53%. A total number of 20 patients with DM foot ulcers were hospitalized during a 1-year period of the study (2003-2004). The majority had type 2 DM. A large majority (65%) of these patients had some form of surgery in addition to medical management of their condition. Mean costs for successfully treating a patient with DMFS was Nigerian Naira (NGN) 180,581.60. The total costs incurred ranged from NGN 20,400.00 to NGN 278,029.00. Drugs or medications accounted for the majority of the total costs incurred by the patients (46.9%). PMID:17088600

  20. ?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2? × 2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6 Bqkg?1 to 94.2 ± 7.7 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0 Bqkg?1 for 226Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0 Bqkg?1 to 47.5 ± 5.3 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 29.7 ± 4 Bqkg?1 for 232Th and 107.0 ± 10.2 Bqkg?1 to 712.4 ± 38.9 Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0 Bqkg?1 for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3 Bq.kg?1, 0.8 Bqkg?1, 54.6 ?Gyh?1, 0.07 ?Svy?1, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the pontial radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. - Highlights: ? The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, Th and 40K) in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state. ? Gamma spectroscopy operated on a 2” × 2” NaI(TI) detector was used and the values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries. ? The calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. ? The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public.

  1. Pollution assessment of the lower basin of Lakes Kainji/Jebba, Nigeria: heavy metal status of the waters, sediments and fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewale, A O; Musa, I

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the heavy metal status of the lower basin of Kainji dam (used for hydroelectricity generation), which includes Lakes Kainji/Jebba, Nigeria, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals from eating fish caught in the lakes. Water, sediments and fish were sampled from the lakes and evaluated for As, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn using the EDXRF technique. Fe and Mn were found to be present at high mean concentrations in the water (13 and 9 microg L(-1)), sediment (7,092 and 376 microg g(-1)) and fish (11.4 and 4.6 microg g(-1)) samples. Sb (3.2 microg L(-1)), Ti (4.1 mug L(-1)), Cr (2.2 microg L(-1)), Co (1.2 microg L(-1)), Cu (1.3 microg L(-1)) and Pb (1.2 microg L(-1)) in the water samples and Sb (29 microg g(-1)), Ti (27 microg g(-1)), V (27 microg g(-1)), Cr (27 microg g(-1)), Co (40 microg g(-1)), Ni (33 microg g(-1)), Cu (25 microg g(-1)), Zn (59 microg g(-1)) and Pb (19 microg g(-1)) in the sediment samples were found to be of medium mean concentrations. The other metals were present at trace levels (<1 microg), including As and Hg in the fish and sediment samples. There was an appreciable increase in metal concentrations in going from the water to the sediment samples. The probable source of the pollutants is anthropogenic, arising from agricultural activities, corrosion/abrasion of the ferrous steel material and additives in the lubricants and insulation used for auxiliary services on the turbine floor of the dam constructed on the lakes. However, natural geological sourcing from the underlying lake rock cannot be totally ignored, particularly the high levels of Fe and Mn in the sediment samples. The potential risk for human exposure to these metals emanates from the fish caught in the lakes and subsequently consumed, as there are already significant levels of these metals in the two fish species analysed, Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Chrysicthys (Chrysicthys auratus). PMID:16767565

  2. LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gloria C. Njoku

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

  3. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live births by the year 2015.

  4. The Nation's Report Card: Arts 2008--Music & Visual Arts. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 8. NCES 2009-488

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiper, S.; Sandene, B. A.; Persky, H. R.; Kuang, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the arts, which was given to a nationally representative sample of 7,900 eighth-grade public and private school students. Approximately one-half of these students were assessed in music, and the other half were assessed in visual arts. The Music…

  5. Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Azlan Bin Adnan; Iman Faridmehr; Babak Faramanbordar; Reza Hodjati; Mohammad Gharehzadeh Shirazi; A.B.A. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will com...

  6. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  7. Activity Based Costing System and Nigeria’s March towards VISION 20: 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi Patrick Egbunike

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the need to develop Activity Based Costing Systems (ABC in accounting practices among manufacturing firms in Nigeria as a tool for product costing as Nigeria marches to the top 20 economics of the World come 2020. With the aid of a structured questionnaire, a total of 50 copies of questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of Accountants, Managers and Auditors in the manufacturing sector but only 45 copies were returned. T-test of difference between means was used to statistically test hypotheses one, two and three. Based on these, the study found among other things that there is extreme low adoption of ABC among manufacturing firms in Nigeria, possibly because of low level of ICT. Secondly, ABC improves efficiency, reduces operational costs, and properly cost products better than traditional cost accounting systems. The implication of these on the study is that in this era of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT and ICT development, traditional cost accounting systems used decades ago when the manufacturing sector was labour intensive and less automated may no longer give the required result. This should give way to Activity Based Costing system, an offshoot of the new manufacturing innovation with capabilities to cost product properly, recognizing causality and transactions involved. Consequent upon these, the study recommends that with expectations of the country to march towards a vision of attaining the height of top 20 economies of the world, Activity Based Costing systems are the challenges we need to face now. The system is in tandem with progressive ideas and new way of thinking in accounting in the manufacturing sector.

  8. Clinical significance of hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met expression in the assessment of gastric cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOGUCHI, EIICHIRO; SAITO, NOBORU; KOBAYASHI, MAKIO; KAMEOKA, SHINGO

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control cancer progression, cell mobility is a significant factor required for cellular liberation from the primary focus and infiltration. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to facilitate cell mobility. In the present study, the clinical significance of the HGF/c-Met pathway in the assessment of gastric cancer progression was evaluated. From a cohort of patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgical resection between April 1999 and March 2003, 110 subjects were randomly selected. Preoperative serum HGF levels were measured and various pathological factors were analyzed. Furthermore, 50 subjects were randomly selected from within this group and immunohistochemical staining of tissue preparations for HGF and its receptor c-Met were performed. In the infiltrative growth pattern [(INF)?,? vs. INF?], advanced progression was associated with elevated preoperative serum HGF levels (P50 mm; P=0.0469). Furthermore, c-Met-positivity was associated with a significant difference in overall survival (P=0.0342), despite stage I and II cases accounting for 82% of the total cohort (41 of 50 cases). These results suggested that the expression of the HGF/c-Met pathway in gastric cancer may be a potential predictive factor for disease progression. PMID:25592281

  9. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  10. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

    2011-12-01

    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  11. Challenges of Women in Urban Agriculture in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adedayo A; Tunde A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Women play significant roles generally in urban agricultural production. In spite of their roles, women farmers are faced with myriads of challenges that affect their increased production in the urban areas. This study assessed the challenges of women farming in urban areas with reference to Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 1,801 women farmers were sampled from different urban areas in the state. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were organized for them in order to explore their minds on the cha...

  12. Banking Sector Liquidity and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel O. Fadare

    2011-01-01

    Employing a linear least square model and time series data from 1980 to 2009, this paper studies the determinants of Banking Sector liquidity in Nigeria and assesses the extent to which the recent financial crises affected liquidity in deposit money banks in the country. The paper makes some interesting findings. First, we find that only liquidity ratio, monetary policy rate and lagged loan-to-deposit ratio are significant for predicting Banking Sector liquidity. Secondly, we find that a decr...

  13. Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanna, J. K.; Umogbai, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance ...

  14. Performance of Micro Restaurant Enterprises in Cross River State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    G. E. Umeze; S. B. Ohen

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the performance of micro restaurants in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data obtained from a proportionate random sample of 132 restaurant enterprises and analyzed using descriptive statistics, cost and return analysis, profitability ratios, and multiple regression (ordinary least square) analysis. The result of the analysis showed that ownership of restaurants in Calabar metropolis is largely dominated by females (83.3 percen...

  15. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oreagba Ibrahim; Oshikoya Kazeem; Amachree Mercy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured...

  16. Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Bello Dogarawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

  17. An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Mmom; C.F. Igwe

    2011-01-01

    An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and le...

  18. Assessing the Relationship between ITIL Implementation Progress and Firm Size: Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagi Kanapathy; Kashif Ibadullah Khan

    2012-01-01

    ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) is a service management framework that is considered as aset of best practices that assist organizations to increase IT service management effectiveness, service deliveryand IT governance. ITIL enables technology departments to demonstrate strong IT service management viasystematic execution of operations with stringent controls. A questionnaire survey method was utilized toexplore the relationship between ITIL implementation progress and f...

  19. Child abuse in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeahialam, T C

    1984-01-01

    Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976

  20. Religious Ideals and Responsible Leadership: The Shepherd Model and Lessons for Nigeria’s Fledging Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiya Ilufoye Sarafa

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria is a country where religion thrives in the form of Christianity, Islam and African indigenous religion. Paradoxically, Nigeria is also a country where amorality thrives. A t all levels of governance, amorality has been a prom inent feature of Nigerian politics. This study discusses religion, morality and politics nexus in Nigeria. It argues that though religion has played indispensable roles in the authoritative allocation of values and distribution of political offices in Nigeria, it...

  1. Threat to Nigeria Since 1960: A Retrospection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andy Afinotan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-independence Nigerian state was faced with the intractable task of governing a multifaceted nation, comprised of 36 regional states which were divided along ethno-religious lines, up to 300 ethnic groups and a plethora of linguistic dialects, in addition to three (3 distinct religious groupings. The challenge of the post-colonial Nigerian state was the efficient administration and governance of a broad-based society with a multiplicity of interests, values, traditions and cultural inclinations. The culmination of an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and dissatisfaction from different regions of Nigeria came with the advent of the Biafra secessionist battle of 1967. Following the end of the Biafra conflict, the Nigerian society became characterised with struggles and resistance against the state system in various forms, with the gripes and disquiets of various groups coming to the fore in various, often violent ways. Making use of library research and content analysis methologies, the authors trace the sequence of crises faced by the Nigerian state since independence, with a keen focus on the Biafra War of 1967, the Niger Delta crisis (particularly, the botched Amnesty Programme of 2009, as well as the current threat of Boko Haram terrorism which has taken hold of the Nigerian society since 2009. The paper concluded that, for the high ideals of Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress to be attained in Nigeria, the State must deal with corruption, ethnicity, religious fundamentalism and security related crimes, while doing more to restructure the polity and enthrone free and fair elections.

  2. Assessment methods as effective tools for learning outcomes of students in senior secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamidi W.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of assessment on the students learning outcomes in Agricultural Science at five different secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, Osun State were studied. An arm of a class was used for each test; Continuous Assessment (CA and Conventional Method (CM were used for each arm. Students were taught during their normal school times for the maximum time of forty minutes thrice a week. There were ten objective questions weekly for each assessment of the students in the CA method for six weeks. The same questions were used throughout for all the schools, done simultaneously for CA. Also, sixty questions at once at the end of the sixth week for CM. Standard deviation and regression equations for the mean values were used in the analysis. The results show that CA could be adjudged to be better off than the CM because of its higher mean values in all the schools than the CM. The higher R2 values of 0.99 and 0.88 revealed stronger correlation between different methods of assessment and the targeted learners. The CA test should be used instead of CM; the CM does not make learners to gain much cognitive knowledge when compare with what CA does to students.

