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Assessing the progress of malaria control in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

One third of the world's malaria deaths occur in Nigeria. It is doubtful whether Nigeria will meet the malaria control target of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, having failed to meet the Abuja target to halve the burden of malaria by 2010. This paper assesses the current malaria burden and progress toward malaria control. Substantial data were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and other secondary sources. Data showed that the malaria burden is still enormous because of inadequate control efforts. In 2008, only 17% of Nigerians owned at least one net, compared with 12% in 2003. Eight percent owned an insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN), but only 6% of under-five children and 5% of pregnant women slept under an ITN. Only one third of under-five children with fever received antimalarial drugs, while one fifth of pregnant women took antimalarial drugs for prevention. Chloroquine is still the most common drug used in malaria treatment, despite its ban in first-line treatment since 2005. The paper concludes that scaling up home management of malaria and a community-centred approach to ITN and artemisinin-based combination therapy provisioning should be prioritized. PMID:21677528

Amzat, Jimoh

2011-01-01

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Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and child...

Oresanya Olusola B; Hoshen Moshe; Sofola Olayemi T

2008-01-01

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Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and children under five years of age since 2000. The survey was the first nationally representative study of ITN use assessing progress towards the Abuja target amongst vulnerable groups. Population and Method A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 7,200 households, selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique from 12 randomly selected states from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data collection was done during the malarious rainy season (October 2005) using a modified WHO Malaria Indicator Survey structured questionnaire about household ownership and utilization of mosquito nets (treated or untreated) from household heads. Results Household ownership of any net was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%–25.1%) and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%–10.9%). Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%–12.6%) and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion, presence of health facility and wealth index by caregiver's education predicted the use of ITN among this group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the substantial increase in ITN utilization among children under five years of age in Nigeria is still far from the Abuja targets.

Oresanya, Olusola B; Hoshen, Moshe; Sofola, Olayemi T

2008-01-01

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Assessment of Community Banks in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study on community banks in Nigeria was undertaken in June 2004 by the FAO Investment Centre, with financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Department for International Development (DFID), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Ford Foundation (FF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank (WB), and in collaboration with the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The objective of the study was to assess th...

Marx, Michael T.

2005-01-01

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Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014. PMID:24336134

2013-12-13

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Radiological assessment of zircon processing in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Processing of zircon along with monazite, ilmenite and magnetite as a by-product of the mining and processing of cassiterite and columbite have been taking place in the Jos Plateau area, Nigeria, for several decades. The processing in a typical mill involves dry mill separation of the heavy mineral concentrate won from alluvial deposits into cassiterite, columbite, zircon, monazite, ilmenite, magnetite and unsorted tailings after going through a combination of magnetic (low and high intensity) and electrostatic separators. The zircon product is important because of the radiological hazard it poses, with average ThO2 and U3O8 concentrations of 8 wt% and 0.50 wt% respectively, and radiation dose levels of 70-100 ?Sv/h. Radiological assessments of the processing sites and activities were carried out to justify remedial action, with the justification criterion based on regulations of the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA). (author)

2008-08-01

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Open heart surgery in Nigeria; a work in progress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There has been limited success in establishing Open Heart Surgery programmes in Nigeria despite the high prevalence of structural heart disease and the large number of Nigerian patients that travel abroad for Open Heart Surgery. The challenges and constraints to the development of Open Heart Surgery in Nigeria need to be identified and overcome. The aim of this study is to review the experience with Open Heart Surgery at the Lagos State University Teaching...

Falase Bode; Sanusi Michael; Majekodunmi Adetinuwe; Animasahun Barakat; Ajose Ifeoluwa; Idowu Ariyo; Oke Adewale

2013-01-01

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Measuring progress: 2010 assessment  

tracking progress - learning from past experiences and reflecting new \\requirements. Some of the current indicators may well remain relevant to the new \\strategy, and the set is being published ...... Pararge aegeria (Speckled wood). \\Hipparchia ...

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Assessment of Land Cover Change in the North Eastern Nigeria 1986 to 2005  

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Environmental disturbance such as drought, overgrazing, and increase in population in north eastern Nigeria over the years has led to degradation, shortage of land and water resources and sometimes violent conflict among communities. Land cover change provides a vital means of understanding and managing these problems. Thus this research provided an assessment of how tree, shrub grass, bare ground and urban land cover changed from 1986 to 2005. NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat images were used wit...

Samuel Garba; Tim Brewer

2013-01-01

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ASSESSMENT OF SANITATION FACILITIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS WITHIN ILORIN, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Appropriate sanitation in primary schools is fundamental for effective learning and prevention of diseases prone to children. This study was undertaken to assess the state of sanitation facilities in primary schools within Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select primary schools for the survey and 200 schools eventually participated. Data for the study was obtained from physical inspection of sanitation facilities and semi structured questionnaire. The result of the study reveals that 5.5% - 26.5% of the assessed schools have sanitation facilities in adequate quantity, quality or usage; 23% have less number of facilities compared to pupil population, 42% have grossly inadequate facilities, and 12.5% have no sanitation facility. The quality of facilities in 24.5% of the schools is tolerable while the facilities in 57.5 % of the schools are in deplorable condition. Also 26.5% of the schools effectively use the toilets and urinals, 22.5% seldom use them while 38.5% do not use them at all because they are objectionable or risky. Therefore, raising the status of schools lacking behind in quantity, quality or usage of sanitation facilities should be a top priority in order to achieve developmental goals.

AREMU, A.S.

2012-03-01

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Using UNAIDS’s organizing framework to assess Nigeria’s national HIV monitoring and evaluation system  

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Full Text Available The Nigeria National Response Management Information System (NNRIMS, developed in 2004 as a framework for monitoring and evaluating the country’s response to HIV, does not function at an optimum level due to several challenges, including a confusing proliferation of vertical reporting systems, competition among sectors, and the nascent nature of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E sub-systems within many institutions. An assessment of the existing M&E system was conducted to verify whether the system has the capacities to provide essential data for monitoring the epidemic and identifying critical programming gaps. Nigeria’s National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA used an organizing framework for a national HIV M&E system developed by UNAIDS, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the NNRIMS to generate data for evidence-based decisionmaking. The participatory approach used during an assessment workshop ensured that the process was country-led and -owned to build consensus and local capacity, and that it encouraged adoption of a single national-level multisectoral HIV M&E system. The assessment found an operable M&E system at the national level but a much weaker system at the state and local levels and across seven other sectors. There are multiple data collection and reporting tools at the facility level that lead to vertical reporting systems, which increases the burden of reporting at lower levels, especially by service providers. Human resources are being developed, but problems remain with the quantity and quality of staff. Data use, though evident at the national level, is still very weak among five of the seven sectors assessed. The assessment results have been used to develop a national costed M&E workplan to which all stakeholders contributed in a coordinated response to strengthen the system.

