WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and children under five years of age since 2000. The survey was the first nationally representative study of ITN use assessing progress towards the Abuja target amongst vulnerable groups. Population and Method A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 7,200 households, selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique from 12 randomly selected states from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data collection was done during the malarious rainy season (October 2005) using a modified WHO Malaria Indicator Survey structured questionnaire about household ownership and utilization of mosquito nets (treated or untreated) from household heads. Results Household ownership of any net was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%–25.1%) and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%–10.9%). Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%–12.6%) and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion, presence of health facility and wealth index by caregiver's education predicted the use of ITN among this group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the substantial increase in ITN utilization among children under five years of age in Nigeria is still far from the Abuja targets.

Oresanya Olusola B; Hoshen Moshe; Sofola Olayemi T

2008-01-01

2

Rational Use of Medicines: Assessing Progress using Primary Health Centres in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Medicines (drugs) are a critical component in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Their rational use is important to maximize their benefits and prevent undesirable effects. This study was conducted to assess progress with rational use of medicines at primary care level using recommended indicators. METHODS: The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in four primary health centres in Somolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. It employed retrospective and prospective data collection methods. From the four centres, prescription notes of 600 clinical encounters spanning one year were analyzed for prescribing indicators and a checklist was administered for facility indicators. RESULTS: For the 600 clinical encounters studied, 2802 drugs were prescribed. The mean number of drugs per encounter was 4.7±2.1; 75.6% of drugs were prescribed by generic name; prescriptions containing at least an antibiotic averaged 48.5%, while those with at least an injection prescribed were 21%. Of all the drugs prescribed, 83.2% were from the National Essential Drugs List (NEDL). On the average, 86.5% of key essential drugs were available in the health centres but none of the centres had a copy of the NEDL or drug formulary. There were wide variations in some of the indicators across the four facilities. CONCLUSION: The study showed progress in some indicators when compared with previous studies but gaps still exist. We recommend training on rational use of medicines for health workers in the facilities and distribution of copies of NEDL to all the facilities.

Oyeyemi AS; Ogunleye OA

2013-04-01

3

Nigeria's environmental impact assessment laws  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency, NESREA, established in November, 2006 with the mission to ensure a cleaner and healthy environment for Nigerians and to inspire personal and collective responsibility in building an environmentally conscious society for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. Nigeria has put in place appropriate institutional mechanism including legal framework for environmental management in collaboration with NESREA to work closely with all stake holders to facilitate the EIA process in the nuclear industry in Nigeria and ensure that the Nigerian environment and its people benefit maximally from nuclear power generation development.

2008-01-01

4

The macroeconomic determinants of technological progress in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study empirically examines the macroeconomic determinants of technological progress (total factor productivity) in Nigeria that is consistent with the endogenous growth theory. The estimations are carried out with time-series data from 1970 to 2006 using the Johansen estimation techniques. The study is distinct from most of the existing literature since it made an attempt in generating a time-varying technological progress. It employs the Kalman filter technique to d (more) etermine the evolution of the Solow residual estimated from a Cobb-Douglas production function. The results conform to the existing literature that macroeconomic instability, the level of financial development, and the level of human development are highly significant determinants of technological progress in Nigeria.

Akanbi, Olusegun Ayodele

2011-01-01

5

An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

Nkechi M. Christopher

2012-01-01

6

An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sect...

Gift Ntiwunka

7

Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to ...

Falase Bode; Sanusi Michael; Majekodunmi Adetinuwe; Animasahun Barakat; Ajose Ifeoluwa; Idowu Ariyo; Oke Adewale

8

Nigeria in Political Transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria continues to make progress in strengthening its fragile democracy but faces serious economic challenges. Nigeria's population, now 133 million, is projected to grow to over 260 million by 2025. Nigeria remains relatively stable, although ethnic an...

T. Dagne

2005-01-01

9

An assessment of the mechanical stability of wells offshore Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1991 lost time due to stuck pipe related drilling problems accounted for approximately 18% of total drilling time in Mobil Producing Nigeria Ultd.`s (MPN) offshore operations. The primary cause of stuck pipe was identified as mechanical wellbore instability. This paper presents an assessment of the mechanical stability of MPN`s wells offshore Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses and material properties of the troublesome Intra-Biafra and Qua Iboe shale sequences; (2) quantify the drilling fluid densities required to drill mechanically stable wells through these formations; (3) review and recommend well planning and operational parameters which aid in minimizing wellbore stability-related drilling problems. The well-bore stability assessment was carried out with the aid of a 3-dimensional wellbore stability model using field derived data from the study area to corroborate the results. The collection and analysis of drilling data (borehole geometry and density logs, pore pressure, leak-off tests, local geology and other relevant well records) to determine the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses, together with compressive strength tests on formation cores are discussed. Minimum safe drilling fluid densities to promote wellbore stability as a function of well geometry and depth are presented for the most troublesome shales drilled in the study area. Implementation of the results reduced wellbore stability related problems and associated trouble time to less than 5% in 1992.

Lowrey, J.P.; Ottesen, S.

1995-03-01

10

Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. Results 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%), Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%), Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%), Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%), excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%), Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%), Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%), Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9%) and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%). There were 9 mortalities (17.6%) in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. Conclusions The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria.

Falase Bode; Sanusi Michael; Majekodunmi Adetinuwe; Animasahun Barakat; Ajose Ifeoluwa; Idowu Ariyo; Oke Adewale

2013-01-01

11

Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and highlight the challenges encountered in developing this programme. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients that underwent Open Heart Surgery in our institution. The source of data was a prospectively maintained database. Extracted data included patient demographics, indication for surgery, euroscore, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross clamp time, complications and patient outcome. RESULTS: 51 Open Heart Surgery procedures were done between August 2004 and December 2011. There were 21 males and 30 females. Mean age was 29 ± 15.6 years. The mean euroscore was 3.8 ± 2.1. The procedures done were Mitral Valve Replacement in 15 patients (29.4%), Atrial Septal Defect Repair in 14 patients (27.5%), Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in 8 patients (15.7%), Aortic Valve Replacement in 5 patients (9.8%), excision of Left Atrial Myxoma in 2 patients (3.9%), Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in 2 patients (3.9%), Bidirectional Glenn Shunts in 2 patients (3.9%), Tetralogy of Fallot repair in 2 patients (3.9%) and Mitral Valve Repair in 1 patient (2%). There were 9 mortalities (17.6%) in this series. Challenges encountered included the low volume of cases done, an unstable working environment, limited number of trained staff, difficulty in obtaining laboratory support, limited financial support and difficulty in moving away from the Cardiac Mission Model. CONCLUSIONS: The Open Heart Surgery program in our institution is still being developed but the identified challenges need to be overcome if this program is to be sustained. Similar challenges will need to be overcome by other cardiac stakeholders if other OHS programs are to be developed and sustained in Nigeria.

Falase B; Sanusi M; Majekodunmi A; Animasahun B; Ajose I; Idowu A; Oke A

2013-01-01

12

Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria Trace metal assessment of River Kubanni, northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd) in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1), all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO), the European Union (EU) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA). The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight) were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF) obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations. The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd) in fish, water and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The River receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Some water quality characteristics, the fractionation of trace metals in the River sediments, the risk to water column contamination and the levels of the six trace metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus samples were evaluated. Except ammonia (mean 0.72 ± 0.31 mgL-1), all the River water quality characteristics studied were below the recommended drinking water standards by World Health Organization (WHO), the European Union (EU) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA). The average values of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in River Kubanni water were 6.54 ± 1.88, 106.38 ± 14.75, 73.51 ± 11.57, 37.46 ± 6.52, 11.83 ± 3.90 and 0.82 ± 0.37 mg L-1 respectively. These values were below WHO, EU and FEPA limits. Total extractable trace metals from Kubanni River sediments, (Pb, 16.98; Zn, 79.12; Cu, 52.43; Cr, 29.23; Ni, 19.94 and Cd, 4.65 mg Kg-1 dry weight) were all below recommended limits. However, there was considerable risk to River water contamination based on the calculated individual trace metal average contamination factors (IACF) obtained for the River sediments from the trace metal sequential extractions. Also, the distribution and concentration of trace metals obtained in liver, gill, muscle and bone of C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed that the human health risk for trace metals in muscles of fish were low, but individuals consuming fish livers might be at risk from ingestion of toxic metals at unacceptable concentrations.

A. Uzairu; G. F. S. Harrison; M. L. Balarabe; J. C. Nnaji

2008-01-01

13

ASSESSMENT OF SANITATION FACILITIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS WITHIN ILORIN, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Appropriate sanitation in primary schools is fundamental for effective learning and prevention of diseases prone to children. This study was undertaken to assess the state of sanitation facilities in primary schools within Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select primary schools for the survey and 200 schools eventually participated. Data for the study was obtained from physical inspection of sanitation facilities and semi structured questionnaire. The result of the study reveals that 5.5% - 26.5% of the assessed schools have sanitation facilities in adequate quantity, quality or usage; 23% have less number of facilities compared to pupil population, 42% have grossly inadequate facilities, and 12.5% have no sanitation facility. The quality of facilities in 24.5% of the schools is tolerable while the facilities in 57.5 % of the schools are in deplorable condition. Also 26.5% of the schools effectively use the toilets and urinals, 22.5% seldom use them while 38.5% do not use them at all because they are objectionable or risky. Therefore, raising the status of schools lacking behind in quantity, quality or usage of sanitation facilities should be a top priority in order to achieve developmental goals.

AREMU, A.S.

2012-01-01

14

Using UNAIDS’s organizing framework to assess Nigeria’s national HIV monitoring and evaluation system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Nigeria National Response Management Information System (NNRIMS), developed in 2004 as a framework for monitoring and evaluating the country’s response to HIV, does not function at an optimum level due to several challenges, including a confusing proliferation of vertical reporting systems, competition among sectors, and the nascent nature of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) sub-systems within many institutions. An assessment of the existing M&E system was conducted to verify whether the system has the capacities to provide essential data for monitoring the epidemic and identifying critical programming gaps. Nigeria’s National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) used an organizing framework for a national HIV M&E system developed by UNAIDS, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the NNRIMS to generate data for evidence-based decisionmaking. The participatory approach used during an assessment workshop ensured that the process was country-led and -owned to build consensus and local capacity, and that it encouraged adoption of a single national-level multisectoral HIV M&E system. The assessment found an operable M&E system at the national level but a much weaker system at the state and local levels and across seven other sectors. There are multiple data collection and reporting tools at the facility level that lead to vertical reporting systems, which increases the burden of reporting at lower levels, especially by service providers. Human resources are being developed, but problems remain with the quantity and quality of staff. Data use, though evident at the national level, is still very weak among five of the seven sectors assessed. The assessment results have been used to develop a national costed M&E workplan to which all stakeholders contributed in a coordinated response to strengthen the system.

Kayode Ogungbemi; Kola A. Oyediran; Stephanie Mullen; Anne LaFond; Aderemi Azeez; David Boone; Tendayi Ndori Mharadze; Natasha Kanagat; Akinyemi Atobatele

2012-01-01

15

Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaire’s disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled water became a major source of drinking water. Although, portable and affordable, the problems of its purity and other health concerns have begun to manifest. Sachet water have been reported to contain bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidia sp. Apart from environmental contaminants, improper storage and handling by vendors also poses a serious threat to the health of the ignorant consumers. This paper tends to review the quality of these ‘pure water’; its physical examination, microbial assessments, its impacts on health, and the various strategies adopted by the concerned authorities to regulate this thriving industry.

Omalu ICJ; Eze GC; Olayemi IK; Gbesi S; Adeniran LA; Ayanwale AV; Mohammed AZ; Chukwuemeka V

2011-01-01

16

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

1986-11-01

17

Breeding progress for grain yield and associated traits in medium and late maturing promiscuous soybeans in Nigeria  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rate of breeding progress of 10 medium and 11 late maturing promiscuous soybean varieties developed by IITA for the savanna zones of Nigeria from 1980 to 1996 was assessed at two locations in 2001 and 2002. The two maturity groups were evaluated in separate experiments using randomized complete block design with four replications. There were highly significant effects of variety on grain yield, fodder yield, and another set of eight traits both in the medium and late maturity groups. In the medium varieties, grain yield increased linearly from 1184 kg ha?¹ for an old variety TGx 1019-2EN to 1764 kg ha?¹ for TGx 1910-7F released in 1996. The annual rate of progress against year of release was 23.61 kg ha?¹ (1.99%). Modern varieties of the medium maturity group had high number of pods per plant, high harvest index, and reduced pod shattering. For late varieties, grain yield ranged from 1569 kg ha?¹ for an old variety Samsoy-2 to 2303 kg ha?¹ for a recently developed variety TGx 1910-14F. The annual rate of breeding progress during the improvement period of 16 years for late varieties was 22.23 kg ha?¹ or 1.42%. The overall yield of the late maturing varieties was 19% higher than the medium maturing varieties.

Tefera Hailu; Kamara AlphaY; Asafo-Adjei Baffour; Dashiell KentonE

2010-09-01

18

Biorisk Assessment of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures. Methods A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories. Results The results showed the presence of an isolated unit for microbiological work, leak-proof working benches, self-closing doors, emergency exits, fire extinguisher(s), autoclaves, and hand washing sinks in 21.3%, 71.3%, 15.0%, 1.3%, 11.3%, 82.5%, and 67.5%, respectively, of all laboratories surveyed. It was observed that public diagnostic laboratories were significantly more likely to have an isolated unit for microbiological work (p = 0.001), hand washing sink (p = 0.003), and an autoclave (p ? 0.001) than private ones. Routine use of hand gloves, biosafety cabinet, and a first aid box was observed in 35.0%, 20.0%, and 2.5%, respectively, of all laboratories examined. Written standard operating procedures, biosafety manuals, and biohazard signs on door entrances were observed in 6.3%, 1.3%, and 3.8%, respectively, of all audited laboratories. No biosafety officer(s) or records of previous spills, or injuries and accidents, were observed in all diagnostic laboratories studied. Conclusion In all laboratories (public and private) surveyed, marked deficiencies were observed in the area of administrative control responsible for implementing biosafety. Increased emphasis on provision of biosafety devices and compliance with standard codes of practices issued by relevant authorities is strongly advocated.

Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Osakue, Eguagie Osareniro; Imade, Odaro Stanley

2013-01-01

19

Nigeria; Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short report summarizes the main lines of the energy organizations and policy of Nigeria. It presents the main oil and gas companies (Nigeria National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC) and joint ventures with foreign companies) and the electric utility of the country (Nigerian Electric Power Authority, NEPA), the energy supplies (resources, electricity, petroleum, natural gas), the prices and pricing policy, the global energy consumption per sector, the stakes and perspectives of the energy market (investments, projects of LNG plants, gas pipelines and power plants, contracts). (J.S.)

NONE

2002-01-01

20

ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS INFLUENCING COSTING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of cost accounting information for decision making has been a fundamental issue in cost accounting for several years. However, only a small proportion of the previous studies were carried out in the developing countries. Thus, this study investigates the factors which influence costing system implementation in Nigeria. Adopting survey research design, the sample includes forty manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to financial managers, management accountants, senior accountants, accountants and cost accountants that are staff members of the selected companies. Descriptive statistics was used for the analysis. The findings revealed that each of the variables of: firm size, product diversity, top management support and intensity of competition has a significant influence on costing system implementation in Nigeria. The main recommendation is for future researchers to focus on small and medium scale enterprises which have been identified as critical for the development of any economy.

AKINYOMI, Oladele John

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Trends and patterns of under-5 vaccination in Nigeria, 1990-2008: what manner of progress?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts towards reducing childhood morbidity and mortality, Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest rates of vaccine-preventable diseases including tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. These efforts include regular rounds of immunization days and routine exercises. The government of Nigeria periodically undertakes National Demographic and Health (NDH) surveys, which tap information on various health indices including vaccination coverage. Limited studies have used the NDHS data to examine the trends in vaccination coverage for the assessment of successes or failures of the immunization efforts. METHODS: This study used four NDH Surveys datasets between 1990 and 2008, which generated child health information including the proportion that had had any or all basic childhood vaccines. A combined total of 44?071 (weighted) children were involved in the study. The trend and pattern of vaccination over 18 years were examined while selected factors were regressed to obtain predictors of child vaccinations in Nigeria. RESULTS: The most recent survey (2008) reported more complete vaccination apart from 1990, which was said to be inaccurate. In all surveys, children from mothers with higher education, who were delivered in hospitals, lived in urban areas, and whose mothers work outside the home had significantly higher proportions of completed basic vaccination. A lower level of childhood vaccination is observed in the northern parts, while higher rates are observed in the southern parts. More complete vaccination coverage was reported in the 1990 survey, followed by 2008, 1999 and 2003. In addition, children from mothers with higher levels of education, who were delivered in hospitals, who lived in urban areas, and whose mothers work outside the home had significantly higher proportions of completed basic vaccination. CONCLUSION: Much more work needs to be done if more children are to be covered and thus reduce vaccine-preventable diseases.

Ushie BA; Fayehun OA; Ugal DB

2013-04-01

22

Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major public health and social problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study focuses on the assessment of nutritional status of 40 Queens College Students of Lagos State age 10-19 years. It was glaringly shown that most of the nutrients are lacking with inadequate energy intake especially among students of younger ages.

O. Akinyemi; A.G. Ibraheem

2009-01-01

23

An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 responde...

I.T. Oteku; J.O. Igene; I.M. Yessuf

24

Promotion of Non-Oil Export in Nigeria: Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) was established in 1977 with the aim of enhancing commercial banks’ loans to the agricultural sector in Nigeria with focus on agro-allied and agricultural production. Many years down the line, the country has witnessed poor participation in the international market with regards to non-oil export. The above stance was assessed with a view to establishing interaction between ACGSF and non-oil export using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR) technique. The study found, among others, that there exist a long-run relationship between the ACGSF and export, but the magnitude is minimal. It was therefore recommended, inter alia, that adequate infrastructural and storage facilities, which increase the shelf-life of agricultural outputs are needed to improve non-oil exports in Nigeria.

U.R. Efobi; E.S. Osabuohien

2011-01-01

25

Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP), International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T), National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS).An internal rate of return (IRR) of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

L. O. Ogunsumi; A. A. Adegbite; P. O. Oyekan

2007-01-01

26

An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples’ Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political developmentRésumé Cet article a évalué la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitulé “Le militaire à la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance émergente au Nigeria” pour le Nigéria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examiné le pouvoir et l’influence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers à la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de l’économie en raison de leur richesse,l’ex-militaire de connexion, la compétence, le prestige et l’expérience. Il pose en principe que les retraités militaires sont regroupés en deux catégories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retraité militaire a été en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraités se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de l’activité humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scène politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle élite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considérable dans la prise de décision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothèses étaient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraités militaires ont émergé depuis 1999 que l’élite dirigeante et même si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure déterminée qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples «Parti démocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont été fortement influencés par ces riches et influents officiers à la retraite qui, à tout prix veiller à ce que leurs candidats à remporter les élections. Avec la nomination d’un nouveau président CENI, la révision de la loi électorale, et la campagne pour l’élection libre et équitable, il est estimé que d’un nouvel ensemble de l’élite émergera qui va réveiller le développement politique au Nigeria.Mots clés: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire à la retraire comme puissance émergente au Nigeria; développement politique

Gift Ntiwunka

2012-01-01

27

Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis.

2009-01-01

28

A Decade of Assessment Progress: Learned Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

The author is an outgoing faculty chair of the college assessment committee (CAC) at Moravian College. In this article, he shares the learned principles and constructive practices that guided his ten years of successful progress in fostering assessment: (1) Assessment must be part of the strategic plan; (2) Assessment language must be consistently…

Brill, Robert T.

2008-01-01

29

Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals) of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration values for TDS, DO,NH4+, SO4+, PO4+, NO3G and ClG are 9.17 mg LG1, 3.19 mg LG1, 0.22 mg LG1, 1.60 mg LG1, 10.73 mg LG1, 38.5mg LG1 and 7.80 mg LG1 respectively. The mean concentration values for Fe, Mn, Zn and Cr- in groundwatersamples are 0.07mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1 and 0.44mg LG1 respectively. The current results showinsignificant impact of the landfill operations on the groundwater resource. The existing soil stratigraphy atthe landfill site consisting of clay and silty clay is deduced to have significantly influenced natural attenuationof leachate into the groundwater resource. It is however observed that in the absence of a properly designedleachate collection system, uncontrolled accumulation of leachates at the base of the landfill pose potentialcontamination risk to groundwater resource in the very near future. The research recommends an upgrade ofthe solous landfill to a standard that would guarantee adequate protection of both the surface and thegroundwater resources in the locality.

E.O. Longe

2010-01-01

30

An Assessment of Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Federal Mortgage Bank Scenario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent times the federal mortgage bank spite of it role in housing delivery has recorded little or no success which is the major concern of this paper to critically assess the extent to which the federal mortgage bank has recorded success in housing delivery in Nigeria. Information on the extent of housing delivery was obtained from federal ministry of statistic and federal mortgage banks. However, findings indicate that in 2002 to 2005, the mortgage finance bank was able to mobilized N19.175 billion compared to 1992 to 2002 with a value of N11.451 billion showing a growth rate of 82%. It was discovered that the bank granted loan value of N4.531 billion to 4,151 national housing fund to contributors to either build or renovate their houses. Nevertheless, the mortgage finance bank has recorded little or no success but has appreciably improved in terms of fund mobilization which has aided increase in housing delivery in Nigeria.Key words: Housing delivery; Mortgage bank; Finance; Nigeria; Government

Joseph K. Ukwayi; Eja E. Eja; Felix E. Ojong; Judith E. Otu

2012-01-01

31

A pilot study assessing litigation in health care services in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Litigation in healthcare system especially in nursing practice is rapidly increasing globally. Litigation affords an individual explanation and compensation for perceived wrong acts. It also serves to control all service providers. However, observation shows that health care providers in Nigeria behave as if they are litigation proof even in the presence of gross malpractice and negligence. The prime concern of this study attempts finding out Nigerians attitudes to litigation. This paper reports the result of the qualitative aspect of the study. In-depth interviews were conducted from January, 2006- March, 2007 for purposive and randomly selected fifty (50) adults from different ethnic, cultural, and social backgrounds. The study was carried out in Ibadan, the largest city of Nigeria. The instrument was a semi structured interview guide designed to assess the use of orthodox medical practice by Nigerians; examine Nigerians experience of unethical practice or injustice; identify Nigerians' attitude to litigation in health care practices and identify factors responsible for their attitudes to litigation. Data were analysed using content analysis. The result shows that Nigerians utilize the hospitals and are aware of their rights as consumers of healthcare services but show poor attitudes to litigation for different reasons. This attitude was found to be a function of the prevailing socio-cultural factors in Nigeria. Litigation is at low ebb in Nigeria, health care providers should endeavour to deliver safe and ethically sound care despite the prevailing circumstances. Health care is a fundamental human right and so, should be provided with dignity and people should have access to dignified treatment always.

Oyetunde MO

2011-03-01

32

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these systems have been jeopardized. The objective of this work is to embark on performance assessments of in- stalled Solar PV system in Oke-Agunla, Akure local government of Ondo State in Nigeria. Visits were conducted to the village; equipments on ground were examined while the people were interviewed. Both functional and non-functional facilities were traced to their manufacturers using the identification data on them and rated to ensure their efficiencies. Energy demands were also prorated, and observed the need to improve on the present energy supplied. Results of the assessments shows that PV facilities used were inadequate, trained technicians were not available giving room for quacks working on the facilities occasionally resulted in further complications and poor facilities maintenance. The assessment result shows that just 14.52% of the 4.5 kW installed solar PV was utilized due to significant malfunctioning and deterioration in performance. It can be concluded from this study that the installed solar PV systems was inefficient as a result of poor maintenance, lack of technical know-how and inability of the project contractors or managers to take these factors into consideration while embarking on the solar PV installations.

Olawale Saheed Ismail; Olusegun Olufemi Ajide; Fredrick Akingbesote

2012-01-01

33

Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended.

2002-01-01

34

Assessment of organizational capacity for evidence-based health systems operations in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Nigeria, health outcomes are unacceptably low largely due to the inability of the health system to function optimally. As part of a strategy to strengthen the health system, an assessment of institutional capacity for use of evidence for health system operations was conducted. The health system operations in terms of stewardship, health administration, service delivery, and access to essential medical products/technologies were fairly adequate. In terms of generation/strategic use of information, health financing, and health workforce, the operations were generally inadequate. There is need to evolve strategies that will guarantee equitable and sustained improvements across health services and health outcomes.

Uneke CJ; Ezeoha AE; Ndukwe CD; Oyibo PG; Onwe F; Ogbonna A

2013-01-01

35

Environmental Impact Assessment for a Pilot Project for Integrated Solid Waste Management in Makurdi, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the Integrated Waste Treatment Facility (IWTF)was conducted through multidisciplinary assessment of the baseline status of the site specific environment usingstandard methods for EIA in Nigeria. The impact assessment took into consideration the project activities andtheir interactions with environmental components. In order to influence the layout of facilities and infrastructureand maintain environmental sustainability throughout the project cycle, Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)mapping was carried out to delineate the sensitivity of the IW TF site. The interaction of the environmentalaspects of the project and site specific baseline status of the area defined the potential impact of the IWTFproject. Residual potential impacts were identified in order to understand the levels of environmental reviewand performance needed for the entire project. Ameliorative measures were proffered for the significantpotential environmental impacts most of which were recommended for incorporation in the design and layoutof the entire project. The residual impacts shall be continuously monitored through the use of environmentalperformance indicators as specified by the regulatory bodies on environment in Nigeria. An Environmental andSocial Management Plan (ESM P) was developed for the project to allow for environmentally sustainableoperations if those initially established proved inadequate, to cover the residual impacts. Socio-economic andhealth aspects of the project were defined to guarantee sustainability. Based on the study, the project was foundto be economically, commercially, technically, managerially and environmentally sustainable.

S.V. Irtwange

2009-01-01

36

An Assessment of the Impact of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Structural Adjustment Programme on Cotton Production and Utilization in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At Nigerias independence, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy. It provided employment, food, raw materials for industry and foreign exchange. However, within 20 years of Independence the country became unable to cope with the overall needs of its food and raw materials. Increased foreign exchange earnings from the export of crude oil were implicated as leading to the neglect and subsequent decline in the performance of the Nigerian agricultural sector. The Structural Adjustment Programme SAP was adopted to restructure and diversify the productive base of the economy in such a way as to reduce dependency on the oil sector and imports. One of the key policy strategies designed to achieve the Nigeria's SAP goals was the adoption of a market-determined exchange rate. This paper set out to assess the impact of exchange rate deregulation and SAP on cotton production and utilization in Nigeria. Time series data on aggregate cotton production, Nairas average cross exchange rates with the US dollar and average capacity utilization rate of textile manufacturers in Nigeria for the period 1973-2007 were collected and analysed using Multiple-regression and the students t test technique. Findings includes: exchange rate deregulation per se has no significant effect on cotton production in Nigeria; more cotton was produced in Nigeria during the post-SAP period; the average capacity utilization of domestic textile industry in Nigeria during the pre-SAP period was higher than during the post-SAP period. Based on the findings of the study some noteworthy lessons were highlighted.

Aliyu A. Ammani

2012-01-01

37

Assessment of wind energy potential of two sites in North-East, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study is used to assess the wind energy potential of Maiduguri and Potiskum, two sites in North-East, Nigeria. 21 years (1987-2007) monthly mean wind data at 10 m height were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological department and subjected to 2-parameter Weibull and other statistical analyzes. The result showed that average monthly mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 3.90 to 5.85 m/s, while for Maiduguri, it ranged from 4.35 to 6.33 m/s. Seasonally, data variation between the dry and wet seasons revealed that, the mean wind speed variation for Potiskum ranged from 4.46 (for dry) to 5.16 m/s (for wet), while for Maiduguri it ranged from 5.10 (dry) to 5.59 m/s (wet). The wind power density variation based on the Weibull analysis ranged from 102.54 to 300.15 W/m{sup 2} for Potiskum and it ranged from 114.77 to 360.04 W/m{sup 2} for Maiduguri respectively. Moreover, Maiduguri was found to be the better of the sites in terms of monthly and seasonal variation of mean wind speed, but they both can be suitable for stand alone and medium scale wind power generation. (author)

Fagbenle, R.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Katende, J. [Electrical and Information Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Ajayi, O.O.; Okeniyi, J.O. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

2011-04-15

38

ASSESSING SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concern for Preparing Successful Principals has been a major research effort by the Wallace Foundation and Stanford University in conjunction examining development of strong leadership in school administration. This presupposes the importance of school leadership in enhancing the achievement of educational goals. School administration has been a critical part in building a formidable school for quality assurance because the internal administrative system determines how the staff and students cooperatively pull efforts towards achievement of the right academic material. To assess school administration for quality assurance, an amount of subsisting factors are involved which include the degree of school administrators’ compliance in maintaining good School - Community relations, structure, good human relations, quality decision making, adequate financing, curriculum planning and development, government policies and time management as examined on this paper

Chima Sebastine Ugwulashi

2012-01-01

39

An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken meats as well as motivational and preferred methods of preparation of the meat. Duck meat was nevertheless acceptable and rated fairly by most of the respondents. Consumption of duck meat was however constrained by non-availability, non-familiarity, inability to slaughter the live duck and some traditional and religious taboos associated with the meat. There was a significant indication that consumption level of the meat will improve considerably when established duck meat shop and processed meat products are available.

I.T. Oteku; J.O. Igene; I.M. Yessuf

2006-01-01

40

Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the same age bracket who are not exposed. A well structured questionnaire was also given to all the solid waste disposal workers to assess their health profile. Haematological parameters, liver function test (LFT) and toxic substance (Pb, Cu, Zn) concentration in the blood were carried out. There were slight decrease in the haematological parameters and liver function test (LFT) results, as compared with the control subjects. The values obtained are: Hb 13.43±1.14 g dL-1, HCT 37.13±3.22%, WBC 6.35±1.86x109 L-1, platelet 236.15±104.33x109 L-1, neutrophil 42.60±11.11% and monocyte 3.05±2.41% for solid waste workers. While the values for control subjects are: Hb 14.69±0.4 g dL-1, HCT 41.77±2.74%, WBC 7.23±1.21x109 L-1, platelets 282.40±33.76x109 L-1, neutrophil 58.65±5.87% and monocyte 5.77±2.03%. The lymphocyte counts for waste disposal workers was significantly higher (50.42±11.30%) and (32.83±5.32%) for the control subjects. The AST values increased significantly for solid waste workers with a mean AST concentration of (11.19±2.36 ? L-1) and 8.97±4.07 ?L-1 for the control subjects. And mean total bilirubin increased progressively as the number of years of exposure increased (19.00 ?mol L-1). The peak value was for workers exposed for about 7 year. The result also showed that mean lead, copper and Zinc concentrations were high for the solid waste workers (Pb = 0.07±0.05 mg L-1, Cu =0.22±0.08 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.56±0.48 mg L-1) while that of control subjects were Pb = 0.02±0.01 mg L-1, Cu =0.11±0.04 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.30±0.04 mg L-1. Malaria parasitaemia was high amongst the solid waste disposal workers. Adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be provided to avoid epidemic among the workers. It can be inferred that the lymphocytosis observed in this category of workers may indicate the presence of bacterial and protozoal infections, while a mild eosinophilia might be as a result of allergic disorders and helminthic infections.