  3. Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

    OpenAIRE

    Sofowora Olaniyi Alaba; Bimbo Adekomi

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed the impact of a World Bank Assisted Project “STEP-B” on teaching and learning of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STM) in Nigeria. It also described the contribution of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife to the improvement of STM through research development, utilization of ICT, human resources and Educational Technology infrastructure in Post Basic Education Institutions (PBEIs) in Nigeria. A sample of 360 participants was used. They were selected from all t...

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

  5. Assessing the Relationship between ITIL Implementation Progress and Firm Size: Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagi Kanapathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a service management framework that is considered as aset of best practices that assist organizations to increase IT service management effectiveness, service deliveryand IT governance. ITIL enables technology departments to demonstrate strong IT service management viasystematic execution of operations with stringent controls. A questionnaire survey method was utilized toexplore the relationship between ITIL implementation progress and firm size, amongst 84 Multimedia SuperCorridor (MSC status firms in Malaysia. The study revealed that ITIL is widely adopted in MSC status firms.ITIL implementation progress was found to be positively associated with firm size, in terms of turnover, totalnumber of employees and total number of IT staff.

  6. Assess progress being made for the KTeV electromagnetic calorimeter crystal order in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, S. R.

    1993-08-01

    This report contains a record of our activities at the Quartz & Silice facility during this visit. Significant progress was achieved in illustrating the importance and practical application of particular measurements in characterizing crystal quality, and in understanding problems with crystal polishing techniques currently being used. Detailed discussions with Quartz & Silice personnel on these issues were held, as were discussions on current production and furnace growth cycle options which may significantly increase ingot production rates.

  7. Making Instruction and Assessment Responsive to Diverse Students' Progress: Group-Administered Dynamic Assessment in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) x 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control…

  8. Child abuse and neglect in Nigeria -- a situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebigbo, P O

    1993-01-01

    The Nigeria chapter of the African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect conducted a nationwide study to acquire an overview of the nature and extent of child abuse and neglect in Nigeria. The 3-part study assessed the density of children working on the streets and the attitudes of adults and children related to child abuse and neglect. Counts of working street youths under age 16 years and respondent attitudes were assessed in Kaduna/Zaria, Enugu/Onitsha, and Ibadan. The densities of street children and questionnaire responses from sampled adults suggest that child abuse and neglect are serious problems in Nigeria; cultural practices and traditional attitudes contribute to the problem; institutions tasked with addressing family and child welfare have failed to do so; hawking, begging, and abandonment place these children at risk; and some handicapped children roam the streets without care. School children were surveyed to provide information on their before- and after-school chores, their views on physical punishment by parents and teachers, and their nutritional standards. 94% received three meals/day; 52% typically spent 2-4 hours after school in domestic chores such as sweeping the house, washing dishes, and preparing evening meals; and many were either scolded, beaten, or assigned additional household duties as punishment for behaving contrary to the desires of adults. PMID:12318616

  9. Hope and violence in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

  10. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  11. TQM STRATEGIES AND HEALTH CARE DELIVERIES: LESSONS FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the TQM Strategies and health care delivery in Nigeria, and the various means of measuring service quality. Nigeria continues to suffer outbreaks of various diseases cholera, malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis, measles, yellow fever, Bird flu e.t.c., all these diseases combine to cause high morbidity and mortality in the population. To assess the situation this paper looks at the relevant indicators like Annual Budgets by Government, Individual’s income, the role of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA and various health care agencies vested with the sole responsibility for elaborating standards for products and processes in Health care Delivery.The paper also examines the implication of Government Budget estimates on the Life expectancy of an average Nigerian. The findings necessitated the need for the government to seek support from WHO to assist in strengthening the health care system by advocating and providing technical support to health sector reforms.

  12. Energy Planning Policies With Environmental Considerations In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. U. Ike, and S. S. N. Okeke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria. It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development. From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions. The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process. The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.

  13. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  14. State financed PV technology projects in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the progress made by the democratic government of Nigeria to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. It would not be financially viable to extend the national electricity grid to each electoral ward, in remote locations in the country. The use of photovoltaic technology now brings electricity to many rural areas as part of the provision of basic needs by the Nigerian authorities. The Nasarawa State Government has embarked on the provision of all it electoral wards with solar powered water supply systems to carter for a mostly rural population of 3.4 million people. The Benue, Taraba, Bauchi and Jigawa State governments have embarked on similar schemes in Rural Water Supply, Health and the Educational sectors of the economy. Ambitious PV programmes, of this nature, inevitably face challenges in developing countries. The preliminary recommendations, of this ongoing study, have been made to address some of the potential challenges in some of the key areas. This paper reviews the implementation progress and suggests some of the lessons that might be learnt. (authors)

  15. Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Bin Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will commence. By the time a column is eliminated from the structure as a result of a sudden motor vehicle strike or earthquake or fire or any other internal or external factor that could take one column out of the system, the weight of the building (gravity load will be distributed among other columns within the structure. Failure commences in the part of the structure that has lost a column unless other columns are designed appropriately against gravity loads and are capable of redistribution of additional loads imposed on them. Failure of vertical load bearing elements will continue until the stabilization of extra loading. Hence, this could lead to serious damage and collapse of the building which will lead to higher damage to the building than the primary damage. This research is based on the regulations conforming to the specifications of UFC guidelines and the structures have been modeled using SAP2000 (2012. In order to study the effects of the progressive collapse on the seismic design of special steel moment frames, SMRF, two 5-story and 15-storystructures are modeled in SAP2000 (2012. In order to have a better understanding of progressive collapse and obtain reliable results, Linear Static (LS, Nonlinear Static (NLS and Nonlinear Dynamic analyses (NLD procedure for single and 2 adjacent columns removal have been implemented in this study. Having a good perception of the possibility of progressive collapse involves incorporation of demand capacity ratio, plastic hinges formation and vertical displacements of removed column’s location plus axial force in columns adjacent to the removed column. Other factors such as number of stories and the amount of local damage resulted from the removal of 2 adjacent columns could also lead to a better understanding of the structural behavior.

  16. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  17. Fun, Fizzy and Formative Approaches to Assessment: Using Rapid Digital Feedback to Aid Learners' Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Rowena Blair; Mclaren, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the early observations and findings from a small-scale exploratory project titled e-scape scotland. This project builds on earlier research into the use of mobile devices to enable learners to create authentic, real-time e-portfolios which allowed for summative assessment. The e-scape scotland project explores the feasibility of using e-portfolios for evidence collection and a range of formative assessment purposes during design and technology activities. It examines the r...

  18. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer’s Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Bayard E.; Austin, Daniel.; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals’ health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients’ and caregivers’ ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations ...

  19. A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework in the sense that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are. This paper aims to provide suggestions for improving the sustainability evaluation part of a sustainability assessment. In particular it will provide a comprehensive review of different sustainability evaluation tools (from a reductionist perspective) as well as the feasibility of incorporating them within a sustainability assessment framework. Reviewed tools include monetary tools, biophysical models and sustainability indicators/composite indices that have been developed within different disciplines such as economics, statistics, ecology, engineering and town planning

  20. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola, Augustine Kolapo; Ayo, Isreal; Babalola,; Folasade, Oluwakemi; Alabi,; Onyinye, Dorcas; Onuh,; Emmanuel, Enifome; Enyenihi,

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg?1, respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean con...

  1. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

  2. Reliability assessment of austenitic steel ultrasonic inspections - progress report on a UKAEA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable volumetric inspection of austenitic welds is essential for the satisfactory fabrication of components for several designs of nuclear reactor. It may also be necessary for periodic in-service inspection of some critical components. In order to supplement radiography during fabrication and to meet the requirements of ISI there is a need to provide appropriate ultrasonic procedures. However, parts of austenitic structures can be uninspectable using the conventional ultrasonic techniques developed for use with ferritic structures. This paper is a progress report on part of a UKAEA programme involving a laboratory test of alternative procedures using longitudinal wave beams. (author)

  3. Progress on the European Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) project was set up by the European Community Fusion Programme in response to recommendations made by a high level Fusion Programme Evaluation Board. The Evaluation Board stated that fusion potentially possesses ''inherent environmental and safety advantages over all current alternatives for base load electricity generation'', but that a ''convincing demonstration'' of these potential advantages is necessary. SEAFP is undertaken by three main participants: the NET Team, The Euratom/UKAEA Association, and European industry. Other EC fusion laboratories also participate. The work embraces the outline design of fusion power stations, the safety and environmental assessment of those designs, and interactions between design and assessment to improve the design. The project began in April 1992 and will report in December 1994. In the first year of the project, five candidate blanket concepts were developed in parallel. Other aspects of design were developed as far as possible independently of the blanket designs. Assessments were made of the technical merits of the candidate designs, and scoping calculations were used to provide preliminary assessments of their accident and waste management characteristics. Accident identification studies were used to select the bounding sequences to be analysed later in detail. Targets for safety and environmental performance were developed. This phase of the study culminated, oped. This phase of the study culminated, in August 1993, in the selection of two plant models, one based on a water/martensitic steel/lithium-lead blanket, the other based on a helium/vanadium alloy/lithium oxide blanket, to be developed and assessed in more detail. Other design variants will be assessed through sensitivity studies. ((orig.))

  4. A CAD system for assessment of MRI findings to track the progression of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexis; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zee, Chi-Shing; Guo, Bing; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease affecting myelin pathways. MRI has become the medical imaging study of choice both for the diagnosis and for the follow-up and monitoring of multiple sclerosis. The progression of the disease is variable, and requires routine follow-up to document disease exacerbation, improvement, or stability of the characteristic MS lesions or plaques. The difficulties with using MRI as a monitoring tool are the significant quantities of time needed by the radiologist to actually measure the size of the lesions, and the poor reproducibility of these manual measurements. A CAD system for automatic image analysis improves clinical efficiency and standardizes the lesion measurements. Multiple sclerosis is a disease well suited for automated analysis. The segmentation algorithm devised classifies normal and abnormal brain structures and measures the volume of multiple sclerosis lesions using fuzzy c-means clustering with incorporated spatial (sFCM) information. First, an intracranial structures mask in T1 image data is localized and then superimposed in FLAIR image data. Next, MS lesions are identified by sFCM and quantified within a predefined volume. The initial validation process confirms a satisfactory comparison of automatic segmentation to manual outline by a neuroradiologist and the results will be presented.

  5. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Owoaje, Eme T.; Omidokun, Adedoyin D.; Ige, Olusimbo K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed pregnant women’s perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria.Objective: Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health C...

  6. REVIEW OF PROGRESS IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY - MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENT RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In November 14-16, 1989, all investigators of research projects funded under the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) Biotechnology Risk Assessment Program assembled at the US EPA Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory for their third review of the research projects....

  7. PROGRESS IN THE OECD WORK ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS TESTING AND ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The OECD Special Activity on endocrine disruptors testing and assessment (EDTA) started in 1996 at the request of member countries and industry with the objective to develop test methods for the detection and characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The purpose of the ...