Kayode Ogungbemi

2012-08-01

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Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major public health and social problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study focuses on the assessment of nutritional status of 40 Queens College Students of Lagos State age 10-19 years. It was glaringly shown that most of the nutrients are lacking with inadequate energy intake especially among students of younger ages.

O. Akinyemi

2009-01-01

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Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malnutrition is a major public health and social problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study focuses on the assessment of nutritional status of 40 Queens College Students of Lagos State age 10-19 years. It was glaringly shown that most of the nutrients are lacking with inadequate energy intake especially among students of younger ages.

Akinyemi, O.; Ibraheem, A. G.

2009-01-01

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Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

2011-01-01

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Anthropometric and other assessment indices of the newborn in Jos, Nigeria  

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Background : Certain neonatal measurements are potential tools for evaluating the status of the newborn. The neonatal anthropometrics measurements and other assessment indices are therefore religiously performedby the attending midwife and entered into the labour room register. Method :This was a retrospective analysis of the infants delivered between January 2004 and December 2005 in the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Results :There were ...

Mutihir J; Pam S

2006-01-01

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Assessing the relevance, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV/AIDS in-service training in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than three million people in Nigeria are living with HIV/AIDS. In order to reduce the HIV/AIDS burden in Nigeria, the US Government (USG) has dedicated significant resources to combating the epidemic through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In-service training (IST) of health workers is one of the most commonly used strategies to improve the quality and coverage of HIV/AIDS services. At USAID/Nigeria's request, the USAID-funded CapacityPlus project conducted an assessment of PEPFAR-funded IST for all cadres of health workers in Nigeria. Using the IST Improvement Framework, developed by the USAID Applying Sciences to Strengthen and Improve Systems Project (ASSIST), as a guide, the authors developed a survey tool to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of IST provided between January 2007 and July 2012 by PEPFAR-funded implementing partners in Nigeria. The instrument was adapted to the Nigerian context and refined through a stakeholder engagement process. It was then distributed via an online platform to more than 50 PEPFAR-funded implementing partners who provided IST in Nigeria. A total of 39 implementing partners completed the survey. Our survey found that PEPFAR implementing partners have been providing a wide range of IST to a diverse group of health workers in Nigeria since 2007. Most trainings are developed using national curricula, manuals and/or other standard operating procedures. Many of the partners are conducting Training Needs Assessments to inform the planning, design and development of their training programs. However, the assessment also pointed to a number of recommendations to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of PEPFAR-funded IST. These actions are as follows: improve collaboration and coordination among implementing partners; apply a more diverse and cost-effective set of training modalities; allocate funding specifically for the evaluation of the effectiveness of training; improve links between IST and both continuing professional development and pre-service education; require implementing partners to create sustainability plans to transition training from PEPFAR funding to other funding sources; and develop a training information management system to track key aspects of IST, such as the number and types of providers, courses, and participants of PEPFAR-funded IST. PMID:24739511

Burlew, Randi; Puckett, Amanda; Bailey, Rebecca; Caffrey, Margaret; Brantley, Stephanie

2014-01-01

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An Assessment of the Factors Influencing the Consumption of Duck Meat in Southern Nigeria  

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Consumer acceptability, consumption pattern, and preference for the duck and its meat products in Southern Nigeria were assessed, using Edo state as a case study. A field survey using about 250 well structured and computer-validated questionnaires were randomly administered to about 200 respondents. Familiarity, degree of likeness, sanitary condition of duck and the consumption constraints were assessed. Also determined were consumption frequency, sensory comparison of duck and chicken...

Oteku, I. T.; Igene, J. O.; Yessuf, I. M.

2006-01-01

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Gender and Family Structure on Career Progression in Public Audit Firms in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Gender and family structure are important variables in the growth and promotion of auditors in public audit firms to be partners and managing partners. Therefore, this study examines the effect of gender and family structure on the career progression of individuals in public audit firms in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, relevant primary and secondary data were used. The primary data was collected from a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty three respondents with an average reliability of 0.83 and the secondary data from published scholarly articles. The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using regression, t-test, granger causality test and diagnostic test. The statistical analysis reveals the linkage between gender and technical competence of auditors in public audit firms; family structure and productivity of auditors in public audit firms; family structure and dedication to duty of auditors in public audit firms and the difference between male and female on the career progression in public audit practice. On the basis of the empirical result, the study concludes that gender of an individual does not affect the technical competence of auditors, but rather what is important is the level of education and experience of the auditor; family structure affects the productivity of auditors. This is particularly in respect to women that are married; family structure affects the dedication of auditors in public audit firms and there are differences between the growth and promotion of male or female in public audit firms. On the basis of the conclusion, useful recommendations were presented to improve the role of gender and family structure on career progression in public audit firms.

Ukuta Ayakiri Jeake

2013-09-01

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Assessment of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Selected Oil Spilled Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria  

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A prelude radiological impact assessment of oil spillage on the oil spilled environment, those saddled with the responsibility of cleaning the spilled crude and the host/nearest communities residents in Rivers State Nigeria has been examined in-situ, using radiation meters (Digilert 100 nuclear radiation meter) and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Readings were taken twice in a month for three months in the five different oil spilled site and one measurement taken at a control site wh...

2013-01-01

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Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria  

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Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished...

Enwereji, Ee

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Health Profile and Impact Assessment of Waste Scavengers (Rag Pickers) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

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The objective of this study was to determine the health profile and impact assessment of waste scavengers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To isolate and identify the potential pathogens that degrade the waste, samples were collected from 7 dumpsites and one control site. Serial dilutions of the samples were carried out and aliquots (0.1 mL) of the diluted samples were inoculated into appropriate media. Similarly, blood, stool, urine and nasal swabs were collected from 80 waste scavengers and 20 co...