Wachukwu; K. Confidence; E.U. Eleanya

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

1992-01-01

42

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl) inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3)industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM), Furniture (F)and Wood Carving (WC), including a Control (C) wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV) andInternational (WHO) regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA) statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions) did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05) from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

Michael AKPAN; Obasi Udo OKWARA

2012-01-01

43

Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

2013-01-01

44

An Assessment of the Impact of Abattoir Effluents on River Illo, Ota, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the impact of abattoir effluents on River Illo in Ota, Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective seven sampling locations were chosen along the river course. The choice of locations was to reflect the variations in concentrations of the following important parameters of water quality issue: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrate among others. The choice of these parameters was based on their relative importance in abattoir effluents composition. Results of analyses revealed impairment in the quality of River Illo by the wash down from the abattoir activities. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 4.6 mg L-1 while the highest concentrations of TSS and TS of 1026 and 1071.5 mg L-1, respectively were obtained at the point of abattoir effluents discharge. The BOD mean value of 312.9 mg L-1 obtained for the river water is far above the highest permissible value of 30 mg L-1 allowed by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for discharge into receiving water bodies in Nigeria. The mean value of 783 mg L-1 obtained for the COD of the river body corroborates the pollution of the water body. The current water quality status of River Illo from the discharge of abattoir effluents therefore poses both environmental and health hazards to users. In order to redress this and ensure public health safety, River Illo needs adequate treatment before use.

D.O. Omole; E.O. Longe

2008-01-01

45

Nigeria; Le Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nigeria is the eighth world oil producer but is obliged to import motor fuel. Nigeria will be soon an important gas producer and its oil production could pass from 2.05 10{sup 6} barrels a day today to 5 10{sup 6} barrels in 2010 owing to the intense development of offshore exploration. France ranks fourth in the suppliers of Nigeria behind Usa, United-Kingdom and Germany. A total of 2.5 milliards of dollars have been invested in Nigerian Economy by French firms, 60% of this amount concerns the oil-gas sector. One year after the election of a new president, Nigeria has still difficulties to emerge from a tense social and economic situation but its future seems promising. (A.C.)

Mirguet, N

2000-06-01

46

Progress in MELCOR development and assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent activities in the MELCOR development project have focused on (1) addressing difficulties with CORCON-Mod3 and implementing a robust and reliable version into the demanding systems code environment of MELCOR; (2) developing and implementing models for specific phenomena and systems of importance to advanced reactors; and (3) continuing to expand the MELCOR assessment data base, filling in the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Excellent progress has been made, resulting in a much-improved version of the code: MELCOR 1.8.3, distributed to users in July 1994. This version of the code received substantial testing on a suite of plant and experiment calculations prior to release.

Summers, R.M.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Elsbernd, A.E.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-10-01

47

Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in anambra state, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected by the use of interview schedule from a sample of 60 respondents. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Results revealed that the farmers were using indigenous technologies such as baskets, aerial (over fire) in the kitchen, bare floors, among others in storing maize. The respondents indicated that they stored maize cobs undehusked in order to overcome wastage and obtained information about indigenous storage of maize from parents and fellow farmers. Major problems militating against effective storage of maize include: attack of pests such as rodents and weevils, diseases, termite attack and use of poor quality storage materials. The respondents indicated that use of materials free from termite, clearing of surroundings against fire disaster; use of durable materials treated with insecticides will help to solve the problems. The study recommends that provision of appropriate and affordable storage structures should be made available to the maize farmers in order to avoid wasting of the produce under storage. This will help to ensure food security among rural farm households.

E.N. Ajani

2012-01-01

48

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) seed collection survey to expand NIHORT basil genetic base. The field layout was completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were: O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and the local basil. Treatments were randomly allocated per replication. There were significant phenotypic differences in the O. basilicum variety. These differences were observed in the plant coloration ranging from deep to light purple coloration of stem, leaf, leaf vein and petiole. Our observations also revealed for the first time significant tolerance to Venial Mottle Mosaic Virus (VMMV) in the purple colored compared to the green O. basilicum in the early stages of growth till 50% anthesis. This is the first report of this observation in the African continent. Tolerance to VMMV symptoms increased significantly (LSD 5%) with purplish coloration. We concluded that inducement of purplish coloration in Basil through breeding might improve tolerance to VMMV and thereby increase market value of Basil with sustainable pathological interventions.

O.D. Ojo; O.S. Adebayo; O. Olaleye; U. Orkpeh

2012-01-01

49

Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

I. M. Adekunle; M. T. Adetunji; A. M. Gbadebo; O. B. Banjoko

2007-01-01

50

Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

Enwereji E

2009-01-01

51

Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the fertility constraints identified were low effective cation exchange capacity and soil acidification. In addition, the clayey texture of the subsoil made these soils susceptible to erosion as well as caused harvesting difficulties. Liming was recommended to ameliorate the acidity constraints. Liming together with incorporation of organic materials into the soils were the measures needed to enhance their effective cation exchange capacity. Soil erosion control was to be given high priority especially by maintaining adequate surface cover and ensuring that tillage was limited to only when soil was drier than the plastic limit.

M. A. Nwachokor; P.O. Oviasogie

2013-01-01

52

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA) method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo; GC Onyishi; CU Ugokwe

2013-01-01

53

Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs at Nigeria's BoP. The primary data for this study were collected using Questionnaires administered to consumers in South Western Nigeria. The secondary data used were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics Surveys; 2009/2010 Consumption Pattern and Consumer Expectation. Using a combination of primary and secondary data, the study employed multiple regression analysis on determinants of consumption at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid. Findings of the study were mostly in conflict with the positions of the BoP advocates. On the basis of the trends in Consumer Behavior and the composition of baskets of goods at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the study concluded that the BoP market would be better served by indigenous micro, small and medium enterprises than Multi-National Corporations.

Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

2013-01-01

54

Rapid epidemiological assessment of onchocerciasis in a tropical semi-urban community, enugu state, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. METHODS: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. RESULTS: Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. CONCLUSION: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy.

Eyo J; Onyishi G; Ugokwe C

2013-01-01

55

Contraceptive use: implication for completed fertility, parity progression and maternal nutritional status in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study identified socio-demographic factors influencing contraceptive use while using nutritional status, completed fertility and parity progression as key variables. NDHS, 2008 dataset on married women aged 45-49 was used. Chi-square, ordinary linear and logistic regression models were used for the analysis. The mean age of the women and CEB were 46.8 +/- 1.5 years and 6.9 +/- 3.1 respectively. About 26.0% of the women ever used contraception, while 9.0% of the women were underweight. Parity progression from parity 0 to 4 was consistently higher among never-users than women who ever used contraception. The tempo changes for all parities above four as ever-users now progress at lower rate during these periods. The completed fertility and the risk of undernourishment were significantly higher among never users of contraception than ever users. The level of risk persists even when the potential confounding variables were used as control.

Adebowale SA; Fagbamigbe FA; Bamgboye EA

2011-12-01

56

An Empirical Assessment of the Real Exchange Rate and Poverty in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigated the influence of the real exchange rate on poverty within the framework of a dependent economy model. Using data covering 1980 to 2010, the result of a Vector Error Correction model (VECM) showed that the volatility of the real exchange rate has significant influence on the level of poverty in Nigeria. Thus, government policies that targets real exchange rate could play significant role in reducing the level of poverty in Nigeria, particularly if supported by basic institutions, such as those of human capital development.

Ben. U. Omojimite; Victor E. Oriavwote

2012-01-01

57

Geochemical Assessment of Source Rock Qualities Penetrated by Nasara-1 Well (Gongola Basin), Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasara-1 is one in a set of 3 exploratory wells drilled in the ] Gongola basin of the upper Benue trough in Nigeria. Nasara-1 well was dry. Organic geochemical studies have been carried out to assess the qualities of source rocks penetrated by the well. The well penetrated entirely Cretaceous sequences of the Pindiga, Yolde and probably Bima formations. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents are generally very low, with none of the values in the siliciclastic sequences exceeding 1.0w%. About 50% of all TOC values lie between 0.50 -0.87wt%. Hydrogen indices (His) correlated against Tmax indicate source qualities that are of entirely gas-generative potential. However, at depths of between 4710- 4770 ft, TOC values of between 55.10 and 55.20wt% characteristic of coals have been recorded; with His of between 564 -589 mgHC/gTOC and Tmax of 423 -4280C. This is the first report of coal deposition in either the Pindiga, Yolde or Bima Formation. Extract yields (SOM) gave values of 360 -447mgHC/gTOC. Petrographic studies on the samples from this interval reported macerals of the amorphous bituminite group, indicating that the very high His and SOM resulted from migration of oil from probably deeper or laterally located yet to be identified source rocks. The total ion chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the extracts from this interval (4710 -4770ft) show some ramping of unresolved complex mixtures, attributable to biodegradation. Further biomarker data indicate a dominance of low molecular weight n-alkanes (C15 - C25)' pristane/phytane ratios of bewteen 0.8 tp 1.3 and very high contents of C28 regular steranes. These attributes indicate that the source Irock that generated the migrated oil was deposited in a lacustrine environment (C28) with high algal-bacterial contents, whose generated hydrocarbons have been intermittently subjected to anoxic to suboxic biodegradation processes

2003-01-01

58

Assessment of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Selected Oil Spilled Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prelude radiological impact assessment of oil spillage on the oil spilled environment, those saddled with the responsibility of cleaning the spilled crude and the host/nearest communities residents in Rivers State Nigeria has been examined in-situ, using radiation meters (Digilert 100 nuclear radiation meter) and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken twice in a month for three months in the five different oil spilled site and one measurement taken at a control site where there is no oil spillage but within oil bearing community. The average radiation values in all the oil spilled site is 0.019±0.006mRh-1, this is far above the 0.011±0.003mRh-1obtained for the control and ICRP 0.013±0.005mRh-1 world background levels. The average equivalent dose rate obtained in all the five studied site is 1.6mSvy-1 while the dose rate in the control is 0.93mSvy-1. The results showed that all the oil spilled sites yearly equivalent dose rate exceeded the 1mSvy-1 maximum permissible limit recommend for the public and non-nuclear industrial environment by International Council on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1999). All the oil spilled environment radiation levels exceeded the normal world average BIR level of 0.013mRh-1and other reported values in similar environment. This shows that the oil spilled environment have been impacted radiologically. This will pose some long-term health side effects on the clean-up workers and residents of the host communities. Interim proactive measures are recommended while further and a detail study is ongoing.

U. L. Anekwe; G. O. Avwiri; E. O. Agbalagba

2013-01-01

59

Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale in Kano, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Resilience seemed to lie at the core of the recent promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. This concept has been well studied in western countries and less in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. The aim of the study is therefore, to demonstrate the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Resilience Scale (RS) and its 14-item short version (RS-14) in a Nigerian sample. Results The RS, RS-14, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and two screening questions on experience of recent and upcoming distress were administered to 70 clinical students who consented to participate after a major professional examination. Internal consistency and convergent validity were assessed. The participants mean age was 22.50 years (SD = 0.60). The mean score of RS and RS-14 were 130.23 (SD = 17.08) and 74.17 (SD = 10.14) respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the RS was 0.87 and that of the RS-14 was 0.81. The mean RS score by gender was 132.04 (SD = 19.08) and 126.52 (SD = 11.50) for males and females respectively and the difference was significant (t = 2.50; p = 0.012). The correlation of RS with RS-14 (r = 0.97; p = 0.000), the HADS depression (r = -0.28; p = 0.017) and anxiety (r = -0.26; p = 0.028) subscales, were significant. The corresponding t-test values for the means of RS and RS-14 scores for both cases and non-cases as determined by HADS, were significant at p Conclusions The study confirms that the RS and RS-14 may be potentially useful instruments to measure resilience in Nigerians.

Abiola Tajudeen; Udofia Owoidoho

2011-01-01

60

Economics 2012: National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2012 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measured twelfth-graders knowledge of economic concepts and skills, and their ability to use this knowledge in real-life situations. The assessment was based on a framework that defines economic ...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A Hospital-Based Assessment of Breast-Feeding Behaviour and Practices among Nursing Mothers in Nigeria and Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exclusive breast-feeding is recommended for infant nutrition during the first 6 months after birth. Worst still, this behaviour practices have not yet improved in Africa despite this recommendation. This study therefore, examines breast-feeding behaviour and practices among nursing mothers in two African countries: Nigeria and Ghana. A sample of 300 nursing mothers attending ante-natal clinic was randomly drawn from 4 hospitals, two in Nigeria and two in Ghana. The demographic characteristics of the respondents show that their age range between 19 - 51 years with a mean of 35 years and standard deviation of 22.6 years. A modified self-report questionnaire assessing breast-feeding attitudes, intentions and support was used for the collection of data. The reliability co-efficient yielded r = 0.82 after modification. Four research questions were raised to guide the study. The results indicate that nursing mothers do not breast-feed based on personal frustration and painful experience, fear of loosing weight, nature of job, lack of confidence in breast-feeding, long period of recommended exclusive breast-feeding and the fact that infant may become addicted to the behaviour. The result also reveal that nursing mothers may continue exclusive breast-feeding when decided to do so through the provision of social support, modeling, public enlightenment and appointment of care nursing mother. While at the same time, it was shown that there is significant difference in breast-feeding behaviour of mothers based on their occupations and of course no difference exists in the breast-feeding behaviour of Nigeria and Ghana nursing mothers. Recommendations based on the findings of the study were highlighted.

Tella Adeyinka; Falaye Jibola; Aremu Oyesoji; Tella, Adedeji

2008-01-01

62

Post-Disaster Damage Assessment using Remotely Sensed Data for Post Disaster Needs Assessments: Pakistan and Nigeria case studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the launch of high-resolution optical satellites in 1999, remote sensing has increasingly been used in the context of post-disaster damage assessments worldwide. In the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster, particularly when extensive geographical areas are affected, it is often difficult to determine the extent and magnitude of disaster impacts. The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) has been leading efforts to utilise remote sensing techniques during disasters, starting with the 2010 Haiti earthquake. However, remote sensing has mostly been applied to extensive flood events in the context of developing Post-Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNAs). Given that worldwide, floods were the most frequent type of natural disasters between 2000 and 2011, affecting 106 million people in 2011 alone (EM-DAT) , there is clearly significant potential for on-going use of remote sensing techniques. Two case studies will be introduced here, the 2010 Pakistan flood and the 2012 Nigeria flood. The typical approach is to map the maximum cumulative inundation extent, then overlay this hazard information with available exposure datasets. The PDNA methodology itself is applied to a maximum of 15 sectors, of which remote sensing is most useful for housing, agriculture, transportation. Environment and irrigation could be included but these sectors were not covered in these events. The maximum cumulative flood extent is determined using remotely sensed data led by in-country agencies together with international organizations. To enhance this process, GFDRR hosted a SPRINT event in 2012 to tailor daily flood maps derived from MODIS imagery by NASA Goddard's Office of Applied Sciences to this purpose. To estimate the (direct) damage, exposure data for each sector is required. Initially global datasets are used, but these may be supplemented by national level datasets to revise damage estimates, depending on availability. Remote sensed estimates of direct damage are used to confirm field estimates of the magnitude of the damage; thus, the speed of assessment can be balanced not having to achieve high accuracy results. In the future, to increase the speed of remote sensed damage assessments, there is a need for existing exposure information - which can also be used for risk prediction as well as disaster response. However, advances in this area vary significantly by country and sector and therefore efforts to move this agenda forward will significantly improve disaster reduction and recovery.

Saito, Keiko; Lemoine, Guido; Dell'Oro, Luca; Pedersen, Wendi; Nunez-Gomez, Ariel; Dalmasso, Simone; Balbo, Simone; Louvrier, Christophe; Caravaggi, Ivano; de Groeve, Tom; Slayback, Dan; Policelli, Frederick; Brakenridge, Bob; Rashid, Kashif; Gad, Sawsan; Arshad, Raja; Wielinga, Doekle; Parvez, Ayaz; Khan, Haris

2013-04-01

63

Urban Households' Assessment of Environmental Safety: A Case Study of Ibadan, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safe environment is a prerequisite for healthy living and socio-economic development of any nation. In this study, we analyzed the different forms of environmental problems being faced by households in Nigeria’s largest city. Data were collected from 120 households using the stratified sampling method. Our results show that majority of the households were faced with bushy and untidy environment, illegal structure/urban slum and improper disposal of refuse/feaces. Also, using the ranking method, the most pressing problems indicated to be solved are improper disposal of refuse and faeces, bad odors in the neighborhood, poor drainage and bushy/untidy environment. The study recommended serious enforcement of existing environmental laws in order to ensure safe environment for residents in Ibadan, among others.

A.S. Oyekale; R.F. Ige

2012-01-01

64

Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.

Michael Olusesan Awoleye; Willie Owolabi Siyanbola; Onaolapo Francisca Oladipupo

2008-01-01

65

An Assessment of the Determinants of Share Price in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Listed Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the determinants of share prices in the Nigerian stock exchange market. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 30 listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange market were selected and analyzed for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, the Nigerian stock exchange fact book and the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2010 were used for the study. The paper basically modelled the effects of financial performance, dividend payout and financial leverage on the share price of listed firms operating in the Nigerian stock exchange market using the regression analysis method. The study as part of its findings observed that there is a significant positive relationship between firms’ financial performance and the market value of share prices of the listed firms in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper concludes that firms’ financial performance, dividend payouts and financial leverage are strong determinants of the market value of share prices in Nigeria.

Uwalomwa Uwuigbe; Olowe Olusegun; Agu Goodswill

2012-01-01

66

Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

Orisakwe Orish; Nduka John; Amadi Cecilia; Dike Daniel; Bede Onyinyechi

2012-01-01

67

Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70-80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. RESULT: The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. CONCLUSION: Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

Orisakwe OE; Nduka JK; Amadi CN; Dike DO; Bede O

2012-01-01

68

Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The study attempt to compare the influence of wages and other conditions service on employees’ performance. To achieve this objective, we elicited information from 300 respondents who were purposively sample from four organizations in some selected geo-political zones in Nigeria. Data collected were presented in graph, pie chart and bar chart. Findings reveal that, employee job performance are greatly influenced by regular and good wages; followed by conducive work environment, availability of internet facilities, good library, recognition/award, regular promotion, training opportunities, access to medical care and communication flow. We made the following recommendations among others, that managers of formal organizations should properly remunerate workers as well as provide conducive work environment for their employees. We posit that other least motivating factors as identified in this study should not ignore by managers, since each provide workers with a level of stimulant that propel them into maximum performance in work organization.

A. M. Ogaboh Agba; W. A. Mboto; M. S. Agba

2013-01-01

69

Trace Element Assessment of Stream Sediments Around the Aluminium Smelting Company in Ikot-Abasi, South-Eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study to assess the trace element chemistry in the vicinity of a recently established aluminium smelting complex in Ikot Abasi, south-eastern Nigeria was carried out, using stream sediments as sampling media. Twenty three trace elements; Ag, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Ga, La, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, V, W, Y and Zr, were analysed for in the sediments. Results from analyses showed that concentration levels of these elements were within limits of geogenic sourcing. Correlation and factor analyses indicated associations of chemical species to be related to the adjoining geologic suites; Precambrian basement and Cretaceous sediments. Comparatively the sediments exhibit geochemical characteristics consistent with sediments from other parts of the Niger Delta. The deductions provide a baseline data set for future monitoring around the smelting site.

Azubuike S. Ekwere; Anthony A. Elueze

2012-01-01

70

Assessment of Soybean Processing Technologies in Ilorin East and West Local Government Area of Kwara State of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the year to assess soybean processing technologies in Ilorin east and West local government area of Kwara State in Nigeria. Highest percentages of processors (45%) procure their raw materials from farmers and market places while (45%) of fabricators obtain theirs from Owode Onirin in Ilorin. Both processors (40%) and Fabricators (40%) greatly patronize cooperative societies for their loans. Soycheese (42.5%) was the most popular soybean based food. Traditional method of processing (72.5%) was the most popular in comparison to modern equipment's (27.5%). Greater number of people involved in processing and fabrication activities were between the ages of (30-50) years. The method of single handling technique (67.5%) was the most popular.

O.A. Ashaye; T.A. Adegbulugbe; S. Sanni

2005-01-01

71

An Assessment of Pearl Millet Genotypes for Resistance to Downy Mildew (Sclerospora graminicola) Under Field Conditions in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred and fifty-two pearl millet genotypes from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and West African National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) were evaluated at Samaru, Nigeria, for resistance to downy mildew under field conditions during the 2000, 2001, and 2002 wet seasons. Disease incidence and severity were assessed 65 days after sowing. Disease severity scores were taken on a 1-5 scale. The results indicated that 70 genotypes showed resistance, 43 moderate resistance, 35 moderate susceptibility and 3 genotypes were susceptible. Resistant genotypes included 27 ICRISAT pearl millet lines and 43 NARS genotypes. Results herein indicate the availability of germplasms with resistance to downy mildew.

Zarafi AB

2007-01-01

72

An Assessment of the Effects of Interest Rate Deregulation in Enhancing Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study shows by means of robust statistical analysis, the changes in Agricultural production since the deregulation of interest rate in 1986. Using ordinary least square m ethod, data from 1986 to 2005 were examined. The empirical analysis carried out showed that interest rate deregulation has significant and positive impact on Agricultural productivity in Nigeria within the period under review. The empirical analysis also suggest that interest rate play a significant role in enhancing economic activities and as such, monetary authorities should ensure appropriate determination of interest rate level that will break the double - edge effect of interest rate on savers and local investors.

Abula Matthew; I. Adofu; S.I. Audu

2010-01-01

73

Conformity assessment of wind turbines - a progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a public domain progress report on the DTI (ETSU) sponsored project entitled ``Conformity Assessment System for Wind Turbines``. The project is briefly outlined, with details of progress to date and plans for completion. Widespread comment on the project is invited. (Author)

Maguire, J.R. [Lloyd`s Register, London (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

74

Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2) of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

A. Muhammad-Lawal; I. J. Memudu; A. F. Ayanlere; A. B. Mohammed; M. E. Olajogun

2013-01-01

75

Assessing graduate student progress in engineering ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Under a grant from the National Science Foundation, the authors (and others) undertook to integrate ethics into graduate engineering classes at three universities-and to assess success in a way allowing comparison across classes (and institutions). This paper describes the attempt to carry out that assessment. Standard methods of assessment turned out to demand too much class time. Under pressure from instructors, the authors developed an alternative method that is both specific in content to individual classes and allows comparison across classes. Results are statistically significant for ethical sensitivity and knowledge. They show measurable improvement in a single semester.

Davis M; Feinerman A

2012-06-01

76

75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading...Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels...

2010-02-05

77

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

1992-01-01

78

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

1992-05-01

79

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI) and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.

OSUJI, U. S. A

2010-01-01

80

Assessment of Qualities of Surface Water, Sediments and Aquatic Fish from Selected Major Rivers in South-Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Available sources of portable water for drinking, domestic and industrial chores in Nigeria are dwindling because of concomitant increase in population, urbanization and industrial activities. This study assessed the qualities of Surface Water (SW), Sediment (SD) and Tilapia Fish (Oreichromis niloticuss) (TF) samples collected from Asejire, Oni, Ona, Ogun, Ogunpa, Eleyele and Majidun rivers and Lagos lagoon in south-western Nigeria. Samples of SW, SD and TF were collected at strategic locations from each water source and analyzed using standard procedures. SW for all locations were grossly polluted with organics as indicated by high COD (72.8-292 mg/L) and BOD (30.8-143 mg/L) and low DO (1.04-6.68 mg/L) levels. Lead levels in SW for all locations exceeded WHO and NIS limits for drinking water. Cadmium levels in sediments from Oni, Ona, Ogun and Ogunpa rivers also exceeded Canadian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) of 0.6 mg/kg. Fish from Lagos lagoon were most polluted with Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu. Principal Component analysis showed that 86.4% of overall metal load for SW was from Ogunpa and Eleyele rivers, whereas 62.9% metal load for S was from Ogunpa, Eleyele and Ogun rivers. The metal pollution index order was Pb>Cu>Co>Ni>Cr>Cd. Lead and nickel showed strong positive correlation between SW and SD, suggesting common source while Pb and Cr showed strong negative correlation with Cd between SW and TF. Unsafe disposal practices of wastes into or within the vicinity of water bodies should be discourage.

E.U. Etim; G.U. Adie

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3). The sample was predominantly male (69.9%) and married (64.6%). There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher. Conclusion The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics.

Taiwo Olaniyi O; Kass Nancy

2009-01-01

82

Assessment of infection control practices in maternity units in Southern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Puerperal sepsis accounts for 12% of maternal deaths in Nigeria. To date, little is known about the background hospital factors that predispose pregnant women to puerperal infection that leads to mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the nature and pattern of existing policies and practices relating to infection control in maternity care centres in Edo state, South-South Nigeria. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study consisting of in-depth interviews with service providers, observation of clinical practices and examination of medical records. SETTING: Public and private health-care facilities in eight local government areas (LGAs) selected from the three senatorial districts of Edo State, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Health providers from 63 primary, secondary and tertiary maternity care centres. METHODS: Sixty-three health-care facilities were sampled from eight LGAs from the three senatorial districts in Edo State. Three pre-tested tools were adapted to the local setting and used to interview key informants in the health facilities and to observe for practices and records relating to infection control. RESULTS: Of the 63 health facilities, 68% (43) reported that they had infection control procedures in place, while only 25% (16) reported that they documented these as manuals or charts. Only 13% (8) of facilities had infection control committees; 11% (7) routinely carried out audits of maternal deaths, while 33% (21) reported that they had an ongoing programme for staff training on infection control. A high proportion of the health facilities reported that staff routinely wash their hands before and after sterile procedures, but only half of the facilities were observed to have 24-h running water and only two-thirds had soap and antiseptic solutions in delivery and operating theatre areas. Although more than 90% (57) of the health facilities reported that they use sterile gloves routinely, unused sterile gloves were found in only 60% (38) of these facilities, and recycled gloves in 11.1% (7). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest the need for improved record-keeping procedures, the development of appropriate policies and protocols for infection control and staff training on infection control in maternity care facilities in Edo State. A public health education and advocacy programme to create awareness on clean delivery places as an approach for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and to build political will for implementing related activities is also urgently needed.

Friday O; Edoja O; Osasu A; Chinenye N; Cyril M; Lovney K; Julia H

2012-12-01

83

RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS IN NIGERIA MARKET AND CASE FOR ENERGY SAVING ALTERNATIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incandescent lamps have been observed to have low manufacturing cost when compared to othertypes of light sources. They are the least expensive to buy, but relatively inefficient and burdenedwith short lifespan hence at the long-run the most expensive to operate. The established fact thatabout 90 to 95 per cent of the power consumed by an incandescent light bulb is emitted as heat,rather than as visible light implies that just about 5 to 10 per cent of the power is given out aslight indicating that only little amount of energy is needed to give intensity large enough fordomestic illumination. This research explores the durability of some incandescent bulbs, in theNigeria market, with response to voltage fluctuations, temperature and mechanical vibrations.The need for low power, efficient, and reliable energy-saving alternative bulb for indoor andoutdoor lightning was discussed in this paper.

Ndinechi M. C, Ogungbenro A. Oluwaseyi,Nwadiuko O. C, and Igboebisi Ikechukwu

2012-01-01

84

Assessment of Chemical/phytotoxin and Microbial Contamination of Pasta Foods Marketed in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possible chemical/phytotoxin and microbial contamination of nine brands of pasta foods (macaroni, spaghetti and noodles) commonly consumed in Nigeria were investigated following identification of pesticide residues in Indomie noodles (a brand of pasta food) and contamination of baby foods (SMA) with some poisonous cassava materials. Enzymatic and spectrophotometric analysis of these foods for cyanide content indicate the presence of this compound ranging from 7.60-70.65 mg CN-kg-1. Chemical analysis of these foods showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and saponins while microbial quality test indicated the presence of Salmonella sp., Rhizopus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus in three food samples. The implications of these findings are discussed from toxicological and food bioterrorism points of view.

P.N. Okafor; O.D. Omodamiro

2006-01-01

85

Assessment of the Perception of Benefits of Organic Gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the perception of benefits of organic gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from 166 respondents through multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage and mean scores). The study indicates that the respondents had perceived a relatively neutral (mean score = 2.87) socio-economic benefits of organic gardening. Nevertheless, they agreed (mean score = 3.84) with the ecological benefits or organic farming. The result, equally reports that the intension of conversion to organic farming was relatively neutral (mean score = 3.49). The most important constraint to organic gardening conversion was lack of knowledge and skills regarding organic gardening. Policy recommendations were made to include: the creation of awareness on the consequences of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides among others, and adequate government support for organic gardening in the study area.

Mustapha, S. B.; Undiandeye, U. C.; Idrisa Y. L.

2012-01-01

86

Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture) has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92%) analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

S. A. Arabi,; M. Y. Kwaya,; J. Iliyasu; A. A. Jaoji

2011-01-01

87

Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard was not made available. This study attempted to assess the spatial impact of the October 2012 flooding of the Niger-Benue basin on the surrounding areas using the moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometre (MODIS) data of NASA Terra satellite and developed a geospatial methodology for detecting and extracting the flood risk areas and the vulnerable population to flooding within the basin. The integration of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data within the GIS platform was able to produce series of thematic maps which was used to generate a geospatial database for flood risk analysis and assessment. The result of the analysis effectively demonstrated the contribution of geospatial methods in mitigating and monitoring the effect of flooding along the Niger-Benue basin. It was therefore, suggested that government agencies and policy makers should adopt this powerful technique for reliable and well synthesized information which is a vital component of flood risk assessment and planning.

Felix Ndidi Nkeki; Philip John Henah; Vincent Nduka Ojeh

2013-01-01

88

Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and developments  

CERN Multimedia

A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of GOES. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Accordingly, a diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is designed to infer attributes of a favorable microburst environment. In addition, a GOES-West imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3 (upper level water vapor), band 4 (longwave infrared window), and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived products. This paper provides an updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst algorithms, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and presents validation results for the 2008 convective ...

Pryor, Kenneth L

2008-01-01

89

[Progress in clinical bone assessment using CT].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical computed tomography (CT) provides the information of bone structure and mineral density in vivo . Based on three-dimensional bone structure, voluntary two-dimensional sections are available, as well as trabecular and cortical data separately. However, the trabecular structure, which size is smaller than the spatial resolution, cannot be measured precisely. A recently system, high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) , can visualize and quantify the trabecular and cortical microstructure in vivo . Because of low radiation dose and high reproducibility, HR-pQCT system is expected to be a useful tool to assess the pathophysiological changes or the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic agents on bone.