  8. Ending Natural Gas Flaring in Nigeria’s Oil Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Idowu Ibitoye

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria has one of the largest ten natural gas reserves in the world and roughly 50% of the deposits are discovered in association with oil. Over the years most of the associated gas is flared, with the attendant damage to the environment and a huge economic loss. Several efforts have recently been made to curtail gas flaring, including the establishment of a liquefied natural gas plant, a pipeline to transport gas to some neighbouring countries, and legislative measures to regulate the oil a...

  9. Structural capacity assessment of WWER-1000 MW reactor containment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project is to provide assessment of the structural behaviour and safety capacity of the WWER-1000 MW Reactor Building Containment at Kozloduy NPP under critical combination of loads according to the current international requirements. The analysis is focused on a realistic assessment of the Containment taking into account the non-linear shell behaviour of the pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure. Previous assessments of the status of pre stressing cables pointed out that the efficiency of the Containment as a final defence barrier for internal and external events depends on their reliability. Due to this, the experimental data obtained from embedded sensors (gauges) at pre-stressed shell structure is to be compared with the results from analytical investigations. The reliability of the WWER-1000 MW accident prevention system is under evaluation in the project. The Soviet standard design WWER-1000 MW type units installed in Kozloduy NPP were originally designed for a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.1g. The new site seismicity studies revealed that the seismic hazard for the site significantly exceeds the originally estimated and a Review Level Earthquake (RLE) anchored to PGA=0.20g was proposed for re-assessment of the structures and equipment at Kozloduy NPP. The scope of the study is a re-assessment of the Containment structure under critical combination of loads according to the current safety and reliability requirements, including comparison between the Russian design requirements and the international regulations. Additionally, an investigation of the pre-stressing technology and the annual control of the cables' pre-stressing of the Containment is to be made. The crane influence on the dynamic behaviour of the Containment will be done as well as a study of the integrity of the Containment as a final defence barrier

  10. Assessing Tumor Progression Factors by Somatic Gene Transfer into a Mouse Model: Bcl-xL Promotes Islet Tumor Cell Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yi-chieh Nancy; Lewis, Brian C.; Hanahan, Douglas; Varmus, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Tumors develop through multiple stages, implicating multiple effectors, but the tools to assess how candidate genes contribute to stepwise tumor progression have been limited. We have developed a novel system in which progression of phenotypes in a mouse model of pancreatic islet cell tumorigenesis can be used to measure the effects of genes introduced by cell-type-specific infection with retroviral vectors. In this system, bitransgenic mice, in which the rat insulin promoter (RIP) drives exp...

  11. THE PROSPECTS OF E-EXAMINATION IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo C. K.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations have become a global phenomenon. This menace has resulted to general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations. Consequent upon this, all Nigerian universities have resorted to conducting post-entrance “Post-JAMB” examination/screening because of lack of confidence in the conduct of the entrance examinations. This paper proposes a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB, the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. This model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. There were 120 questions drawn from English (30, Mathematics (30, General Science (20, Commercial Courses (20, and Religion Knowledge (20, all for one hour duration. Questionnaires were administered to the applicants at the end of the examination to assess their level of ICT literacy, ease of use of the system and the difficulties encountered.Findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices. The system is easy to use and candidates can get use to it with time. The timing of examination can be spaced without compromising the quality and integrity of the examination. However, much is still desired if the system were to be adopted on a national scale, particularly in terms of infrastructural and manpower development. Similarly, the quest for e-Examination can fast track the development of e-Learning facilities in the country with improved access to education. Akinyemi I.O.Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria Adebiyi A.A.Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, NIGERIA Ekong U.O.Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, NIGERIAABSTRACTThe massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations have become a global phenomenon. This menace has resulted to general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations. Consequent upon this, all Nigerian universities have resorted to conducting post-entrance “Post-JAMB” examination/screening because of lack of confidence in the conduct of the entrance examinations. This paper proposes a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB, the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. This model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. There were 120 questions drawn from English (30, Mathematics (30, General Science (20, Commercial Courses (20, and Religion Knowledge (20, all for one hour duration. Questionnaires were administered to the applicants at the end of the examination to assess their level of ICT literacy, ease of use of the system and the difficulties encountered.Findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices. The system is easy to use and candidates can get use to it with time. The timing of examination can be spaced without compromising the quality and integrity of the examination. However, much is still desired if the system were to be adopted on a national scale, particularly in terms of in

  12. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg-1, respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l-1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites. (author)

  13. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J C; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  14. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  15. An Assessment of the Extent of Integration, Application and Utilization of Web-Based Learning Systems in Post Basic Institutions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Sofowora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employed descriptive survey design. It discussed the adoption of, and integration of Web-Based Learning Systems(WBLS into teaching and learning for distance learning and full time students. It also discussed various concerted efforts at integrating web-based learning into the teaching and learning of Science and Technology Education at the Post-Basic Institutions (STEP-B. The specific objectives of this study are to:(i investigate WBLS adoption and usage among the students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife for both distance and residential learning,(ii determine the availability and adequacy of the facilities / infrastructures for WBLS,(iii assess the level of implementation of WBLS (iv determine the WBL format adopted by the University,(v find out student’s acceptance to use the type of WBL format adopted, and (viinvestigate the challenges facing the integration and utilization of WBLS .The study sample consisted of two hundred and fifty undergraduate students and fifty six staff selected from OAU Ife. The research instrument is made of 35items divided into 5 sections. The results showed that adoption and usage of WBLS in OAU Ife was very high. WBLS facilities and infrastructure are inadequate for both full time and distance learners. The students were enthusiastic to accept and use the new WBLS (Academic Blackboard and Multi-site teaching using the blended learning approach. The major challenges as ranked by the students are: techno-phobia, band width problem, epileptic power supply and insufficient infrastructure.

  16. A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparatos, A; El-Haram, M; Horner, M.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. ...

  17. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  18. Language Policy and Planning in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Efurosibina

    2004-01-01

    This monograph describes the language planning situation in Nigeria, one of the most multilingual countries in Africa. It is divided into four sections. The first section presents the language profile of Nigeria and provides a background of the general language situation in the country. The second section discusses language spread and use. It…

  19. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Newspaper Coverage of Agricultural News in Delta State: A Case Study of the Pointer Newspaper in Delta State, Asaba, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovwigho B. O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The obvious advantage of the newspaper over other methods of disseminating agricultural technologies and information necessitated this exploratory study. The broad objective of the study was to investigate the extent of agricultural news coverage by the pointer newspaper in 2009. The specific objectives were to: ascertain the column inches (space given to major categories of news by the pointer newspaper in 2009; examine the percentage column inches (space given to each category of agricultural news by the pointer newspapers in 2009; and. determine the relationship between column inches (space given to agricultural and other categories of news covered by the pointer newspaper in 2009. Secondary data were obtained from the pointer newspaper main office at Asaba in 2010 for the study. Eight (8 broad categories of news and seven (7 categories of agricultural news were assessed. The column inches for each category of news were measured for each month by use of a measuring tape. It was found that sports were allocated the highest number of column inches with percentage and mean values of 25.61% and 2010.35 respectively. This was followed by politics (21.43%; M= 1682.18, religion (11.49%, M= 901.77, foreign news (10.08%, M= 791.63, business (9.63%, M= 760.35, entertainment (9.26%, M= 727.07, education (8.86%, M= 695.47 and agriculture (3.59%, M= 282.03. Agriculture was the least category of news covered by the pointer news paper. Poultry news (26.43% was the most frequently reported among the categories of agricultural news in 2009. This was followed by forestry and wild life (11.52%, commentaries (10.96%, fisheries (9.90%, and agronomy (7.17%. It was found that agriculture news were the least covered by the pointer newspaper in 2009 in spite of the importance of agriculture under the present civilian government. The Pointer newspaper should devote more spaces to agricultural news in order to enhance dissemination of agricultural information to farmers in the state.

  1. E-waste in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dam, Peter Rosendahl; Kristensen, Mia; Hansen, Gustav Egede; Sørensen, Peter Christian Taro; Friis, Christian Grønberg

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the technological industry has undergone massive growth. Electrical and electronic equipment reaches obsolescence faster than ever before. If internationally accepted rules of safe processing are adhered to, recycling is not profitable. It is often exported and recycled primitively, a profitable and attractive occupation for the poor. However, primitive recycling is extremely harmful to the environment as well as the personal health of the recycler. Focusing on Nigeria, this p...

  2. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolu Lawal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  3. A Quantitative Analysis of the Work Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, people with visual impairments often struggle to gain employment. This study attempts to closely evaluate the work experiences of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed…

  4. Composition and distribution of heavy elements in Kudenda flooded soil samples, Kudenda, Kaduna State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study assessed heavy elements (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni) in the flooded soil samples of Kudenda area (latitude 10.4800N and 10.4810N and longitude 7.3940E and 7.3950E) in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Samples were taken in each of the grid area at depth 0 to 1).

  5. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  6. The Empirical Determinants of Cassava Farmers Access to Microfinance Services in Abia State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obike, Kingsley Chukwuemeka; Osundu, Charles Kelechi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study analyzed the determinants of cassava farmers’ accessibility to microfinance services in Abia state, Nigeria. Specifically the study assessed the economic variables influencing cassava farmers’ accessibility to microfinance, the qualitative perception of farmers’ access and the empirical determinants of cassava farmers’ accessibility to microfinance. Multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents who were beneficiaries of Microfinance Insti...

  7. The impact of teaching development programs : Assessing different dimensions of progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V

    University teaching development programs for academic staff typically have a range of different educational goals, ranging from gaining basic proficiency in teaching to the more fundamental goal of changing teachers’ conception of teaching towards student focused conceptions. In the current paper we shall explore the development of four dimensions of teacher development in a teaching development program (~10ECTS) at the University of Copenhagen. The two most important dimensions considered are the teachers’ conceptual change student focus (as measured by the Approaches to Teaching Inventory), and the development of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs with respect to teaching (as measured by a modified version of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument). We find significant improvements with respect to both of these dimensions in several recent courses. No significant changes are found with respect to the Information Transfer Teacher Focus of the ATI or the outcome expectancy beliefs of STEBI. The paper discusses which elements of our course design we think are conducive for the development of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and conceptual change student focus respectively, and presents a model for relating the dimensions of progress to each other.

  8. Empirical Determination of Property Assets Management Styles in South-Western Nigeria Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Daniel Durodola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on probabilistically determined 57 hotels of various ‘stars’ in South-Western geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study investigates hotels’ property assets management styles with a view to fashioning out appropriate management methodology and develop an integrated resource management framework. Data were collected from hotel organizations’ management, general managers, staff and customers. Information obtained was complemented by the physical assessment of hotel structures and system operations. Stratified sampling technique backed by cluster sampling was used. Descriptive statistics was employed for statistical analysis. Findings showed that maintenance management predominates in the industry while facilities management is just filtering in with emphasis on facilities benchmarking. Property management is not favoured at all. The study recommends that Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation should develop a framework for quality assurance policy improvement among hotels in Nigeria. By so doing, hotel management companies and intending property development and management companies would be guided and buoyed into doing things beyond benchmarking.