Wachukwu, C. K.; Mbata, C. A.; Nyenke, C. U.

2010-01-01

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Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria  

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Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to prop...

Olayemi Soladoye; Oromakinde, Oluwafemi O.

2013-01-01

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Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: ?The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. ?Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Government's plans. ?These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. ?The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. ?Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

2011-02-01

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A Decade of Assessment Progress: Learned Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

The author is an outgoing faculty chair of the college assessment committee (CAC) at Moravian College. In this article, he shares the learned principles and constructive practices that guided his ten years of successful progress in fostering assessment: (1) Assessment must be part of the strategic plan; (2) Assessment language must be consistently…

Brill, Robert T.

2008-01-01

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Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

L. O. Ogunsumi

2007-04-01

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Promotion of Non-Oil Export in Nigeria: Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund  

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Full Text Available The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF was established in 1977 with the aim of enhancing commercial banks’ loans to the agricultural sector in Nigeria with focus on agro-allied and agricultural production. Many years down the line, the country has witnessed poor participation in the international market with regards to non-oil export. The above stance was assessed with a view to establishing interaction between ACGSF and non-oil export using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR technique. The study found, among others, that there exist a long-run relationship between the ACGSF and export, but the magnitude is minimal. It was therefore recommended, inter alia, that adequate infrastructural and storage facilities, which increase the shelf-life of agricultural outputs are needed to improve non-oil exports in Nigeria.

U.R. Efobi

2011-02-01

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An Assessment of the Relevance of Adekanye’s The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria to Contemporary Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This article assessed the relevance of Adekanye’s book titled “The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria” to contemporary Nigeria. The eight chaptered book examined the growing power and influence of top retired military offi cers in Nigeria in every sector of the economy due to their wealth, ex-military connection, skill, prestige and experience. It posits that the military retirees are grouped into two contradictory categories, the growing rate of military retiree has been on the increase since 1966, the retired military are found virtually in every aspect of human endeavour and compete with those in the social group in political scene, and are fast emerging as new elite of power, with considerable infl uence in decision making that deals with issues of high politics. All these assumptions were correct except that few top military retirees have since 1999 emerged as the ruling elite and even though they are not physically in power now have to a great extent determined who occupied the site of power. The Peoples’ Democratic Party which is the leading political party have been greatly infl uenced by these rich and influential retired military officers who at all cost ensure that their candidates win the elections. With the appointment of a new INEC chairman, the review of the electoral act, and the campaign for free and fair election, it is believed that a new set of elite will emerge that will awaken political development in Nigeria.

Key words: Adekanye; Nigeria; The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria; Political development

Résumé Cet article a évalué la pertinence du livre Adekanye a intitulé “Le militaire à la retraite en tant que facteur de puissance émergente au Nigeria” pour le Nigéria contemporain. Le livre a huit chaptres examiné le pouvoir et l’influence des croissantes des meilleurs officiers à la retraite au Nigeria dans tous les secteurs de l’économie en raison de leur richesse,l’ex-militaire de connexion, la compétence, le prestige et l’expérience. Il pose en principe que les retraités militaires sont regroupés en deux catégories contradictoires, le taux croissant de retraité militaire a été en hausse depuis 1966, les militaires retraités se retrouvent pratiquement dans tous les aspects de l’activité humaine et de rivaliser avec ceux du groupe social sur la scène politique , et sont en passe de devenir la nouvelle élite du pouvoir, avec une infl uence considérable dans la prise de décision qui traite des questions de haute politique. Toutes ces hypothèses étaient correctes, sauf que quelques top retraités militaires ont émergé depuis 1999 que l’élite dirigeante et même si elles ne sont pas physiquement au pouvoir maintenant dans une grande mesure déterminée qui occupaient le site de la puissance. Les peuples «Parti démocrate qui est le principal parti politique ont été fortement influencés par ces riches et influents officiers à la retraite qui, à tout prix veiller à ce que leurs candidats à remporter les élections. Avec la nomination d’un nouveau président CENI, la révision de la loi électorale, et la campagne pour l’élection libre et équitable, il est estimé que d’un nouvel ensemble de l’élite émergera qui va réveiller le développement politique au Nigeria.

Mots clés: Adekanye; Nigeria; Militaire à la retraire comme puissance émergente au Nigeria; développement politique

Gift Ntiwunka

2012-04-01

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Assessment of utilization of wind energy resources in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study critically reviews the prospects and challenges of utilizing wind energy resources for power generation in Nigeria. The various initiatives by governments and researchers were surveyed and the nation is found to sit in the midst of enormous potential for wind harvest for power generation. The far northern states, the mountainous regions and different places of the central and south-eastern states were identified as good areas for wind harvest together with the offshore areas spanning from Lagos through Ondo, Ogun, Cross-Rivers to Rivers states along the Atlantic Ocean in the south-south. Despite this great potential and huge prospect, the country is found to still suffer from serious energy crises due to her over dependence on hydropower which also is susceptible to seasonal variation in the amount of water levels at dams. There is yet to be committed wind energy project for power generation on-going in the country. Several challenges bedeviling the development and utilization of wind energy resources were identified and suggestions highlighted to help pull the nation out of this lingering energy crisis

2009-02-01

29

Power generation scenarios for Nigeria. An environmental and cost assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. (author)

2011-02-01

30

Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3-84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

2010-01-01

31

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (PV can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these systems have been jeopardized. The objective of this work is to embark on performance assessments of in- stalled Solar PV system in Oke-Agunla, Akure local government of Ondo State in Nigeria. Visits were conducted to the village; equipments on ground were examined while the people were interviewed. Both functional and non-functional facilities were traced to their manufacturers using the identification data on them and rated to ensure their efficiencies. Energy demands were also prorated, and observed the need to improve on the present energy supplied. Results of the assessments shows that PV facilities used were inadequate, trained technicians were not available giving room for quacks working on the facilities occasionally resulted in further complications and poor facilities maintenance. The assessment result shows that just 14.52% of the 4.5 kW installed solar PV was utilized due to significant malfunctioning and deterioration in performance. It can be concluded from this study that the installed solar PV systems was inefficient as a result of poor maintenance, lack of technical know-how and inability of the project contractors or managers to take these factors into consideration while embarking on the solar PV installations.