Ito M

2013-03-01

90

Performance assessment task team progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others

1994-05-01

91

An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

P.C. Mmom; C.F. Igwe

2011-01-01

92

Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, especially in the oil and gas sector, accelerate the loss of topsoil and deforestation, loss of habitat, loss of species and loss of biodiversity, as well as degeneration of wetlands. Water shortages and floods lead to deterioration of urban environmental quality and play a major role in transmission of communicable diseases. Corruption in the water sector is another major player in environmental degradation worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Weak implementation has rendered EIA Act a paper Tiger.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2011-01-01

93

Individualized fracture risk assessment: progresses and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fragility fracture is a major public health burden, because it is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk prediction models, including the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (GFRC), have been developed to provide a useful clinical framework for communicating the risk of fracture. The present review examines the validation of risk prediction models in osteoporosis and identifies some major challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent validation studies suggested that the area under the ROC curve in fracture discrimination ranged from 0.61 to 0.83 for FRAX, and from 0.63 to 0.88 for GFRC, with hip fracture having a better discrimination than fragility fractures as a group. FRAX substantially underestimated the risk of fracture, whereas the predicted risk by GFRC was close to or slightly higher than the actual risk. Results of post-hoc analyses of clinical trials indicated the antifracture efficacy of alendronate, coronate, bazedoxifene, and denosumab was greater in patients with higher predicted risk of fracture. However, there was no correlation between antifracture efficacy and predicted fracture risk among patients on raloxifene and strontium ranelate. SUMMARY: The prognostic performance of FRAX and GFRC for fracture prediction is not perfect, but these predictive models can aid patients and doctors to communicate about fracture risk in the medium term and to make rational decisions. However, the application of these predictive models in making decisions for an individual should take into account the individual's perception of the importance of the risk of fracture and its severity outcomes.

Nguyen TV; Center JR; Eisman JA

2013-07-01

94

Assessment of Water Quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and Its Indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

Olatunji M. Kolawole; Kolawole T. Ajayi; Albert B. Olayemi; Anthony I. Okoh

2011-01-01

95

Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

Kolawole OM; Ajayi KT; Olayemi AB; Okoh AI

2011-11-01

96

Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

Omeiza GK; Ajayi IE; Ode OJ

2012-07-01

97

Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

Gabriel K. Omeiza; Itopa E. Ajayi; Okwoche J. Ode

2012-01-01

98

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Sylvester N. Onyeneho; Craig W. Hedberg

2013-01-01

99

Preliminary Assessment of Flourine Level of Spring and Stream Water in South West Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four water samples from each of spring and stream in some locations across South-West, Nigeria, were analyzed for their fluoride levels and some other quality parameters. The samples coded 101, 202, 303, 404 representing spring water and 505, 606, 707, 808 representing stream water were analyzed for fluoride levels using Ion Selective Electrode method (ISE) while other quality parameters such as calcium, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and pH were determined using standard methods. The results obtained showed low fluoride concentrations of 0.15 ppm and 0.03 ppm in samples 101 and 202 respectively (spring water) while other water samples contained no traces of fluoride. These values are far below World Health Organization (WHO) limits of 1.50 ppm fluoride for drinking water. The water contained low calcium and chloride contents, ranging from 20.0 mg/l to 37.5 mg/l (hardness) indicating that the water is soft. pH values of between 5.6 and 6.0 were also obtained in contrast to 6.5-8.5 as stipulated in the World Health Organization guideline (WHO) for drinking water.

Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

2012-01-01

100

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the 226Ra and 232Th contents were lower, whereas the 40K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m?3 and 117 Bq m?3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m?3. - Highlights: ? Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ? The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m?3. ? The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ? This value is elevated though below the action level. ? Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

2012-01-01

102

The science assessment in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) of USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides a brief review on the science assessment in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) of USA in the last decade (1996, 2000 and 2005). It focuses on some key elements of the assessment framework and assessment criteria of NAEP and critically examines certain assessment items as selected from those three rounds of assessment exercise. Besides, there is a concise analysis on the educational implications of NAEP.

Helan WU; Yau-yuen YEUNG; May-hung CHENG

2008-01-01

103

Optimizing randomized phase II trials assessing tumor progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional development paradigm for phase II trials in oncology has been challenged in recent years by the introduction of cytostatic therapies. These agents slow the growth of tumors rather than cause high rates of shrinkage, this argues for the use of endpoints that measure growth inhibition such as progression free survival. We have previously argued the need for randomized trials in this setting. Here we discuss methodological solutions to enhance the development decision at the end of phase II in the context of progression endpoints employed in randomized trials. There are well recognized issues associated with progression endpoints relating to bias in the timing and interpretation of assessments. In this paper we present design and analysis solutions that will minimize bias by using methods that are either partially or completely time independent. We also discuss other design features to maximize the information yielded in a phase II setting. We advocate the creation of progression endpoints that utilize all available progression data rather than early fixed time-point analyses and show that little is to be gained by assessing progression status any more frequently than would be required in routine clinical practice. Such design and analysis measures will optimize the development decision made at the end of phase II clinical evaluation. PMID:16807129

Stone, Andrew; Wheeler, Catherine; Carroll, Kevin; Barge, Alan

2006-05-19

104

Optimizing randomized phase II trials assessing tumor progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The traditional development paradigm for phase II trials in oncology has been challenged in recent years by the introduction of cytostatic therapies. These agents slow the growth of tumors rather than cause high rates of shrinkage, this argues for the use of endpoints that measure growth inhibition such as progression free survival. We have previously argued the need for randomized trials in this setting. Here we discuss methodological solutions to enhance the development decision at the end of phase II in the context of progression endpoints employed in randomized trials. There are well recognized issues associated with progression endpoints relating to bias in the timing and interpretation of assessments. In this paper we present design and analysis solutions that will minimize bias by using methods that are either partially or completely time independent. We also discuss other design features to maximize the information yielded in a phase II setting. We advocate the creation of progression endpoints that utilize all available progression data rather than early fixed time-point analyses and show that little is to be gained by assessing progression status any more frequently than would be required in routine clinical practice. Such design and analysis measures will optimize the development decision made at the end of phase II clinical evaluation.

Stone A; Wheeler C; Carroll K; Barge A

2007-02-01

105

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

Keating Joseph; Meekers Dominique; Adewuyi Alfred

2006-01-01

106

Assessment of Safety Management System Implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization: A Case Study of Nigeria Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study survey data was used to assess employees’ perceptions of Safety Management System (SMS) implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO) in the aviation industry. AMOs in Nigeria were used as a case study. Results show that over 80% of the population used for this study accord to the existence of plans to implement SMS. However, results indicated a lack of safety management education, training and motivation, which are key concepts that influence all the safety management implementation process. Furthermore, results reveal the lack of skills to analyze risk associated with identified hazard. Internal audit and safety investigation are the main means of safety performance monitoring within the AMO. Hypothetical test was conducted using Chi-square statistic. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the appointment of key personnel and management commitment within an AMO safety management system. Overall, the findings suggest that AMO need to do more to improve the implementation and understanding of SMS within the AMO.

Kole Osaretin Uhuegho; Okafor Ekene Gabriel; Steve Bond

2013-01-01

107

Genetically significant dose assessments of occupationally exposed individuals involved in industrial and medical radiographic procedures in certain establishments in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main source of radiation doses received by humans from man-made sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry comes from X-rays. The genetic risks of ionizing radiation effects on an individual who is occupationally exposed largely depend on the magnitude of the radiation dose received period of practice, workload and radiological procedures involved. In this work, using the linear non-thresh old model, we have at tempted to assess the level of genetic risk of occupationally exposed individuals in two medical and industrial establishments in Nigeria by estimating their genetically significant dose values. The estimation was based on continuous personnel radiation dose monitoring data for the individuals in each of the establishments over a three year period (1998-2001). The estimated genetically significant dose values in the years considered were 12 mSv for the medical, and 29 mSv for the industrial personnel. Appropriate radiation protection precautions should be taken by the personnel to adhere to standard operational practices in order to minimize the genetically significant dose resulting from radio logical practices.

Jibiri Nnamdi N.; Oguntade Grace T.

2007-01-01

108

Assessment of patient’s antihypertensive medication adherence level in non-comorbid hypertension in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to assess the patient’s antihypertensive medication adherence level in non-comorbid hypertension and to identify and evaluate the causes of medication non-adherence. Randomly sampled one hundred and fifty two (152) outpatients suffering from non-comorbid hypertension, visiting the consultant outpatient clinic of the cardiology unit of the department of medicine, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria were interviewed using a self-administered pre-tested structured, mostly closed ended questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 for windows. Adherence was measured on a 12-point scale, recorded a mean score of 9.37 + 1.22. The study participants had a mean age of 49.29 + 1.04 years. The adherence level was 85.5%. There was a significant association between adherence and age, marital status, tribe, state of origin, cost of antihypertensive medications, number of antihypertensive medications, age/gender with P < 0.01. Major reasons for non-adherence were feeling worse (side effects of the antihypertensive medications), and feeling better with P < 0.01. In conclusion, this study revealed a high level of adherence among the study participants.

Roland Nnaemeka Okoro; Cyprain Kingsley Ngong

2012-01-01

109

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41%) which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13) on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%). A significant percentage (48%) does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever) which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.; Joshua I.A.

2012-01-01

110

Assessment of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) on the permanent dentition in a primary care setting in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the acceptability of ART and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the survival rate of single surface occlusal ART restorations in the permanent dentition. DESIGN: Longitudinal Study of ART restorations. SETTING: Primary Oral Health Care Setting. PARTICIPANTS: Aged 8-19 years in a low socioeconomic community, Southwestern Nigeria. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS: Ninety-three ART restorations were applied on single surface occlusal caries by a dentist who had undergone training on ART. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six monthly follow-up of patients to evaluate restoration retention and marginal defect was conducted by an independent evaluator. RESULTS: Over 90.0% of the subjects had never undergone dental treatment, yet 63.0% perceived dental treatment as painful. After undergoing the treatment as many as 98.0% admitted that ART was not painful. On the question of their willingness to make recall visits, about 95.0% responded in the affirmative and about 96.0% reported that they would encourage others to come for treatment. The cumulative survival rate of single surface occlusal ART restorations after 2 years was 93.5% (SE=2.3%). CONCLUSIONS: ART was shown to be acceptable and effective in the management of single surface occlusal caries in the permanent dentition in these Nigerian children and adolescents outside the traditional clinical setting.

Ibiyemi O; Bankole OO; Oke GA

2011-02-01

111

Enhancing leadership and governance competencies to strengthen health systems in Nigeria: assessment of organizational human resources development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lack of effective leadership and governance in the health sector has remained a major challenge in Nigeria and contributes to the failure of health systems and poor development of human resources. In this cross-sectional intervention study, leadership and governance competencies of policy makers were enhanced through a training workshop, and an assessment was conducted of organizational activities designed to promote evidence-informed leadership and governance to improve human resources for health (HRH). The training workshop increased the understanding of policy makers with regard to leadership and governance factors that ensure the functionality of health systems and improve human resources development, including policy guidance, intelligence and oversight, collaboration and coalition building, regulation, system design and accountability. Findings indicated that systems for human resources development exist in all participants' organizations, but the functionality of these systems was suboptimal. More systematic and standardized processes are required to improve competencies of leadership and governance for better human resources development in low-income settings.

Uneke CJ; Ezeoha AE; Ndukwe CD; Oyibo PG; Onwe FD

2012-02-01

112

Assessment of natural radioactivity in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radionuclides present in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plants in Nigeria were identified and their activity concentration determined to assess the potential radiation impact on the environment due to fertilizer production. The mean activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K radionuclides in phosphate ore samples were 616 ± 38.6, BDL (Below Detection Level) and 323.7 ± 57.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively. For the phosphogypsum, 334.8 ± 8.8, 4.0 ± 1.4, and 199.9 ± 9.3 Bq kg(-1) respectively and for soil samples range from 20.5 ± 7.3 to 175.7 ± 10.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 15.5 ± 1.5 to 50.4 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 89.5 ± 8.1 to 316.1 ± 41.3 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 71.4 nGy h(-1). The mean annual effective dose was 86 ?Sv. PMID:22965334

Okeji, Mark C; Agwu, Kenneth K; Idigo, Felicitas U

2012-09-11

113

Assessment of natural radioactivity in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radionuclides present in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plants in Nigeria were identified and their activity concentration determined to assess the potential radiation impact on the environment due to fertilizer production. The mean activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K radionuclides in phosphate ore samples were 616 ± 38.6, BDL (Below Detection Level) and 323.7 ± 57.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively. For the phosphogypsum, 334.8 ± 8.8, 4.0 ± 1.4, and 199.9 ± 9.3 Bq kg(-1) respectively and for soil samples range from 20.5 ± 7.3 to 175.7 ± 10.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 15.5 ± 1.5 to 50.4 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 89.5 ± 8.1 to 316.1 ± 41.3 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 71.4 nGy h(-1). The mean annual effective dose was 86 ?Sv.

Okeji MC; Agwu KK; Idigo FU

2012-11-01

114

Prevalences of loiasis in Ondo state, Nigeria, as evaluated by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to assess the prevalences of loiasis among 4800 subjects in 60 villages in Ondo state, south-western Nigeria. Coverages for community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) were assessed in the same communities, which were located in the Owo, Akure North, Ifedore, Akure South, Ondo East and Ondo West local government areas (LGA). In addition, fingerprick blood samples were collected from 80 individuals in each of six villages (i.e. one village in each LGA investigated) and checked for Loa loa microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemias were only detected in three of the villages where blood samples were collected and then only at low prevalences (1.25%-5.0%) and intensities (267-1600 microfilariae/ml). No serious adverse events were or ever had been related to the CDTI but mild or moderate adverse reactions were quite common, especially in Akure North (55.0%) and Owo (40.2%). A female subject was more likely to report an history of eye worm than a male subject (20.3%-35.7% v. 20.8%-26.5%, according to LGA). Although the subjects aged 41-50 years formed the age-group most likely to report an history of eye worm (32.7%), the highest CDTI coverage was recorded in the subjects aged 61-70 years (54.7%). The results indicated that CDTI had helped to reduce the prevalence and intensity of Loa microfilaraemia and that ivermectin can continue to be used for mass administrations in Ondo state with little risk of serious adverse events.

Adeoye GO; Akinsanya B; Otubanjo AO; Ibidapo CA; Atalabi T; Okwuzu J; Adejai EO; Braide EI

2008-04-01

115

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-01-01

116

Assessment of Pollutants in Water and Sediment Samples in Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the levels of some physicochemical parameters in water and sediment samples from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from five point designated as S1 to S5 for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS) anions and trace element. Sediment samples were also collected for the determination of heavy metals and total organic carbon (TOC). These parameters were determined using approved standard procedures. The levels of heavy metals in the water and sediment samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of DO, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, TOC, nitrite, nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, and Chloride in the water samples from the five sampling point were higher than the WHO limits for the protection of fish and other aquatic life. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Co in the water samples were higher than the WHO guideline limits, indicating severed pollution of this portion of Lake Chad. This high level of heavy metals in the water samples is expected owing to runoff of wastewater from agricultural activities within the study area. However, the concentrations of all the metals in the sediment samples were higher than the recommended values stipulated by WHO; indicating that the sediment samples from this portion of Lake Chad were also polluted by heavy metals. Results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the concentrations of all the parameters studied were statistically significant among the sampling points. The prolonged presence of heavy metals in the water and sediment samples from this portion of Lake Chad give course for concern with time. The results of the study implies that continuous monitoring has to be carried out to ascertain the long-term impact of anthropogenic inputs to take remedial measures so as to ensure the health of aquatic life.

Joseph Clement Akan; Mohammed T. Abbagambo; Zaynab M. Chellube; Fanna Inna Abdulrahman

2012-01-01

117

Improving quality of malaria treatment services: assessing inequities in consumers' perceptions and providers' behaviour in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about quality of malaria treatment services of different healthcare providers is needed to know how to improve the treatment of malaria since inappropriate service provision leads to increased burden of malaria. Hence, the study determined the technical and perceived quality of malaria treatment services of different types of providers in three urban and three rural areas in southeast Nigeria. Methods Questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected healthcare providers about the technical quality of their malaria treatment services. Exit polls were used to obtain information about perceived quality from consumers. A socio-economic status (SES) index and comparison of data between urban and rural areas was used to examine socio-economic status and geographic differences in quality of services. Results The lowest technical quality of services was found from patent medicine dealers. Conversely, public and private hospitals as well as primary healthcare centres had the highest quality of services. Householders were least satisfied with quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops and were mostly satisfied with services rendered by public and private hospitals. The urbanites were more satisfied with the overall quality of services than the rural dwellers. Conclusion These findings provide areas for interventions to equitably improve the quality of malaria treatment services, especially for patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops, that are two of the most common providers of malaria treatment especially with the current change of first line drugs from the relatively inexpensive drugs to the expensive artemisinin-based combination therapy, so as to decrease inappropriate drug prescribing, use, costs and resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy.

Onwujekwe Obinna; Obikeze Eric; Uzochukwu Benjamin; Okoronkwo Ijeoma; Onwujekwe Ogochukwu C

2010-01-01

118

Assessment of Growth and Cellulase Production of Wild-Type Microfungi Isolated from Ota, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and identify filamentous microfungi involved in wood-waste decomposition in Canaanland, Ota, South-West Nigeria and to evaluate their potentials for cellulose saccharification. Microbiological techniques were used to isolate and identify the fungi. Four filamentous microfungi, identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma sp., were isolated. All the isolates, particularly Trichoderma sp., grew rapidly on Sabouraud’s agar and Czapek-Dox agar. Two of the isolates, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp., was cultivated for 168 h by submerged fermentation in modified Czapek-Dox liquid medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source and harvested at 24 h intervals. The mycelia weight of the harvested cultures, and the protein content and cellulase activity of the filtrates were determined. The peak mycelia weight of 4.6 and 3.0 mg mL-1 was, respectively obtained for Trichoderma sp. and A. niger at 48 h. The protein and cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. peaked at 72 h whereas for A. niger, the peak protein content and peak cellulase activity was obtained at 96 and 72 h, respectively. The peak protein and cellulase activity values of A. niger were 0.175 and 0.077 unit mL-1, respectively. Trichoderma sp. yielded a protein peak of 0.180 mg mL-1 and peak cellulase activity of 0.108 unit mL-1. There is a correlation between the protein content and cellulase activity of the culture filtrates. The strains of A. niger and Trichoderma sp. obtained from this study are potential tools for the saccharification and bioconversion of cellulosic materials.

S. Nwodo Chinedu; Angela O. Eni; Adebayo I. Adeniyi; Janet A. Ayangbemi

2010-01-01

119

Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June), mid rain (July–August) and late rain seasons (September–October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.

John Kanayochukwu Nduka; Orish Ebere Orisakwe

2010-01-01

120

Communicative challenges in assessing progress towards environmental quality objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assessment of trends in the state of the environment constitutes one important aspect of efforts to achieve environmental sustainability. Assessments are often undertaken via indicators which measure progress towards environmental objectives and interim targets. This paper starts from the assumption that different types of environmental indicators have different implications for the public communication and the societal dialogue about the state of the environment and the measures needed to increase ecological sustainability.The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate environmental indicators on the basis of their communicative potential. It is demonstrated how science-based assessment of progress towards environmental objectives may fulfil different aims. Each of these aims may be linked to particular types of indicators, as well as to particular ideas of how to communicate uncertainties, and to particular views of the role of the public in the system of environmental objectives.

Victoria Wibeck

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiographic cervical spine osteoarthritis progression rates: a longitudinal assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative to other sites, the cervical spine has received little attention in the osteoarthritis (OA) literature. Using data from a longitudinal study, we provide age-specific progression rates of radiographic cervical spine OA, by gender. Data from cohort subjects (ages 40+) from the Clearwater Osteoarthritis Study were analyzed (N = 707). All study subjects' demonstrated radiographic cervical spine OA at baseline (2+). Lateral cervical spine radiographs were taken biennially. The study outcome was radiographic disease progression. A grade increase of 1, or more, by the Lawrence and Kellgren ordinal scale was considered progression. Incidence rates were calculated as per 100 person-years of observation. We show that the progression rates for cervical spine OA increase with age. For all ages combined, men demonstrated higher rates of progression compared with women. However, among subjects in their forties and fifties, women were more likely to experience worsening of their disease when compared with men. Progression rates were similar for men and women in their sixties (8.2 and 8.0, respectively). Among subjects in their seventies, men demonstrated a significantly higher rate of progression compared with women (12.5 and 8.6, respectively). As the baby-boomer population continues to increase, cervical spine OA progression assessment can be a useful tool for health-care resource planning. Cervical spine OA research offers an abundance of opportunities. Instability as a precursor to the development of cervical spine OA warrants further research. Epidemiological studies addressing demographic differences (e.g., gender, age) in the incidence of cervical spine OA will contribute to the current knowledge base. PMID:19865817

Wilder, Frances Vaughn; Fahlman, Lissa; Donnelly, Robert

2009-10-29

122

Radiographic cervical spine osteoarthritis progression rates: a longitudinal assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relative to other sites, the cervical spine has received little attention in the osteoarthritis (OA) literature. Using data from a longitudinal study, we provide age-specific progression rates of radiographic cervical spine OA, by gender. Data from cohort subjects (ages 40+) from the Clearwater Osteoarthritis Study were analyzed (N = 707). All study subjects' demonstrated radiographic cervical spine OA at baseline (2+). Lateral cervical spine radiographs were taken biennially. The study outcome was radiographic disease progression. A grade increase of 1, or more, by the Lawrence and Kellgren ordinal scale was considered progression. Incidence rates were calculated as per 100 person-years of observation. We show that the progression rates for cervical spine OA increase with age. For all ages combined, men demonstrated higher rates of progression compared with women. However, among subjects in their forties and fifties, women were more likely to experience worsening of their disease when compared with men. Progression rates were similar for men and women in their sixties (8.2 and 8.0, respectively). Among subjects in their seventies, men demonstrated a significantly higher rate of progression compared with women (12.5 and 8.6, respectively). As the baby-boomer population continues to increase, cervical spine OA progression assessment can be a useful tool for health-care resource planning. Cervical spine OA research offers an abundance of opportunities. Instability as a precursor to the development of cervical spine OA warrants further research. Epidemiological studies addressing demographic differences (e.g., gender, age) in the incidence of cervical spine OA will contribute to the current knowledge base.

Wilder FV; Fahlman L; Donnelly R

2011-01-01

123

Infiltration Rate Assessment of Coastal Plain (Ultisols) Soils for Sustainable Crop Production in the Frontiers of Calabar-Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study on infiltration rate assessment of coastal plain soils for sustainable crop production in the frontiers of Calabar, Nigeria, was carried out in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils in the area and its implication in the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer were driven at 5cm into the soil with the aid of a sledge hammer before water was poured simultaneously into the rings. Infiltration rates were taken at 5,10,15, and 30 minutes intervals. The assessment or determination of infiltration rate was preceded by laboratory analysis of soil samples for the particle size distribution. The mean values of 74.0, 12.0: and 12.6 for sand, silt and clay were obtained respectively. While infiltration rates were well above the recommended values for crop production. Result from different locations proved that the area has monolithic soil characteristics. The result equally showed that the least range of infiltration rate of 14.4-60.0 was well above the optimal range of 0.7-3.5 or the suitable infiltration range of 3.5 - 7.5. It would be said, that, given the increasing need for food production to cope with the demand in Calabar Metropolis, the effect of excessive water infiltration as evidence in this study, will continue to impede sustainable crop production except appropriate measures are contemplated. These measures may include adequate cover cropping, temporary abandonment of farm land or skeletal crop farming with compost, green or farmyard manures. This will help improve the structure and restore soil potentials. Apart from these, suitability evaluation of land in order to effectively categorize soils on the basis of their potential for optimal use could as well be imperative.

EGBAI ORUK O.; Uquatan, Ibor U.; EWA, EWA E.; NDIK, ERIC J.; OKEKE, O. FRANCIS.

2011-01-01

124

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Validation for a Fast Growing City in Africa: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lagos is the world’s sixth largest city, the most populous city in Africa and the most populous city inNigeria. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary ofLagosState. The study area has a high net recharge of1838 mm/yr and the aquifer media is sand. The intrinsic vulnerability map show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution based on hydro-geological condition and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors incorporated into DRASTIC model and the geographic information system (GIS) were used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The output map shows that the southeast of the aquifer is under very high vulnerability while central parts of aquifer have high vulnerability. Other parts (north, northwest and south) of the study area have moderate vulnerability to pollution. For testing of the vulnerability assessment, groundwater quality data were collated from literature for the different vulnerability zones of the study area. The chemical analysis results show that both the southeast and northwest west parts of study area aquifer (very high and moderate vulnerability zones) have higher nitrate concentration relative to the rest of aquifer, that are located in high vulnerability zone. The validation of the DRASTIC models was accomplished through pair wise comparison of DRASTIC vulnerability maps (using Pearson’s r correlation coefficient) with a total of 14 layers representing original DRASTIC input data, Land cover (LC) features, and groundwater TDS, Cl- and NO3 data. Results from the correlation analysis indicate a significant association between high groundwater TDS, NO3 concentrations and distances from certain LC types.

Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri; Olufunmilola T. Bankole

2013-01-01

125

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) ?Sv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) ?Sv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

2010-01-01

126

An Assessment of the Growth of Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria, Using Multi-Temporal Imageries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examined the use of GIS and Remote Sensing in monitoring the growth and development pattern of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria over a period of 21 years with a view to predicting its direction of growth. In effect, the study sought to identify and explain the rate and extent of changes in the study area between 1986 and 2007; measure the rate of urban growth in the study area between 1986 and 2007; assess the impact of urban growth on land use patterns; and predict the trend of urban growth in the study area. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Remote Sensing Imagery of Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM 2002 and ALOS 2007 were used to measure the extent of growth and to show the effects of this growth on other Land use/Land cover types. Multi-temporal approach was adopted for the study to detect the changes in the imageries. Pixel analysis was employed to identify and compare the type, nature, trend and magnitude of change that occurred in the study area within the slated dates. The observed land use/land cover and population were projected to the next 15 years. The results showed the growth of Ile-Ife and its effects on other land use classes. Pixel analysis revealed that changes occurred in the magnitude and rate of urbanization in the study area between 1986 and 2007. The results were discussed mainly focusing on the trend of urban growth expansion and its effect to the Environment natural resources, farmland and food security and its contribution to climate change. Its implications to urban planning were also discussed and the recommendations made.

O. A. Ajala; A. M. Olayiwola

2013-01-01

127

Assessment of Veterinary Extension Services Rendered to Poultry Farmers by the Agricultural Development Project, Kwara State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the veterinary extension services rendered by the Kwara State Agricultural Development Project (KWADP) to poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure produced the sample size of 110 from five villages in the study area. A well structured interview schedule was administered to the respondents to produce data which was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that majority of the poultry farmers in the study area were male (73.3%), aged between 31 and 50 (70.9%) and had over 10 years experience in poultry farming (74.5%). Only 17.3% of the farmers had secondary school education. Almost all the respondents (97.35%) were aware of the veterinary services of the (KWADP). The frequency of extension contact was monthly for 59.1% of the respondents. The t-test at 1% level of significance revealed significant differences in the means of meat yield and egg yield before and after extension contact. The study concluded that though there was strong level of awareness of the veterinary services of the KWADP and there was evidence of positive impact of the extension contact on productivity, the extension service was not meeting the needs of the farmers in some aspects of poultry production such as facilitating credit facilities for expansion. The study recommended that the frequency of extension contact be improved upon. Lastly, the study suggested that farmers should be encouraged to form or join cooperative societies to brighten their chances of securing rural credit.

Matanmi B. M.; Omotesho K. F.; Obaniyi K. S.; Adisa R. S.; Ogunsola J. D.

2012-01-01

128

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu) sold in Minna metropolis

Method: Standard microbiological pour plate te...

Daniyan S. Y.; M. E. Abalaka; J. A. Momoh; N. U Adabara

129

Quantitative assessment of heavy metals in some tea marketed in Nigeria ——Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea marketed in Nigeria was investigated. Four major and most consumed brand of tea were selected for the present study. Both aqueous and dry methods were used. Total contents of metal were determined by digesting 1g of each brand using a mixture (3:1) concentrated...

Albert Cosmas Achudume; Dayo Owoeye

130

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu St...

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

131

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique....

A.J. Farinde; O.K. Owolarafe; O.I. Ogungbemi

132

Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income stream discounted over a 30 year period at 20 percent discount rate in 2008 was between 642.20/ha and 2,852.62/ha. Consequently, the welfare loss due to the loss of 21,340 hectares of mangrove was between 13,704,548 and 60,874,911. The study also established, for the first time, the high social value of the Niger Delta Mangroves.

James, Godstime Kadiri

133

Physico-chemical quality assessment of shallow well-waters in Iwo, southwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters of shallow well waters of Iwo have been assessed. Nine different locations in parts of Iwo were considered for this study. The physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard methods and methods described by Ademoroti (1996). Generally, results compare favourably with WHO (2006) standards for drinking water, except water temperature with slight high values compared with WHO limits of < 25 ºC for drinking water. This is an indication that the water may enhance the growth of micro-organisms, hence increase the problem related to taste, odour, colour and corrosion. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is therefore recommended that periodical assessment of both physico-chemical and microbial analysis of the area should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation.

Godwin Oladele Olutona; Seun Adeola Ajisekola

2012-01-01

134

Assessment of carcass contamination with E. coli O157 before and after washing with water at abattoirs in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was carried out to assess the level of beef carcass contamination with Escherichia coli including O157 strains before and after washing with water. Samples of water used for washing carcasses were collected and thirty beef carcasses were swabbed within a period of one month in each of three abattoirs located in North-Western states of Nigeria. E. coli were enumerated as indicator organisms. Using conventional biochemical tests, the isolation rate of E. coli in the 120 swab samples collected in each abattoir from external and internal surfaces of the carcasses was 58.3% at Kano abattoir, 70.8% at Sokoto abattoir, while 76.7% was recorded at Zango abattoir. E. coli counts from external and internal surfaces of the carcasses were enumerated as mean log and ranged between 4.3 Log(10) and 4.6 Log(10) cfu/cm(2) before washing, while the values were 4.6 Log(10) and 4.9 Log(10) cfu/cm(2) after washing. Data analysis revealed that the increase in E. coli counts after washing carcasses with water was statistically significant (P<0.05) in all the abattoirs. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the 3 abattoirs in mean log of E. coli counts from external surfaces of carcass after washing. E. coli O157 was identified from both the water and surfaces of carcasses using Latex agglutination kit. A prevalence of 2.8% of E. coli O157 was detected in 360 swab samples from 90 beef carcasses examined. E. coli counts from water used in washing carcasses were between 22 and 120 cfu/100 ml. Of the 72 water samples, 3(4.2%) were positive for E. coli O157. In conclusion, there was increased contamination of carcasses during processing and water used in washing carcasses might have contributed to carcass contamination in all the abattoirs studied due to use of non-potable water.

Bello M; Lawan MK; Kwaga JK; Raji MA

2011-11-01

135

Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’) vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21) percent had no library. Sixty-three (63) percent of schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. It was also observed that, the closest distance between public schools to Area 1 and Wuse Central bus-stops, are 0.769 and 1.15 m, respectively.