  9. Evaluation of Subscriber Attitude to Mobile Number Portability Implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiamiyu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the attitude of mobile telephone subscribers to the implementation of mobile number portability (MNP in Nigeria. It also identified the demographic variables that should be considered when targeting marketing or sensitization campaigns. A survey design was adopted in the form of a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data from 860 respondents across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. The data was analysed using frequency distributions and cross-tabulations with the Chi-square statistic at the 0.01 level of significance. Findings revealed that while most subscribers supported the implementation of MNP in Nigeria, a significant proportion believed that tariffs would not drop as long as the power problem continued. Furthermore, it was found that of the demographic variables, age had the strongest influence on subscriber attitudes and this was identified as a strategic focus for network operators and the regulator y authority.

  10. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    Data pertaining to wells and thermal aquifers and data interpretation methods are presented. Findings from a program of field measurements of water temperatures (mainly in South-Central Texas) and an assessment of hydrologic properties of three Cretaceous aquifers (in North-Central Texas) are included. Landsat lineaments and their pertinance to the localization of low-temperature geothermal resources are emphasized. Lineament data were compared to structural and stratigraphic features along the Balcones/Ouachita trend in Central Texas to test for correlations. (MHR)

  11. Possibility of laboratory predictors use in assessment of aseptic instability progression in total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyakina ?.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research work presents the results concerning opportunities assessment in prediction of total hip replacement in patients with coxarthrosis. It is done according to the level of biochemical markers of resorption and bone formation, determined in the blood serum by the method of solid-phase immune analysis. On the basis of monitoring of clinical and laboratory data of 50 patients and examination of 30 practically healthy persons biochemical predictors of endo-prosthesis aseptic instability in total hip replacement have been determined

  12. The quest for nuclear technology and the challenges of knowledge management in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The setting up of the Federal Radiation panel in early sixties signified the awareness in Nigeria of the application and dangers of nuclear radiation. This initiative was further reinforced with the establishment of the Federal Radiation Protection Service in 1964, that same year Nigeria joined the IAEA thus opening a window for technical assistance in nuclear application for national development. The enactment of the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission Act in 1976, the launching of National Nuclear Programme and the designation of Obafemi Awolowo University and Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria as centers of excellence in nuclear research in 1977 marked the beginning of a systematic development of manpower and physical infrastructure for the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology in Nigeria. Within the first ten years, the centers trained over 60 Nigerians up to PhD level in different areas of nuclear science and engineering in institutions in Europe and America. Now the pioneering scientists train Doctorate and masters degree students locally at the centres. Currently, research, training and application of nuclear science and technology are carried out in 36 Federal and State Universities in departments such as physics, chemistry, geology and agriculture. In 2003, the center at ABU produced 8 MSc, 6 PhD thesis and published 15 research papers. We also have 27 specialized research institutes in areas of agriculture, health, water resources, of agriculture, health, water resources, petroleum and environment, a number of health institutions where some form of ionizing radiation are used; with thousands of diagnostic X-ray units and five radiotherapy centres in operation. The progress made so far in the last 40 years is quite modest, nuclear science and technology are now widely used in research, development and practical application for national development. It is worthy of note here that IAEA has been involved and played significant role in our quest for nuclear technology. A major challenge arising from this development, is the collection, harvest and disseminating of the widest possible information and knowledge accumulated over the years. The resolution on nuclear knowledge by the IAEA General Conference in 2002 and 2003 and the recommendations and new guidelines by an INIS external evaluation panel, has given us the impetus to evaluate our activities and reposition the INIS center toward responding to this challenge and the emerging trend in knowledge management. In doing so we refocus our mind on two key areas of INIS operation in our Centre; Collection of relevant material and preparation of input; Our membership obliged us to make contribution commensurate with the level of activities within our borders. INIS has developed over the years as the World's leading information system in nuclear science and technology through the coordination of IAEA and the cooperation of member states. Promotional Activities are fashioned out to facilitate the attainment of the goals set for nuclear energy in the national energy policy within the framework of our National Development Objectives, through the establishment of an information resource capable of meetings the needs of our scientists and engineers. A necessary step toward this end is to build a network of universities and research institutes in nuclear science, that will be use to pool, analyze and share national nuclear knowledge and experience, address preservation and promotion of knowledge, maintain competence and avoid duplication wherever necessary. Target sets for 2004 on the two key areas are: Contribute 0.5-1.0% of the total input to INIS as against 0.0159% in 2003; Reach out to 5000 potentials users; Digitization of Environmental Impact Assessment Report on Energy Project (1995-2003). Steps taken so far: Assignment of 4 staff, 3 workstations and a scanner with OCR capability for the INIS center; Capacity building for input preparation using available resources from INIS secretariat such as INIS CBT; A survey covering larger percentage of

  13. Evaluation of community eye outreach programs for early glaucoma detection in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawoye O

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Olusola Olawoye,1 Olufunmilayo I Fawole,2 Christopher C Teng,3–5 Robert Ritch4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria and College of Medicine University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics and Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 4Einhorn Clinical Research Center, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, USA; 5New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA Purpose: To evaluate the relevance of community eye outreach programs in the early detection of glaucoma patients in southwest Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study that was conducted among glaucoma patients referred to the eye clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH, Ibadan, Nigeria, between January 2009 and December 2010 from different sources, including community eye outreach programs. The source of referral, stage of glaucoma, and visual field were recorded. Results: Six hundred and fifty-three patients were studied during this period. The mean age was 56.3 years ± 16.6 years, with a median age of 60 years. Patients referred from eye outreach programs were more likely to have mild to moderate disease than patients referred from other sources, who were more likely to have severe disease according to both the optic nerve head assessment (P < 0.01, Pearson's Chi-square = 10.67, odds ratio = 1.7 [confidence interval = 1.23–2.31] and visual field assessment (24-2 (P < 0.01, Pearson's Chi-square = 6.07, odds ratio = 1.5 [confidence interval = 1.08–2.03]. Conclusion: Community eye outreach programs appear highly useful in the earlier detection of glaucoma in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: community eye outreach, early glaucoma detection, Nigeria glaucoma detection, glaucoma awareness, sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Utility of Frontal Assessment Battery in detection of neuropsychological dysfunction in Richardson variant of progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Emilia J; Konkel, Agnieszka; D?browska, Magda; S?awek, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy is characterized by motor, cognitive and behavioral features. In Richardson's syndrome of PSP (PSP-RS) executive dysfunction is quite prominent. Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is one of the most popular screening tests in the differential diagnosis of bradykinetic rigid syndromes. The study aimed at analyzing FAB subscores in relation to neuropsychological assessment results. Twenty patients with PSP-RS (12 with probable and eight with possible diagnosis) participated in the study. Sixteen PSP-RS patients scored below 15 on FAB. Among four patients having scored above cut-off (12 points) on FAB, two demonstrated both executive and language deficits, while the other two presented with only selective executive deficits on comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. FAB is a useful screening measure in PSP, but it may not detect subtle executive deficits. Moreover, language performance seems to contribute significantly to FAB scores. Thus, FAB should be treated as "frontal" rather than "executive" screening task, in line with its name. PMID:25666771

  15. Progressing from brief assessments to extended experimental analyses in the evaluation of aberrant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Marcus, Bethany A.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Roane, Henry S.

    1995-01-01

    The role of experimental analyses in guiding treatment is well established. However, not all experimental analyses yield conclusive results. Outcomes may be inconclusive due to time limitations that preclude extended observation and detailed experimental manipulations, or may result from interactions across experimental conditions, multiple control, or other unknown factors. In this study, we describe an assessment sequence that moves through four phases beginning with relatively brief (1 to 2 hr) analyses and culminating in extended analyses that may control for experimental confounding effects (e.g., interaction effects). Data illustrating the model are presented for 20 individuals referred for severe behavior problems including self-injury, aggression, stereotypy, and tantrums. Analyses were considered to be complete only when clear and replicable response patterns emerged. Results showed that clear and replicable response patterns emerged for 85% of the participants. PMID:16795882

  16. The Challenge of Liquid Transportation Fuels in Nigeria and the Emergence of the Nigerian Automotive Biofuel Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing the challenge of liquid transportation fuel in Nigeria, which necessitated the entrance of the country into the biofuel race. The study found that despite being an important member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC, Nigeria still suffers from fuel scarcities. Reasons for the short supply of refined petroleum products (particularly gasoline, diesel and aviation fuel in Nigeria include poor capacity utilization of the nation’s refineries, disruption of crude oil supply to the refineries and political instability in the Niger Delta region (Nigeria’s oil province. Nigeria now relies heavily on foreign nations for the supply of these fuels. The country spends substantial part of her foreign exchange on fuel importation. The Federal Government now wishes to reverse this trend by initiating the automotive biofuel programme. The Nigerian automotive biofuel programme involved the construction of 9 plants comprising of 4 sugarcane and 2 cassava bioethanol projects and 3 biodiesel projects. These projects would involve the investment of $1.27 billion into the Nigerian economy for the production of 445 million L of ethanol, 192 MW of green electricity and 120 million L of biodiesel annually

  17. Democracy in Nigeria: the challenge of infectious disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Anya,1 Chikwe Ihekweazu.2

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between democracy and health outcomes has been the focus of recent research interest [1,2]. With an estimated 140 million people, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. In May 2007, it marked eight years of unbroken civilian government, the longest period of civilian rule in its post-independence history with the noticeably peaceful handover of power from President Obasanjo to President Yar’adua. These eight years of relative peace and democratic governance in Nigeria have seen changes in the economy with steady growth, a large reduction in external debt, and structural reforms of the financial and telecommunications sectors. These changes, however, have had little impact on the lives of ordinary Nigerians [3]. In the health sector, progress has been slow and many challenges remain: from weak health systems to tackling HIV/AIDS; from improving immunization coverage (which in the past has impeded the global goal of eradicating polio to implementing the new International Health Regulations (IHR; from achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs to preparing for pandemic flu. We examine the progress made and challenges faced from an infectious diseases perspective in Nigeria over the past eight years.In northern Nigeria in 2003, concerns about vaccine safety, i.e. rumours that the polio vaccine caused sterility, led to a halt in polio immunization. This led to the resurgence of the disease in Nigeria, and the re-infection of several neighbouring countries, setting back the entire global eradication programme [4]. While the last two years have witnessed a renewed response with reinvigorated vaccination campaigns, the disease has persisted and Nigeria remains one of four countries in which the circulation of the wild poliovirus has never been interrupted, recording the highest number of confirmed polio cases in 2006 and 2007 [5]. Routine immunisations for other vaccine preventable diseases remain below 50% (most recent data 2005 [6]. Outbreaks of measles, for which a cheap, safe and easily administered vaccine has been available for two decades, continue to occur with unacceptable mortality rates [7].In February 2006, the first case of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in domestic birds in Africa was reported from a poultry farm in Nigeria [8]. The case took 5 weeks to be confirmed. Health officials were quickly overwhelmed by the challenge of culling thousands of chickens, responding too late and with too little as the disease spread. Each week brought new anxiety and weird responses [9]. The response to this outbreak provided a troubling illustration of what can happen when H5N1 hits a developing country with a weak health care system and limited capacity in infectious disease control.Nigeria has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world [10]. In 1999 the new civilian government set up a National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA charged with coordinating various activities related to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in the country. The committee has recently been transformed by legislative act into a statutory agency. The prevalence rate based on national sentinel surveys rose from 1.8 per cent in 1991 to 5.8 % in 2001 but in 2006 it was estimated at 3.9 per cent [11]. However, marked variation within the country persists with prevalence rates as high as 12 per cent in some states [12]. In 2005, the Nigerian government committed to universal provision of free antiretroviral therapy, the implementation of which has been largely funded by the Global Fund, PEPFAR [12] and the World Bank. While some progress has been made, with an estimated 92,000 people currently on treatment [12], poor management, shoddy coordination, and capacity issues have impeded further progress in this area.In Nigeria, there is no broad technical agency with the capacity for the surveillance and response to infectious disease. This responsibility lies with technocrats in the Ministry of Health. Most surveillance and response activities are managed via disease specific v