Olawale Saheed Ismail

2012-08-01

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An Analysis of Progress Made by Public Libraries as Social Institutions in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Review of state of public library practice in Nigeria from historical times to present highlights social impact; profile of public and state libraries; resources available; effects of library legislation; problems (high illiteracy rate, lack of adequate funding, personnel, inadequate educational planning, communication); and prospects for future.…

Adimorah, E. N. O.

1983-01-01

33

Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended

2002-02-10

34

Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the sam...

Wachukwu; Confidence, K.; Eleanya, E. U.

2007-01-01

35

Multi-Dimensional Approach to Environmental Quality Assessment of life Central Local Government Area in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality of water samples from various sources in Ife Central Local Government Area in Nigeria has been assessed using standard analytical techniques. 300 water samples of 2 litres each were collected. Some were analysed for trace elements using AAS, nitrate using UV Spectrometry and bacteriological content. The specific radioactivity of 100 soil samples were determined using a Gamma Spectrometer. Most of the sources of drinking water were polluted. Iron contents were found to be very high in most of the samples. In general, radioactivity levels from natural and artificial are relatively low in soil samples except at three sample sites

2001-03-01

36

Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

Parvaz Madadi

2012-10-01

37

An Assessment of the Impact of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Structural Adjustment Programme on Cotton Production and Utilization in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available At Nigerias independence, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy. It provided employment, food, raw materials for industry and foreign exchange. However, within 20 years of Independence the country became unable to cope with the overall needs of its food and raw materials. Increased foreign exchange earnings from the export of crude oil were implicated as leading to the neglect and subsequent decline in the performance of the Nigerian agricultural sector. The Structural Adjustment Programme SAP was adopted to restructure and diversify the productive base of the economy in such a way as to reduce dependency on the oil sector and imports. One of the key policy strategies designed to achieve the Nigeria's SAP goals was the adoption of a market-determined exchange rate. This paper set out to assess the impact of exchange rate deregulation and SAP on cotton production and utilization in Nigeria. Time series data on aggregate cotton production, Nairas average cross exchange rates with the US dollar and average capacity utilization rate of textile manufacturers in Nigeria for the period 1973-2007 were collected and analysed using Multiple-regression and the students t test technique. Findings includes: exchange rate deregulation per se has no significant effect on cotton production in Nigeria; more cotton was produced in Nigeria during the post-SAP period; the average capacity utilization of domestic textile industry in Nigeria during the pre-SAP period was higher than during the post-SAP period. Based on the findings of the study some noteworthy lessons were highlighted.

Aliyu A. Ammani

2012-01-01

38

An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme (TTTP in Katsina State, Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available TVET is key solution to poverty eradication, job creation, reducing unemployment, economic expansion, and improve social and economic well-being of a nation. For years TVET programme in Nigeria has been confronting with unresolved problems such as, misconception of the TVET by the public, low status of TVET teachers, less concern by the government. Thus, this study present “An Assessment of The Effectiveness of Technical Teacher Training Programme in Katsina State, Nigeria” the specific objectives were to find out the problems confronting TTTP and to suggest necessary measures for improvement on the basis of the assessment. The population of the study comprised of a total number of 57 instructional staff used for the study. 38 samples were chosen from this population using stratified random sampling techniques. The findings of this study revealed that, there have no enough instructional/workshop attendants, women have underrepresented in instructional staff, no constant supply of electricity to the instructional spaces, lack of awareness for youth about the TVET programme etc. Base on the findings the study recommends to create the provision of in-service training, and to construction of alternative source of electricity establishing educational guidance offices in secondary schools among other.

SagirIlliyasuRafukka

2013-10-01

39

Validation of the World Health Organization's Rapid Assessment method for urinary schistosomiasis in southeastern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary schistosomiasis is a helminth disease that causes high morbidity in endemic areas of tropical and subtropical regions. Efforts are being made to evolve a cost-effective method for diagnosing the infection in large populations. A study supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) has established the Rapid Assessment (Questionnaire) method in which diagnosis is based on the respondent's ability to answer yes to the presence of hematuria. This method has been validated in some African countries and elsewhere. The aim of the present study was to validate the Rapid Assessment method in a community in southeastern Nigeria where the disease is endemic. A survey was carried out using both the parasitological diagnosis of the presence of the characteristic egg of Schistosoma haematabium in urine samples and the WHO Rapid Assessment method. Positive results in the 2 methods were calculated as percentages, and a correlation analysis of the percentages was done using product moment statistics. This gave a significant value of r = 2.9435 (P < 0.05). Sex-related prevalence was observed at significant correlation values of r = 1.0011 and r = 1.574 (P < 0.05). The diagnostic performance of the Rapid Assessment method was calculated using Baker's procedure method. A high sensitivity of 93.4%, specificity of 99%, positive predictive value of 96.6%, and negative predictive value of 99.4% were calculated. The consistent high correction performance values confirm that the Rapid Assessment method may be a useful alternative to the parasitological tests for use in schools and community surveys in identifying high-risk individuals for urinary schistosomiasis in southeastern Nigeria. PMID:18564757

Nduka, Florence O; Nwosu, Eugene C

2008-04-01

40

Progress in MELCOR development and assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned

1994-10-25

 
 
 
 
41

Progress in MELCOR development and assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned.

Summers, R.M.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Elsbernd, A.E.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Modeling and Analysis Dept.