Y.A. Aliyu; J.O. Sule; T.T. Youngu

2012-01-01

136

Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water and bottom-sediment samples from an urban drainage system in Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria with respect to trace metals contaminations. The results show that the surface water samples have generally low TDS with average value of 362mg/l, while the average dissolved concentrations of the trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As and Cr) vary from 0.01 to 0.5mg/l. Cu, Cr and As exhibit concentrations similar to the local background concentrations (LBC) in the pristine stream water with low single metal contamination factor (CF ? 1). Pb, Zn and Ni are 5 folds enriched with contamination factor (CF) of >5 indicating moderate to high contamination. For the sediment phase, the adsorbed concentrations of the trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cr and Co) vary between 0.1 to 3.1mg/kg. These represent about 1 to 3% of the respective total metal concentrations with average values of 18.2– 533.4mg/kg. Also low anthropogenic factor, AF (0.002 to 0.08) and mostly negative values (–5 to –15) of Mueller’s geo-accumulation index (Igeo) for adsorbed metal contents in the sediments suggest dominant geo-genic controls. However, the total metals concentrations in the sediment phase have high estimated AF of 1.1 to 9.3 and positive values of the estimated Igeo (0.9–2.0) and metal contamination index (MCI) of 2.5–8.3. All these suggest a medium to high level enrichment (of 2 to 10 factor) for most of the metals with respect to the local background concentration (LBC) in the basement bedrock units (with the exception of Cr and Ni). This is consistent with the preferential metal enrichment in the sediment phase as indicated by the estimated parti-tioning/distribution coefficient, Kd of >1 exhibited by the total metal concentrations in the stream sediment. Nonetheless, the correlated high peaks of electrical conductivity of the stream water samples and adsorbed concentrations of some trace metals within the urban stretches are indications of point source inputs of un-treated sewage into the drainage system.

Moshood N. TIJANI; Shinichi ONODERA

2009-01-01

137

Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show (more) that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

Osikabor, B.; Oladele, I. O.; Ogunlade, I

2011-01-01

138

Ground Water Quality Assessment in the Basement Complex Areas of Kano State Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aimed at assessing the quality of underground water for safe drinking in the basement complex region of Kano state. In achieving this aim a total of twenty (20) boreholes were selected at random across the state. Thirteen (13) relevant parameters on the test of water quality were taken into consideration. The research found out that underground water in the area is safe for drinking due natural filtration process that the water undergo, because, the soil chemistry and mineralogy alters the chemistry of the water there by making it safe for drinking by meeting the standard requirement of World Health Organisation (WHO) 1984. It is therefore recommended that, more boreholes should be constructed through the intervention of both government and other relevant organsations. Also surface water source should also be improve to reduce the burden that underground water source might have encountered.

Adamu G.K

2013-01-01

139

The assessment of diviners and their knowledge by civil servants in southwestern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Belief systems are continuously being modified through the interpretations individuals give to the cultural order. The present study investigates the evaluations which educated Nigerians have of diviners and their knowledge claims. Two hundred civil servants in Abeokuta, a state capital in the Southwestern region, were asked to assess diviners. It was discovered that diviners are believed to have access to supernatural knowledge and that this knowledge is seen as medically useful. Further development of the diviner's knowledge was endorsed by 70% of the sample. The respondents were however ambivalent towards diviners as persons or the bearers of the knowledge. They (diviners) are believed to have become unduly materialistic and prone to dubious activities. The implications of these findings for social change were then considered.

Pearce TO

1989-01-01

140

Risk based assessment for offshore jacket platform in Niger delta, Nigeria (corrosion and fatigue hazards)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Offshore structures are imperative for uninterrupted crude oil production which is the main stay of Nigerian economy. Fatigue and corrosion have been identified to be the most prevalent structural hazards in offshore environment. Jacket platform may be exposed to certain seawater wave which often leads to structural failure, particularly when the platform is subjected to corrosion and fatigue hazards. Therefore, corrosion and fatigue damage requires detail evaluation to prevent jacket platform from untimely failure. Risk based assessment method has been identified as the appropriate tool to determine the risk levels associated with component damages acted upon by several hazards with different scenarios. The results of this work revealed that simultaneously corroded and fatigued components exhibit unacceptable risk level and is the appropriate limiting damage scenario for marine structures underwater inspection. This technique is proved to be accurate and the most appropriate procedure for management of hazards, safety and environmental protection.

M. A. Salau; D. E. Esezobor; M. F. Omotoso

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road junctions were digitized as points which are otherwise referred to as nodes while the roads as lines which are also called Arcs. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe the road condition, pavements and types of the road network in the study. The connectivity level in the road network was determined with the use of Beta Index (BI). The road density was determined with respect to the road length per unit area. The road density was high (8.07 km-1) while the connectivity level of road network was also high (0.77). In terms of road condition, the analysis revealed that road length of 26.66 km (97.19 %) was tarred and in good condition out of 27.43 km of total road length in the study. In terms of road types, the analysis showed that the total length of dualized road type was 6.14 km (22.38 %) while 21.29 km (77.62 %) were not dualized.

Andrew Adesola Obafemi; Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin; Dozie Richard Opara

2011-01-01

142

Child Spacing and Parity Progression: Implication for Maternal Nutritional Status among Women in Ekiti Communities, Southwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolving dynamics that face maternal health in developing countries are worrisome. The achievement of the desirable Millennium Development Goals on maternal and child health in Ekiti will remain a mirage if women nutrition is compromised. Short birth spacing and high frequency of childbearing adversely affect maternal health through maternal depletion syndrome. This study was a cross-sectional house-hold survey where a stratified multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1450 women of childbearing age as respondents. Body Mass Index (BMI) measurement was used as indicator of nutritional status. Results showed that the median birth interval was 33.0 months. Parity progression rate was higher among under-nourished mothers and births after an interval of less than 24 months (short birth interval) was accounted for by 38.3% of undernourished mothers. Taking into account of several potentially confounding variables, the Cox-regression model showed that mothers who left birth interval of less than 24 months are 2.0 (p<0.01), 4.4 (p<0.001), 5.71 (p<0.001) at risks of undernourishment than their counterparts who left 24-35, 36-59 and 60+ months interval between births respectively. The strength of the association remains unchanged when the potential confounding variables were controlled. Births interval of at least 36 months will produce best health outcomes for mothers in terms of nutrition as evidence in this study. Strategies should be adopted to improve women knowledge on the effect of short birth spacing on maternal nutrition.

S.A. Adebowale; O.T. Adepoju; F.A. Fagbamigbe

2011-01-01

143

Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

Imoobe T.O.T.; Adeyinka M.L.

2009-01-01

144

MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

Daniyan S.Y.; Sangodere T.A.

2011-01-01

145

Impact Assessment of the Role of Nigerian Stock Exchange on the Economic Development of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stock exchange is a specialized market for the buying and selling of securities. These securities include stocks and shares which represent ownership interests in business, debentures and government bonds. The study assessed the impact that the Nigerian stock exchange has created on the development of the Nigerian economy. To achieve the objectives, this study reviewed stock exchange, its functions, activities, roles, and legislation. The advantages and disadvantages of listing on the stock market were also x-rayed. Also highlighted were the trading, clearing and settlement process of the Nigerian stock exchange and the short comings. The study concluded that for the Nigerian stock exchange to contribute significantly in the development of the Nigerian economy through mobilization and utilization of funds for expansion of business enterprises in the country, it should intensify efforts in creating public awareness as regards its services to the economy, effective investor education, fostering and stimulating speculation in the market and reforms that would compel investors to take due diligence when funds are to be raised by government to eliminate the buying and selling culture that exists in the market should be carried out.

Okoh, Lucky; Ekane, O. R.

2011-01-01

146

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF STREET VENDED SOYABEAN CHEESE SOLD IN MINNA, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microbial quality assessment of street vended soyabean cheese products (Tofu) sold in Minna metropolis Method: Standard microbiological pour plate technique was used to examine the microbial content of ready to eat soybean cheese and also to isolate, characterize and identify the microorganisms. Result: The results revealed the viable bacterial counts ranged from 1.40 x 105 cfu/ml - 8.40 x 105 cfu/ml, enteric bacterial counts ranged from 1.10 x 105 cfu/ml – 7.60 x 105 cfu/ml and fungal counts ranged from 3.0 103 cfu/ml – 36.0 x 103 cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of Klebsiella and Bacillus while fungi isolated include Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and species of Candida and Mucor. The most frequently occurring bacteria was S. aureus while the most frequently occurring fungal was species of Mucor. Conclusion: The results suggested that the soybean cheese samples were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and could cause health hazard to the consumers. There is need to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation as a good hygienic practice in the production and preparation of the soybean cheese since it serves as a good source of protein, carbohydrate and fat being of great nutritional value to the consumers.

Daniyan S. Y.; M. E. Abalaka; J. A. Momoh; N. U Adabara

2011-01-01

147

Assessment of communication skills among Pharmacy students of the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Communication skill is the bridge between the pharmacists and the patient. Communication in health can contribute to all aspects of disease prevention and health promotion. In order to become successful pharmacists,one needs to possess excellent communication skills to serve clients.This study was conducted at the University of Lagos to assess communication skills of Pharmacy students.METHOD: The study was descriptive and cross sectional. It was carried out between May and July 2009. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The questionnaire had two sections - the bio data section and pre-formulated questions on communication skills which has three options and one of these is the best option.RESULTS: A total number of 125 respondents were involved in the study which included 25 students from 200level,50 from 300level and 50 from 500 level. Majority of them were between 18-25 years old (89.6%). There were more females (71.2%) than males (28.8%). Also most of them were Christians (71.2%).Among the respondents, about 62% picked the best options as their answer while the rest picked other options. There was no statistical difference in the choice of best options between the different levels of study.CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded from the results of this study that majority of Pharmacy Students at the University of Lagos had good communication skills and they will be able to discharge their duties as pharmacists when they eventually graduate.

Aina BA; Ogunbiyi OO

2012-01-01

148

Assessment of microbial loads on cattle processing facilities at the demonstration abattoir in Ibadan metropolis Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microbial load on facilities used in the processing of cattle carcass at the Bodija demonstration abattoir was assessed. A total of 108 swab samples were obtained from the abattoir wall, butchers knives, processing tables, floor, cattle carcasses before and after evisceration process and grown on plates to quantify the enterobacteriacae and total aerobic viable counts (TAVC). Microbial analysis of the water used in cleaning and the discharge effluent was also done. The study revealed high values of both enterobacteriacea and TAVC on surfaces of the processing facilities and a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in mean enterobacteriacea and TAVC before and after processing of the wall, knife, table and floor. There was significant increase in both the enterobacteriacea (96%) and TAVC (98%) on the carcass after evisceration. The mean TAVC for the water and effluent was 1.16±0.1 and 13.79±0.06 logcfu/ml respectively. This study showed the need to maintain good management practice, good hygienic condition and role of sanitation in our abattoirs

V. O. Adetunji; A. E. J. Awosanya

2011-01-01

149

Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh) Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

U.S. Oranusi; Braide Wesley

2012-01-01

150

An Assessment of Gully Erosion in Gombe Town, Gombe State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of gullies is one of the severe environmental problems in Gombe town. It has threatens urban infrastructure, properties, lives and the physical growth of the town. Knowing the rates of gully development in the last decade helped explain the reasons for current land degradation. This research work therefore assessed gully erosion in Gombe town. Data used in this study were derived from field measurements, satellite imageries, and laboratory analysis and questionnaire survey. Results from the interpretation of Spot 5(1999) and Quick Birds (2009) imageries and field measurements showed that gully variables (length, depth and widths) have significantly increased in the last 10 years. Laboratory analysis of soil particle size revealed that sand proportion was 52%, silt 9.5% and clay 38.5%. The values of Atterberg limits (liquid limits; plasticity limit and the plasticity index (PI), shear strength (cohesion and angle of internal friction) and bulk density values were low, soil chemical properties also showed that the soils are moderately acidic, contained low organic matter, and low exchangeable cations, with serious implication on biological methods of erosion control.

Lazarus Abore Mbaya; H. K. Ayuba; John Abdullahi

2012-01-01

151

AN ASSESSMENT OF SOIL PROPERTIES OF WATARI IRRIGATION PROJECT, KANO STATE NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out in Watari River Irrigation Project, located on the slopes of Watari River valley in Bagwai local government of Kano state with aim of assessing soil properties. A total of 32 representative samples were randomly collected from the eight sectors (0-20cm) depth. The samples were treated andanalyzed for physical, chemical and fertility related indices. The results have shown that all the eight sectors had sand dominated texture. The mean pH in the soil ranged from 5.50 to 5.95. The EC ranged between 0.49 to 1.30cmol/kg, the Cl- ranged between 0.29 to 1.07cmol/kg and SAR ranged between 0.13to 0.72. The mean soilorganic carbon across the sectors ranged between 0.62 to 1.49%. The total nitrogen ranged between 0.0043 to 0.084% while NH4 + and NO3- Forms of nitrogen ranged between 0.0043 to 0.0065cmol/kg and 0.0025 to 0.0065mg/kg respectively. The CEC ranged between 9.04 to 12.68cmol/kg. The exchangeable bases ranged from 3.13 to 4.25; 1.06to1.73 and 1.28 to 2.08cmol/kg for Ca, Mg and K respectively. The boron content in the soil across the sectors ranged between 4.09 to 6.34mg/kg. The research recommended that irrigation, fertilizer and agrochemical management as well as careful monitoring of soil and water condition should be adopted as strategy to maintain and improve the salinity status of the sectors. Extension should also befocused on water use efficiency, soil conservation practices such as incorporation of organic residues and conservation tillage practices.

Adamu G. K

2013-01-01

152

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek) in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm) of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6) for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

Olanike K. Adeyemo; Oniovosa E. Ubiogoro

2012-01-01

153

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmers’ budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the traders’ budget revealed that from an investment cost of 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders’ are making a revenue of 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of 4,954.00 ton-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

T.M. Kudi; J.G. Akpoko; Z. Abdulsalam

2007-01-01

154

Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 ?Gyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 ?Gyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14?Svy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ? 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

1999-12-03

155

Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

2000-01-01

156

Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006) standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006) standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006) limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l). The concentration of sodium ion (Na+) ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006) standards for drinking water, except chloride with low values (9.5 to 158mg/l) compared to W.H.O limit of 250m/l for drinking water. The low concentration is an indication of absence of salt water intrusion in the area. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is recommended that regular hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation. More importantly, hydrogeological study is very imperative to fully understand the hydrogeology of the area.

H.O Nwankwoala; C.N Nwagbogwu

2012-01-01

157

Development, Implementation and Assessment of a Progressive Reading Log System  

Science.gov (United States)

Students in upper-level Engineering classes such as Fluid Mechanics often find themselves faced with over 60 pages of reading a week in addition to assigned problems and exam preparation. Since the reading of the textbook is often infrequently assessed, this aspect of course learning is often postponed or omitted. In addition, with this amount of reading, many students quickly find themselves so far behind in the reading that they can no longer catch up. A reading log system where content responsibility is progressively shifted from the instructors questions to student identification and reflection has been developed and implemented in junior-level Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics courses to address several of the issues associated with student use of the textbook. The goal of the reading log is to improve student use of resource material and to provide opportunities for students to develop skills in reading scientific material. Reflective questioning, guided identification of key concepts, probing questions and cyclic problems are some of the tools that are used to stimulate student use of the textbook. In addition, the progressive content of the reading logs is designed to transition the student from rote learning to self-reflection and synthesis of understanding. To evaluate the effectiveness of the resource, student surveys and responses to reading log questions have beenused to guide its development.

Benson, Daniel

2011-05-03

158

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is focussed on the organizational culture and learning processes required for the implementation of all aspects of safety culture. There is no prescriptive formula for improving safety culture. However, some common characteristics and practices are emerging that can be adopted by organizations in order to make progress. The paper refers to some approaches that have been successful in a number of countries. The experience of the international nuclear industry in the development and improvement of safety culture could be extended and found useful in other nuclear activities, irrespective of scale. The examples given of specific practice cover a wide range of activities including analysis of events, the regulatory approach on safety culture, employee participation and safety performance measures. Many of these practices may be relevant to smaller organizations and could contribute to improving safety culture, whatever the size of the organization. The most effective approach is to pursue a range of practices that can be mutually supportive in the development of a progressive safety culture, supported by professional standards, organizational and management commitment. Some guidance is also given on the assessment of safety culture and on the detection of a weakening safety culture. Few suggestions for accelerating the safety culture development and improvement process are also provided. (author)

2002-01-01

159

Assessment of competence and progressive independence in postgraduate clinical training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: At present, competency-based, outcome-focused training is gradually replacing more traditional master-apprentice teaching in postgraduate training. This change requires a different approach to the assessment of clinical competence, especially given the decisions that must be made about the level of independence allowed to trainees. METHODS: This study was set within postgraduate obstetrics and gynaecology training in the Netherlands. We carried out seven focus group discussions, four with postgraduate trainees from four training programmes and three with supervisors from three training programmes. During these discussions, we explored current opinions of supervisors and trainees about how to determine when a trainee is competent to perform a clinical procedure and the role of formal assessment in this process. RESULTS: When the focus group recordings were transcribed, coded and discussed, two higher-order themes emerged: factors that determine the level of competence of a trainee in a clinical procedure, and factors that determine the level of independence granted to a trainee or acceptable to a trainee. CONCLUSIONS: From our study, it is evident that both determining the level of competence of a trainee for a certain professional activity and making decisions about the degree of independence entrusted to a trainee are complex, multi-factorial processes, which are not always transparent. Furthermore, competence achieved in a certain clinical procedure does not automatically translate into more independent practice. We discuss the implications of our findings for the assessment of clinical competence and provide suggestions for a transparent assessment structure with explicit attention to progressive independence.

Dijksterhuis MG; Voorhuis M; Teunissen PW; Schuwirth LW; ten Cate OT; Braat DD; Scheele F

2009-12-01

160

The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS/WHO reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on protein which might be a contributing factor to students’ poor performance in the boarding secondary school. Tests on correlation and regression show that food intakes are not associated with physical characteristics but with food intakes. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions on ways to alleviate the problems.

O. Akinyemi

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessment of the Food Habits and School Feeding Programme of Pupils in a Rural Community in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The food habits and school feeding programme of pupils in a rural community in Odogbolu local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria was assessed in this study. A total of 68 pupils from primaries I to III in both public and private primary schools were involved in the study. It was found that majority of the school children had three meals daily. Majority of the pupils do not bring food to school from home. The amount of money brought to school to purchase mid-day meal foods was higher with pupils from private school than those from public schools. However, generally the quantity and quality of the mid-day meal purchased on both schools were poor and therefore did not have significant contribution of their nutritional status.

J.O. Olusanya

2010-01-01

162

Electrical impedance myography as a biomarker to assess ALS progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electrical impedance myography (EIM), a non-invasive, electrophysiological technique, has preliminarily shown value as an ALS biomarker. Here we perform a multicenter study to further assess EIM's potential for tracking ALS. ALS patients were enrolled across eight sites. Each subject underwent EIM, handheld dynamometry (HHD), and the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) regularly. Techniques were compared by assessing the coefficient of variation (CoV) in the rate of decline and each technique's correlation to survival. Results showed that in the 60 patients followed for one year, EIM phase measured from the most rapidly progressing muscle in each patient had a CoV in the rate of decline of 0.62, compared to HHD (0.82) and the ALSFRS-R (0.74). Restricting the measurements to the first six months gave a CoV of 0.55 for EIM, 0.93 for HHD, and 0.84 for ALSFRS-R. For both time-periods, all three measures correlated with survival. Based on these data, a six-month clinical trial designed to detect a 20% treatment effect with 80% power using EIM would require only 95 patients/arm compared to the ALSFRS-R, which would require 220 subjects/arm. In conclusion, EIM can serve as a useful ALS biomarker that offers the prospect of greatly accelerating phase 2 clinical trials.

Rutkove SB; Caress JB; Cartwright MS; Burns TM; Warder J; David WS; Goyal N; Maragakis NJ; Clawson L; Benatar M; Usher S; Sharma KR; Gautam S; Narayanaswami P; Raynor EM; Watson ML; Shefner JM

2012-09-01

163

Electrical impedance myography as a biomarker to assess ALS progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical impedance myography (EIM), a non-invasive, electrophysiological technique, has preliminarily shown value as an ALS biomarker. Here we perform a multicenter study to further assess EIM's potential for tracking ALS. ALS patients were enrolled across eight sites. Each subject underwent EIM, handheld dynamometry (HHD), and the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) regularly. Techniques were compared by assessing the coefficient of variation (CoV) in the rate of decline and each technique's correlation to survival. Results showed that in the 60 patients followed for one year, EIM phase measured from the most rapidly progressing muscle in each patient had a CoV in the rate of decline of 0.62, compared to HHD (0.82) and the ALSFRS-R (0.74). Restricting the measurements to the first six months gave a CoV of 0.55 for EIM, 0.93 for HHD, and 0.84 for ALSFRS-R. For both time-periods, all three measures correlated with survival. Based on these data, a six-month clinical trial designed to detect a 20% treatment effect with 80% power using EIM would require only 95 patients/arm compared to the ALSFRS-R, which would require 220 subjects/arm. In conclusion, EIM can serve as a useful ALS biomarker that offers the prospect of greatly accelerating phase 2 clinical trials. PMID:22670883

Rutkove, Seward B; Caress, James B; Cartwright, Michael S; Burns, Ted M; Warder, Judy; David, William S; Goyal, Namita; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Clawson, Lora; Benatar, Michael; Usher, Sharon; Sharma, Khema R; Gautam, Shiva; Narayanaswami, Pushpa; Raynor, Elizabeth M; Watson, Mary Lou; Shefner, Jeremy M

2012-06-07

164

Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mandated reduction of exposure to nicotine and other cigarette toxins has been proposed as a possible national regulatory strategy. However, tapering using lower yield commercial cigarettes may not be effective in reducing nicotine or tar exposure due to compensatory smoking behavior. We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins. METHODS: This 10-week longitudinal study of 20 smokers involved smoking the usual brand followed by different brands with progressively lower machine-determined yields, ranging from 0.9 to 0.1 mg nicotine, each smoked for 1 week. Subjects were followed for 4 weeks after returning to smoking the usual brand (or quitting). Smoking behaviors, biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, and cardiovascular effects were measured. FINDINGS: Cotinine and other biomarkers of smoke exposure remained unchanged comparing the usual brand with the 0.4 mg nicotine brands. A 30% to 40% decrease in nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure comparing 0.1 mg nicotine cigarettes with baseline was observed. Self-efficacy was significantly increased and dependence decreased after tapering. IMPLICATIONS: We confirm prior cross-sectional population and experimental studies showing complete compensation for cigarettes down to the 0.4 mg nicotine range. Nicotine and tobacco toxin exposure were substantially reduced while smoking 0.1 mg nicotine cigarettes. Our data suggest that the degree of nicotine dependence of smokers may be lowered with progressive yield tapering. Gradual tapering of smokers from regular to ultralow nicotine yield commercial cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation and warrants future research.

Benowitz NL; Dains KM; Hall SM; Stewart S; Wilson M; Dempsey D; Jacob P 3rd

2009-03-01

165

Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs) in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs) by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

Babagana, S. A.

2010-01-01

166

ASSESSING THE MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY MALE AND FEMALE PRINCIPALS IN RIVERS STATE OF NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated human resources management for effective teaching and learning in secondary educational institutions by male and female principals in Rivers State, Nigeria. The purpose was to identify the human resources available for effective teaching and learning and determine the degree of utilization of the available human resources in secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. A sample of one hundred and twenty (120) (74 male and 46 femaleprincipals) randomly drawn from a population of two hundred and forty-five (245) public secondary schools in Rivers State participated in the study. A 52-item human resources management for effective teaching and learning questionnaire for school principals was usedin data collection. The questionnaire was validated and the reliability index was 0.78. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentages and z-test. The results indicated that 57.17%of the human resources are available with exception of the science teachers; 79.10% of the available human resources were adequately utilized, though 32.69% of mathematics and science teachers were over-utilized. It was, therefore, recommended that Government shouldemploy qualified teachers particularly for mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other science subjects.

Samuel O. Nwafor; Bestman I. Nwafor

2012-01-01

167

Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. ? Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. ? Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

2011-01-01

168

Is Nigeria’s Unemployment Problem Unsolvable?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unemployment in Nigeria is alarming. Its measurement by statistical authorities does not pose red alert. It has been discovered that the observed situation of unemployment is more serious than what official statistics want us to believe. The aim of this study is to examine unacceptable unemployment rate in Nigeria. Our findings show that labor force in Nigeria grows at more or less a steady rate of 0.3% every year while GDP growth rate at 1984 factor cost grows at 3.5% over a period of 33 years which implies that Nigeria experiences a jobless growth. The causes of unemployment in Nigeria include poor infrastructure, insecurity and non-diversification of the economy and poor educational system that does not readily produce employable graduates. Among other things we have recommended that governments at all levels should partner with the private sector and diversify the economy in order to create jobs.

M.A. Adawo; E.B. Essien; N.U. Ekpo

2012-01-01

169

Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

Butler, J.W. [International Resources Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-01

170

Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10) vertical electricity soundings (VES) was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands) from boreholes within three (3) communities and ten (10) water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3) aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m), middle (82m) and lower (102 to 115m) aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3) fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984) standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of screen. The middle and lower aquifers are preferable. The middle aquifer is ideal for domestic boreholes while the lower aquifer should be developed for community and industrial boreholes.

Onunkwo – A, A; Okoroji I. L.

2012-01-01

171

Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES ampersand H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES ampersand H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES ampersand H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES ampersand H issues

1991-01-01

172

The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the determinants of the real exchange rate in Nigeria. The objective of the study has been to present a dynamic model of real exchange rate determination and empirically test the implications of changes in possible determinants of the real exchange in Nigeria. With data covering 1970-2010, the parsimonious ECM result shows amongst others that the ratio of government spending to GDP, terms of trade and technological progress are not important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The result showed that capital flow, price level and nominal effective exchange rate are important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The paper suggests that the Dutch Disease syndrome holds in Nigeria. The Johansen cointegration test suggests a long relationship among the variables. It is thus recommended amongst others that policies have to be put in place to stabilize the problem of inflation.

Victor E. Oriavwote; Dickson O. Oyovwi

2012-01-01

173

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973) definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986) is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991). Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999). The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999). They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999). For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004). The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP). The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004). The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on cro

Joseph Gambo Akpoko; Thomas M. Kudi

2007-01-01

174

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2010-01-01

175

A Sociological Assessment of the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency’s (Ndlea) Strategies of Arrest and Detention in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arrest sand detentions are two operational strategies provided by law and often used by the NDLEAin its daily operations. A critical evaluation of the effectiveness of these strategies provides the needed periodicassessment of the nation’s drug control measures. In this study, 99 detained drug suspects drawn from Lagosand Kano State Command’s cells were surveyed. This enabled us to explore the NDLEA’s ideology, policies,strategies and practices of arrest and detention. The data revealed that although NDLEA statistics of arrestindicate a consistent increase over the years, most of the arrested suspects are either users and or street leveldealers. This leaves intact the barons and their structure of illicit dealings in narcotic drugs. Of equal concernis the revelation of gross violation of suspect’s human right. Most detained respondents opined that theNDLEA’s arrest and detention strategies are ineffective for any meaningful narcotic drug control in Nigeria.

J.E. Gyong

2010-01-01

176

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC) dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other details supported by GPS locations was carried out. Seven dominant classes of feature: agro-forest/light forest, built-up area, exposed rock surfaces/bare land, forest reserve, shrub and arable land, ridge forest and water body were identified. A time series analysis of the LULC changes was carried out to provide the necessary understanding of the changes required for policy formulation and decision-making with respect to cocoa production, forest reserve management and landuse planning, control, coordination and budgeting while being mindful of environmental conservation. This indispensable geo-information is yet lacking in the cocoa growing belt of southwestern Nigeria. ArcView software was used to prepare the corresponding time series LULC maps of the study area. The study showed that the forest reserves within the study area reduced at an average rate of 2.78% per year while agro-forest/light forest reduced to 46.39% (i.e., at an average rate of 1.55% per year) and, shrub and arable land increased by 323.06% (i.e., at an average rate of 10.77% per year) for food production farming to feed the rapidly increasing population between 1972 and 2002.

R.O. Oyinloye; J. Oloukoi

2012-01-01

177

Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by its role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.

Eleri, E.O. [Fridtjof Nansen Inst., Oslo (Norway)

1993-12-31

178

Assessing for risk and progression of osteoarthritis: the nurse's role.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors review the primary and secondary risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA), its pathophysiology and epidemiology, the evidence-based approaches to slowing progression, and the role of nurses encountering OA in primary care and other settings.

Antonelli MC; Starz TW

2012-03-01

179

Health insurance reform in the Netherlands: assessing the progressivity consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Netherlands on the incidence of the burden of health care finance. The focus of attention is on the measurement of the degree of progressivity of health care payments with respect to income. By means of an empirical simul...

Janssen, Richard; Van Doorslaer, Eddy; Wagstaff, Adam

180

Risk Assessment Analysis of Accelerated Gully Erosion in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of accelerated erosion has been on in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area (LGA) in particular and Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living around the gullies in the area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining sediment loss from the gully sites, the vulnerable areas and threat posed by impact of gullies in the study LGA. Oregbeni Housing Estate and Ede School gully erosion sites in the Ikpoba-Okha LGA were purposively selected for this study. Primary data were collected using GPS receiver.These include the geographic coordinates and elevation of the study gullies catchments which were integrated with the secondary data obtained from satellite image, topographic, geologic, road and lay out maps of the area using Arc GIS 9.3 software. The results of the satellite image classification analysis showed that accelerated gully erosion accounted for 2% (100466.57 m2) of the total areal extent of the study LGA (5189010.57 m2). Of this 2%, Queen Ede School gully accounted for 96957.13 m2. The total estimated sediment loss from Queen Ede School and Oregbeni Housing Estate gullies were 359,173.22 and 48,212.62 tonnes, respectively. These indicated severe land degradation in the study area.

Aderemi Adediji; Iyamu Felix

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria faces a tremendous shortfall in housing provisions, especially in its urban areas. Consequently, Public-Private Partnership in housing provisions has been adopted as a means of addressing this problem. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies in the government-provider approach to housing, but adequate attention has not been given to the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. This paper attempts to fill this gap in literature by examining the role of government agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in housing. A study of thirteen government agencies in six selected Nigerian cities was undertaken. The findings indicate that though the agencies tended to focus on the provision of access to land and the regulatory framework for housing development, the majority of Nigerians have not benefited from this arrangement. The paper recommends that government agencies should also be involved in providing basic amenities and subsidies to ensure that Public-Private Partnership housing serves the interest of most Nigerians.