  18. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics

  19. Assessment of Progressive Product Innovation on Key Environmental Indicators: Pampers® Baby Wipes from 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Van Hoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007 and new (2013 version of a common hygiene product in Europe and the U.S. The standard methodology follows the ISO 14040/44 Guidelines for LCA. Results are reported for the impact indicators with high relevance for the product category: primary energy, global warming, particulates, agricultural land occupation, fossil fuel depletion, and solid waste generation. Generally, raw material supply chains for product and packaging contribute most (up to 82% to the calculated environmental impact indicators. Improvements vs. the 2007 baby wipe range between 4% and 14% in Europe and between 15% and 36% in the U.S. The improvement is driven by a new substrate technology that provides more surface area for cleaning, which results in lower use of resources. This case study illustrates three key environmental drivers behind this innovation: the corporate focus on R&D capability to design for environmentally improved products, the increased interest from retailers and consumers requiring accurate and relevant information on the performance and sustainability of products, and the company s interest in deeper technical understanding of contributions from upstream material and process innovations on a product’s environmental profile.

  20. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  1. The Nation's Report Card: Arts 2008--Music & Visual Arts. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 8. Highlights. NCES 2009-494

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Nation's Report Card[TM] informs the public about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in the United States. Report cards communicate the findings of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a continuing and nationally representative measure of achievement in various subjects over time. The 2008 NAEP…

  2. Ochratoxin A Burdens in Rice from Lagos Markets, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.O. Ayejuyo; Williams, A. B.; T.F. Imafidon

    2008-01-01

    Twenty five different brands of rice from Lagos markets in Nigeria were sampled and assessed for Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Samples were homogenized by grinding and extracted with 12.5 mL of 0.1 M phosphoric acid and 125 mL of methylene chloride. The extracts were cleaned-up with a syringe packed with acid washed Celite 545 column fitted to a solid phase extraction vacuum manifold and the analyte was eluted with methylene chlori...

  3. Attitude of infertile women to child adoption in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, A; Arulogun, O; Oladokun, R; Adenike Bello, F; Morhassan-Bello, I O; Bambgoye, E A; Adewole, I F; Ojengbede, O A

    2010-01-01

    Infertility has serious consequences especially in Africa where a high premium is place on child bearing. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was administered on 396 consenting women seeking infertility treatment at the gynaecological clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan in an attempt to assess the attitude of infertile women in Nigeria to child adoption and its acceptability as a management option for infertility. Most (64%) believed its culturally unacceptable and only 17% will try it as an option. Sustained advocacy, community mobilization and enactment of supportive laws were some of the suggestions made by respondents to improve its uptake. PMID:22314902

  4. Pattern and prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: In Port Harcourt, evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion therapy in neonatal patients are yet to be defined and the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported.Methods: Platelet counts of 132 neonatal patients admitted into the special care baby unit (SCBU at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Nigeria were assessed using the International Committee on Standards in Hematology (ICSH approved manual procedures for hemocytometry.6Study design: This is a cross sectional study carried out on neonates to determine the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia.Results: The median platelet count of the neonates was 97.0 × 109/L (interquartile range [IQR] 50–152 while the mean age was 61.7 hours (range 1–336 hours. The overall prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 53.0%. Mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 51–100 × 109/L was found in 39.4% of the neonates, 12.1% had moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count 30–50 × 109/L, while severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30 × 109/L was detected in 1.5% of the neonates. Of these, 84.84% of the cases occurred within 72 hours (early onset. The most common clinical diagnosis among the neonates was severe birth asphyxia (33.3%, followed by neonatal jaundice (19.7%, neonatal sepsis (16.7%, low birth weight (13.6%, anemia and bleeding (6.1%, and other clinical conditions (10.6%. There was no association between clinical diagnosis and thrombocytopenia (Fisher’s exact test = 10.643; P = 0.923.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of early onset neonatal thrombocytopenia cases in this region of Nigeria, the majority of which are mild in nature. There is a need to define a safer lower limit for platelet count and to determine which neonates will benefit from treatment.Keywords: neonatal thrombocytopenia, platelet count, thrombocytopenia, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  5. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Nkechi M.

    2012-01-01

    Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the...

  6. NATIONAL ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY & POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: A CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Ja’afaruBambale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is one of the most common characteristics of the third world countries including Nigeria. National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS is a reform agenda by Nigerian Government modeled on the IMF’s poverty reduction and growth facility to achieve some macroeconomic goals of stability, poverty alleviation, wealth creation, and employmentgeneration. This paper investigates the extent to which the goal of poverty reduction has been achieved after the first phase of its implementation (2004-2007.The paper adopted the content analysis of library materials, publications and other documented researches pertaining to the subject-matter. The paper concludes that NEEDS has not made a significant impact on Nigeria’s infrastructures and standard of living of the majority and therefore status of poverty remain at an alarming rate. The failure of NEEDS to significantly generate employment and reduce poverty has been attributed largelytoweak institutional frameworks andlack of political will in the Nigerian state. To achieve poverty reduction and economic progress in Nigeria, majority of Nigerians must have access to quality education and the leadershipmust be truly committed to the economic reform agenda by encouraging development of stronger State institutions and creating an enabling investment environment.

  7. Beno Gutenberg contribution to seismic hazard assessment and recent progress in the European-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Giuliano F.; Romanelli, Fabio

    2001-10-01

    The fundamental work of Beno Gutenberg has inspired and guided an appreciable part of research in modern seismology, both from the experimental and the theoretical point of view. Among the several topics of seismology that have benefited from the fundamental contribution of Gutenberg, we consider particularly relevant the description of the asthenospheric low-velocity channel, the definition of the surface waves magnitude and the Gutenberg-Richter law, since they are pivotal tools for seismic hazard assessment. The quite revolutionary model for the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the European area predicts the existence of almost aseismic lithospheric roots. These roots are located in correspondence of most of the orogenic belts and interrupt the asthenosphere low velocity channel that has been identified by Beno Gutenberg in 1948. The model of the European upper mantle, proposed for the first time in 1979 and subsequently refined, has stimulated a considerable amount of research, which has nicely confirmed the major innovative features of the early model. At present, the subduction of the lithosphere at continent-continent collisions, supported not only by seismological data, is a widely accepted concept within the community of Earth scientists, even if it contradicts one of the basic dogmas of the original formulation of plate tectonics. The proposed model for the Alpine-Apennines area supplies a new and unifying framework for the interpretation of the Quaternary magmatism, at present generally accepted by petrologists and geochemists. The theoretical basis for the Gutenberg's surface-wave magnitude calibration function has been supplied by the use of complete synthetic seismograms, and thus it has been possible to formulate the theoretical MS depth correction. The introduction of the depth correction for MS enables the computation of surface wave magnitude for all earthquakes, regardless of their focal depth. This is especially important for the quantification of subcrustal historical earthquakes, for which the seismic moment may be difficult to estimate from recordings of early mechanical seismographs. The new MS calibrating function yield both distance- and depth-independent magnitude estimates. The analysis of the global seismicity, using the seismotectonic regionalization in subduction zones, mid oceanic ridge zones, island arcs, shows that a single Gutenberg-Richter (GR) relation is not universally applicable and that a multiscale seismicity model can reconcile two apparently conflicting paradigms: the Self-Organized Criticality mechanism and the Characteristic Earthquake concept. The multiscale representation has been applied to Italy, where the zones at the space scale of 400-500 km quite well reproduce the shapes of the regions used to apply the, globally tested, CN intermediate term earthquake prediction algorithm.

  8. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  9. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  10. Personality and Development of Crime in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tenibiaje Dele Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The research was undertaken to investigate the differences in the personality traits of prison inmates and non- inmates and development of crime. The study was carried out in Nigerian Prisons located in five states in southwestern Nigeria. The sample comprised of 200 subjects made up of 121 inmates and 79 non-inmates. The non-inmates were the students of U niversity of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, public servants and nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria, aged 17 to 45 years. A descriptive survey research de...

  11. Strategies for Enhancing the Teaching of ICT in Business Education Programmes as Perceived by Business Education Lecturers in Universities in South South Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoro James

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the strategies for enhancing the teaching of ICT in Business Education programme as perceived by Business Education lecturers in universities in south south Nigeria. Three research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study was a descriptive survey. The population which also served as a sample comprised 134 Business Education lecturers in universities in the south south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a 66 ?...

  12. Patent Medicine Dealers and Irrational Use of Medicines in Children: The Economic Cost and Implications for Reducing Childhood Mortality in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea diseases (DD) in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispense...