1995-04-01

42

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) assessment of oil and gas production installations in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) assessment was carried out at oil production platforms and gas processing units in Nigeria with the aim of establishing baseline levels and problem areas. The assessment consisted of external radiation measurements on production units, from the wellheads to the product outlets, sampling and gamma spectrometric analysis of scales and sludge from pig stations and of replaced pipes and vessels. The NORM levels on the installations and associated equipment ranged from 0.1 to 15 ?Sv/h and gamma spectrometric analysis indicates the presence of 226Ra, 214Bi and 214Pb in the scales and sludge, having a maximum concentration of 200 Bq/g. The levels may seem low but there is still the need to establish a routine monitoring programme for the industry, which presently is non-existent. (author)

2005-10-01

43

An Assessment of the Impact of "The Structural Adjustment Programme" on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The "Structural Adjustment Programme" (SAP was introduced in 1986 to restructure and diversify the productive base of Nigerian economy, increase domestic food production, agricultural raw materials and enhance non-oil exports. Poultry farmers under SAP have witnessed a downward trend in their production and have therefore stated that SAP is an illwind that blows nobody any good since it has increased their problem rather than solve them. This study was therefore carried out to assess the effects of SAP on poultry production in Nigeria between 1985 - 1990. It was observed that the Structural Adjustment Programme has had tremendous effects on poultry industry in Nigeria. The farmers have not adjusted favourably to the effect of SAP with 75 % of them operating between 20 - 50 % and 19 % below 20 % of production capacity. Currently the industry is being operated below 30 % mainly due to the high cost of chicks and inputs some of which have risen to over 1000 %. Productivity of the birds has also been affected with about 30 % reduction in the number of eggs laid per bird per year. Age at maturity has also increased to about 30 % among broilers. Farmers found it difficult to buy feed and drug resulting in increased mortality of about 80 % among broilers. The rise in the prices of product of about 500 % does not match the increase cost of production. Recommendations are therefore made to help stabilise the poultry industry.

Eronmwon Guobadia, E.

1996-01-01

44

Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

Irohibe Ifeoma

2014-03-01

45

Assessment of Land Cover Change in the North Eastern Nigeria 1986 to 2005  

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Full Text Available Environmental disturbance such as drought, overgrazing, and increase in population in north eastern Nigeria over the years has led to degradation, shortage of land and water resources and sometimes violent conflict among communities. Land cover change provides a vital means of understanding and managing these problems. Thus this research provided an assessment of how tree, shrub grass, bare ground and urban land cover changed from 1986 to 2005. NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat images were used with data obtained from field survey for the land cover classifications. Change in the land covers were analysed according to persistence, swapping, net loss and gain. Uncertainties were analysed by confusion matrices. The overall accuracies of the classifications used for the analysis are between 60% and 75%. The transition and change accuracies are between 45% and 60%. Approximately 60% of the area of study remained unchanged during the period. Of the remainder, approximately 11% of the area interchanged between shrub grass and bare ground. The most unstable category was shrub grass and was also the source of misclassification. The changes in general concurred with the perception of change in the area and gave some insight on the change that occurred.

Samuel Garba

2013-12-01

46

Assessment of quality control parameters and interchangeability of multisourced metformin HCl tablets marketed in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quality control assessment of five brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets marketed in Nigeria [Glucophage (R) (Merck, Quetta), Metformin BDC (Bangkok labs, Bangkok), Metformin (Medopharm, India), Glucophage (R) (Ilsan), Glucophage (Lipha)] was carried out in order to determine the brands that are interchangeable or switchable. The disintegration time, dissolution rate and absolute drug content were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) without enzymes. The weight uniformity and hardness tests were also performed according to the official methods. A variation of the concept of dissolution efficiency (DE), known as predicted availability equivalent (PAE), was used to predict the likely in vivo bioavailability. Our results showed that all the five brands passed the uniformity of weight and disintegration tests. Dissolution efficiency was found to be higher in SGF than in SIF. In SGF, all the brands were bioequivalent. In SIF, all the brands, except Medopharm, were also bioequivalent. The study showed that four brands of metformin hydrochloride (Merck, BDC, Lipha and Ilsan) marketed in Nigeria are of acceptable standards and hence BDC, Lipha and Ilsan brands of glucophage are interchangeable with the innovator drug, glucophage R (Merck). PMID:15255340

Osadebe, P O; Akabogu, I C

2004-05-01

47

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SPRING WATER IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of natural spring is one of the mini water schemes which were harnessed to improved access to water in Ibadan city. This study assesses the quality of the water supply from the natural spring with the aim of justifying weather the sources are potable as means for improved access to water. Samples of water from four natural spring sources were collected for qualitative tests: physical (colour, odour and taste, turbidity, Ph, nitrate, bacterial and total coliform test which were done using Most Probable Number (MPN. The results of the spring water quality test were compared with samples from public water taps and the World Health Organization (WHO water quality standards using analysis of variance (Bonferroni method of ANOVA to determine the significance of differences. Result of the comparison of natural spring sources with the WHO standards for drinking water, indicates that only one out of the for sampled spring waters shows a significance difference at 0.05 alpha level (T > t, and are within the acceptable WHO benchmark for drinking water for public health concerns. In order to sustain natural spring’s water, the supply sources should be protected from all forms of contamination.

ADENIJI-OLOUKOI, GRACE

2012-12-01

48

Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the same age bracket who are not exposed. A well structured questionnaire was also given to all the solid waste disposal workers to assess their health profile. Haematological parameters, liver function test (LFT and toxic substance (Pb, Cu, Zn concentration in the blood were carried out. There were slight decrease in the haematological parameters and liver function test (LFT results, as compared with the control subjects. The values obtained are: Hb 13.43±1.14 g dL-1, HCT 37.13±3.22%, WBC 6.35±1.86x109 L-1, platelet 236.15±104.33x109 L-1, neutrophil 42.60±11.11% and monocyte 3.05±2.41% for solid waste workers. While the values for control subjects are: Hb 14.69±0.4 g dL-1, HCT 41.77±2.74%, WBC 7.23±1.21x109 L-1, platelets 282.40±33.76x109 L-1, neutrophil 58.65±5.87% and monocyte 5.77±2.03%. The lymphocyte counts for waste disposal workers was significantly higher (50.42±11.30% and (32.83±5.32% for the control subjects. The AST values increased significantly for solid waste workers with a mean AST concentration of (11.19±2.36 ? L-1 and 8.97±4.07 ?L-1 for the control subjects. And mean total bilirubin increased progressively as the number of years of exposure increased (19.00 ?mol L-1. The peak value was for workers exposed for about 7 year. The result also showed that mean lead, copper and Zinc concentrations were high for the solid waste workers (Pb = 0.07±0.05 mg L-1, Cu =0.22±0.08 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.56±0.48 mg L-1 while that of control subjects were Pb = 0.02±0.01 mg L-1, Cu =0.11±0.04 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.30±0.04 mg L-1. Malaria parasitaemia was high amongst the solid waste disposal workers. Adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE should be provided to avoid epidemic among the workers. It can be inferred that the lymphocytosis observed in this category of workers may indicate the presence of bacterial and protozoal infections, while a mild eosinophilia might be as a result of allergic disorders and helminthic infections.