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2010-01-01

182

Quantitative assessment of heavy metals in some tea marketed in Nigeria ——Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea marketed in Nigeria was investigated. Four major and most consumed brand of tea were selected for the present study. Both aqueous and dry methods were used. Total contents of metal were determined by digesting 1g of each brand using a mixture (3:1) concentrated nitric acid (NNO3) and hypochlorous acid (HCLO4). The second method involved hot water extract of tea samples. After boiling and filtration, the residue was evaporated to near dryness and digested with concentrated HNO3 and HCLO4 as described above. Results indicate that Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb were present in lowest concentrations in ascending order for which there were two significant differences between the four sources of samples. The general characteristics of heavy metal concentrations in aqueous extract showed high level of Fe and Mg in a descending order. Going by the correlation study of our result indicates that there is no significant relationship between the two elements of Fe and Mg, though, the numerical values of the two elements varied widely among the samples. These differences may have major impact on human health. However, the beneficial effects of tea are in a fairly narrow concentration range between the essential and the toxic level. In conclusion, the variations in heavy metals content of tea brands may be due to geographical, seasonal changes and the chemical characteristics of the growing regions.

Albert Cosmas Achudume; Dayo Owoeye

2010-01-01

183

Progression of keratoconus by longitudinal assessment with corneal topography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal changes in corneal topographic indices over time in patients with mild keratoconus (KC) and to determine predictive factors for the increase in corneal curvature. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the data of 94 eyes of patients with mild KC who had undergone computerized videokeratography (Orbscan IIz; Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Rochester, NY) at least twice at an interval of ?1 year. Patients with an increase of ?1.50 diopters (D) in the central keratometry (K) were placed in the progression group, and the others were placed in the nonprogression group. In each group, the quantitative topographic parameters were compared and tested as predictive factors for KC progression. Additionally, corneal astigmatic changes were evaluated by means of vector analysis. RESULTS: In total, 94 eyes of 85 patients were included. Twenty-five of 94 (26.5%) eyes showed progression of the central K ?1.50 D; progression took 3.5 years on average. Median time to progression by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 12 years. Significant predictors for KC progression were as follows: highest point on the anterior elevation from the anterior best-fit sphere (BFS), ?0.04 mm; irregularity index at 3 mm, ?6.5 D; irregularity index at 5 mm, ?6.0 D; thinnest pachymetry, <350 ?m at baseline examination; yearly change rate of anterior BFS, ?0.1 D/y; central K, ?0.1 D/y; simulated K in maximum, ?0.15 D/y; simulated K in minimum, ?0.2 D/y; and anterior chamber depth, ?0.0 mm/y. The dominant with-the-rule pattern of astigmatism at the baseline examination was changed to an oblique pattern of astigmatism at the last examination. CONCLUSIONS: Mild KC tended to be progressive in approximately 25% of patients, and progression lasted 3.5 years on average. Longitudinal changes in the corneal topography quantitative indices can be used as predictors of KC progression.

Choi JA; Kim MS

2012-02-01

184

Taking Stock of Poverty Reduction Efforts in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an evaluation of the Poverty Eradication Programmes in Nigeria. It tries to assess their effectiveness in helping to improve on the lives of the poor. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administered to randomly selected adult male and female residents in Enugu State of Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from the Poverty Eradication office in the State. The analysis shows that most of the poverty reduction efforts had no significant impact on the lives of the poor. Even those that were recorded as effective had negligible impact on the populace to have reduced poverty. The study enumerates among others inadequate funding, mismanagement of resources and inadequate infrastructures as problems stifling most poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria. The study recommends that in addition to establishing these Poverty alleviation programmes, Nigeria should strive to move away from import dependent economy to an export oriented one.Key words: Poverty eradication programmes; Nigeria; Effectiveness

Flora O. Ntunde; Chukwuemeka O. Oteh

2011-01-01

185

Assessment of hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater quality in the vicinity of Okpara coal and Obwetti fireclay mines, near Enugu town, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogeochemical assessments were carried out in the vicinity of Okpara coal and Obwetti fireclay mines, Enugu, Nigeria to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics and constituents of shallow groundwater. A total of 12 representative shallow groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions as well as trace metals like Fe and Mn. Distribution of major ions in these groundwater samples was calculated and the general trend among cations and anions was found to be Ca ? Na ? Mg ? K and SO4 ? NO3 ? Cl ? HCO3, respectively. This means that water moving through the ground will react to varying degrees with the surrounding minerals (and other components), and it is these rock-water interactions that give the water its characteristic chemistry. Piper trilinear diagrams classified the hydrogeochemical facies into Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-Fe-Mg-SO4 and Ca-Mg-Na-K-Cl-SO4 water types. Ratios of Cl to Na, K and Mg generally increased compared to those of Cl to Ca and SO4 which decreased indicating ion adsorption/exchange processes due to the dissolution of drainage materials. The aquiferous units mainly in the northwestern region of the study area yield water of better quality than those toward the southeastern region.

Utom, Ahamefula U.; Odoh, Benard I.; Egboka, Boniface C. E.

2013-03-01

186

Assessing full immunisation coverage using lot quality assurance sampling in urban and rural districts of southwest Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to identify administrative wards (lots) with unacceptable levels of full child immunisation coverage, and to identify factors associated with achievement of a complete child immunisation schedule in Ibadan North East (IBNE) and Ido local government areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey involving 1178 mothers, 588 from IBNE LGAs and 590 from Ido LGAs, with children 12-23 months of age was conducted. Children were considered 'fully-immunised' if they received all the vaccines included in the immunisation schedule. Lot quality assurance sampling was used to determine lots with acceptable and non-acceptable coverage. Samples were weighted based on the population by lot to estimate overall coverage in the two LGAs and a logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with the fully immunised child. RESULTS: Mean age of the mothers was 28.5 ± 5.6 and 28.1± 6.0 years in IBNE and Ido LGAs, respectively. Eleven of 12 wards in IBNE and all the wards in Ido had unacceptable coverage. The proportion of fully immunised children was 40.2% in IBNE and 41.3% in Ido. Maternal age ?30 years, retention of an immunisation card, completion of tertiary education, or secondary education, hospital birth and first-order birth were significant predictors of complete childhood immunisation. CONCLUSION: The level of full immunisation coverage was unacceptable in almost all the wards. Educational intervention on the importance of completion of immunisation schedule should target young, uneducated mothers, mothers who delivered their babies at home and those with a high birth order.

Fatiregun AA; Adebowale AS; Ayoka RO; Fagbamigbe AF

2013-09-01

187

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

2005-09-01

188

Assessment of Poverty among Arable Crop Farmers: A Case Study of Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) in Osun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmers’ Empowerment has become an important part of the development agenda in the recent years. This study identified and analyzed the poverty status in terms of incidence, depth and severity among arable crop farmers in Osun State and compared the socio-economic characteristics of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of Farmers Empowerment Programme (FEP) in Osun State, Nigeria. The study made use of pre-tested and validated structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 240 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using a combination of descriptive statistics, t-test of difference of two means and p-alpha measures of poverty. The result of poverty incidence, depth, and severity among respondents indicated that poverty incidence was lower among the FEP beneficiaries (0.42) than the non beneficiaries (0.58). Poverty gap index was also lower among the beneficiaries of FEP (0.19) than with the non-beneficiaries (0.46). The severity of poverty was mild (0.13) among the FEP beneficiaries while it was severe among non-beneficiaries (0.43). The Lorenz curve revealed that 22.5 percent of the respondents control 50 per cent of the resources available indicating an apparent inequality in income distribution. A significant difference exists between the age (p<0.05), household size (p < 0.05), membership of cooperative societies (p < 0.05), land ownership (p < 0.05) and income (p < 0.05) of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of FEP, respectively. In conclusion, the FEP has alleviated poverty among the participants in the study area. The level of education, household size and farmers’ experience are the key determinants in alleviating poverty among the participating arable crop farmers in the FEP in Osun State.

Ayanwale, A. B.; O. D. Adisa

2012-01-01

189

Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity measurements have been carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the radionuclide concentrations in soil samples in the premises of the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and also in communities around it. The radionuclide contents of the crude oil and petroleum additives were also similarly determined. Results indicate that on the premises used by the company, the ranges of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Th in the soil samples were 261.3-932.3 Bq kg-1,-1 and-1, respectively. For the 13 villages studied, activity concentrations ranged from -1,-1 and-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 228Th. The lowest radionuclide concentrations were found in the crude oil relative to the petroleum additives. The highest outdoor effective dose rate obtained in the study was 47.5 ?Sv y-1 for the villages and 35.2 ?Sv y-1 within the company premises. These values are less than the world average outdoor value of 70 ?Sv y-1 given by UNSCEAR. Overall, it can be concluded that the long duration of refining activities does not seem to have affected radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Measurements also showed that the observed radiation dose rates did not vary significantly from the previously determined Warri City outdoor gamma radiation dose rates, for which the probability of occurrence of any health effects of radiation was judged low. The measurements, therefore, are interpreted to represent baseline radiometric data for future reference and research in the area.

2008-09-01

190

Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC). This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria.Methods:A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages.Results: There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82%) PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64%) PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85%) of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization.Conclusion: Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence childbirth at home demonstrates high risks of mother-to-child transmission, infection to others and obstetric complications.

Ezinne E. Enwereji; Kelechi O. Enwereji

2010-01-01

191

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages.

Gbadebo AM; Oyesanya TM

2005-09-01

192

Doppler echocardiographic assessment of progression of aortic regurgitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of progression of the degree of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) is unknown. Furthermore, although left ventricular (LV) dilation has been studied in patients with severe AR, its rate and determining factors, and specifically, its relation to the degree of regurgitation remain to be established and have not previously been studied for mild and moderate AR. The purpose of this study was to explore the progression of chronic AR by 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, and the relation of LV dilation to the fundamental regurgitant lesion and its progression in patients with a full spectrum of initial AR severity. We studied 127 patients with AR by 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography (69 men; 59 +/- 21 years; 67 with mild, 45 with moderate, 15 with severe AR). AR increased in 38 patients (30%) (25% of mild, 44% of moderate, and 50% of moderate to severe lesions; p <0.006). The ratio of proximal AR jet height to LV outflow tract height also increased (30.3 +/- 17.5% vs 35.2 +/- 19.7%; p <0.0001). Initial LV volumes and mass were larger in patients with more severe AR and increased significantly during follow-up (138 +/- 53 to 164 +/- 70 ml; 59 +/- 32 to 71.7 +/- 42 ml; 203 +/- 89 to 241 +/- 114 g; p <0.0001). LV volumes and mass increased faster in patients with more severe AR, and in those in whom the degree of AR progressed more rapidly. Finally, patients with bicuspid aortic valve (n = 21) had a higher prevalence of severe AR than patients with tricuspid aortic valves (52% vs 4%; p <0.001). In conclusion, AR is a progressive disease not only in patients with severe AR but also in those with mild and moderate regurgitation. Patients with more severe AR have larger left ventricles that also dilate more rapidly. PMID:9264424

Padial, L R; Oliver, A; Vivaldi, M; Sagie, A; Freitas, N; Weyman, A E; Levine, R A

1997-08-01

193

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

1992-08-01

194

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

1992-01-01

195

Tubular biomarkers to assess progression of diabetic nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite aggressive management, many patients with diabetic nephropathy still develop end-stage renal disease. Accompanying tubulointerstitial damage is important in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Markers of tubular damage, such as NGAL, KIM-1, and LFABP, have been proposed for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. However, Nielsen et al. report a lack of an independent correlation between these biomarkers and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, these markers seem to offer no improvement in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21527942

Tramonti, Gianfranco; Kanwar, Yashpal S

2011-05-01

196

Tubular biomarkers to assess progression of diabetic nephropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite aggressive management, many patients with diabetic nephropathy still develop end-stage renal disease. Accompanying tubulointerstitial damage is important in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Markers of tubular damage, such as NGAL, KIM-1, and LFABP, have been proposed for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. However, Nielsen et al. report a lack of an independent correlation between these biomarkers and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, these markers seem to offer no improvement in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

Tramonti G; Kanwar YS

2011-05-01

197

Reliability of the Mid Upper Arm Circumference for the Assessment of Wasting among Children Aged 12-59 Months in Urban Ibadan, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as a proxy to assess wasting in children, its validity abounds in controversies. This study therefore assessed the validity of MUAC as a measure of nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in urban setting in western Nigeria. A cross sectional study of children aged 12-59 months in selected nursery schools in Moniya, Akinyele local government area, Oyo state was carried out between February to April 2010. The age, weight, length and MUAC, were obtained from the school children who were selected through total sampling. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the MUAC were determined using weight for age as gold standard (underweight). Z-Scores for anthropometric indicators were calculated using EPI-NUT programme. Receivers operating curve was prepared to determine the optimal cut off of MUAC for the sensitivity and specificity. The overall prevalence of under nutrition among the respondents was 5.6%. The mean mid upper arm circumference was 15.47 ± 1.4 cm and appears to increase with age from 11.49 ± 3.0 at 12-23 months and peaks at age five with a value of 18.05 ± 3.5. At 13.5 cm cut off, the sensitivity of MUAC is 20%, and the specificity is 95.3%, with a Kappa of 16.7%. The receivers operating curve reveals an optimum cut off of 15.5 cm with optimal but improved MUAC sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 53.5%. Thus MUAC was a poorly sensitive indicator of under nutrition at a cut-off below 13.5 cm but highly sensitive at 15.5 cm. A higher cut off value is therefore for recommended for screening for acute malnutrition among under five children.

M. D. Dairo; Modupeoluwa E. Fatokun; Modupeoluwa Kuti

2012-01-01

198

Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in Parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: The Case of Imo Shale and Ameki Formations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydro-geochemical survey is undertaken in parts of Imo River Basin, Southeastern Nigeria, particularly in the geologic formations of Imo Shale and Ameki, to assess the quality of groundwater. Eleven samples of groundwater are obtained from various boreholes in the study area and subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques. The study is aimed at the assessment of the groundwater quality indicators namely: pH, electrical conductivity (N), phosphate (PO4), sulphate (SO4), nitrate(NO3-) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The result shows that the water from boreholes in Umuahia has low pH, and is therefore acidic. The pH values range between 4.40 and 5.60, which is below the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5. The acidity probably results from carbonic acid derived from the solution of CO2 from both the atmosphere and the decomposition of plant materials in the soil zone. The acidity of the groundwater gives slight sour taste to drinking water, due to the mobilization of trace metals from the aquifer material into the groundwater system, because of the corrosive effect of acidic water. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace metals end up in domestic supplies resulting in health implications and complaints. Acidic waters are typically low in buffering calcium minerals, but are high in dissolved carbon dioxide gas, which can cause the low pH or acidity. Calcite neutralizer tanks with natural crushed and screened pure calcium carbonate easily neutralize acidic water from 6.0 to 6.9. Below 6.0 a blend of calcite and Corosex is recommended. Common systems used to treat low pH: Calcite Neutralizer, calcite & Corosex Blend Neutralizer, pflow Neutralizer, Soda Ash Feed Pump Injection System.

Ikechukwu B. Ijeh; Ifiok E. Udoinyang

2013-01-01

199

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

1993-01-01

200

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

1993-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

1993-11-01

202

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

1993-01-01

203

Spatial modeling of visual field data for assessing glaucoma progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In order to reduce noise and account for spatial correlation, we applied disease mapping techniques to visual field (VF) data. We compared our calculated rates of progression to other established techniques. METHODS: Conditional autoregressive (CAR) priors, weighted to account for physiologic correlations, were employed to describe spatial and spatiotemporal correlation over the VF. Our model is extended to account for several physiologic features, such as the nerve fibers serving adjacent loci on the VF not mapping to the adjacent optic disc regions, the presence of the blind spot, and large measurement fluctuation. The models were applied to VFs from 194 eyes and fitted within a Bayesian framework using Metropolis-Hastings algorithms. RESULTS: Our method (SPROG for Spatial PROGgression) showed progression in 42% of eyes. Using a clinical reference, our method had the best receiver operating characteristics compared with the point-wise linear regression methods. Because our model intrinsically accounts for the large variation of VF data, by adjusting for spatial correlation, the effects of outliers are minimized, and spurious trends are avoided. CONCLUSIONS: by using CAR priors, we have modeled the spatial correlation in the eye. combining this with physiologic information, we are able to provide a novel method for VF analysis. model diagnostics, sensitivity, and specificity show our model to be apparently superior to CURRENT POINT-wise linear regression methods. (http://www.anzctr.org.au number, ACTRN12608000274370.).

Betz-Stablein BD; Morgan WH; House PH; Hazelton ML

2013-02-01

204

Energy sources for Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the deposits of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.

Okoroji, C.E.I.

1982-09-01

205

Energy sources for Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the deposits of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are-not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become selfsufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.

Okoroji, C.E.

1982-09-01

206

Education reforms in Nigeria: how responsive is the nursing profession?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstractworldwide because of the link between education and development. What appears not to have been fully explored in the Nigerian context is the responsiveness of various professions, especially nursing, to the consistently changing educational system. Yet innovative advances in health care system in the twenty-first century demands that Nursing as a profession should prepare practitioners who are well equipped to meet the challenges of care within the context of a complex milieu. This paper, therefore, examines the Nigeria educational system, its reforms and current status of nursing education in Nigeria. Some of the challenges in the emergence of professional nursing in Nigeria and the progress made so far to advance professional as well as university education for nurses are articulated with propositions of possibilities and the gains for the Nigeria nation.

Ayandiran EO; Irinoye OO; Olayiwola Faronbi J; Mtshali NG

2013-01-01

207

Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200 pupils between 14 and 18 years of age. Both teachers and pupils reported the positive benefits from use of a computer-based test (CBT) strategy. Multiple practices of learning and a shift from individual to collaborative learning combined to indicate three notable changes resulting from the strategy: (1) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT applied in education to address future augmented teacher - students' liaisons.

Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva

2008-01-01

208

Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and recent developments  

CERN Multimedia

Recent testing and validation have found that the GOES microburst products are effective in the assessment and short-term forecasting of downburst potential and associated wind gust magnitude. Two products, the GOES sounder Microburst Windspeed Potential Index and the multispectral GOES imager product have demonstrated capability in downburst potential assessment. Each microburst product consists of a set of predictor variables that generates output of expected microburst risk. This paper compares and contrasts the sounder and imager microburst products and outlines the advantages of each product in the nowcasting process. An updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst products, case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and validation results for the 2009 convective season over United States Great Plains is presented.

Pryor, Kenneth L

2009-01-01

209

Energy supply in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is extensive potential in Nigeria for a wide variety of energy sources, including nuclear and renewable sources. To date, however, fossil fuels still dominate electricity production. The major resources currently being exploited are coal, natural gas, and petroleum products. Demand for energy in Nigeria is mainly for oil products, though the proportion of electricity is increasing. Coal reserves in Nigeria are estimated at between 270 and 980 million tonnes and it is mined mainly for use in the cement industry. Natural gas has been an important factor in the economic and industrial development of Nigeria. Known reserves are estimated at about 2.4 billion cubic metres and are expected to last for more than a century as a domestic fuel and a major export. Oil is Nigeria's major revenue source for development - it accounts for 20% of GDP and 94% of export receipts. About 80% of the energy produced by Nigeria is exported, with oil being the main exported resource. Nigeria currently has 2408 MW of installed hydro-electric capacity and there are many other potential sites for hydro-electric developments. The annual growth rate in electricity consumption is about 20%, resulting in part from a rapid rate of industrialisation and urbanisation. Significant rural electrification schemes are being embarked upon by states as part of their industrial projects. Future developments in energy supply in Nigeria may include the establishment of solar farms. Uranium deposits have also been reported in Nigeria which may encourage the development of nuclear power in the future. (UK).

Ekwue, A. (Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria))

1989-09-01

210

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

1998-01-01

211

The progress of research on the assessment of viable myocardium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The techniques development of myocardial perfusion imaging quantitative analysis, gated SPECT imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and 99Tcm-sestamibi (99Tcm-MIBI) dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA), interventional echocar-diography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enhanced the recognition of myocardium viability. The combined applications of interventional echocardiography, myocardial perfusion imaging and myocardial metabolic imaging may improve accuracy for assessing viability. The assessment of myocardial viability allows identification of patients who are most likely to benefit from coronary revascularization, and prognosis of increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and improvement in heart failure symptoms postopera-tively. (author)

2005-01-01

212

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle). Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield) are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922) and farm size for other crops (0.550). It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde; O.K. Owolarafe; O.I. Ogungbemi

2006-01-01

213

Assessing the Restructuring of SADC - Positions, Policies and Progress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was commissioned by Norad. The Report provides an assessment of the institutional restructuring of SADC and an input to the planning of future Norwegian assistance to regional co-operation in Southern Africa. The institutional reforms mainly revolve around the changing role and functions ...

Isaksen, Jan; Tjønneland, Elling N.

214

Writing Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the 2011 NAEP Writing Framework is to describe how the new NAEP Writing Assessment is designed to measure students writing at grades 4, 8, and 12. As the ongoing national indicator of the academic achievement of students in the United State...

2010-01-01

215

Assessing equity in health care through the national health insurance schemes of Nigeria and Ghana: a review-based comparative analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nigeria and Ghana have recently introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) with the aim of moving towards universal health care using more equitable financing mechanisms. This study compares health and economic indicators, describes the structure of each country's NHIS within the wider healthcare system, and analyses impacts on equity in financing and access to health care. METHODS: The World Bank and other sources were used to provide comparative health and economic data. Pubmed, Embase and EconLit were searched to locate studies providing descriptions of each NHIS and empirical evidence regarding equity in financing and access to health care. A diagrammatical representation of revenue-raising, pooling, purchasing and provision was produced in order to analyse the two countries' systems. RESULTS: Over the period 2000-2010, Ghana maintained a marked advantage in life expectancy, infant mortality, under-5 year mortality, and has a lower burden of major diseases. Health care expenditure is about 5% of GDP in both countries but public expenditure in 2010 was 38% of total expenditure in Nigeria and 60% in Ghana. Financing and access are less equitable in Nigeria as, inter alia, private out-of-pocket expenditure has fallen from 80% to 66% of total spending in Ghana since the introduction of its NHIS but has remained at over 90% in Nigeria; NHIS membership in Nigeria and Ghana is approximately 3.5% and 65%, respectively; Nigeria offers a variable benefits package depending on membership category while Ghana has uniform benefits across all beneficiaries. Both countries exhibit improvements in equity but there is a pro-rich and pro-urban bias in membership. CONCLUSIONS: Major health indicators are more favourable in Ghana and overall equity in financing and access are weaker in Nigeria. Nigeria is taking steps to expand NHIS membership and has potential to expand its public spending to achieve greater equity. However, heavy burdens of poverty, disease and remote settings make this a substantial challenge. Ghana's relative success has to be tempered by the high number of exemptions through taxation and the threat of moral hazard. The results and methods are anticipated to be informative for policy makers and researchers in both countries and other developing countries more widely.

Odeyemi IA; Nixon J

2013-01-01

216

Post-impact assessment of oil pollution in Agbada west plain of Niger Delta, Nigeria: field reconnaissance and total extractable hydrocarbon content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Typical post-impact assessment of an oil-spill-impacted site in Agbada west plain of the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria was carried out 13 months after recorded incidence of spillage, using empirical indices of reconnaissance and extractable hydrocarbon content. Field-reconnaissance surveys revealed lower species' numbers and diversity of surface and subterranean flora and fauna. The presence and absence of such plant species as Elaeis guineensis, Musanga cecropiodes, and Andropogon gayanus, as well as animal species like earthworms and nematodes in sampled plots, corroborated the evidence provided by the total extractable hydrocarbon content (of (2.53+/-0.43)x10(2) mg/kg and (2.00+/-0.76)x10(2) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths, resp.) on the level of degradation and/or regeneration at the polluted site. The most important evidence that oiling must have been responsible, at least in part, for the reduction in species' number and diversity was provided by the plant cover, Andropogan gayanus, which occurred at a lower density of 0.9 plants/m2 in the oil-impacted plots and 14.00 plants/m2 in the unimpacted reference plots of an adjacent, geographically similar area. The presence of this species on site thus presented a significant difference (P<0.05) of over 85%, and indicated exhaustion or impoverishment of impacted soils. Elaeis guineensis, with a population density of 0.1 stands/m2, provided evidence of past cultivation on site, while species like Musanga cecropioides, with a density of 0.5 stands/m2, at the unimpacted site, confirmed the abandonment of the farmstead over a long period of time. For the fauna, the most sensitive indicator of hydrocarbon toxicity was provided by nematode Xiphinema sp. that were completely absent in the oil-impacted site.

Osuji LC; Adesiyan SO; Obute GC

2004-10-01

217

Assessment of gamma-radiation profile of oil and gas facilities in selected flow stations in the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-radiation profile assessment of some flow stations facilities and their host communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have been carried out. The survey was conducted twice monthly for five months in six flow stations facilities, two each from Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers State insitu, using diligent 50 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken in 11 facilities in each of the flow stations and the host communities. Measured radiation values in the facilities ranged from 08.00±0.70 Rh-1in Afiesere flow station entrance gate to 25.004.20Rh-1in Adibawa flare knockout vessel, while the flow stations mean exposure rate ranged from 14.821.74Rh-1(6.700.78sv/wk) to 18.602.64Rh-1(8.281.17Sv/wk) with fields mean radiation level of 17.142.22Rh-1. The host communities radiation exposure values obtained were (21.002.10, 17.002.00, 15.00±1.40, 18.00±1.60, 10.00±0.70 and 14.00±1.10)Rh-1 for Emeragha, Ekakpamre, Nedugo, Imirigin, Joinkrama 4, and Egbema community respectively. The radiation levels at gas facilities were observed to be higher than those of oil facilities. The highest average dose equivalent rate obtained is within the safe radiation limit of 20?Sv/wk recommended by UNSCEAR (1993). But the mean radiation levels within these areas investigated are far above the standard background level value of 13.00Rh-1.These result obtained indicate no immediate health hazard but may have some long term health side-effect on the staff working in the facilities, the immediate environment and residents of the host communities. The researchers recommended some proactive measures that may help to reduce radiation pollution in the environment.

2011-01-01

218

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of lead and cadmium via consumption of cow meat for an urban population in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087

Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B

2013-05-07

219

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of lead and cadmium via consumption of cow meat for an urban population in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption.

Ihedioha JN; Okoye CO

2013-07-01

220

Post-impact assessment of oil pollution in Agbada west plain of Niger Delta, Nigeria: field reconnaissance and total extractable hydrocarbon content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical post-impact assessment of an oil-spill-impacted site in Agbada west plain of the Niger Delta basin of Nigeria was carried out 13 months after recorded incidence of spillage, using empirical indices of reconnaissance and extractable hydrocarbon content. Field-reconnaissance surveys revealed lower species' numbers and diversity of surface and subterranean flora and fauna. The presence and absence of such plant species as Elaeis guineensis, Musanga cecropiodes, and Andropogon gayanus, as well as animal species like earthworms and nematodes in sampled plots, corroborated the evidence provided by the total extractable hydrocarbon content (of (2.53+/-0.43)x10(2) mg/kg and (2.00+/-0.76)x10(2) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths, resp.) on the level of degradation and/or regeneration at the polluted site. The most important evidence that oiling must have been responsible, at least in part, for the reduction in species' number and diversity was provided by the plant cover, Andropogan gayanus, which occurred at a lower density of 0.9 plants/m2 in the oil-impacted plots and 14.00 plants/m2 in the unimpacted reference plots of an adjacent, geographically similar area. The presence of this species on site thus presented a significant difference (P<0.05) of over 85%, and indicated exhaustion or impoverishment of impacted soils. Elaeis guineensis, with a population density of 0.1 stands/m2, provided evidence of past cultivation on site, while species like Musanga cecropioides, with a density of 0.5 stands/m2, at the unimpacted site, confirmed the abandonment of the farmstead over a long period of time. For the fauna, the most sensitive indicator of hydrocarbon toxicity was provided by nematode Xiphinema sp. that were completely absent in the oil-impacted site. PMID:17191800

Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, S O; Obute, G C

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. METHODS: We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. RESULTS: We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression.

Yang Y; Li YX; Yang X; Jiang L; Zhou ZJ; Zhu YQ

2013-01-01

222

Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16) core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical), accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

Akintayo Opawole; Godwin Onajite Jagboro; Olubola Babalola; Solomon Olusola Babatunde

2012-01-01

223

Digital image analysis of collagen assessment of progression of fibrosis in recurrent HCV after liver transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Histological assessment of fibrosis progression is currently performed by staging systems which are not continuous quantitative measurements. We aimed at assessing a quantitative measurement of fibrosis collagen proportionate area (CPA), to evaluate fibrosis progression and compare it to Ishak stage progression. METHODS: We studied a consecutive cohort of 155 patients with recurrent HCV hepatitis after liver transplantation (LT), who had liver biopsies at one year and were subsequently evaluated for progression of fibrosis using CPA and Ishak staging, and correlated with clinical decompensation. The upper quartile of distribution of fibrosis rates (difference in CPA or Ishak stage between paired biopsies) defined fast fibrosers. RESULTS: Patients had 610 biopsies and a median follow-up of 116 (18-252) months. Decompensation occurred in 29 (18%) patients. Median Ishak stage progression rate was 0.42 units/year: (24 (15%) fast fibrosers). Median CPA fibrosis progression rate was 0.71%/year (36 (23%) fast fibrosers). Clinical decompensation was independently associated by Cox regression only with CPA (p=0.007), with AUROCs of 0.81 (95% CI 0.71-0.91) compared to 0.68 (95% CI 0.56-0.81) for Ishak stage. Fast fibrosis defined by CPA progression was independently associated with histological de novo hepatitis (OR: 3.77), older donor age (OR: 1.03) and non-use/discontinuation of azathioprine before 1 year post-LT (OR: 3.85), whereas when defined by Ishak progression, fast fibrosers was only associated with histological de novo hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: CPA fibrosis progression rate is a better predictor of clinical outcome than progression by Ishak stage. Histological de novo hepatitis, older donor age and non-use/discontinuation of azathioprine are associated with rapid fibrosis progression in recurrent HCV chronic hepatitis after liver transplantation.

Manousou P; Burroughs AK; Tsochatzis E; Sochatzis ET; Isgro G; Hall A; Green A; Calvaruso V; Ma GL; Gale J; Burgess G; O'Beirne J; Patch D; Thorburn D; Leandro G; Dhillon AP

2013-05-01

224

Nigeria - energy situation 1990. Nigeria - Energiewirtschaft 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Nigeria is outlined on the basis of selected facts. This includes remarks on the country's national and international energy policy, energy sources, and electric power generation. Key data are presented on the country's foreign trade. (UA).

1991-10-01

225

Nigeria: Current Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa with an estimated 132 million people, has faced intermittent political turmoil and economic crisis since gaining independence in October 1960. Nigerian political life has been scarred by conflict along both ethn...

L. Ploch

2007-01-01

226

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author).

1994-01-01

227

Assessment of microbiology students' progress with an audience response system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today's classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student's understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

Chaudhry MA

2011-01-01

228

Assessment of microbiology students' progress with an audience response system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today's classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student's understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning. PMID:23653765

Chaudhry, M Ahmad

2011-12-01

229

Progress in the assessment of resources. [German Democratic Republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explains the achieved level in brown coal classification and petrological brown coal assessment in the GDR. Soft brown coal with 40 to 70% moisture content is macropetrographically classified into lithotypes considering visual properties including color, texture, lamination and xylite content. The standard TGL 15387 shows this lithotype classification. A brown coal classification system into microlithotypes (maceral groups greater than 50 mu m) by using quantitative micropetrographical analysis (QMA) developed by Sontag, Tzschoppe and Christoph is further explained. The analysis includes microphotometrical reflection measurements according to E. Kuenstner (1977) and electronic picture analysis using microscope Densitron equipment. Various graphs and schemes are provided showing the macropetrographic classification system of lithotypes; coal property relations among brown coals, briquets and tar content; petrological briquetting characteristics of European soft brown coals from mines in the GDR, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; gelification properties of microlithotypes determined by microphotometric reflection measurements; and also selected reflection values for brown coal varieties.