  13. Recent progress in safety assessments of Japanese water cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module (WCSB TBM) is being designed by JAEA for the primary candidate TBM of Japan, and the safety evaluation of WCSB TBM has been performed. This reports presents summary of safety evaluation activities of the Japanese WCSB TBM, including nuclear analysis, source of RI, waste evaluation, occupational radiolysis exposure (ORE), failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and postulated initiating event (PIE). For the purpose of basic evaluation of source terms on nuclear heating and radioactivity generation, two-dimensional nuclear analysis has been carried out. By the nuclear analysis, distributions of neutron flux, tritium breeding ratio (TBR), nuclear heat, decay heat and induced activity are calculated. Tritium production is calculated by the nuclear analysis by integrating distributions of TBR values, as about 0.2 g-T/FPD. With respect to the radioactive waste, the induced activity of the irradiated TBM is estimated. For the purpose of occupational radiolysis exposure (ORE), RI inventory is estimated. Tritium inventory in pebble bed of TBM is about 3 x 1012 Bq, and tritium in purge gas is about 3 x 1011 Bq. FMEA has been carried out to identify the PIEs that need safety evaluation. PIEs are summarized into three groups, i.e., heating, pressurization and release of RI. PIEs of local heating are converged without any special cares. With respect to heating of whole module, two PIEs are selected as the most severe, two PIEs are selected as the most severe events, i.e., loss of cooling of TBM during plasma operation and ingress of coolant into TBM during plasma operation. With respect to PIEs about pressurization, the PIEs of pressurization of the compartment nearby the pipes of cooling system are evaluated, because rupture of the pipes result pressurization of such compartments, i.e., box structure of TBM, purge gas loop, TRS, VV, port cell and TCWS vault. Box structure of TBM is designed to withstand the maximum pressure of the cooling system. At other compartments, discharged coolant is released by mitigation systems and pressure does not exceed the design limit. With respect to PIEs about release of RI, there are three inventories of RI, i.e., RI in VV (tritium and radio-activated dust), RI in purge gas (tritium) and RI in coolant (tritium and Active Corrosion Products (ACP)). The sequences of release of these inventories of RI are evaluated. It was concluded that the baseline data on nuclear heating, decay heat and generation of tritium and induced activity were clarified for further evaluation of ORE. Also FMEA was carried out to identify the important PIEs to be considered in safety analysis. By the safety evaluation activities, the basis of detailed safety assessment of the WCSB TBM was established. (orig.)

  14. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezenwa BN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier. Keywords: HPV, vaccine, Nigeria

  15. VIOLENT ISLAMISTS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ziethen, Tais Krøger; Rohde, Andreas Winther

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the world’s most corrupt countries, with severe poverty issues, and is divided in a primarily Muslim North and Christian South. In recent years a new Islamist militant group called Boko Haram have carried out attacks on symbols of the Western world, such as schools, churches and a UN building. Boko Haram has a strict interpreta-tion of Islam and campaigns for a caliphate practicing sharia law. The extreme and vio-lent nature of Boko Haram means that the empirical material ...

  16. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  17. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5±5.6 years, educational period: 4.5±4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1±4.5 years, educational period: 6.5±4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and ent, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP

  18. Evaluation of Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behaviour of Clothes in Borno State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lawan, Lawan A.; Ramat Zanna

    2013-01-01

    his study assesses cultural factors influencing consumer buying behaviour of clothes in Borno state, Nigeria. It was specifically carried out to examine consumer buying decision making process and assess cultural, economic as well as personal factors influencing clothes buying behavior. Data for the study were gathered through structured questionnaire administered by the researcher with the help of two research assistants, on a sample of 192 clothes buyers, out of which, 174 were duly filled ...

  19. Unavailability of Essential Obstetric Care Services in a Local Government Area of South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ijadunola, Kayode T.; Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Orji, Ernest O.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Owolabi, Olabimpe O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Omideyi, Adekunbi K.; Adewuyi, Alfred A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from...

  20. Dietary Pattern and Anthropometric Indices of 6-36 Months Old Children in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeanu, V.; Onyechi, U.; Onuoha, N.; Ezeugwa, I.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary pattern and growth monitoring are major components of child care practices. Anthropometry is a useful tool in assessing the nutritional status and monitoring the growth of children under-five years of age. The objective of this study was to assess the dietary pattern and anthropometric indices of children (6-36 months) in Anambra state, Nigeria. Four hundred (400) children were selected by systematic random sampling from three urban and six rural areas of two out of three senatorial d...

  1. Impact of Technological Devices on Information and Communication Technology Acceptance for Construction Site Management in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nuruddeen Usman; Ilias Said

    2012-01-01

    The success of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption depends on the impact of the technological devices. Many construction companies have been using ICT devices without assessing whether it makes any effect to its activities or not. The main aim of this study is to assess the effect of technological devices on ICT acceptance for construction site management in Nigeria. A survey using questionnaires was employed in order to achieve the study objectives. The respondents were ...

  2. Assessment of Progress towards Sustainable Forest Management in Croatia through Usage of Quantitative Improved Pan-European Criteria and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Lovri?

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Paper analyzes the transition of forestry in Croatia from 1995 up to the situation in 2006. The comparison between these two situations is made through quantitative Improved Pan-European Criteria and Indicators (C&I for sustainable forest management (SFM. The paper also tests the applicability of the framework on a national reporting scale, and comments on the format of the framework itself. Material and Methods: This secondary research compiles data in the framework of quantitative Pan-European Criteria and Indicators. Data comes out of many national and international sources, out of which most important ones are the MCPFE/FAO forest assessments and the General forest management plans for Croatia. For the reasons of comparison, all respective data is equated to 2000, and all forest types have been presented through MCPFE systematization scheme. Results and Conclusion: According to this framework, the forestry in Croatia has made a progress in 15 out of a total of 35 indicators while no indicator showed a negative trend, 8 showed no significant change and 12 could not be calculated. The main impediment to the calculation of the indicators was the format of the requested information, notably division of total forest area to forests and other wooded land, and division of total forest land according to availability for wood supply.

  3. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The MP-1 and MP-2 late phase melt progression experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis Dept.

    1994-05-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment program, MELCOR has been used to model the MP-1 and MP-2 experiments, which provided data for late-phase melt progression in PWR geometries. Core temperature predicted by MELCOR were within 250--500 K of measured data in both MP-1 and MP-2. Relocation in the debris bed and metallic crust regions of MP-2 was predicted accurately compared to PIE data. Temperature gradients in lower portions of the test bundle were not predicted well in both MP-1 and MP-2, due to the lack of modeling of the heat transfer path to the cooling jacket in those portions of the test bundles. Fifteen sensitivity studies were run on various core (COR), control volume hydrodynamics (CVH) and heat structures (HS) package parameters. No unexpected sensitivities were found, and in particular there were no sensitivities to reduced time step, finer nodalization or to computer platform. Calculations performed by the DEBRIS and TAC2D codes for MP-1 and MP-2 showed better agreement with measured data than those performed by MELCOR. This was expected, through, due to the fully 2-dimensional modeling used in the other codes.

  4. Animal welfare in studies on murine tuberculosis: assessing progress over a 12-year period and the need for further improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Nuno Henrique; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Olsson, I Anna S

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. In this 12-year period, we observed a rise in reports of ethical approval of experiments. The proportion of studies classified into the most severe category did however not change significantly over the studied period. Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. Overall, this study shows that progress has been made in the application of humane endpoints in TB research, but that a considerable potential for improvement remains. PMID:23110093

  5. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The MP-1 and MP-2 late phase melt progression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment program, MELCOR has been used to model the MP-1 and MP-2 experiments, which provided data for late-phase melt progression in PWR geometries. Core temperature predicted by MELCOR were within 250--500 K of measured data in both MP-1 and MP-2. Relocation in the debris bed and metallic crust regions of MP-2 was predicted accurately compared to PIE data. Temperature gradients in lower portions of the test bundle were not predicted well in both MP-1 and MP-2, due to the lack of modeling of the heat transfer path to the cooling jacket in those portions of the test bundles. Fifteen sensitivity studies were run on various core (COR), control volume hydrodynamics (CVH) and heat structures (HS) package parameters. No unexpected sensitivities were found, and in particular there were no sensitivities to reduced time step, finer nodalization or to computer platform. Calculations performed by the DEBRIS and TAC2D codes for MP-1 and MP-2 showed better agreement with measured data than those performed by MELCOR. This was expected, through, due to the fully 2-dimensional modeling used in the other codes

  6. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad

    1987-06-01

    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  7. Eradicating Corruption in Public Office in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Attah Ademu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a model for dealing with the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It uses an analytical approach to explore the Singapore model of dealing with acts of corruption to serve as a model for Nigeria. Corruption is inimical to socio-economic development of any country where it is practised on any scale. This explains why all nations make efforts to minimize or eradicate corruption in their economies. Nigeria has been ranked among the most corrupt nations of the World by many international anti-corruption agencies. If other nations take measures to eradicate corruption from their economies because of its negative consequences, Nigeria cannot be an exception. Corruption has led to gross misuse of public funds in Nigeria and has caused untold hardship to her citizens via non-payments of people’s benefits and lack of provision of basic public utilities. To deal with corruption in Nigeria, various anti-corruption agencies were set up but the problem remains. This paper therefore recommends the Singapore model as a method of dealing with corruption in Nigeria. This model holds each sectional head responsible for any act of corruption in his/her unit if established. The government was strong and determined to deal with the transgressors; there was political will to tame corruption and therefore there was government support to the anti-corruption agencies. If this model is adopted and faithfully implemented, corruption could be eradicated from Nigeria. In addition, constitutional amendments that would update and clearly define acts that constitute corrupt practices as these acts manifest in various forms are necessary to facilitate interpretation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws.

  8. Global Corruption and Governance in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo Makinde

    2013-01-01

    The paper focused on governance in Nigeria vis-à-vis global corruption. It examined the various ways by which global corruption has affected governance in Nigeria. Key concepts were discussed, namely, corruption, governance, global corruption and characteristics of global corruption. The paper which defined corruption as impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle, also identified its causes as greed, love of money, and excessive pleasure, among others. Corruption was found to have a ...

  9. Are Nigeria SMEs Effectively Utilizing ICT?

    OpenAIRE

    Idisemi Apulu; Emmanuel O. Ige

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates reasons for the non-utilization of ICT by SMEs in Nigeria using a survey of 180 SMEs.The results of the study indicates that majority of Nigeria SMEs utilizes basic ICT such as word processing,fixed landlines, printers and fax machines but rarely use the computer for advance functions such as businessanalysis, planning and decision making. However, there are key factors that inhibit these SMEs from effectivelyutilizing ICT in their various businesses. The survey sugges...

  10. Food Security and Nutition trend in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omotor, Douglason G.

    2009-01-01

    Nigeria has a chequered history of food production, sustainability and food security. This paper discusses the food and nutrition situation of Nigeria, it highlights some of the socio-economic factors- price, income, employment, demography (population density) that has influenced the food consumption system (supply, distribution, consumption) and addresses some of the major issues that would arise therein. It was observed that more Nigerians live below the poverty line and are food insecure. ...

  11. E-Marketing for Nigeria Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kuboye B. M.; Ogunjobi S. B

    2013-01-01

    One of the problems facing Agricultural farmers in Nigeria is how to market their products beyond their locality. Information technology tools have been tested and accepted widely and can be used to solve the problem of marketing faced by farmers. This paper explores the background of the study relating to agricultural practice and marketing of the agricultural products in Nigeria. It proposes the use of merchant to act as a middle-agent between the farmers and consumers for the marketing sys...

  12. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Akankali; J.F.N. Abowei; A. Eli

    2011-01-01

    Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages i...

  13. Total Usan Nigeria SERPENT biodiversity survey report

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. O. B.; Gates, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The deep-waters off Nigeria offer many interesting and valuable opportunities for novel science. Through Total E&P Nigeria, and with collaboration with the international SERPENT project as well as with local universities and research organisations, industrial remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) were used to carry out high-resolution imaging surveys and make specimen collections in this deep-water region during periods of stand-by time. The first phase of the work was to characterise the deep-wa...