Wachukwu

2007-01-01

49

Assessment of the Impact of Extension Services on Fish Farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the impact of access to extension services on fish farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio–economic characteristics of fish farmers, information disseminated to fish farmers, attributes of extension agents, and farmers’ access to extension services and farmers profitability. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the farmers and a sample size of 90 fish farmers was selected from the six local government selected. Analysis of data was carried out using frequency and percentage tables and Gross Margin analysis was used to determine the profitability of the farmers. There was relationship between farmers’ access to extension services and their profitability. It was recommended that extension agents should intensify their efforts in reaching farmers and passing useful information to them in order to increase farmers’ profitability.

Agbebi, F. O.

2012-03-01

50

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

Michael AKPAN

2012-12-01

51

Curricular Progress Assessments: The MileMarker  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A challenge in pharmacy education is to document student learning and retention. With the unveiling of the Standards 2007 by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, the impetus has been placed on colleges and schools of pharmacy that must meet those standards. One possible response to this challenge is administering progress examinations to assess a student's knowledge base at specified points in the curriculum. The University of Houston College of Pharmacy has developed an annual c...

Szilagyi, Julianna E.

2008-01-01

52

Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

2013-01-01

53

Anthropometric and other assessment indices of the newborn in Jos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : Certain neonatal measurements are potential tools for evaluating the status of the newborn. The neonatal anthropometrics measurements and other assessment indices are therefore religiously performedby the attending midwife and entered into the labour room register. Method :This was a retrospective analysis of the infants delivered between January 2004 and December 2005 in the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Results :There were 4,266 deliveries during the study period. The mean age and parity of the mothers were 28.7 ± 5.8 and 3.0 ± 1.9 respectively.The mean gestational age of the infants at birth was 38.3 ± 2.8 weeks and the mean Apgar scores for the first and fifth minutes were 7.4 ± 1.7 and 8.5 ± 1.5 respectively. The mean birth weight of the babies was 3.1 ± 0.8 kg. The mean birth length and head circumference of the newborns were 47.2 ± 5.0 cm and 33.8 ± 2.9 cm respectively. The mean umbilical cord length was 52.9 ± 7.3 cm and the mean placental weight was 560 ± 118 grams. There were more male infants (53.1% compared with female infants (46.9% during the period of study. Twin infants contributed 3.8% of the deliveries in the study. Conclusion :Anthropometric and other assessments indices of the newborn infants at birth in Jos, Nigeria are similar to those in other parts of the country and the world.

Mutihir J

2006-12-01

54

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP  

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Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-12-01

55

Enhancing Leadership and Governance Competencies to Strengthen Health Systems in Nigeria: Assessment of Organizational Human Resources Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lack of effective leadership and governance in the health sector has remained a major challenge in Nigeria and contributes to the failure of health systems and poor development of human resources. In this cross-sectional intervention study, leadership and governance competencies of policy makers were enhanced through a training workshop, and an assessment was conducted of organizational activities designed to promote evidence-informed leadership and governance to improve human resources f...

Uneke, Chigozie J.; Ezeoha, Abel E.; Ndukwe, Chinwendu D.; Oyibo, Patrick G.; Onwe, Fri Day

2012-01-01

56

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods...

2006-01-01

57

Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in...

2012-01-01

58

Progress in MELCOR development and assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent activities in the MELCOR development project have focused on (1) addressing difficulties with CORCON-Mod3 and implementing a robust and reliable version into the demanding systems code environment of MELCOR; (2) developing and implementing models for specific phenomena and systems of importance to advanced reactors; and (3) continuing to expand the MELCOR assessment data base, filling in the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Excellent progress has been made, resulting in a much-improved version of the code: MELCOR 1.8.3, distributed to users in July 1994. This version of the code received substantial testing on a suite of plant and experiment calculations prior to release.

Summers, R.M.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Elsbernd, A.E.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-10-01

59

Progress in MELCOR development and assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent activities in the MELCOR development project have focused on (1) addressing difficulties with CORCON-Mod3 and implementing a robust and reliable version into the demanding systems code environment of MELCOR; (2) developing and implementing models for specific phenomena and systems of importance to advanced reactors; and (3) continuing to expand the MELCOR assessment data base, filling in the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Excellent progress has been made, resulting in a much-improved version of the code: MELCOR 1.8.3, distributed to users in July 1994. This version of the code received substantial testing on a suite of plant and experiment calculations prior to release

1994-10-01

60

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF without enzymes. The dissolution efficiency (DE and predicted availability equivalence (PAE of the various brands were used to estimate their likely in-vivo bioavailability. The dissolution profile showed that none of the samples attained 70% dissolution in 45 minute in SGF and SIF while only samples A and E in 1 hour in SGF There was no significant difference in the mean values of the DE for the products in SGF and SIF in the range 0.33-0.41 and 0.32-0.43 respectively (p=0.2. Significant difference exists between the values of T70 of the products in both SGF and SIF (p< 0.5. Products E and A (innovator are equivalent and demonstrate comparable quality standards. The method is simple and rugged for evaluation of quality control parameters of amlodipine for consistent batch to batch production of generic product.

Umoh Ekaete Dennis

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL MEASUREMENTS OF MULTISOURCE AMLODIPINE TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some quality control parameters to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of six brands of amlodipine tablets marketed in Nigeria. The physiochemical parameters and assay of the six brands of amlodipine were assessed through the evaluation of uniformity of tablet weight, friability, hardness, disintegration, and assay of active ingredients according to established methods. The dissolution rate and disintegration time were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF without enzymes. The dissolution efficiency (DE and predicted availability equivalence (PAE of the various brands were used to estimate their likely in-vivo bioavailability. The dissolution profile showed that none of the samples attained 70% dissolution in 45 minute in SGF and SIF while only samples A and E in 1 hour in SGF There was no significant difference in the mean values of the DE for the products in SGF and SIF in the range 0.33-0.41 and 0.32-0.43 respectively (p=0.2. Significant difference exists between the values of T70 of the products in both SGF and SIF (p< 0.5. Products E and A (innovator are equivalent and demonstrate comparable quality standards. The method is simple and rugged for evaluation of quality control parameters of amlodipine for consistent batch to batch production of generic product.