Suess, M.

1982-06-01

230

Digitizing resources for University of Nigeria repository: Process and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the implementation of digitization of resources at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN); the processes involved and the challenges faced. In the context of the establishment of a digital library in University of Nigeria, the study aimed to: establish progress that has been made by UNN in digitizing their resources; report the process of digitizing these materials; find out problems encountered in the digitization project; and proffer solutions to the problems encountered. To elicit the necessary information, a literature review of studies done on digitization was carried out. Additionally, information on digitization of University of Nigeria resources was gathered through the University website as it contained necessary information that guided the study. The research was started off mid 2009 and concluded in December, 2009. Researcher's personal experiences and observation methods were also employed in the course of this study. The paper gives an overview of digitization and the digitization initiative in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka including the processes. A lot of challenges are facing the successful digitization of resources in University of Nigeria. Such major deterrents in the project include legal aspect and finances. Other factors were also discussed and the ways forward to the hindrances highlighted. This paper establishes that there are challenges militating against the digitization project in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) which demands immediate attention. However, solutions are proffered, which can help in ameliorating the challenges raised.

Helen Nneka Eke

2011-01-01

231

Nigeria, an influential leader of African oil producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nigeria, as Africa's biggest oil producer, can influence other African producers as well as supply poorer countries. The emphasis is on oil, but the author also provides insight into the energy implications of economic growth and policies. Using new arrangements with the oil companies operating within Nigeria, the country has an opportunity to begin exerting influence within OPEC as well as globally. The author assesses Nigeria's resources, catalogs oil companies, and provides appendices on natural gas pipeline and electric power systems. The author concludes that agriculture is the appropriate cornerstone of Nigeria's economy, and that better management of energy resources is vital to continued growth.

Hasan, K. (ed.)

1986-01-01

232

Determinants of agreement between the confocal scanning laser tomograph and standardized assessment of glaucomatous progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To estimate the agreement of confocal scanning laser tomograph (CSLT), topographic change analysis (TCA) with assessment of stereophotographs, and standard automated perimetry (SAP) for detecting glaucomatous progression and to identify factors associated with agreement between methods. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 246 eyes of 167 glaucoma patients, glaucoma suspects, and ocular hypertensives. METHODS: We included CSLT series (n ? 4 tests; mean follow-up, 4 years), stereophotographs, and SAP results in the analysis. The number of progressors by guided progression analysis (GPA, "likely progression"), progressors by masked stereophotographs assessment and progressors by TCA as determined for 3 parameters related to the number of progressed superpixels within the disc margin was determined. Agreement between progression by each TCA parameter, stereophotographs and GPA was assessed using the Kappa test. Analysis of variance with post hoc analysis was applied to identify baseline factors including image quality (standard deviation of the mean topography), disc size and disease severity (pattern standard deviation [PSD] and cup area) associated with agreement/nonagreement between methods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement in assessing glaucomatous progression between the methods including factors associated with agreement/nonagreement between methods. RESULTS: Agreement between progression by TCA and progression by stereophotographs and/or GPA was generally poor regardless of the TCA parameter and specificity cutoffs applied. For the parameters with the strongest agreement, cluster size in disc (CSIZE(disc)) and cluster area in disc (CAREA(disc)), kappa values were 0.16 (63.9%, agreement on 134 nonprogressing eyes and 23 progressing eyes) and 0.15 (64.1%, agreement on 135 nonprogressing eyes and 22 progressing eyes) at 99% cutoff. Most of the factors evaluated were not significantly associated with agreement/nonagreement between methods (all P > 0.07). However, SAP PSD was greater in the progressors by stereophotography only group compared with the progressors by TCA only group (5.8 ± 4.7 and 2.6 ± 2.2, respectively [P = 0.003] for CSIZE(disc) at 95% specificity and 5.4 ± 4.6 and 2.5 ± 2.3, respectively [P = 0.002] for CAREA(disc) at 99% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: Agreement for detection of longitudinal changes between TCA, stereophotography, and SAP GPA is poor. Progressors by stereophotography only tended to have more advanced disease at baseline than progressors by TCA only.

Vizzeri G; Bowd C; Weinreb RN; Balasubramanian M; Medeiros FA; Sample PA; Zangwill LM

2010-10-01

233

Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Status of Water Samples from Major Dams in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physico-chemical status of water samples from four major dams in Ekiti was assess for a period of three years (dry and wet seasons). Result showed that the physico-chemical parameters determined were higher in the dry season than wet season. The statistical analysis revealed that most of the physico-chemical parameters are significantly different except for temperature, conductivity and dissolved solid whose values are lower than the table value (0.4975 at P = 0.05). The value increased from one year to another. The result obtained fell within the maximum allowable limit set by United State Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization.

O.S. Adefemi; S.S. Asaolu; O. Olaofe

2007-01-01

234

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR AQUACULTURE USES IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physicochemical studies were conducted to assess water resources in Abeokuta NorthLocal Government Area, Ogun State in relation to their potential for aquaculture uses. Watersamples were collected from both surface and groundwater sources and analyzed for pH,colour, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, BOD, carbonate, iron, lead andcopper. The results revealed a fluctuating behaviour of different parameters throughout thestudy correlations between the physiochemical studied, the result revealed thatphysicochemical variables were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by site but there were nosignificant difference in the values of Pb and Fe in all the station (P<0.05).

Olaniyi Olopade

2013-01-01

235

An Assessment of the Changes in the Landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki Development Prone Area of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Landscape assessment is the analysis of the evolution of a landscape, an examination of the basic natural and human processes with ecological interrelationships which jointly shape that landscape and determine values for its uses. This paper is an assessment of the landscape of Ogudu-Oworonshoki development prone area on the North-East of Lagos Metropolis. It utilized the analytical tool of ArcGIS with topographic maps and Ikonos imaging to examine changes in the land use/land cover of the area over a period of 40 years from 1965 to 2004. Existing landscape which are suitable and compatible with the landscape of the area were identified through analysis of their conformity with the physiographic units. Results show that the landscape of the area has been gravely altered as urban development, mostly residential, displaced natural land, mostly wetland from 141.90 ha to 38.20 ha in 2004 at the annual rate of 2.60 ha. The implication of the results and findings are highlighted.

Jerry N Obiefuna; Semiat O Idris; N. UDUMA-OLUGU

2011-01-01

236

Assessment of Some Selected Trace Metals in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients in a Tertiary Health Facility in South West Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some selected trace metals; Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr), Selenium (Se), Calcium (Ca), Zinc (Zn) and Magnesium (Mg) in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients were assessed. Seventy five (75) leukemic patients and 50 apparently healthy control subjects were evaluated in this study. Hematological parameters were estimated by automation SYSMEX KX-21N and the trace elements analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. There were statistical significant differences between serum Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, Ca, Zn and Mg of leukemic patients and that of their respective control subjects (p0.05). Variation also existed between the patients and control values in the hematological parameters such as: PCV, MCV, MCHC, WBC, platelet etc. The study reveals that serum trace elements are useful indices of the extent of the disease in leukemia patients, their levels are independent of a non specific acute-phase reaction and restoration of serum trace elements are useful in assessing response to treatment in leukemia patients. Monitoring of the respective trace elements in the CML patients could therefore be an essential part of managing the patients.

E.O. Akanni; A.J. Onuegbu; T.O. Adebayo; B.A. Eegunranti; T.Oduola

2013-01-01

237

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Permeability Index (PI), Kellys Ratio (KR), and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L), electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m), soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%), permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%), magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%), kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L), residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L) and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035) were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna; A. Sheriff

2011-01-01

238

Status of renewable energy in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provided conference participants with a common understanding of the status of renewable energy in Nigeria. It was developed upon review of scientific publications, a brief on the Jigawa State Solar Village-Electrification and the outcomes of two previous national meetings related to renewable energy. Several issues were addressed, including the potential for renewable energy in Nigeria; the level of political support for renewable energy in Nigeria; capacity development in Nigeria; current industry capacity; renewable energy project initiatives; future prospects for renewable energy; and barriers to renewable energy and priorities for action. Among 18 recommendations, it was recommended that an energy policy that emphasizes the development of renewable energy sources should be put in place immediately along with a resource survey and assessment that determines the total renewable energy potential in the country. It was also suggested that renewable energy projects would have a greater chance at success if they were implemented together with activities in other sectors such as agriculture, small scale industrial businesses and poverty alleviation. 18 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs., 4 apps.

Ikuponisi, F.S. [Eco-Outreach, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

2005-07-01

239

GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

Yaw A. Twumasi; Edmund C. Merem

2006-01-01

240

Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government embarked on a number of public sector reform programmes aimed at blocking leakages of all sorts in public sector service delivery and transactions. The official instrument designed to achieve this much desired honesty, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business especially in the award of contracts and procurement in the ministries, parastatals and departments in Nigeria is the introduction of the Due Process Policy.Key words: Due process; Public procurement; Administration

Stephen Ocheni; Basil C. Nwankwo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Exfoliation syndrome in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and its association with ocular disease in patients attending the eye clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 448 consecutive new patients, aged 30-90 years who presented to the eye clinic of UCH between December 2009 and November 2010 were evaluated. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. Patients with exfoliative material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Means, standard deviation, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: All the patients examined were from the southern part of Nigeria. Majority (94.2%) were of the Yoruba tribe from southwestern Nigeria, while 5.8% were from southeastern Nigeria. The mean age of the study cohort was 58.5 ± 13.8, 54.8% were males, 12 (2.7%) had XFS. All patients with XFS were of the Yoruba tribe, with a mean age 65.6 ± 5.6 years. There was a male predilection (66.7%). All eyes with XFS had lenticular opacities. XFS was bilateral in eight patients (66.7%) of whom seven patients (87.5%) had glaucoma and lenticular opacities bilaterally. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the existence of XFS in Nigeria. Larger studies are necessary in this population to further investigate the disease.

Olawoye OO; Ashaye AO; Teng CC; Liebmann JM; Ritch R; Ajayi BG

2012-10-01

242

Management of Higher Education in a Period of Economic Recession: Alternate Revenue Resourcing for Higher Education in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Higher education in Nigeria, until recently, has been one of the economic sectors that was accorded top priority funding. In the last few years, however, government support has been reduced. Data show that higher education in Nigeria has progressively suffered cuts in the allocation of funds. The roles of public finance (government) and that of…

Aderinto, J. A.

243

Cervical Cancer Screening among HIV-Positive Women in Nigeria: An Assessment of Use and Willingness to Pay in the Absence of Donor Support.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction:The sustainability of donor-supported cervical cancer screening for HIV-positive women in underresourced setting is a concern. The authors aimed to determine the willingness of HIV-positive women for out-of-pocket payment for the cancer screening, if necessary.Methods:Questionnaires were administered to 400 HIV-positive women at the Adult HIV clinic, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria.Results:In all 11 (2.8%) respondents were aware of Pap smear, but only 1 (9.1%) of them had used it. After cervical cancer screening counseling, 378 (94.5%) respondents were willing to pay for Pap smear, irrespective of the cost. This willingness showed no trend across marital or educational groups. Younger age of respondents was not associated with willingness to pay for Pap smear (odds ratio = 1.24; confidence interval 95%: 0.52, 2.94).Conclusion:Willingness to pay for Pap smear by HIV-positive women in Enugu, Nigeria, is high. This has implication for the program sustainability.

Dim CC; Onyedum CC; Dim NR; Chukwuka JC

2013-05-01

244

A Comparative Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water quality monitoring at five (5) different gauge stations on the course of Njaba River was undertaken to understand the variability of the physico-chemical and microbial contents of the river water within a specified period of time (2003-2008). Collected water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Digital Meters and Standard Plate Counts. Results of the analyses indicated that average pH, electrical conductivity and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the Njaba River in 2003 were 6.3, 22 µS/cm and 13.5 mg/l, respectively. Mean values in 2008 for the same parameters were 6.4, 24.4µS/cm and 14.7 mg/l, respectively. Mean concentrations of analyzed cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+) in 2003 were 4.10, 0.15, 5.00 and 1.20 mg/l, respectively, and that obtained for same parameters in 2008 were 4.40, 0.18, 6.40 and 1.30 mg/l, respectively. The mean concentrations of analyzed anions (HCO3 - , SO4 2-, Cl- and NO3 - ) in 2003 were 20.0, 4.0, 1.30 and 0.20 mg/l, respectively and in 2008 the mean concentrations were 24.5, 4.20, 1.60 and 0.22 mg/l, respectively. Characterization of the river water followed the trend: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ (for the cations) and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > NO3 - (for anions), showing the Njaba River is NaHCO3 water. Mean concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of the river water were 7.2 and 2.2 mg/l, respectively in 2003, and 8.0 and 4.0 mg/l respectively, in 2008. Total Coliform Counts of the river water in 2003 ranged from 70 - 90 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 80 cfu/100ml, while the counts in 2008 ranged from 100 - 120 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 110 cfu/100 ml. Calculated Pollution Index (PI) slightly increased from 0.72 in 2003 to 0.73 in 2008. These water quality determinants revealed gradual rise in the concentrations of the respective physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological constituents of the Njaba River water. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) of 1.37 in 2003 and 1.54 in 2008, however, indicated that the river remained excellent for irrigation purposes. Except for the observed low pH and poor bacteriological quality, all other measured parameters of the Njaba River water conformed to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for safe drinking water. The generally decreasing low pH value and progressively increasing Coliform Counts and nutrient contents (although still low) were the major environmental problems observed in the Njaba River water. These problems are essentially associated with increased anthropogenic activities on the Njaba River Watershed within the period in focus.

Cosmas Ahamefula Ahiarakwem; Samuel O. Onyekuru

2011-01-01

245

Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria  

CERN Multimedia

The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

2012-01-01

246

Anthropometric Assessment of Nutritional Status and Growth of 10 - 20 Years Old Individuals in Benin City (Nigeria) Metropolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status and growth of 2,012 randomly selected males and females between the ages of 10 - 20 years was carried out by cross-sectional method in Benin City Metropolis. Anthropometrical indices considered were weight, height and arm circumference. Percentile values (10th, 50th, 90th) which represent the growth standards of males and females were established from this study. Comparisons were made by comparing the 50th centile curves for height and weight of males and females obtained from this study with those of the WHO/NCHS standards. The results of the comparison revealed that the 50th centile curves of subjects from Benin City consistently lagged behind those of WHO/NCHS standards for all the anthropometric variables considered, except the 50th centile curve of females for height which showed that the 50th centile curve of females from Benin City compared favourably with the WHO/NCHS standards, and do not fall below them. The interrelationship between the various anthropometric variables revealed that the correlation coefficients for males and females respectively were: Age and Weight (0.99 and 1.0), Age and Arm circumference (0.95 and 0.99), Height and Arm circumference (0.91 and 0.97) and,(0.97 and 0.98) for Weight and height. The age of puberty was determined from this study to be 15.5 years for females and 18 years for males.

Nwokoro; Smart O.; K. Ifada; O. Onochie; J.M. Olomu

2006-01-01

247

Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302) between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230), size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245), hour spent on farm (b = 1.469) and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567) were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

S.A. Adesoji; A.J. Farinde; O.A. Ajayi

2006-01-01

248

Assessing Teaching Readiness of University Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications for Managing Teacher Education Reforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This ex-post-facto designed study was geared towards assessing the readiness of would-be teachers in universities in Cross River State for the teaching profession, and how reforms can be managed to strengthen this. Three hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 200 students from the two universities in the state constituted the sample drawn from a population of 1684 graduating education students. Data were generated using “Students’ Teaching Readiness Questionnaire (S.T.R.Q.)”. Population t-test and Independent t-test statistical techniques were used to analyze data collected. Results disclosed that teaching readiness of university education students is significantly low in terms of possession of communication skills, interpersonal skills, ICT skills and entrepreneurial skills; gender influences teaching readiness of university education students in one hand and in the other, it does not; teaching readiness of university education students does not significantly differ on the basis of institution of affiliation. On the strength of these findings, implications for managing teacher education reforms were articulated.

B. A. Akuegwu; A. O. Edet; C. C. Uchendu; U. I. Ekpoh

2011-01-01

249

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria; Mesure des radionucleides naturels et de l'evaluation de la dose de granits de l'Etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th contents were lower, whereas the {sup 40}K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ayeni, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-10-15

250

Petroleum Operations in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author traces the history of petroleum in Nigeria which started, roughly, in 1939 when Shell pioneered the search for oil. The first well to find, oil in commercial quantity was dug at Oloibiri, Rivers State in 1956 - with the first shipload of oil to Europe in February 1958. In the '60s, several other oil companies started operations in Nigeria, in line with the country's oil regulations, which are listed; these regulations are probably responsible for the near-uniforms procedures by the companies in their onshore and offshore operations. They book meets the need of laymen in understanding how oil has positively projected the image of Nigeria internationally, as well as professionals with its comprehensive statistical and accounting analyses.

Oremade, T.

1986-01-01

251

Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07), EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm), temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C), sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L), NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L), NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L), COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L), BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L), NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L). The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

Imoisi, O. B.; Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.

2012-01-01

252

Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation), which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation) in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10) sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5) samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

Mmom Prince Chinedu; T. Deekor

2010-01-01

253

Petroleum Business in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us.

1997-01-01

254

Physical therapy assessment tools to evaluate disease progression and phenotype variability in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dogs suffering from Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) present symptoms that are similar to human patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Phenotypic variability is common in both cases and correlates with disease progression and response to therapy. Physical therapy assessment tools were used to study disease progression and assess phenotypic variability in dogs with GRMD. At 5 (T0), 9 (T1), 13 (T2) and 17 (T3)months of age, the physical features, joint ranges of motion (ROM), limb and thorax circumferences, weight and creatine kinase (CK) levels were assessed in 11 dogs with GRMD. Alterations of physical features were higher at 13 months, and different disease progression rates were observed. Passive ROM decreased until 1 year old, which was followed by a decline of elbow and tarsal ROM. Limb and thorax circumferences, which were corrected for body weight, decreased significantly between T0 and T3. These measurements can be used to evaluate disease progression in dogs with GRMD and to help discover new therapies for DMD patients.

Gaiad TP; Silva MB; Silva GC; Caromano FA; Miglino MA; Ambrósio CE

2011-10-01

255

Physical therapy assessment tools to evaluate disease progression and phenotype variability in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs suffering from Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) present symptoms that are similar to human patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Phenotypic variability is common in both cases and correlates with disease progression and response to therapy. Physical therapy assessment tools were used to study disease progression and assess phenotypic variability in dogs with GRMD. At 5 (T0), 9 (T1), 13 (T2) and 17 (T3)months of age, the physical features, joint ranges of motion (ROM), limb and thorax circumferences, weight and creatine kinase (CK) levels were assessed in 11 dogs with GRMD. Alterations of physical features were higher at 13 months, and different disease progression rates were observed. Passive ROM decreased until 1 year old, which was followed by a decline of elbow and tarsal ROM. Limb and thorax circumferences, which were corrected for body weight, decreased significantly between T0 and T3. These measurements can be used to evaluate disease progression in dogs with GRMD and to help discover new therapies for DMD patients. PMID:21315399

Gaiad, T P; Silva, M B; Silva, G C A; Caromano, F A; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

2011-02-18

256

Performance of confocal scanning laser tomograph Topographic Change Analysis (TCA) for assessing glaucomatous progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope's Topographic Change Analysis (TCA; Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) parameters for discriminating between progressing glaucomatous and stable healthy eyes. METHODS: The 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 specificity cutoffs for various (n=70) TCA parameters were developed by using 1000 permuted topographic series derived from HRT images of 18 healthy eyes from Moorfields Eye Hospital, imaged at least four times. The cutoffs were then applied to topographic series from 36 eyes with known glaucomatous progression (by optic disc stereophotograph assessment and/or standard automated perimetry guided progression analysis, [GPA]) and 21 healthy eyes from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS), all imaged at least four times, to determine TCA sensitivity and specificity. Cutoffs also were applied to 210 DIGS patients' eyes imaged at least four times with no evidence of progression (nonprogressed) by stereophotography or GPA. RESULTS: The TCA parameter providing the best sensitivity/specificity tradeoff using the 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 cutoffs was the largest clustered superpixel area within the optic disc margin (CAREA(disc) mm(2)). Sensitivities/specificities for classifying progressing (by stereophotography and/or GPA) and healthy eyes were 0.778/0.809, 0.639/0.857, and 0.611/1.00, respectively. In nonprogressing eyes, specificities were 0.464, 0.570, and 0.647 (i.e., lower than in the healthy eyes). In addition, TCA parameter measurements of nonprogressing eyes were similar to those of progressing eyes. CONCLUSIONS: TCA parameters can discriminate between progressing and longitudinally observed healthy eyes. Low specificity in apparently nonprogressing patients' eyes suggests early progression detection using TCA.

Bowd C; Balasubramanian M; Weinreb RN; Vizzeri G; Alencar LM; O'Leary N; Sample PA; Zangwill LM

2009-02-01

257

Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

1993-05-01

258

Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence.

1993-01-01

259

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses - and sometimes even in the early stages - patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates.

Modirrousta M; Price BH; Dickerson BC

2013-04-01

260

Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010 (AMCON Act) and employs as a method, analytical exposition of the Act in this work. The paper finds that lack of corporate governance and incentive problems caused Nigeria's banking sector crisis. It argues that though the provisions of the AMCON Act are aimed at compelling corporate governance and international best practices, inherent weaknesses and inconsistencies with superior legislations leave a big question mark on its applicability and effectiveness. The paper calls for legislative rethink if Nigeria must prevent future failures in the banking sector and rebuild confidence in the investing public as well as in bank depositors.

Mmadu, R. A. O.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)

1998-04-20

262

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

1993-08-01

263

Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

J. K. Yohanna.; U. A. Fulani.; S. Ode; H. K. Ali

2012-01-01

264

Assessing species endangerment status: progress in research and an example from China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is an important task in biodiversity conservation to assess species endangerment status and determine protection priorities. Although IUCN Redlist Criteria are improving through periodical revision, people are still developing different criteria because information about population census, habitat status and life history of a given species are often lacking. We reviewed the progress of assessing species endangerment status, both internationally and domestically, and propose that future designations combine distribution area, life history, ecological function, anthropogenic interference and special use data to more accurately assess endangerment status. As an example, we assessed the status of terrestrial vertebrates in China using thismethod. Our results showed that five species were listed in the category of extinct, 30 species were extinct, 343 species were endangered, 459 species were threatened, 439 species were concerned, and 1,032 species were least concerned.

Zhigang Jiang; Zhenhua Luo

2012-01-01

265

Maternal mortality at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Southeast Nigeria: a 10-year review (2003–2012)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available NJ Obiechina, VE Okolie, ZC Okechukwu, CF Oguejiofor, OI Udegbunam, LSA Nwajiaku, C Ogbuokiri, R Egeonu Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria Background: Maternal mortality is high the world over, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. Nigeria has consistently demonstrated one of the most abysmally poor reproductive health indices in the world, maternal mortality inclusive. This is a sad reminder that, unless things are better organized, Southeast Nigeria, which Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) represents, may not join other parts of the world in attaining Millennium Development Goal 5 to improve maternal health in 2015. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess NAUTH'S progress in achieving a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and to identify the major causes of maternal mortality. Materials and methods: This was a 10-year retrospective study, conducted between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012 at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria. Results: During the study period, there were 8,022 live births and 103 maternal deaths, giving an MMR of 1,284/100,000 live births. The MMR was 1,709 in 2003, reducing to 1,115 in 2012. This is to say that there was a 24.86% reduction over 10 years, hence, in 15 years, the reduction should be 37%. This extrapolated reduction over 15 years is about 38% less than the target of 75% reduction. The major direct causes of maternal mortality in this study were: pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (27%), hemorrhage (22%), and sepsis (12%). The indirect causes were: anemia, anesthesia, and HIV encephalopathy. Most of the maternal deaths occurred in unbooked patients (98%) and within the first 48 hours of admission (76%). Conclusion: MMRs in NAUTH are still very high and the rate of reduction is very slow. At this rate, it will take this health facility 30 years, instead of 15 years, to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. Keywords: maternal mortality, MDG-5, 2015, achievability, causes, NAUTH, Southeast Nigeria

Obiechina NJ; Okolie VE; Okechukwu ZC; Oguejiofor CF; Udegbunam OI; Nwajiaku LSA; Ogbuokiri C; Egeonu R

2013-01-01

266

Nigeria: human trafficking and migration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Readmission agreements between Nigeria and migrant destination countries fail to comply with international standards for the protection of migrants’ and trafficked persons’ rights.

Victoria Ijeoma Nwogu

2006-01-01

267

A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents a wavelet-based on-line damage assessment approach based on the use of progressively transmitted multi-resolution sensor data. In extreme events like strong earthquakes, real-time retrieval of structural monitoring data and on-line damage assessment of civil infrastructures are crucial for emergency relief and disaster assistance efforts such as resource allocation and evacuation route arrangement. Due to the limited communication bandwidth available to data transmission during and immediately after major earthquakes, innovative methods for integrated sensor data transmission and on-line damage assessment are highly desired. The proposed approach utilizes a lifting scheme wavelet transform to generate multi-resolution sensor data, which are transmitted progressively in increasing resolution. Multi-resolution sensor data enable interactive on-line condition assessment of structural damages. To validate this concept, a hysteresis-based damage assessment method, proposed by Iwan for extreme-event use, is selected in this study. A sensitivity study on the hysteresis-based damage assessment method under varying data resolution levels was conducted using simulation data from a six-story steel braced frame building subjected to earthquake ground motion. The results of this study show that the proposed approach is capable of reducing the raw sensor data size by a significant amount while having a minor effect on the accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assessment. The proposed approach provides a valuable decision support tool for engineers and emergency response personnel who want to access the data in real time and perform on-line damage assessment in an efficient manner

2008-01-01

268

TRADE OPENNESS AND ITS IMPACT ON NIGERIA’S NON-OIL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: 1979-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of the industrial sector and the resultant export witnessed in Nigeria in the 1960s and 1970s was largely the outcome of a policy of import substitution which precipitated the overvaluation of the domestic currency partly through the encouragement of low return investments by preferential credit policies and direct public investment in industrial ventures. The ‘fait accompli’ adoption of the IMF – induced structural economic reforms whose main trust is trade openness among others was targeted at restructuring the economy away from over dependence on the oil sector. This study focused on the impact of trade openness on Nigeria’s industrial performance with a view to determining the spill over effect of the policy on the major contending sectors in the economy. This study therefore examined the relationship between trade openness and industrial performance,armed with secondary time series data and using an ordinary least square multiple regression analytical method. The study found that the unilateral trade openness of 1986 produced the sustainable impact on the nonoil industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. It was observed that Public domestic investment, saving rate, capacity utilization and infrastructure has negative impacts on Nigeria’s industrial performance. Our findings and conclusion support the need for the government to consolidate and maintain the credibility of the trade policies for sustainable growth and development. More progress will be achieved if the conditions needed for a deregulated trade system to work properly are set in place.

Bakare A.S Ph.D; Fawehinmi, F. O

2011-01-01

269

Maternal mortality at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Southeast Nigeria: a 10-year review (2003-2012).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is high the world over, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. Nigeria has consistently demonstrated one of the most abysmally poor reproductive health indices in the world, maternal mortality inclusive. This is a sad reminder that, unless things are better organized, Southeast Nigeria, which Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) represents, may not join other parts of the world in attaining Millennium Development Goal 5 to improve maternal health in 2015. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess NAUTH'S progress in achieving a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and to identify the major causes of maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 10-year retrospective study, conducted between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012 at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 8,022 live births and 103 maternal deaths, giving an MMR of 1,284/100,000 live births. The MMR was 1,709 in 2003, reducing to 1,115 in 2012. This is to say that there was a 24.86% reduction over 10 years, hence, in 15 years, the reduction should be 37%. This extrapolated reduction over 15 years is about 38% less than the target of 75% reduction. The major direct causes of maternal mortality in this study were: pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (27%), hemorrhage (22%), and sepsis (12%). The indirect causes were: anemia, anesthesia, and HIV encephalopathy. Most of the maternal deaths occurred in unbooked patients (98%) and within the first 48 hours of admission (76%). CONCLUSION: MMRs in NAUTH are still very high and the rate of reduction is very slow. At this rate, it will take this health facility 30 years, instead of 15 years, to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality.

Obiechina Nj; Okolie V; Okechukwu Z; Oguejiofor C; Udegbunam O; Nwajiaku L; Ogbuokiri C; Egeonu R

2013-01-01

270

Seismicity in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismicity is the likelihood of an area being subject to natural earthquakes. Natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and earth tremors have manifested through fractures. Thus monitoring and prediction of these hazards could begin by a proper documentation of the pathways through which they emanate, using geophysical methods, and these could be useful in planning and in population control in a suspected hazard-ridden environments.This work has reviewed seismicity in Nigeria and has been able to show that Nigeria may not be aseismic as has hitherto been believed.Therefore, henceforth it is necessary to incorporate seismic criteria in the site investigations for design and construction of major and sensitive structures whose sudden damage can lead to disruption of major essential services, loss of lives and property and general degradation of the environment. A geophysical survey of the site for the nuclear power plant is mandatory.

2008-01-01

271

Solar energy implementation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned co...

Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; R.Obialo, Gaisva; Raudonis, Vytautas

272

The Developmental State Debate: Where Is Nigeria?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a renewed interest in the idea of the developmental state in Africa. This is partly a reaction to the failure of the pro-market reforms under the Washington Consensus to deliver socio-economic progress. Nonetheless, the Nigerian There is a renewed interest in the idea of the developmental state in Africa. This is partly a reaction to the failure of the pro-market reforms under the Washington Consensus to deliver socio-economic progress. Nonetheless, the Nigerian economy, after fifty years of political independence and economic governance and management, has suffered from fundamental structural defects and has remained in persistent stagnation. Many features in Nigeria’s economy combined with other non-economic factors have produced a weak private sector that is largely oriented towards distributive activities. The productive and technological base is weak, outdated, narrow, inflexible and externally dependent. Furthermore, infrastructure is poor, inadequate and lacks maintenance. Thus, the effectiveness of incentives has been generally low, giving rise to inadequate utilization of the factors of production. The paper blames the country’s overdependence on single product export-crude oil-without profound efforts to diversify the economy as a key weakness. Questions that the paper tries to address are; is Nigeria at present, making enough efforts to move towards the identified features of a developmental state? Does it require a sound re-thinking into the development agenda with regards to the various key issues relevant to developing countries? How can we break out of this vicious cycle? Correcting this scenario forms the crux of this paper. The paper suggests different solution scenarios to many of the problems on the platform of the developmental state paradigm. As such, the country should develop a class of entrepreneurs that possess the tacit knowledge required for rapid industrialization and development of the manufacturing sector. This proactive stance with capable institutions would move Nigerian economy to the desired direction.