  14. Effective Utilization Of Tax Revenue In Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baghebo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the effective utilization of tax revenue vis-à-vis the impact of Government expenditure on economic growth and development of Nigeria. Government intervenes in the economy through a variety of policies, of these policies, two are most important. They are fiscal and monetary policy. This work is on the expenditure component of fiscal policy. Until recently, Nigeria has been one of the most disappointing development stories of the modern era-a cautionary tale...

  15. Economic analysis of coffee production in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoola

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to examine the economics of coffee production in Nigeria and aimed to determine parameters for revitalizing coffee production. Data from one hundred and fifty respondents were selected by stratified and purposive techniques from the Nigerian states of Kogi and Ogun. Data were analyzed using a descriptive statistic regression analysis and a gross margin analysis. The gross margin profit from coffee farming was below the minimum requirement for a basic livelihood in Nigeria....

  16. Using Thoracic Ultrasound to Accurately Assess Pneumothorax Progression During Positive Pressure Ventilation : A Comparison with Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oveland, Nils Petter; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES While thoracic ultrasonography accurately determines the size and extent of occult pneumothoraces (PTXs) in spontaneously breathing patients, there is uncertainty about patients receiving positive pressure ventilation. We compared the lung point (i.e. the area where the collapsed lung still adheres to the inside of the chest wall) using the two modalities ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), to determine whether US can reliably be used to assess PTX progression in a positive pressure ventilated porcine model. METHODS Air was introduced in incremental steps into five hemithoraces in three intubated porcine models. The lung point was identified on US imaging and referenced against the lateral limit of the intrapleural air space identified on the CT. The distance from the sternum to the lung point (S-LP) was measured on the CT scans and correlated to the insufflated air volume. RESULTS The mean total difference between the 131 US and CT lung points was 6.8 mm (standard deviation ± 7.1 mm and range 0.0-29.3 mm). A mixed-model regression analysis showed a linear relationship between the S-LP distances and the PTX volume (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS In an experimental porcine model, we found a linear relation between the PTX size and the lateral position of the lung point. The accuracy of thoracic US for identifying the lung point (and thus the PTX extent) was comparable to that of CT imaging. These clinically relevant results suggest that US may be safe and accurate in monitoring PTX progression during positive pressure ventilation.1Department of Research and Development, Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation, Droebak, Norway, nils.petter.oveland@norskluftambulanse.no, hans.morten.lossius@norskluftambulanse.no2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway, nils.petter.oveland@norskluftambulanse.no3Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, hans.morten.lossius@norskluftambulanse.no4Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. kristianwemmelund@gmail.com, sloth@dadlnet.dk5Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway, paalst@hotmail.com6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. lars.knudsen.dk@gmail.com, sloth@dadlnet.dkCorresponding author: Nils Petter Oveland, MD, Department of Research and Development, Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation, Mailbox 94, 1441 Droebak, Norway E-mail: nils.petter.oveland@norskluftambulanse.no.

  17. Law, religion and human rights in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enyinna S, Nwauche.

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between law, religion and human rights in Nigeria. The level and intensity of religious strife in Nigeria justify this inquiry, whose aim should be the design of a framework that enables individuals to enjoy the freedom of religion and ensures that religious conf [...] licts are managed in Nigeria's multi-ethnic and multi-religious context. Almost a decade to the introduction of Islamic criminal law in the 12 northern states of Nigeria, there is no longer any doubt that religion is fundamental to the survival of Nigeria. The basic thesis of this paper is that the key to understanding the relationship between law, religion and human rights in Nigeria lies in the unacknowledged dominance of Islam and Christianity, which I characterise as de facto state religions, and the resulting neglect of other religions. It is this reality, its denial and misunderstanding of attendant constitutional obligations that define the relationship between the Nigerian state and religion.

  18. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Jillian C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community.

  19. LIQUID BIOFUELS AS ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    B.K. HIGHINA; I.M. BUGAJE; B.UMAR

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potentials of liquid biofuels as alternative transport fuel in Nigeria. The transport sector of Nigeria’s economy is probably the most vulnerable sector , as it responds very sensitively to rises in prices of conventional fuels, most of which are today imported into the country, though ironically, Nigeria is world sixth largest exporter of petroleum crude. This has necessitated the search for renewable, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy resources. This ...

  20. Multidimensional poverty in Nigeria: First order dominance approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ajakaiye, Olu; Jerome, Afeikhena T.; Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Mahrt, Kristi; Alaba, Olufunke A.

    2014-01-01

    This study appraises non-monetary multidimensional poverty in Nigeria using the novel first order dominance approach developed by Arndt et al. (2012). It examines five dimensions of deprivation: education, water, sanitation, shelter, and energy-using comparable datasets, the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys of 1999, 2003, and 2008 for national, regional, and zonal analysis, and the Harmonized Nigeria Living Standard Survey of 2008/09 as well as the Nigeria Living Standard Survey of 2003...

  1. Sandcrete Blocks and Quality Management in Nigeria Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anosike, M. N.; Oyebade, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Over 90% of physical infrastructures in Nigeria are being constructed using sandcrete blocks making it a very important material in building construction. It is widely used in Nigeria, Ghana, and other African countries as load bearing and non-load bearing walling units. For a long time in Nigeria, sandcrete blocks are manufactured in many parts of the country without any reference to suit local building requirements or good quality work. The Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) developed a...

  2. Iron stores in regular blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adediran A; Ei, Uche; Ta, Adeyemo; Od, Damulak; Aa, Akinbami; As, Akanmu

    2013-01-01

    Adewumi Adediran,1 Ebele I Uche,2 Titilope A Adeyemo,1 Dapus O Damulak,3 Akinsegun A Akinbami,4 Alani S Akanmu1 1Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 4Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, Ikeja, Nigeria Background: A...

  3. From Old School to the Use of ICT in Supervision of Counsellor Trainees in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ngozi Ugwuegbulam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Things are changing. Better ways of doing things are been thought out and employed. Counsellor education and supervision is not left out in this wind of change. This paper specifically acknowledges this in the area of supervision of students on counselling practicum exercise. In Nigeria, counselling is taught from first degree to Ph.D. level. During the course of training of the counsellors at the first degree level, trainees are exposed to a two six-weeks practicum exercise. At the end of each of the practicum exercise, the trainee counsellors are assessed. Most times, the assessment is done post mortem from the review of tapes and reports. This paper submits that such exercises can be improved by employing the use of some ICT techniques for enhanced and more accurate assessment of trainee counsellors practicum experiences, hence the call for a shift from the old school to the use of ICT in supervision of trainee counsellors in Nigeria.

  4. PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recovery of financial resources thereby excluding accounting for other project resources (human skills application, time management or optimization among others that are usually applied to project implementation but lost through public officers’ failure and/or delays to implement planned projects. This article examines the magnitude of unspent funds recently recovered by the government from its various ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs. The general objective of this article is to contribute towards improving the development project management culture in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: To highlight the magnitude of unspent funds in Nigeria’s MDAs; and to show some adverse consequences of failing (or delaying to spend funds allocated in the budget forimplementing projects in economic sectors and on the pursuit of development objectives. Survey and description methods were used. Data on the refund of unspent funds was obtained from secondary sources (records of MDAs and analysed using qualitative and simple quantitative techniques. Results show that a high rate of projects delay and /or abandonment was discovered shortly after the inauguration of President Yar’ Adua and his administration in May 2007. Although some project funds have been recovered, other project resources (time wasted, human skills/hours and development benefits that would have accrued from completion of the planned and financed projects have not been recovered but lost. The fact that most of the abandoned and/or delayed projects were to be implemented in key sectors such as electricity (power supply, construction of roads and other works, petroleum, oil and natural gas development (which forms the major sources of revenue for the Nigerian economy, education, health and so forth, represents huge opportunity losses arising from losses of development benefits and spin-offs that would have accrued from the various economic sectors of Nigeria’s economy. The implication of these findings for policy includes the need to include all project resources in the list of the recovery and resource accounting effort of the government’s anti-corruption programme.

  5. The potential of nuclear energy as a primary source for clean energy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria's economic development has been held back by the underdevelopment of the energy sector. Despite being one of the world's major exporters of petroleum, the country has been unable to produce enough electricity to meet domestic demand. The difficulty in harnessing fossil fuels in Nigeria for electricity generation and the connected environmental questions coupled with the acute shortages in electricity generation and supply experienced in the nation have become topics of growing national importance and international attention. Many other clean alternative sources of energy are available, but most of them are either relatively undeveloped technologically or are not yet fully utilized. In this study, nuclear reactor as a primary energy source for clean energy is suggested. An assessment of electricity generation from nuclear energy is presented. A complete Nuclear Power Programme is proposed for Nigeria. A preliminary economical and environmental impact study is performed on the proposed programme. The presented work could be used as a nucleus for a feasibility study for applying this programme in any part of Nigeria with suitable site characteristics.

  6. Public awareness and knowledge of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) control activities in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamiju, Olatunwa J; Olamiju, Francisca O; Adeniran, Adebiyi A; Mba, Ifeanyi C; Ukwunna, Chidera C; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F

    2014-09-01

    The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability. PMID:25254362

  7. Stakeholders’ Perception of the Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Okunbor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the stakeholders’ perception of the adoption of IFRS in Nigeria. It sought to establish among others whether the implementation of IFRS in Nigeria has enhanced the value of financial reporting in the country. The data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. In the study, the opinion of users of financial reports was sought through a cross-sectional survey. The study reveals that significant differences exist in the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the effect of the working of IFRS on the value of financial reports; no considerable differences in their perception about the implementation of IFRS with respect to the improvement on quality of investment decisions ; and as a basis for assessing returns on investment and whether comparison of financial reports in Nigeria have been enhanced. Based on these findings, it was recommended that relevant authorities should ensure that organisations comply with established standards when preparing financial statements; and auditors must assert their independence with a view to ensuring that audit reports reflect the actual position of the entity’s financial circumstances. Government was further advised to strengthen the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria with qualified personnel in order to adequately perform its functions.

  8. Management of protected areas in Sahel savannah ecoregion of Nigeria under the threat of desertification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOROKINI Temitope Israel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the challenges facing 8 selected protected areas in the Sahel Savannah ecoregion and proffer solutions to these challenges in order to ensure conservation and sustainability of Nigeria’s biodiversity. Primary data were collected from randomly-selected 120 staffs using questionnaire administration from 8 Forest Reserves within Borno and Yobe states of Nigeria. A high level of encroachment of all the studied protected areas was observed, which ranged from deforestation, overgrazing, poaching to converting protected areas into farmlands. Other notable challenges include poor staffing, inadequate equipment and funding. The respondents further reported that majority of the defaulters were farmers and local people in the area, involved in such practices for their survival in the wake of harsher climate and desert encroachment in the region. This paper calls for a revision of the Government Policy on Forestry in Nigeria to allow the people own and plant forests, implementation of community based forest resources management, provision of environment and user-friendly solar powered cooking stoves and sustainable farming systems such as crop rotation, intercropping, sustainable irrigation, organic farming and agroforestry. In addition, sources of income for the locals need to be diversified, such as honey bee production.