Umoh Ekaete Dennis

2011-10-01

62

Assessing Health and Economic Outcomes of Interventions to Reduce Pregnancy-Related Mortality in Nigeria  

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Background: Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods: We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. ...

Erim, Daniel Odey; Resch, Stephen C.; Goldie, Sue J.

2012-01-01

63

Performance Assessment of Installed Solar PV System: A Case Study of Oke-Agunla in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the most reliable and promising renewable systems. This is of great importance for developing countries like Nigeria especially in the rural communities where there is little or no access to electricity. The use of solar energy will no doubt contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these villagers. Solar PV systems have been installed in some villages in Nigeria but unfortunately, the expected benefits from using these syste...

Olawale Saheed Ismail; Olusegun Olufemi Ajide; Fredrick Akingbesote

2012-01-01

64

An assessment of households’ vulnerability to economic shocks in south western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available High level of vulnerability of small-scale farmers and poor rural households to economic shocks occasioned by the economic policies of the Federal Government of Nigeria often hampers their effective participation in economic activities. Even though, social protection programmes are often advocated for reducing the vulnerability to economic shocks and stresses, lack of information of the determinants of households’ vulnerability often limit the effectiveness of such programmes. This study was therefore designed to carry out an assessment of vulnerability of households to economic shocks. Data used for the study were collected from one hundred and twenty (120 households. Descriptive statistics, economic vulnerability index and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. With a value of 0.703, the economic vulnerability index shows that households are about 70% vulnerable to economic shocks. The results also show that the significant variables affecting households’ vulnerability to economic shocks are the gross annual income and expenditure accounting for more than 70% of households’ vulnerability as indicated by the Coefficient of Multiple determination R2 = 0.711. The study shows that economic vulnerability of the households is high and recommends that government should help in ensuring stabilisation in prices of commodities and provision of soft loans to households for consumption and production needs.

A. Muhammad-Lawal

2012-12-01

65

Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

O. B. Banjoko

2007-12-01

66

Assessment of Adoption Status of Management Practices for West African Dwarf Goat Production in Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Obafemi Awolowo University Rural Development Project communities in Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the adoption status of West African Dwarf Goat (WADG management practices among the seventy (70 project participants purposively considered for the study. A structured interview was used to elicit quantitative data which was subjected to descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were also collected using focus group discussion (FGD, key informants interviews and onthe- spot assessment, which were conducted in seven rural communities. The study revealed, among others, that the farmers adopted the WADG management practices introduced to them at one point in time or the other during the project implementation, from which they derived a lot of socio-economic benefits. However, over 50 percent of the participants were no more involved in goat rearing since the project has stopped. Reasons attributed to this vary from community to community. Management practices like regular feeding (cut and carry system and washing were claimed to be labour intensive and a little bit difficult. All (100% respondents overwhelmingly expressed their desire for continuation and sustainability of the services provided by the project.

Odeyinka, SM.

2006-01-01

67

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

JE Eyo

2013-03-01

68

Quality Assessment of Broiler Day-old Chicks Supplied to Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Chick quality assessment was carried out on day-old chicks supplied to Maiduguri. A total of 30 broiler day-old chicks, comprising of 10 chicks each from three major suppliers were used for this study. The chicks were separately grouped according to sources, randomly designated as A, B and C. Physical, microbiological and serological qualities were assessed. Chicks from source B were found to have significantly (P< 0.05 higher mean body weight (33.8 ± 1.21g than chicks from sources A and C. Similarly, source B chicks had higher mean chick length (18.86 ± 0.21cm than chicks from other sources. Microbiological assessment revealed E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. as the common bacteria encountered from the navels and cloacal swabs, while Proteus spp. and Streptococcus spp. were only isolated from the navel and cloacal swabs of chicks from sources A and C respectively. Thirty percent of chicks from source C and 10% of chicks from source B were found with antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD. Similarly, 80%, 75% and 44.4% of chicks from sources B, C and A were found to have antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND respectively. Source B was found to supply day-old chicks of better quality to Maiduguri. Minimum standards are suggested to be set for physical, microbiological and serological qualities and a regulatory body should also be established to ensure strict adherence to the minimum standards of day-old chicks quality supplied to farmers in Nigeria.

Y.A. Geidam

2007-01-01

69

Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:24858228

Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

2014-08-15

70

Assessing Market for Multi-National Corporations at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid; Hints from Consumer Behaviour  

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Full Text Available Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs at Nigeria's BoP. The primary data for this study were collected using Questionnaires administered to consumers in South Western Nigeria. The secondary data used were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics Surveys; 2009/2010 Consumption Pattern and Consumer Expectation. Using a combination of primary and secondary data, the study employed multiple regression analysis on determinants of consumption at Nigeria's Bottom of the Pyramid. Findings of the study were mostly in conflict with the positions of the BoP advocates. On the basis of the trends in Consumer Behavior and the composition of baskets of goods at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the study concluded that the BoP market would be better served by indigenous micro, small and medium enterprises than Multi-National Corporations.

Nathaniel Adeyemi Adebayo

2013-09-01

71

Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.

2012-01-01

72

 Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment  

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Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4?0were females; while of the 20 controls,50?0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4?20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05?20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31?20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

Mohammed Sirajo Aminu

2012-03-01

73

Assessment of Tree Planting Efforts in Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to review tree planting activities within the Lagos Island Local Government Area of Nigeria. The city is a center of commercial activity within a hot tropical environment. Efforts have been made by both governmental and private bodies to promote tree planting within the area in mitigating the effects of urbanization on the environment particularly in the area of climate change. However, it became necessary to assess the tree planting activities so as to properly place its achievements and positive contributions to the environment. The review is also to highlight the areas where more efforts are needed. An enumeration of existing trees was carried out with the aim of assessing the distribution, specie types and density of coverage. A handheld GPS device was used to acquire the coordinates of trees which were then mapped. Further analysis using GIS was done. Interviews with tree planting officials and public volunteers were also carried out. A total of 293 trees was identified within the study area which is about 8.7 km2 in size. The result indicates a paucity of trees in the area despite the various tree planting efforts. A high mortality rate of trees was observed. Further findings indicated that the public’s desire to support, manage and maintain the planted trees was poor. It was observed that the tree planting activities were seen as a curse rather than a blessing by market men and women within the study area. This study suggests more public enlightenment and that edible species should be planted in place of exotic ones being used.