Benedict. I. Ezema; Kanayo Ogujiuba

2011-01-01

273

Risk biomarker assessment for breast cancer progression: replication precision of nuclear morphometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear morphometry is a method for quantitative measurement of histopathologic changes in the appearance of stained cell nuclei. Numerous studies have indicated that these assessments may provide clinically relevant information related to the degree of progression and malignant potential of breast neoplasia. Nuclear features are derived from computerized analysis of digitized microscope images, and a quantitative Feulgen stain for DNA was used. Features analyzed included: (1) DNA content; (2) nuclear size and shape; and (3) texture features, describing spatial features of chromatin distribution. In this study replicated measurements are described on a series of 54 breast carcinoma specimens of differing pathologic grades. Duplicate measurements were performed using two serial sections, which were processed and analyzed separately. The value of a single feature measurement, the nuclear area profile, was shown to be the strongest indicator of progression. A quantitative nuclear grade was derived and shown to be strongly correlated with not only the pathologic nuclear grade, but also with tubule formation, mitotic grade, and with the overall histopathologic grade. Analysis of replication precision showed that the standard methods of the histopathology laboratory, if practiced in a uniform manner, are sufficient to ensure reproducibility of these assessments. We argue that nuclear morphometry provides a standardized and reproducible framework for quantitative pathologic assessments. PMID:12775917

Poulin, N; Frost, A; Carraro, A; Mommers, E; Guillaud, M; Van Diest, P J; Grizzle, W; Beenken, S

2003-01-01

274

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

2004-12-02

275

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a ''client'' of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

2004-01-01

276

Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois [School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (South Africa)

2012-09-15

277

An Assessment of Quality of Service (QoS) In Voice Communications over Four GSM Networks in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of four operators of mobile telecommunications services in voice communications in Lagos and Oyo States in South Western Nigeria for the first five years of operation. Using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard of measuring customer experience of voice telephony service through the voice quality scores known as the Mean Opinion Score (MOS), the study identified the quality of service in voice call between the year 2001 and 2006. The data used for the statistical analysis were obtained randomly from the subscribers of GSM services in the states. The research established that the voice quality for the first five years of operation on all the networks considered were below the ITU specified conversational voice quality of > 3.0 on the MOS scale.

T. O. OYEBISI; T. A. ABDUL-HAMEED

2011-01-01

278

AN ASSESSMENT OF MULTI-PURPOSE USE OF ADANSONIA DIGITATA (Baobab tree) FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SEMI URBAN FRINGES OF DUTSINMA KATSINA STATE NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Savanna grassland of Northern Nigeria is blessed with ample tree resources that were of ample benefits to mankind most of which their multi-purpose uses have been exploited, but still there are potential uses on the pipeline. Baobab (Adansonia digitata) tree have been identified as tree of multi-purpose use for a long period of time by rural and urban dwellers. This has made Baobab among the most important economic tree that receives meaningful attention. Uses as human food, animal fodder, medicine were among the major ones identified with it in the study area. Access to this tree is generally private, because of its importance, the tree is highly managed through regular pruning, fencing and planting new seedlings. It was recommended that Governmental and nongovernmental organizations should improve the tree and make it available to rural dwellers and farmers.

Rabi’u Tukur.; Murtala Rabi’u.

2013-01-01

279

Assessing the water resources of Scotland--perspectives, progress and problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews historical progress in the assessment of rainfall, evaporation, runoff and groundwater resources in Scotland and, within the same water-balance framework, considers recent advances in quantifying the major hydrological fluxes, with particular reference to river flows. The contributions of hydrological models and digital cartography are considered against a background of changing information needs and the likelihood that the long term stability which has characterised water resource variability in the past may not, continue in the future. The complementary roles of modelling and hydrometric monitoring networks are considered and the need for greater integration, and an increased strategic dimension to network design and evolution is discussed.

Marsh TJ; Anderson JL

2002-07-01

280

Assessing the water resources of Scotland--perspectives, progress and problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews historical progress in the assessment of rainfall, evaporation, runoff and groundwater resources in Scotland and, within the same water-balance framework, considers recent advances in quantifying the major hydrological fluxes, with particular reference to river flows. The contributions of hydrological models and digital cartography are considered against a background of changing information needs and the likelihood that the long term stability which has characterised water resource variability in the past may not, continue in the future. The complementary roles of modelling and hydrometric monitoring networks are considered and the need for greater integration, and an increased strategic dimension to network design and evolution is discussed. PMID:12169002

Marsh, T J; Anderson, J L

2002-07-22

 
 
 
 
281

[Progress in isokinetic technology in testing and training for assessment of muscle function].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isokinetic technology in testing and training is the most advanced practical technique in the evaluation of muscle function. This method is a continuous dynamic test in the full range of the joint motion which has strong pertinence at the aspect of assessing muscle strength, and is an objective and quantitative method for reflecting each point's muscle strength in the range of the joint motion. This article reviews the key concepts, brief history of development and influencing factors of isokinetic technology in testing and training, introduces the progress in the field of rehabilitation medicine and sport science, etc., and discusses the future exploration in forensic science.

Huang TT; Fan LH; Gao D; Xia Q; Zhang M

2013-02-01

282

Bank Credit and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper assesses the significance of real bank credit in stimulating real output growth in the case of Nigeria. The study observes that credit Granger causes output. In testing the factors that mobilise credit, it finds that exports in general are negatively related to credit. However, while oil exports are negatively related to credit, non-oil export has positive relationship with credit. Credit is also positively linked to capital inflows and imports. These findings suggest that bank credit is inextricably linked to the opening of the economy to international trade and capital flows in non-oil.key words: Bank credit; Economic growth; Nigeria

Roseline Oluwatoyin Oluitan

2012-01-01

283

Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.

Yohanna, J. K.; Umogbai, V. I.

2010-01-01

284

Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

2011-01-01

285

Could fuelwood use contribute to household poverty in Nigeria?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To show whether fuelwood use could contribute to household poverty in Nigeria, the paper has used the discounted cash flow microeconomic assessment to evaluate the annual worth cost of harnessing fuel wood for cooking and water heating in Nigerian households, for an average household size of five persons per day. Findings indicate that 9786 Naira is being expended on cooking and water heating activities at the household level in Nigeria which is much greater than the mean national household income of about 5150 Naira a year. The study has shown that households using fuelwood are made poorer and left with no savings. (Author)

Adeoti, O.; Idowu, D.O.O.; Falegan, T. [Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Dept.

2001-07-01

286

Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita) as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.

Philip Chimobi Omoke

2012-01-01

287

Vitamin A Status of Pregnant Women in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vitamin A status of 101 pregnant women attending clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria was assessed based on 24 h dietary recall, serum retinol concentration, history of night blindness, physical appearance and clinical eye signs. The study revealed t...

Ima O. Williams; Okon U. Eka; Essien U. Essien

288

The provider cost of treating tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was aimed at assessing the economic cost shouldered by government, as providers, in the provision of free tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment services in Bauchi State, northern Nigeria. A cost analysis study was designed and questionnaires administered by the principal investigators ...

Nisser Ali Umar; Richard Fordham; Abubakar Ibrahim; Max Bachmann

289

Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors).

1997-01-01

290

Assessing the Progression of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving mechanical ventilation typically experience repetitive closure (derecruitment) and subsequent re-opening (recruitment) of airways and alveoli. This can lead, over time, to further ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) thus reflect both the current level of lung injury and the risk for sustaining further injury. Accordingly, we investigated how the dynamics of R/D are altered as VILI develops following application of high tidal volume ventilation in initially healthy mice. R/D occurring on sub-second timescales was assessed from the shape of the pressure-volume (PV) loop measured during a single large breath. R/D occurring on a timescale of minutes was evaluated via a derecruitability test in which we tracked the progressive increases in lung elastance occurring during periods of mechanical ventilation immediately following a recruitment maneuver. The degrees of R/D occurring on these different times scales were strongly correlated. To interpret these findings in quantitative terms, we developed a computational model of the lung in which changes in lung volume occurred both via R/D and distention of already open lung units. Fitting this model to measured PV loops indicates that VILI causes R/D both to increase and to occur at progressively higher pressures, and that the lung tissue that remains open during the breath becomes progressively more over-distended. We conclude that the dynamic PV loop in conjunction with our computational model can be used to assess the current injury state of the lung as well as its likelihood of sustaining further VILI.

Bates JH; Smith B

2013-06-01

291

Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

|The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

Gross, Paul R.

2005-01-01

292

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

2000-01-01

293

Discrepancy between optic disc and nerve fiber layer assessment and optical coherence tomography in detecting glaucomatous progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of Cirrus spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optic disc/retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photographic assessment in detecting glaucomatous progression. METHODS: Two-hundred twenty-six eyes of 130 glaucoma patients (mean follow-up: 2.5 years) with at least 5 OCT examinations were included. Eyes were classified into one of four groups (diffuse RNFL defect; localized RNFL defect; no RNFL defect; unidentifiable RNFL status) based on baseline RNFL photographs. After performing the entire series of optic disc/RNFL photographic assessments, the eyes were classified into one of three groups: stable, progressed, and undetermined. Progression was divided into one of four categories (optic disc rim thinning; widening RNFL defect; deepening RNFL defect; new disc hemorrhage). OCT progression was determined using guided progression analysis (GPA) software. RESULTS: One-hundred thirty-nine eyes had diffuse RNFL defects, 34 eyes had localized RNFL defects, 42 eyes had no RNFL defects, and 11 eyes had unidentifiable RNFL at baseline. Forty-six eyes showed at least one category of progression upon expert assessment of optic disc/RNFL photographs, while OCT GPA detected progression in 35 eyes. Among the 34 eyes in which progression was observed in photographs only, 15 showed a new disc hemorrhage, 12 presented deepening of an RNFL defect, 10 showed optic disc rim change, and 6 had widening of an RNFL defect. Among the 23 eyes processed only by OCT GPA, 18 had a diffuse RNFL defect at baseline. CONCLUSION: OCT GPA was more sensitive in eyes with a diffuse RNFL defect whereas photographic assessment was better for detecting optic disc hemorrhage and deepening of an RNFL defect when evaluating structural progression.

Lee JR; Sung KR; Na JH; Shon K; Lee KS

2013-10-01

294

Biofuel development in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of fuel use in urban and rural centres in Nigeria is reviewed. The special problems posed to rural dwellers is examined. Agricultural wastes and some wood processing wastes are examined as source of fuel. Rice husk and sawdust are identified as promising sources of solid fuel which are currently unexploited because the rural people lack the technology to utilise particulate or powdery fuels. In this work rice husk, sawdust and other wasted particulate fuels are turned into briquettes to render them more useable by the rural communities. The local briquette production process as well as preliminary tests on and trials of the briquettes are reported. (author).

1990-01-01

295

Noninvasive elastography-based assessment of liver fibrosis progression and prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The development of liver fibrosis markers in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is needed to facilitate the assessment of its progression and the effectiveness of new therapies. Here, we investigated the potential usefulness of transient elastography (TE) in the noninvasive evaluation of liver fibrosis stage and disease progression in PBC. We performed, first, a prospective performance analysis of TE for the diagnosis of METAVIR fibrosis stages in a diagnostic cohort of 103 patients and, second, a retrospective longitudinal analysis of repeated examinations in a monitoring cohort of 150 patients followed-up for up to 5 years. All patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Diagnostic thresholds of liver stiffness in discriminating fibrosis stages ? F1, ? F2, ? F3, and =F4 were 7.1, 8.8, 10.7, and 16.9 kPa, respectively. TE showed high performance and was significantly superior to biochemical markers (e.g., aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/platelet ratio, FIB-4, hyaluronic acid, AST/alanine aminotransferase ratio, and Mayo score) in diagnosing significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, or cirrhosis. Analysis of the monitoring cohort data set using generalized linear models showed the following: (1) an overall progression rate of 0.48 ± 0.21 kPa/year (P = 0.02) and (2) no significant progression in patients with F0-F1, F2, or F3 stages, but a significant increase (4.06 ± 0.72 kPa/year; P < 0.0001) in cirrhotic patients. A cut-off value of 2.1 kPa/year was associated with an 8.4-fold increased risk of liver decompensations, liver transplantations, or deaths (P < 0.0001, Cox regression analysis). CONCLUSION: TE is one of the best current surrogate markers of liver fibrosis in PBC. Over a 5-year period, on-treatment liver stiffness appears stable in most noncirrhotic PBC patients, whereas it significantly increases in patients with cirrhosis. Progression of liver stiffness in PBC is predictive of poor outcome.

Corpechot C; Carrat F; Poujol-Robert A; Gaouar F; Wendum D; Chazouillères O; Poupon R

2012-07-01

296

Cleft Care in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective : To review the progress of orofacial cleft care in Nigeria and propose a viewpoint for the future. Design : Review of the available literature on cleft care in Nigeria and survey of the status of ongoing cleft care in Nigerian centers. We employed a pretested self-administered questionnaire sent and returned through electronic mail. Participants : Coordinators of cleft care centers in Nigeria. Main outcome measures : Findings of literature search and responses to mailed questionnaires. Results : Available literature suggests that the fate of orofacial cleft patients during the precolonial era in Nigeria remains unclear. However, there is evidence of surgical care delivery just before the end of the colonial era. We identified and contacted 39 existing cleft care delivery centers, of which 30 (76.9%) responded. The majority (69.2%) of the responding centers began cleft care delivery between 2006 and 2010; 73.3% have designated cleft clinic locations and 66.7% offer interdisciplinary care. All responding centers offer cheiloplasty, while 86.7% offer palatoplasty. Other aspects of cleft care are provided sparingly in most centers due to paucity of manpower. Challenges with hospital administration, securing bed and theater spaces, drug availability, and performing laboratory investigations were the common limitations reported. Conclusions : We advocate for improved cleft care delivery through removing administrative bottlenecks, fortifying existing centers, and mentoring younger colleagues for entry into underserved specialties. Concerted effort and international collaborations aimed at transforming some of the existing cleft centers to standard pediatric craniofacial centers are desirable. PMID:22906387

Oginni, F O; Oladele, A O; Adenekan, A T; Olabanji, J K

2012-08-20

297

Cleft Care in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective : To review the progress of orofacial cleft care in Nigeria and propose a viewpoint for the future. Design : Review of the available literature on cleft care in Nigeria and survey of the status of ongoing cleft care in Nigerian centers. We employed a pretested self-administered questionnaire sent and returned through electronic mail. Participants : Coordinators of cleft care centers in Nigeria. Main outcome measures : Findings of literature search and responses to mailed questionnaires. Results : Available literature suggests that the fate of orofacial cleft patients during the precolonial era in Nigeria remains unclear. However, there is evidence of surgical care delivery just before the end of the colonial era. We identified and contacted 39 existing cleft care delivery centers, of which 30 (76.9%) responded. The majority (69.2%) of the responding centers began cleft care delivery between 2006 and 2010; 73.3% have designated cleft clinic locations and 66.7% offer interdisciplinary care. All responding centers offer cheiloplasty, while 86.7% offer palatoplasty. Other aspects of cleft care are provided sparingly in most centers due to paucity of manpower. Challenges with hospital administration, securing bed and theater spaces, drug availability, and performing laboratory investigations were the common limitations reported. Conclusions : We advocate for improved cleft care delivery through removing administrative bottlenecks, fortifying existing centers, and mentoring younger colleagues for entry into underserved specialties. Concerted effort and international collaborations aimed at transforming some of the existing cleft centers to standard pediatric craniofacial centers are desirable.

Oginni FO; Oladele AO; Adenekan AT; Olabanji JK

2012-08-01

298

Assessment of Women’s Participation in Cooperative Societies and its Determinants in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooperatives have been regarded as one of the main institutional machineries for empowering the economically weak members of the society. Despite the availability of cooperative societies, it appears that a significant proportion of rural women are either unaware of the existence of such co-operative societies or are lacking in the basic socioeconomic characteristics that form the prerequisite for participation in such activities. The study therefore examined the level of participation of women in cooperative organization and its determinants in the study area. The study was conducted in Yewa North Local Government area of Ogun State, south-west rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2011 using two stage sampling techniques to select 180 respondents. Descriptive statistics and Logit regression analysis were used to analyze the data generated. The results showed that pressure from household head, insufficient fund and low membership were found to be the major problems militating against women participation in cooperatives. Logit regression analysis revealed positive and significant relationships between variables such as education, years of business experience and forms of cooperative (producers and credit and thrift) and these variables were the major determinants of participation in cooperative society. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that any policy that will further increase the level of education of women would increase their participation in cooperative society.

Awotide, Diran Olawale

2012-01-01

299

Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848

Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

2011-11-22

300

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 ?g/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40K, 238U and 232Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 ?Sv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 ?Sv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

2010-01-01

302

Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

2001-01-01

303

Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Adelowo OO; Akinlabi IA; Fagade OE

2012-07-01

304

E-Banking and Bank Performance: Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The resultant of technological innovation has been the transformation in operational dimension of banks over some decades. Internet technology has brought about a paradigm shift in banking operations to the extent that banks embrace internet technology to enhance effective and extensive delivery of wide range of value added products and services. However, the fact that e-banking is fast gaining acceptance in Nigerian banking sector does not assuredly signify improved bank performance nor would conspicuous use of internet as a delivery channels make it economically viable, productive or profitable.Whether progression is made in the use of internet technology (e-banking) or not, there should be parameter to empirically assess its impact over specified period of adoption. Consequently, the study examined the impact of electronic banking on banks’ performance in Nigeria. Panel data comprised annual audited financial statements of eight banks that have adopted e-) and retained their brand name banking between 2000 and 2010 as well as macroeconomic control variables were employed to investigate the impact of e-banking on return on asset (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and net interest margin (NIM). Result from pooled OLS estimations indicate that e-banking begins to contribute positively to bankperformance in terms of ROA and NIM with a time lag of two years while a negative impact was observed in the first year of adoption. It was recommended that investmentdecision on electronic banking should be rational so as to justify cost and revenue implications on bank performance.

Oginni Simon Oyewole, Mohammed Abba, El-maude, Jibreel Gambo, Arikpo, I. Abam

2013-01-01

305

Return to full functioning after graded exercise assessment and progressive exercise treatment of postconcussion syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exercise assessment and aerobic exercise training for postconcussion syndrome (PCS) may reduce concussion-related physiological dysfunction and symptoms by restoring autonomic balance and improving cerebral blood flow autoregulation. In a descriptive pilot study of 91 patients referred to a university clinic for treatment of PCS, a subset of 63 patients were contacted by telephone for assessment of symptoms and return to full daily functioning. Those who experienced symptoms during a graded exercise treadmill test (physiologic PCS, n = 40) were compared to those who could exercise to capacity (PCS, n = 23). Both groups had been offered progressive exercise rehabilitation. Overall 41 of 57 (72%) who participated in the exercise rehabilitation program returned to full daily functioning. This included 27 of 35 (77%) from the physiologic PCS group, and 14 of 22 (64%) from the PCS group. Only 1 of the 6 patients who declined exercise rehabilitation returned to full functioning. Interpretation of these results is limited by the descriptive nature of the study, the small sample size, and the relatively few patients who declined exercise treatment. Nonetheless, exercise assessment indicates that approximately one third of those examined did not have physiologic PCS.

Baker JG; Freitas MS; Leddy JJ; Kozlowski KF; Willer BS

2012-01-01

306

Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY 04 Year-end Progress Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL), along with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), are developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology for the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This CY04 report describes the latest developments and progress with the development of the Pulsed, Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) nuclear material inspection ystem, such as: (1) the identification of an optimal range of electron beam energies for interrogation applications, (2) the development of a new “cabinet safe” electron accelerator (i.e., Varitron II) to assess “cabinet safe-type” operations, (3) the numerical and experimental validation responses of nuclear materials placed within selected cargo configurations, 4) the fabrication and utilization of Calibration Pallets for inspection technology performance verification, 5) the initial technology integration of basic radiographic “imaging/mapping” with induced neutron and gamma-ray detection, 6) the characterization of electron beam-generated photon sources for optimal performance, 7) the development of experimentallydetermined Receiver-Operator-Characterization curves, and 8) several other system component assessments. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security and is a technology component of the Science & Technology Active Interrogation Portfolio entitled “Photofission-based Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization.”

J.L. Jones; W.Y. Yoon; K.J. Haskell; D.R. Norman; J.M. Zabriskie; J.W. Sterbentz; S.M. Watson; J.T. Johnson; B.D. Bennett; R.W. Watson; K. L. Folkman

2005-05-01

307

Assessment of audit methodologies for bias evaluation of tumor progression in oncology clinical trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As progression-free survival (PFS) has become increasingly used as the primary endpoint in oncology phase III trials, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has generally required a complete-case blinded independent central review (BICR) of PFS to assess and reduce potential bias in the investigator or local site evaluation. However, recent publications and FDA analyses have shown a high correlation between local site evaluation and BICR assessments of the PFS treatment effect, which questions whether complete-case BICR is necessary. One potential alternative is to use BICR as an audit tool to detect evaluation bias in the local site evaluation. In this article, the performance characteristics of two audit methods proposed in the literature are evaluated on 26 prospective, randomized phase III registration trials in nonhematologic malignancies. The results support that a BICR audit to assess potential bias in the local site evaluation is a feasible approach. However, implementation and logistical challenges need further consideration and discussion.

Zhang JJ; Zhang L; Chen H; Murgo AJ; Dodd LE; Pazdur R; Sridhara R

2013-05-01

308

Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI), which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigeria’s domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

A Y Dutse

2008-01-01

309

Progress of emphysema in severe {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin deficiency as assessed by annual CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To assess serial CT as a measure of the progress of emphysema in patients with severe {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ). Material and Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled study of {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin augmentation therapy, 22 patients with moderate emphysema were followed for 2-4 years with an annual lung CT. The images were analysed by means of semiautomatic lung detection, and the degree of emphysema was quantitated by the density-mask and the percentile methods. The influence of lung volume was standardised by a regression model. Results: A highly significant decline in Hounsfield units (HU) was found in low-density areas, corresponding to a mean (SE) annual loss of lung tissue of 2.1 (0.4) g/l lung volume. Analysis of a single slice at 5 cm below the level of the carina gave comparable results: 2.4 (0.4) g/l. Conclusion: Serial CT is a sensitive measure of the progress of emphysema in patients with severe {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin deficiency. (orig.).

Dirksen, A.; Friis, M.; Olesen, K.P. [Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Respiratory Medicine]|[Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology; Skovgaard, L.T. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Biostatistics; Soerensen, K. [Siemens A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)

1997-09-01

310

Progress of emphysema in severe ?1-antitrypsin deficiency as assessed by annual CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess serial CT as a measure of the progress of emphysema in patients with severe ?1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ). Material and Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled study of ?1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy, 22 patients with moderate emphysema were followed for 2-4 years with an annual lung CT. The images were analysed by means of semiautomatic lung detection, and the degree of emphysema was quantitated by the density-mask and the percentile methods. The influence of lung volume was standardised by a regression model. Results: A highly significant decline in Hounsfield units (HU) was found in low-density areas, corresponding to a mean (SE) annual loss of lung tissue of 2.1 (0.4) g/l lung volume. Analysis of a single slice at 5 cm below the level of the carina gave comparable results: 2.4 (0.4) g/l. Conclusion: Serial CT is a sensitive measure of the progress of emphysema in patients with severe ?1-antitrypsin deficiency. (orig.).

1997-01-01

311

Nijmegen paediatric CDG rating scale: a novel tool to assess disease progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of clinically heterogeneous inborn errors of metabolism. At present, treatment is available for only one CDG, but potential treatments for the other CDG are on the horizon. It will be vitally important in clinical trials of such agents to have a clear understanding of both the natural history of CDG and the corresponding burden of disability suffered by patients. To date, no multicentre studies have attempted to document the natural history of CDG. This is in part due to the lack of a reliable assessment tool to score CDG's diverse clinical spectrum. Based on our earlier experience evaluating disease progression in disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, we developed a practical and semi-quantitative rating scale for children with CDG. The Nijmegen Paediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS) has been validated in 12 children, offering a tool to objectively monitor disease progression. We undertook a successful trial of the NPCRS with a collaboration of nine experienced physicians, using video records of physical and neurological examination of patients. The use of NPCRS can facilitate both longitudinal and natural history studies that will be essential for future interventions. PMID:21541726

Achouitar, Samira; Mohamed, Miski; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Wortmann, Saskia B; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Ensenauer, Regina; de Baulny, Hélène Ogier; Õunap, Katrin; Martinelli, Diego; de Vries, Maaike; McFarland, Robert; Kouwenberg, Dorus; Theodore, Miranda; Wijburg, Frits; Grünewald, Stephanie; Jaeken, Jaak; Wevers, Ron A; Nijtmans, Leo; Elson, Joanna; Morava, Eva

2011-05-04

312

Cross-section Trichometry: A Clinical Tool for Assessing the Progression and Treatment Response of Alopecia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To properly assess the progression and treatment response of alopecia, one must measure the changes in hair mass, which is influenced by both the density and diameter of hair. Unfortunately, a convenient device for hair mass evaluation had not been available to dermatologists until the recent introduction of the cross-section trichometer, which directly measures the cross-sectional area of an isolated bundle of hair. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of the HairCheck(®) device, a commercial product derived from the original cross-section trichometer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bundles of surgical silk and human hair were used to evaluate the ability of the HairCheck(®) device to detect and measure small changes in the number and diameter of strands, and bundle weight. RESULTS: Strong correlations were observed between the bundle's cross-sectional area, displayed as the numeric Hair Mass Index (HMI), the number of strands, the silk/hair diameter, and the bundle dry weight. CONCLUSION: HMI strongly correlated with the number and diameter of silk/hair, and the weight of the bundle, suggesting that it can serve as a valid indicator of hair mass. We have given the name cross-section trichometry (CST) to the methodology of obtaining the HMI using the HairCheck(®) system. CST is a simple modality for the quantification of hair mass, and may be used as a convenient and useful tool to clinically assess changes in hair mass caused by thinning, shedding, breakage, or growth in males and females with progressive alopecia or those receiving alopecia treatment.

Wikramanayake TC; Mauro LM; Tabas IA; Chen AL; Llanes IC; Jimenez JJ

2012-10-01

313

Gender Perspectives in Self-Assessment of Quality of Life of the Elderly in South-Western Nigeria. Are there variations in quality of life among ageing men and women?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined gender variations in self reported quality of life among randomly selectedelderly populations in selected Yoruba communities in three local government areas of Osun StateNigeria. Data was generated through cross-sectional survey of 947 elderly population aged 60 yearsand above. Two internationally tested instruments were used to assess quality of life status amongthe respondents- Activities of Daily Life (with 14 items scales) (ADL) and Aging Male Symptoms(AMS) (with 17 items scales and adapted for both males and females). Findings showed that elderlyfemale fared better than the male counterparts on some of the measures. Also, females were morelikely than their spouse to be able to cope without any assistance. Results from males with a livingspouse showed that majority of the spouse (females) were more likely to need assistance for usualdaily activities compared with the male (husband). This trend was also confirmed among femalerespondents as a fewer proportion of spouse (male) can cope without any help compared withfemales. The AMS showed that male reported a better health status in the domains of sexual,psychosocial and somatic measures. The study concluded that measures of quality of life were likelyto favour elderly females than males because of many challenges and responsibilities of males. Thestudy raised the need for more in-depth studies to investigate the role of social –cultural factors ofmale dominance and patriarchal system on quality of life of the elderly from the gender lens.

Akanni Akinyemi; Joshua Aransiola

2010-01-01

314

Road Traffic Accident Injuries and Productivity in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the effect of Road Traffic Accident Injuries on Productivity in Nigeria with a view towards reducing the incidence of Road Traffic crashes and improving road safety in Nigeria. The data used included number of passengers who sustained injuries in road traffic accidents in Nigeria for 2007. Data were also acquired on productivity in the labour sector of the economy through the assessment of seven variables, manpower in parastatals; manpower in ministries; employment in crop farming, registered teachers, policemen in service, national unemployment and private farmers. Z-score analysis was used to depict the pattern of productivity in the labour sector over the 36 states including the federal capital in the country while the fatality index was used to show the pattern of road traffic injuries in the country for the study period. Multiple regression analysis was then used to assess the relationship between road traffic accident injuries and productivity in the country. The results show that a clear relationship exists between road traffic accident injuries and productivity in Nigeria. The study finally made some recommendations to improve road safety in the country.

Adekunle J Aderamo

2012-01-01

315

Improving energy efficiency in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite its huge population of about 100 million people, Nigeria consumes a relatively small share of the world's energy. GDP per capita equaled about US$ 800 in 1985. Agriculture accounts for the largest portion of GDP, at around 40%, followed by services with 31%, industry with 25% and transport with 4$. Unlike most other African nations, Nigeria has abundant energy sources. Recent estimates assumed that Nigeria has about 16 billion barrels of oil, 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe) of gas and 3 billion boe of coal. The results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Nigeria indicate that between 1985 and 2025, Nigeria's energy consumption will rise substantially as both population and economic growth rates soar. While biomass consumption drops markedly over the observed time period, gas and oil consumption witness significant increases. Coal and solar power also account for increasing shares of Nigeria's energy supply in the coming four decades. Hydro's share in energy use remains stable.

1991-01-01

316

Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

2008-01-01

317

Wind Energy Potential In Eastern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria are presented. Monthly mean wind speeds throughout the year have been processed, analysed and presented for Eastern Nigeria. From these values, the wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria were estimated using three different methods. In view of this analysis, Enugu can be considered as the most suitable site for the installation of wind energy conversion system (WESC) in Eastern Nigeria

2004-01-01

318

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-07-15

319

Roles for SOF in a Staggering Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria is an oil-rich but staggering democracy that has become increasingly important to U.S. strategic interests. The U.S. imports more than 10% of its oil from Nigeria, which holds critical reserves of oil and natural gas. Nigeria is a key partner in t...