  9. Revisiting Shari'ah, democracy and human rights in Nigeria / 'n Blik op Shari'ah, demokrasie en menseregte in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Williams O., Mbamalu.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that in a pluralistic and complex society such as Nigeria the invocation of Shari'ah (Islamic law) does not augur well for the survival of democracy. The traditional belief of every Muslim is that fundamentalism has been and must continue to be rooted in the concept of theocracy [...] upon which the medieval institution of the Caliphate actually rested. Muslim political leaders challenge the agitation for a secular state in Nigeria as an inspiration by Christian theology based on Western European thought. This article argued that political and social progress in Nigeria is unrealistic without the separation of religion and politics. It was identified in this article that the separation of religion and politics does not go down well with Islamic eschatology and cosmology, because Islam's main theological drive is toward an Islamic world empire. The solution offered in this article was that emphasis should be on ensuring that any legal framework or constitutional arrangement should be one that safeguards the interests of all citizens.

  10. Chronic osteomyelitis in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samuel B., Agaja; Raphael O., Ayorinde.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To review cases of chronic osteomyelitis managed at a private health institution (Ela Memorial Medical Centre, Ilorin, Nigeria) between March 1995 and February 2005. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case notes and X-rays of the patients who presented at EMMC with chronic osteomyelitis were reviewed retros [...] pectively. Age, sex, sites of bone involvement and outcome of treatment were recorded. Local surgical debridement (including saucerisation, sequestrectomy and curettage) was the cornerstone of treatment. All patients received antibiotics for at least 6 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 107 cases, 71 (66.4%) were males, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. The mean age was 21.9 years (range 1.5 - 80 years). Chronic osteomyelitis is most common in the first and second decades of life (55.2%) and mostly affects people

  11. Trend Analysis of Drought in the Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Climatic Zones of Northern Nigeria (1907-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Omonijo, Temidayo O.; Okogbue, Emmanuel C.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of drought characteristics and their associated variability in the Northern Nigeria was carried out. Monthly rainfall data for all the selected locations which span a period of 100 years (1907-2006) collected from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) database were used. The resolution of the data is 0.5 ×

  12. The Impact of Political Leadership and Corruption on Nigeria’s Development since Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Awofeso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper draws an interlocking relationship between political leadership and development and concludes that, while leadership had played tremendous role in the socio-political and economic development of most nations of the world, the reverse is the case in Nigeria. Apart from identifying other social vices that accounted for the protracted state of Nigeria’s underdevelopment, the paper also singles out corruption as the major impediment to Nigeria’s quest for development since independence. Drawing from the World Bank, Transparency International and highly knowledgeable scholars in this field, the paper demonstrates the process through which Nigerian political leadership became ‘neck-deep’ in corruption with several cases of monumeotal diversion of public funds meant for the economic development of the country into individual pockets. The multi-dimensional consequences of corrupt practices on a nation’s socio-political and economic development cannot be overemphasised, as virtually all sectors of the country, including education, health, agriculture, politics, technology, e.t.c, are negatively affected, with the resultant outcome like extreme poverty, high level of illiteracy, economic dependency, technological backwardness, political instability, e.t.c, as the order of the day. Nigeria’s situation typifies the above as shown in the paper.

  13. An Integrated Reclamation Scheme to Ensure Good Mining and Mineral Processing Practices in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opafunso Zacheus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental conditions of mining and mineral processing sites in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria with special reference to Ondo State, Nigeria. For the purpose of the study, field data were collected on the location, locality, mining status and environmental conditions of solid mineral deposits in the states that make up the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS receivers were used to determine the location of each site visited. Physical assessment of the environmental degradation as a result of oil and gas exploitation and unfriendly mining and mineral processing practices was done. The area was characterized by great biological diversity with sensitive and fragile ecosystem resulting from dangerous mining and mineral processing practices. To ensure good mining and mineral processing in the area, an integrated reclamation scheme has been developed.

  14. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey, housing, defence and security and urban renewal, and large scale mapping community, NASRDA has embarked on the development of a higher resolution satellite NigeriaSat-2 which carries spatial resolution pay loads of 2.5 and 5 meters in panchromatic and multi-spectral bands respectively. In addition, the satellite has been designed to provide stereo-imaging capability. It also carries a 32m resolution payload to ensure the continuity of NigeriaSat-1 data beyond its 2008 lifespan. The launch of NigeriaSat-2 is being planned for 2009. Furthermore, Nigeria's concern over the incessant cloud cover of a large area of its southern part has informed NASRDA's quest to acquire capacity for SAR-based image interpretation and application to socio-economic development. The programme will eventually lead to the acquisition of a SAR-based micro-satellite (NigeriaSat-3) in the near future.

  15. Experiences in establishing a PEPFAR-supported laboratory quality system in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimiku, Alash'le G; Croxton, Talishiea; Akintunde, Ezekiel; Okelade, Bimpe; Jugu, Joseph; Peters, Sam; Dakum, Patrick; Blattner, William; Constantine, Niel

    2010-10-01

    The need to accurately diagnose HIV-infected persons and monitor their immune status and sequelae from increased access to antiretroviral therapy dictated the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) system supported by dedicated personnel, financial resources, and a close monitoring system. Assessment of laboratories and personnel in Nigeria revealed the need for improved laboratory infrastructure and training, including on-site didactic and wet workshops and the institution of a tiered QA unit of laboratory regional officers, focal persons, and site monitors who provided guidance and continuous monitoring. Quarterly assessments and generated reports guided corrective actions. A sustainable quality laboratory system was developed for the first time in Nigeria with funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. With expansion from 7 to 34 comprehensive treatment sites, a tiered laboratory organizational structure with regional and site-based Nigerian quality control officers was developed. Measured improvements included reduction in deficiencies from 13% to 2%. PMID:20855634

  16. Media saturation, communication exposure and HIV stigma in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Fatusi, Adesegun; Anyanti, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    HIV-related stigma constitutes an impediment to public health as it hampers HIV/AIDS control efforts in many ways. To address the complex problems of increasing HIV infection rate, widespread misinformation about the infection and the rising level of HIV-related stigma, the various tiers of government in Nigeria are working with local and international non-governmental organizations to develop and implement strategic communication programs. This paper assesses the link between these communication efforts and HIV-related stigma using data from a nationally representative household survey. The results show that accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV are more prevalent among men than among women. Exposure to HIV-related communication on the media is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, which is in turn a strong predictor of accepting attitudes. Communication exposure also has a significant and positive association with accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV. In contrast, community media saturation is not strongly linked with accepting attitudes for either sex. The findings strongly suggest that media-based HIV programs constitute an effective strategy to combat HIV/AIDS-related stigma and should therefore be intensified in Nigeria. PMID:19231054

  17. Managing Science and Technology Occupations of Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Olubunmi Aderemi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the occupational activities of female graduates in science and technology related fields with a view to assessing factors influencing their performance and make recommendations to enhance women work experiences in S&T occupations. The data for the study was collected through questionnaire and interview schedule from a sample of 2110 respondents comprising of employed female Science and Technology (S&T graduates and heads of departments in tertiary institutions and S&T firms in Nigeria. The study reveal that most female S&T graduates (FSTGs employed in tertiary institutions and research institutions were engaged in S&T based occupations. However, in corporate firms, most of the FSTGs work either in administration, finance or R&D departments. In addition, a large proportion takes less paying non S&T jobs for domestic reasons and lack of suitable vacancies. This suggests gross under-utilization of human resource. Some S&T organizations did not have any female working in S&T departments. Recommendations were made to enhance the recruitment, retention and performance of women in S&T employment in Nigeria.

  18. Productivity measurement and growth in Nigeria: challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze C. IKEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity (growth measurements (describing the assessment of an economy’s rate of change in the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input use and related analysis are regular undertakings by staff of economic development of most nations and development institutions such as the OECD. Although they strive to accomplish objectives related to studying efficiency or the achievement of maximum output physically achievable under the use of current technology and given inputs, accounting for the contribution of real costs savings; introduction of benchmarks for production processes and to highlight living standards obtaining at points in time, its emphasis has been at the expense of examination of issues related to society (institutions, history, innovation and productivity change, which are concerned with promoting growth beyond mere productivity accounting. This paper has attempted to address all these issues as they pertain to Nigeria’s rather stagnant or declining economy. This slight modification was prompted by changes from philosophers concerned with the wider area of productivity measurement and change. The literature agrees that productivity measurement (growth accounting only “identified the significance of different proximate sources of growth” but fails to employ institutional, historical case studies to investigate the underlying causes of the growth, innovation and productivity change. Details of deficiencies related to the foregoing issues are examined and policy recommendations drafted and presented to assist practitioners, policy and decision makers and other stakeholders.

  19. Bakor Women in Pottery Production in Colonial Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon E. MAJUK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper x-rays the performance of Bakor traditional pottery industry in colonial Southeastern Nigeria. It reveals that, contrary to popular textbook generalizations, the industry demonstrated considerable resilience and not only survived, but actually expanded in spite of or even because of colonial presence. The industry survived the harsh colonial economic environment as a result of a number of factors. One of such factors was that clay, the essential raw material, did not make the list of export items to Europe. This meant that producers were not starved of raw materials. Another factor was that there were no perfect imported substitutes for clay pots. For utilitarian and cultural reasons people preferred clay pots to imported varieties. Also significant was the fact that, as elsewhere in Nigeria, the pottery industry was the exclusive preserve of the women folk who were exempted from direct taxation. This meant that, unlike their male counterparts, they were not forced to abandon traditional economic pursuits in search of wage labour or production for export in order to earn the needed cash with which to pat tax. The paper also shows that colonialism actually expanded the market for Bakor pot manufacturers by breaking down traditional trade barriers along the Cross River. In this way their wares found their way into markets as far South as Itu and Calabar. The paper concludes by cautioning against sweeping generalizations in the assessment of the impact of colonialism on African societies.

  20. Global Corruption and Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Makinde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on governance in Nigeria vis-à-vis global corruption. It examined the various ways by which global corruption has affected governance in Nigeria. Key concepts were discussed, namely, corruption, governance, global corruption and characteristics of global corruption. The paper which defined corruption as impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle, also identified its causes as greed, love of money, and excessive pleasure, among others. Corruption was found to have a symbiotic relationship with poverty. Global corruption, characterized by the rich western countries supporting dictatorship in developing countries and destabilizing democracies in these countries for their selfish purpose, is found to be responsible for many failing states in the Third World countries, Nigeria as a typical example. While the paper identified the attributes of good governance as transparency, rule of law, accountability, efficiency, effectiveness, equity, and responsiveness, these were found to be almost out of place in the governance system in Nigeria thus contributing to governance failure in the country. The paper suggested the way forward as being transparency in every transaction, especially transactions between the donor western countries and the recipient countries, among others. The paper concluded that in addition to internal causes, namely ethnicity, religious intolerance, nepotism, and bad leadership, global corruption has greatly contributed to governance failure in Nigeria.