O. Brault

2009-01-01

320

Progress on seismic margin assessment and fire PSA for Lepreau refurbishment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On July 29, 2005 it was announced that the Province of New Brunswick would proceed with the $1.4 Billion project to refurbish the Point Lepreau Generating Station with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the general contractor. The major activity during the outage would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channels, Calandria Tubes and connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power Nuclear would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of additional repairs, replacements, inspections and upgrades. These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. As part of Refurbishment, NB Power is performing a Level II PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) to complement the current safety analysis, which supports the existing Operating License for the station. The events considered in the PSA include internal fires and seismic events. The approach adopted for fire events is the conventional fire PSA and that for the seismic events analyses is a PSA-based Seismic Margin Assessment (SMA). The PSA is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2007. This paper discusses the progress on the fire PSA and the PSA-based SMA. (author)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Progress on seismic margin assessment and fire PSA for Lepreau refurbishment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On July 29, 2005 it was announced that the Province of New Brunswick would proceed with the $1.4 Billion project to refurbish the Point Lepreau Generating Station with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the general contractor. The major activity during the outage would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channels, Calandria Tubes and connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power Nuclear would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of additional repairs, replacements, inspections and upgrades. These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. As part of Refurbishment, NB Power is performing a Level II PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) to complement the current safety analysis, which supports the existing Operating License for the station. The events considered in the PSA include internal fires and seismic events. The approach adopted for fire events is the conventional fire PSA and that for the seismic events analyses is a PSA-based Seismic Margin Assessment (SMA). The PSA is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2007. This paper discusses the progress on the fire PSA and the PSA-based SMA. (author)

Lee, B.; Jaitly, R.; Comanescu, L.; Aprodu, S.; Ha, J.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mullin, D.; Jean, A.; Basque, D.; Thompson, P.D. [New Brunswick Power Nuclear Corp., Point Lepreau Nuclear Power Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)

2006-07-01

322

Fun, Fizzy and Formative Approaches to Assessment: Using Rapid Digital Feedback to Aid Learners' Progression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the early observations and findings from a small-scale exploratory project titled e-scape scotland. This project builds on earlier research into the use of mobile devices to enable learners to create authentic, real-time e-portfolios which allowed for summative assessment. The e-scape scotland project explores the feasibility of using e-portfolios for evidence collection and a range of formative assessment purposes during design and technology activities. It examines the responses of teachers and learners and the technical issues in implementation. Four schools are participating. Data are being collected through observation, learner and teacher responses, and evaluation. The preliminary results from this study indicate that learners respond positively to using mobile devices to support their learning activity. The e-portfolios being constructed offer high quality insight into the learners' approach to the design projects tackled. Teachers are delighted by the potential immediacy of the system in offering timely feedback to aid progression.

Rowena Blair; Susan V. McLaren

2010-01-01

323

Micro-computed tomography assessment of the progression of fracture healing in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mouse fracture model is ideal for research into the pathways of healing because of the availability of genetic and transgenic mice and the ability to create cell-specific genetic mutations. While biomechanical tests and histology are available to assess callus integrity and tissue differentiation, respectively, micro-computed tomography (?CT) analysis has increasingly been utilized in fracture studies because it is non-destructive and provides descriptions of the structural and compositional properties of the callus. However, the dynamic changes of ?CT properties that occur during healing are not well defined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine which ?CT properties change with the progression of fracture repair and converge to values similar to unfractured bone in the mouse femur fracture model. A unilateral femur fracture was performed in C57BL/6 mice and intramedullary fixation performed. Fractured and un-fractured contralateral specimens were harvested from groups of mice between 2 and 12 weeks post-fracture. Parameters describing callus based on ?CT were obtained, including polar moment of inertia (J), bending moment of inertia (I), total volume (TV), tissue mineral density (TMD), total bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). For comparison, plain radiographs were used to measure the callus diameter (D) and area (A); and biomechanical properties were evaluated using either three-point bending or torsion. The ?CT parameters J, I, TV, and TMD converged toward their respective values of the un-fractured femurs over time, although significant differences existed between the two sides at every time point evaluated (p<0.05). Radiograph measurement D changed with repair progression in similar manner to TV. In contrast, BV/TV and BMD increased and decreased over time with statistical differences between callus and un-fractured bone occurring sporadically. Similarly, none of the biomechanical properties were found to distinguish consistently between the fractured and un-fractured femur. Micro-CT parameters assessing callus structure and size (J, I, and TV) were more sensitive to changes in callus over time post-fracture than those assessing callus substance (TMD, BV/TV, and BMD). Sample size estimates based on these results indicate that utilization of ?CT requires fewer animals than biomechanics and thus is more practical for evaluating the healing femur in the mouse fracture model.

O'Neill KR; Stutz CM; Mignemi NA; Burns MC; Murry MR; Nyman JS; Schoenecker JG

2012-06-01

324

The petroleum industry and the planning of the distribution of its products in Nigeria: impact and perspectives in Eastern Nigeria; L'industrie petroliere et l'amenagement de la distribution de ses produits au Nigeria: impact et perspectives dans l'Est nigerian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book makes a critical and chronological analysis of the situation of petroleum products distribution in Nigeria. Member of the OPEC, Nigeria has encountered distribution problems for its refined products since 1974. The oil industry, under the control of the government, progressively entered a vicious circle characterized by lacks of supply, inflation, slowing-down of economy, standard of living decay etc.. (J.S.)

Bikam, P.

2001-07-01

325

Beyond the Rhetorics of Statecraft in Africa: Searching for a New Paradigm of Leadership in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leadership question features most prominently in virtually all reported analyses, comments and interviews in the media, especially the print media. One thing that is evident is the recognition of leadership deficit as an important factor in understanding Africa and indeed Nigeria’s predicament. Chinua Achebe, in “The Trouble with Nigeria” identified leadership failure as the bane of development in Nigeria and by implication in most of Africa. As a matter of fact, even honest African leaders like the late Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), late Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana), and Nelson Mandela (South Africa) had in the past pointed at the leadership malaise in development in the continent. This paper therefore examines leadership and governance in Nigeria within the framework of servant- leadership. We noted that for Nigeria to evolve a positive and focus leadership with morals, values and accountability, there is the need for selfless in the form of putting others above self in service delivery, which is the essence of servant-leadership. The creating of a culture of servant leader-leadership in Nigeria would mean the replacement of the top-bottom culture with one where attributes of servant-leadership as already identified flourish. It would require having in place a leadership that has “worked well enough to be considered valid.” It is, therefore, an evidence of internalization of values and “a stabilizing force which creates social reality for its techniques for creating a culture of servant-leadership which is not possible except there is progress in evolving a team of servant-leaders.

J. David Agaba; Daniel Emaojo

2010-01-01

326

Fish Breeding in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

J.A. Akankali; E.I. Seighabo; J.F.N. Abowei

2011-01-01

327

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites) and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1) in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. RESULTS: The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations). Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

Veeramah KR; Connell BA; Ansari Pour N; Powell A; Plaster CA; Zeitlyn D; Mendell NR; Weale ME; Bradman N; Thomas MG

2010-01-01

328

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites) and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1) in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations). Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

Veeramah Krishna R; Connell Bruce A; Pour Naser; Powell Adam; Plaster Christopher A; Zeitlyn David; Mendell Nancy R; Weale Michael E; Bradman Neil; Thomas Mark G

2010-01-01

329

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area.

Agbalagba EO; Avwiri GO; Chad-Umoreh YE

2012-07-01

330

Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Southern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. This study was designed to find out the frequency of occurrence of renal complications in diabetic patients. This was achieved by examining for the presence of microalbuminuria using Albumin Creatinine Ratio (ACR) in a spot urine. A total of 95 asymptomatic diabetic patients and 19 non-diabetic controls were used for the study. These patients were grouped into two: those with analbuminuria and others with microalbuminuria using the ACR = 30 mg g-1, which approximates 24 h urinary albumin excretion in mg. Results obtained showed mean significant increases in the ACR in the diabetic group (48.58±4.14 mg g-1) when compared to the control (22.76±5.14 mg g-1; p-1; p-1; p-1). The study also showed that the incidence of nephropathy amongst diabetics in Southern Nigeria is 72.63%.

Onovughakpo-Sakpa O. Ejuoghanran; Onyeneke E. Chukwu; Olumese E. Fidelis

2009-01-01

331

Diurnal tension curves for assessing the development or progression of glaucoma: an evidence-based analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CLINICAL NEED: CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION There are two main types of glaucoma, primary open angle (POAG) and angle closure glaucoma, of which POAG is the more common type. POAG is diagnosed by assessing degenerative changes in the optic disc and loss of visual field (VF). Risk factors for glaucoma include an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), a family history of glaucoma, older age and being of African descent. The prevalence of POAG ranges from 1.1% to 3.0% in Western populations and from 4.2% to 8.8% in populations of African descent. Usually the IOP associated with POAG is elevated above the normal distribution (10-20 mmHg), but when IOP is not elevated it is often referred to as normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). In population based studies, approximately one-third to half of the patients with glaucomatous VF loss have normal IOP on initial examination. People with elevated IOP (>21 mmHg), but with no evidence of optic disc or VF damage have ocular hypertension. It has been estimated that 3 to 6 million people in the United States including 4% to 7% of those older than 40 years have elevated IOP without detectable glaucomatous damage on standard clinical tests. An Italian study found the overall prevalence of ocular hypertension, POAG, and NTG in 4,297 people over 40 years of age to be 2.1%, 1.4% and 0.6% respectively. DIURNAL CURVES FOR INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: DIURNAL CURVE: In normal individuals, IOP fluctuates 2 to 6 mmHg over a 24 hour period. IOP is influenced by body position with higher readings found in the supine relative to the upright position. As most individuals sleep in the supine position and are upright during the day, IOP is higher on average in people, both with and without glaucoma, in the nocturnal period. IOP is generally higher in the morning compared to the afternoon. Multiple IOP measurements over the course of a day can be used to generate a diurnal curve and may have clinical importance in terms of diagnosis and management of patients with IOP related conditions since a solitary reading in the office may not reveal the peak IOP and fluctuation that a patient experiences. Furthermore, because of diurnal and nocturnal variation in IOP, 24-hour monitoring may reveal higher peaks and wider fluctuations than those found during office-hours and may better determine risk of glaucoma progression than single or office-hour diurnal curve measurements. There is discrepancy in the literature regarding which parameter of IOP measurement (e.g., mean IOP or fluctuation/range of IOP) is most important as an independent risk factor for progression or development of glaucoma. The potential for increased rates or likelihood of worsening glaucoma among those with larger IOP swings within defined time periods has received increasing attention in the literature. According to an expert consultant: The role of a diurnal tension curves is to assess IOP in relationship to either a risk factor for the development or progression of glaucoma or achievement of a target pressure which may direct a therapeutic change.Candidates for a diurnal curve are usually limited to glaucoma suspects (based on optic disc changes or less commonly visual field changes) to assess the risk for development of glaucoma or in patients with progressive glaucoma despite normal single office IOP measurements.Clinically diurnal tension curves are used to determine the peak IOP and range. SINGLE IOP MEASUREMENTS: Intraocular pressure fluctuation as a risk factor for progression of glaucoma has also been examined without the use of diurnal curves. In these cases, single IOP measurements were made every 3-6 months over several months/years. The standard deviation (SD) of the mean IOP was used as a surrogate for fluctuation since no diurnal tension curves were obtained. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of a diurnal tension curve (multiple IOP measurements over a minimum 8 hour duration) is more effective than not using a diurnal tension curve (single IOP measurements) to assess IOP fluctuation as a risk factor for the devel

2011-01-01

332

A Functioning Approach to Well Being Analysis in Rural Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Nigerian rural population is described by low productivity, little formal education and poverty. The need for more studies on the issue of wellbeing of rural population is hinged on the continued development of approaches that give better understanding of the phenomenon. This paper attempted to use Amartya Sen’s capability approach to assess multidimensional well being in rural Nigeria in six functioning dimensions obtained from the Nigerian Core Welfare Indices Survey using the fuzzy set theory. A binary logistic regression was also carried out to isolate the factors that determine the attainment of a pre determined level of well being after computation with the fuzzy set analysis. The results showed that rural Nigeria is an agrarian society; the functioning with the highest level of achievement out of the six dimensions studied was Housing, while asset ownership/income was the least achieved dimension in rural Nigeria. Results further revealed that belonging to female headed households, increasing age and being employed in the private (formal) sector as well as having some form of post secondary education enhances well being while being employed within the agricultural sector significantly reduced the well being of rural households in Nigeria.

Temitayo Adenike Adeyemo; Oni Omobowale A

2012-01-01

333

Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective.

2002-01-01

334

Executive Immunity in Nigeria: Putting Off Old Garments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of immunity from legal process is, as a general rule, abhorrent to modern legal civilization. The origin of this class of immunity traces back to the era of absolute monarchs, when it was believed that a king could do no wrong, thus the term sovereign immunity, of which the expression ‘executive immunity’ is a derivative. This paper examines, albeit briefly, the constitutional immunity from prosecution conferred on certain political office holders in Nigeria. The order of progression of this paper shall be an examination of the concept of immunity followed by its uses and abuses in Nigeria, some arguments for and against its retention in the Constitution, comparative analysis of the position in a few other countries, a brief consideration of the rule of law and finally some recommendations and conclusion.

Ibraheem Ojo Tajudeen

2013-01-01

335

Practice, Trends and Challenges of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications in Nigeria. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure. Now that our daily transactions have gone mobile, E-commerce has also joined the band wagon, resulting in the ability to carry out commerce while on the move via mobile devices (phones, PDA`s etc.). This is referred to as Mobile Commerce (M-commerce), the technology that holds great promises and challenges for both business and consumers alike. In this research, we consider the practice of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria, its enabling technologies and emerging applications. We envision many new e-commerce applications that will be possible and significantly benefit from emerging wireless and mobile networks. We also consider M-commerce success factors, prospects, challenges and future trends.

O.O. Obe; V.F. Balogun

2007-01-01

336

Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems SYSTEMS APPROXIMATE SIMULATOR: FISCAL YEAR 1982 PROGRESS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ISystemsl task of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing a Systems Approximate Simulator (SAS); a computer code of low-level technical complexity that incorporates the most significant waste-package, repository, and site processes affecting geologic nuclear waste isolation. This report discusses the AEGIS 1982 fiscal year progress toward building a SAS. A computer code, SAS(82), has been developed as the site module of the SAS development effort. The SAS(82) is an efficient and accurate simulator of one-dimensional radionuclide transport. Features of the SAS(82) are direct (Monte Carlo) simulation, linear decay and sorption models, spatially and temporally varying hydrologic and geochemical variables, general travel-time distributions (possibly non-Fickian), and multinuclide release. The SAS(82) was used to simulate radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository located within the Hanford basalts. A {sup 99}Tc analysis along a thermally influenced path through the Grande Ronde Formation demonstrated the complexity of modeling near-field transport. Perturbed hydrologic conditions corresponding to "Hanford Basalt Geologic Simulation Model" results (Petrie et al. 1981) were evaluated, using the SAS(82). Future work will include the development of SAS waste-package and repository modules as simplified process models become available. The SAS may eventually be used as the basis for parametric sensitivity and uncertainty studies for the entire geologic nuclear waste isolation system.

Devary, J. L.; Petrie, G. M.

1982-05-01

337

Developing higher resolution climate change scenarios for agricultural risk assessment: progress, challenges and prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change presents perhaps the greatest economic and environmental challenge we have ever faced. Climate change and its associated impacts, adaptation and vulnerability have become the focus of current policy, business and research. This paper provides invaluable information for those interested in climate change and its impacts. This paper comprehensively reviews the advances made in the development of regional climate change scenarios and their application in agricultural impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessment. Construction of regional climate change scenarios evolved from the application of arbitrary scenarios to the application of scenarios based on general circulation models (GCMs). GCM-based climate change scenarios progressed from equilibrium climate change scenarios to transient climate change scenarios; from the use of direct GCM outputs to the use of downscaled GCM outputs; from the use of single scenarios to the use of probabilistic climate change scenarios; and from the application of mean climate change scenarios to the application of integrated climate change scenarios considering changes in both mean climate and climate variability.

Luo Q; Yu Q

2012-07-01

338

Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

1995-12-31

339

Developing higher resolution climate change scenarios for agricultural risk assessment: progress, challenges and prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change presents perhaps the greatest economic and environmental challenge we have ever faced. Climate change and its associated impacts, adaptation and vulnerability have become the focus of current policy, business and research. This paper provides invaluable information for those interested in climate change and its impacts. This paper comprehensively reviews the advances made in the development of regional climate change scenarios and their application in agricultural impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessment. Construction of regional climate change scenarios evolved from the application of arbitrary scenarios to the application of scenarios based on general circulation models (GCMs). GCM-based climate change scenarios progressed from equilibrium climate change scenarios to transient climate change scenarios; from the use of direct GCM outputs to the use of downscaled GCM outputs; from the use of single scenarios to the use of probabilistic climate change scenarios; and from the application of mean climate change scenarios to the application of integrated climate change scenarios considering changes in both mean climate and climate variability.

Luo, Qunying; Yu, Qiang

2012-07-01

340

Activity Based Costing System and Nigeria’s March towards VISION 20: 2020  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the need to develop Activity Based Costing Systems (ABC) in accounting practices among manufacturing firms in Nigeria as a tool for product costing as Nigeria marches to the top 20 economics of the World come 2020. With the aid of a structured questionnaire, a total of 50 copies of questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of Accountants, Managers and Auditors in the manufacturing sector but only 45 copies were returned. T-test of difference between means was used to statistically test hypotheses one, two and three. Based on these, the study found among other things that there is extreme low adoption of ABC among manufacturing firms in Nigeria, possibly because of low level of ICT. Secondly, ABC improves efficiency, reduces operational costs, and properly cost products better than traditional cost accounting systems. The implication of these on the study is that in this era of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) and ICT development, traditional cost accounting systems used decades ago when the manufacturing sector was labour intensive and less automated may no longer give the required result. This should give way to Activity Based Costing system, an offshoot of the new manufacturing innovation with capabilities to cost product properly, recognizing causality and transactions involved. Consequent upon these, the study recommends that with expectations of the country to march towards a vision of attaining the height of top 20 economies of the world, Activity Based Costing systems are the challenges we need to face now. The system is in tandem with progressive ideas and new way of thinking in accounting in the manufacturing sector.

Amaechi Patrick Egbunike; Chinedu Francis Egbunike; Meduoye Olamide Mofolusho

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Non-invasive diagnostic methods for atherosclerosis and use in assessing progression and regression in hypercholesterolemia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We evaluated the wall thickening and stenosis rate (ASI), the calcification rate (ACI), and the wall thickening and calcification stenosis rate (SCI) of the lower abdominal aorta calculated by the 12 sector method from simple or enhanced computed tomography. The intra-observer variation of the calculation of ASI was 5.7% and that of ACI was 2.4%. In 9 patients who underwent an autopsy examination, ACI was significantly correlated with the rate of the calcification dimension to the whole objective area of the abdominal aorta (r=0.856, p<0.01). However, there were no correlations between ASI and the surface involvement or the atherosclerotic index obtained by the point-counting method of the autopsy materials. In the analysis of 40 patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases, ASI and ACI were also highly correlated with the percentage volume of the arterial wall in relation to the whole volume of the observed artery (r=0.852, p<0.0001) and also the percentage calcification volume (r=0.913, p<0.0001) calculated by the computed method, respectively. The percentage of atherosclerotic vascular diseases increased in the group of both high ASI (over 10%) and high ACI (over 20%). We used SCI as a reliable index when the progression and regression of atherosclerosis was considered. Among patients of hypercholesterolemia consisting of 15 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 6 non-FH patients, the change of SCI (d-SCI) was significantly correlated with the change of total cholesterol concentration (d-TC) after the treatment (r=0.466, p<0.05) and the change of the right Achilles' tendon thickening (d-ATT) was also correlated with d-TC (r=0.634, p<0.005). However, no correlation between d-SCI and d-ATT was observed. In conclusion, CT indices of atherosclerosis were useful as a noninvasive quantitative diagnostic method and we were able to use them to assess the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. (author).

Tsushima, Motoo; Fujii, Shigeki; Yutani, Chikao; Yamamoto, Akira (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)); Naitoh, Hiroaki

1990-12-01

342

The physiologic climate of Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2013-03-01

343

The physiologic climate of Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

Eludoyin OM; Adelekan IO

2013-03-01

344

The physiologic climate of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ? 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

2012-05-20

345

Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. METHODS: The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N?=?386; female?=?47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix - diversity, land use mix - access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). RESULTS: The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 -0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r?=?0.10 -0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Nigerian adults and may be useful for evaluation of the built environment in Nigeria. Further adaptation and evaluation in other African countries is needed to create a version that could be used throughout the African region.

Oyeyemi AL; Sallis JF; Deforche B; Oyeyemi AY; De Bourdeaudhuij I; Van Dyck D

2013-01-01

346

Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

Lawal Bello Dogarawa

2012-01-01

347

Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

1995-10-30

348

Child abuse in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers.

Okeahialam TC

1984-01-01

349

Assessment of a progressive electricity tax; Vurdering av en progressiv el-avgift  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character.

NONE

2000-07-01

350

Effects of errors and gaps in spatial data sets on assessment of conservation progress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data on the location and extent of protected areas, ecosystems, and species' distributions are essential for determining gaps in biodiversity protection and identifying future conservation priorities. However, these data sets always come with errors in the maps and associated metadata. Errors are often overlooked in conservation studies, despite their potential negative effects on the reported extent of protection of species and ecosystems. We used 3 case studies to illustrate the implications of 3 sources of errors in reporting progress toward conservation objectives: protected areas with unknown boundaries that are replaced by buffered centroids, propagation of multiple errors in spatial data, and incomplete protected-area data sets. As of 2010, the frequency of protected areas with unknown boundaries in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) caused the estimated extent of protection of 37.1% of the terrestrial Neotropical mammals to be overestimated by an average 402.8% and of 62.6% of species to be underestimated by an average 10.9%. Estimated level of protection of the world's coral reefs was 25% higher when using recent finer-resolution data on coral reefs as opposed to globally available coarse-resolution data. Accounting for additional data sets not yet incorporated into WDPA contributed up to 6.7% of additional protection to marine ecosystems in the Philippines. We suggest ways for data providers to reduce the errors in spatial and ancillary data and ways for data users to mitigate the effects of these errors on biodiversity assessments. Efectos de Errores y Vacíos en Conjuntos de Datos Espaciales sobre la Evaluación del Progreso de la Conservación.

Visconti P; DI Marco M; Alvarez-Romero JG; Januchowski-Hartley SR; Pressey RL; Weeks R; Rondinini C

2013-10-01

351

The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Conflict Management in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study takes a critical look at the roles CSOs in Nigeria can play in conflict management. It holds that the monopolization of conflict management process by the instruments of the State characterized the Nigerian political landscape since the attainment of independence in 1960 ; due largely to the long years of military rule in the nation and that the return to democratic rule has fueled the clamor by citizens for the inclusion of CSOs in the management of conflicts in Nigeria. The paper argues that the cost implication of overlooking the contributions of CSOs in the management of conflicts is that, there will be an increase in violent confrontations between armed groups and soldiers, economy will suffer given the absence of peace, authoritarianism will thrive, abuse of human rights will be the order of the day. This paper notes the complacency of successive administrations in according the citizens their basic democratic rights in the political system during this period. It concludes that even though progress has been made by current administrations to open up the political system by allowing CSOs in Nigeria to play active roles in the management of conflicts in Nigeria, such efforts have had little or no impact on issues bothering on conflict resolution in Nigeria, this we argue is due largely to the fact that; the State preferred to use the aristocratic model which restricts the involvement of CSOs in the management of conflicts. The paper then presents the roles CSOs can play in the management of conflicts in Nigeria that will usher in an atmosphere of peaceful co-existence and sustenance of same in Nigeria.

Fatile Jacob Olufemi; Adekanbi Ayoade Adewale

2012-01-01

352

Nigeria: An Opportunity for Civilian Rule?  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News discusses the current political situation in Nigeria. The nine resources discussed offer breaking news, commentary, and analysis. The next few weeks may prove crucial for Nigeria, which is beginning to see some signs of calm and civil order after a week of rioting and violence. The rioting erupted after opposition leader Moshood Abiola died of a heart attack on July 7 after four years in custody. In 1993 Abiola was poised to win a presidential election when the military annulled the poll and Infantry General Sani Abacha seized power. In June 1994 Abiola defiantly declared himself president and was quickly arrested and detained. After General Abacha's sudden death on June 8, his successor General Abdulsalam Abubakar immediately set out a course of modest reform, freeing a number of prominent political detainees. Abiola's release also appeared imminent when he suddenly died. Despite the unrest that followed, some analysts see the deaths of Abiola and Abacha as an opportunity for political progress in Africa's most populous country. Abubakar, some say, can now move forward and implement political reforms without fear of making the supporters or Abiola or Abacha lose face. In fact, the General is widely expected to announce a plan to ease the military out of power by October 1, independence day. This plan will likely center around the creation of a government of national unity, which will sit for four or five years and consist of four representatives from each of the nation's six main regions. Regardless if this or another plan is implemented, the transition from military to civilian rule will prove, as in almost every other nation making this tremendous leap, a painful and gradual process.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

353

Hope and violence in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

1998-01-01

354

Solar energy applications in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

2010-09-15

355

Obstetric Fistula in Ilorin, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this perspective, Andrew Browning of the Fistula Hospital in Addis Ababa discusses a study on obstetric fistula in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was originally published in the West African Journal of Medicine [1]. With the journal's permission, we have made a PDF of the full-text article freely available on our website (see Text S1).

Browning Andrew

2004-01-01

356

Managing Nigeria's Image Crisis: Akunyili’s Rebranding Programme to the Rescue (?)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research examines the current image problem in Nigeria, the attem pt to launder this im age via rebranding, the kind of reactions that rebranding has elicited and a prognosis on w hat can be done. This is against the background of the image crisis that the country suffered from between 1993 and 1999. The image crisis in that period was largely attributed to Nigeria’s lack of democratic progress. This image crisis was again compounded by the fraud that characterized the 2007 general elections. While arguing that the rebranding programme seems to be more of a cosmetic remedy, the paper recommends among other things that beyond sloganeering, the Nigerian government needs to address the issues that gave rise to the image crisis in the first place. This is the only way that N igeria can get out of the image quagmire.

Victor Egwemi

2010-01-01

357

Quantitative Muscle MRI as an Assessment Tool for Monitoring Disease Progression in LGMD2I: A Multicentre Longitudinal Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypothesised that quantitative fat imaging by MRI (Dixon technique) could provide more discriminating quantitative, patient-independent measurements of the progress of muscle fat replacement within individual muscle groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quantitative fat imaging could measure disease progression in a cohort of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) patients over a 12 month period. METHODS: 32 adult patients (17 male;15 female) from 4 European tertiary referral centres with the homozygous c.826C>A mutation in the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) completed baseline and follow up measurements 12 months later. Quantitative fat imaging was performed and muscle fat fraction change was compared with (i) muscle strength and function assessed using standardized physical tests and (ii) standard T1-weighted MRI graded on a 6 point scale. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in muscle fat fraction in 9 of the 14 muscles analyzed using the quantitative MRI technique from baseline to 12 months follow up. Changes were not seen in the conventional longitudinal physical assessments or in qualitative scoring of the T1w images. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative muscle MRI, using the Dixon technique, could be used as an important longitudinal outcome measure to assess muscle pathology and monitor therapeutic efficacy in patients with LGMD2I.

Willis TA; Hollingsworth KG; Coombs A; Sveen ML; Andersen S; Stojkovic T; Eagle M; Mayhew A; de Sousa PL; Dewar L; Morrow JM; Sinclair CD; Thornton JS; Bushby K; Lochmüller H; Hanna MG; Hogrel JY; Carlier PG; Vissing J; Straub V

2013-01-01

358

Biomarkers and atrial fibrillation: A new paradigm for assessing the progression of left atrial endocardial remodelling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is a heterogeneous disorder that is usually characterized by paroxysmal onset, particularly in patients without structural heart disease. Defining biological markers of atrial remodelling would help identify patients at high risk who would benefit most from prophylactic treatment and careful monitoring. Biomarkers of atrial fibrillation progression would be helpful for following patients that present with asymptomatic atrial fibrillation. Notably, the roles of such markers in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation must be determined. Some markers may indicate the presence, complications or progression of the disease, while others may be involved in key pathological processes and thus represent novel therapeutic targets. Although a number of markers have been reported as potential predictors of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation progression towards persistent arrhythmia, their usefulness and clinical value need further validation. This report reviews several newly identified markers of atrial fibrillation progression.

Philippe Chevalier; Alina Scridon

2012-01-01

359

Environmental Impact of Toxic Metal Load in Some Military Training Areas within the One Division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of six trace metals in the three military training areas in Nigeria, within Kaduna metropolis, viz:- Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, Nigeria Air Force Base, Kaduna and Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The level of lead, copper, chromium, zinc manganese and Nickel were assessed. The samples were collected in the month of September and the highest concentration of lead was found in Nigerian Air Force base shooting range (526.49mg/kg). Lead was also found to be high in the Shooting range of Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria (216.49 mg/kg) while the Armed Forces Command and Staff College shooting range, Jaji has the least value (54.39mg/kg). The trend of trace metals in Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria , Shooting range is Mn > Pb > Zn> Cr>Cu >Ni while in Nigeria Armed Forces Command and Staff College Jaji, Shooting range it is Mn >Cr > Pb> Zn >Cu> Ni and at the Nigeria Air Force base, Kaduna it changes to Pb> Mn > Cu > Zn >Cr. The high value of Mn and Pb obtained in all the areas could be attributed to military activities. This result obtained indicates that military training areas are polluted with trace metals. The results are explained in terms of its health effect on the troops and the host community.

Georgina Nwaedozie; Yau Mohammed; Dahiru M Faruruwa; Jonathan M Nwaedozie

2013-01-01

360

The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA): an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none). The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA) elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.

Ling, Walter; Farabee, David; Liepa, Dagmar; Wu, Li-Tzy

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Integrating Formative and Summative Assessment: Progress toward a Seamless System? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 58  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-held ambition for many educators and assessment experts has been to integrate summative and formative assessments so that data from external assessments used for system monitoring may also be used to shape teaching and learning in classrooms. In turn, classroom-based assessments may provide valuable data for decision makers at school and…

Looney, Janet W.

2011-01-01

362

Islamism Vs Secularism: A Religious- Political Struggle in Modern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a historically based approach to the topic of contemporary political and religious status of Nigeria. Recently, the secular administration by Islamists has generated violence between Muslims and Christians. The latter view Islamism as a gradual Islamisation of the country. Modern Islamists plead for a re-introduction of shari'a and OIC membership. They reject the secular status of Nigeria, the Islamic banking and educational system, etc. The meaning and purpose of these are not different from hijrah, and mahdism of early 20th century. The issue is about restoring the ousted Caliphal system, and about rejecting the Western system and secularism, which were introduced by imperialists. The spirit of Islamism is increasing, especially among the grass-roots, elite, and politicians. In these circumstances, the phenomenon has to be assessed in an interdisciplinary way.

Mukhtar Umar Bunza

2002-01-01

363

Islamism Vs Secularism: A Religious- Political Struggle in Modern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a historically based approach to the topic of contemporary political and religious status of Nigeria. Recently, the secular administration by Islamists has generated violence between Muslims and Christians. The latter view Islamism as a gradual Islamisation of the country. Modern Islamists plead for a re-introduction of shari?a and OIC membership. They reject the secular status of Nigeria, the Islamic banking and educational system, etc. The meaning and purpose of these are not different from hijrah, and mahdism of early 20th century. The is- sue is about restoring the ousted Caliphal system, and about rejecting the Western system and secularism, which were introduced by imperialists. The spirit of Islamism is increasing, especially among the grass-roots, elite, and politicians. In these circumstances, the phe- nomenon has to be assessed in an interdisciplinary way.

Mukhtar Umar Bunza

2002-01-01

364

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes.

Nsemo AD; John ME; Etifit RE; Mgbekem MA; Oyira EJ

2013-07-01

365

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784

Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J

2013-05-09

366

The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA): an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none). The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA) elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

Ling W; Farabee D; Liepa D; Wu LT

2012-01-01

367