Olayemi Soladoye

2013-12-01

74

Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants  

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Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

Chukwuma Dim

2014-01-01

75

Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

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This document provides the framework to guide the development of the assessment instruments for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in geography. Altogether, four documents will be designed to guide the geography assessment and this Assessment Framework is the first. This framework is designed to assess the outcomes of…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2009

2009-01-01

76

Infiltration Rate Assessment of Coastal Plain (Ultisols) Soils for Sustainable Crop Production in the Frontiers of Calabar-Nigeria  

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The study on infiltration rate assessment of coastal plain soils for sustainable crop production in the frontiers of Calabar, Nigeria, was carried out in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils in the area and its implication in the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer were driven at 5cm into the soil with the aid of a sledge hammer before water was poured simultaneously into the rings. Infiltration rates were taken at 5,10,15, and 30 minutes intervals. ...

Egbai Oruk, O.; Uquatan, Ibor U.; Ewa, Ewa E.; Ndik, Eric J.; Okeke, O. Francis

2011-01-01

77

Assessment of Multi-band Capabilities in the Detection of Built-up Areas in Northwestern Nigeria  

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Corrected and uncorrected SPOT XS imageries are used to achieve comparative assessment of built-up areas land use and land cover classes in Northwestern Nigeria. The built-up environment showed on both imageries. The PAVM was used to determine the ability of the data sets to produce similar results over the area. Results indicate a low PAVM value for the tertiary level urban land use and land cover classes except the commercial areas. Vacant lands, industrial areas and open spaces showed zero...

Njoku, D. John; Okoli, Chidi G.; Uzoije, Atulegwu P.; Iwuji, Martin C.

2006-01-01

78

Preliminary Assessment of Anthropogenic Impact on Some Ecological Components of Abesan River, Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic disturbances on water quality parameters, diversity of macrophytes and benthic macro fauna of Abesan River, Lagos, Nigeria is reported. Some Physico-chemical and biological assessment were carried out at three sampling stations located at downstream (AR-1, midstream (AR-2 and upstream (AR-3 with different levels of disturbance. Results of measured physico-chemical parameters showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 in temperature, total acidity and chloride values between the sampling stations. Although, Total solids, conductivity, DO, Sulphate, BOD and COD were significantly higher (P < 0.05 at Stn.AR-1 than at Stns. AR-2 and AR-3, all physico-chemical parameters measured were within the limits of the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA and the World Health Organization (WHO regulatory standards except for high COD concentration in downstream station. Aquatic vegetation (macrophyte diversity was relatively abundant at upstream and downstream stations, suggesting possible impact of human activities on macrophyte diversity at midstream station where highest level of disturbance occurred. Chironomid larvae were the most abundant invertebrate fauna found in all three sampling stations but more abundant at sampling station AR-2 which corresponds to point of effluent entry to river where human activities is most intense. There is evidence that anthropogenic activities impact on the water quality of Abesan River. Biotic indices such as Sorensenen’s Index of Similarity and Margalef Index show that Abesan River is lightly polluted. The implications of these results and the need to monitor the water quality of Abesan River are highlighted.

Julius I. Agboola

2011-02-01

79

Assessment of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Selected Oil Spilled Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A prelude radiological impact assessment of oil spillage on the oil spilled environment, those saddled with the responsibility of cleaning the spilled crude and the host/nearest communities residents in Rivers State Nigeria has been examined in-situ, using radiation meters (Digilert 100 nuclear radiation meter and a geographical positioning system (GPS. Readings were taken twice in a month for three months in the five different oil spilled site and one measurement taken at a control site where there is no oil spillage but within oil bearing community. The average radiation values in all the oil spilled site is 0.019±0.006mRh-1, this is far above the 0.011±0.003mRh-1obtained for the control and ICRP 0.013±0.005mRh-1 world background levels. The average equivalent dose rate obtained in all the five studied site is 1.6mSvy-1 while the dose rate in the control is 0.93mSvy-1. The results showed that all the oil spilled sites yearly equivalent dose rate exceeded the 1mSvy-1 maximum permissible limit recommend for the public and non-nuclear industrial environment by International Council on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1999. All the oil spilled environment radiation levels exceeded the normal world average BIR level of 0.013mRh-1and other reported values in similar environment. This shows that the oil spilled environment have been impacted radiologically. This will pose some long-term health side effects on the clean-up workers and residents of the host communities. Interim proactive measures are recommended while further and a detail study is ongoing.

U. L. Anekwe

2013-03-01

80

The Health Profile and Impact Assessment of Waste Scavengers (Rag Pickers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the health profile and impact assessment of waste scavengers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To isolate and identify the potential pathogens that degrade the waste, samples were collected from 7 dumpsites and one control site. Serial dilutions of the samples were carried out and aliquots (0.1 mL of the diluted samples were inoculated into appropriate media. Similarly, blood, stool, urine and nasal swabs were collected from 80 waste scavengers and 20 control subjects. The blood samples were used for the determination of haematological parameters and widal test, while urine, stool and nasal swabs were used for microbiological analysis. Five genera of bacteria were isolated from the waste dumpsites, which include Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. while the control sites showed growth of Bacillus sp., only. The culture result from waste scavengers also showed similar organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Salmonella sp. There was significant decrease in the haemoglobin levels, haematocrit and Neutrophil counts of rag pickers as compared with the control subjects (p-1, HCT 36.33±16.7% and Neutrophil 33.33±14.06%, while control subjects were Hb 14.48±04 g dL-1, HCT 42.66±9.47% and Neutrophil 56.55±16.83%. The AST for waste scavengers was slightly increased, while the other LFT values were decreased compared to the control subjects. It can be inferred that waste scavengers serve as vehicles for the transmission of certain pathogens that degrade waste, thereby, constituting some public health hazards.

C.K. Wachukwu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Geochemical Assessment of Source Rock Qualities Penetrated by Nasara-1 Well (Gongola Basin), Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasara-1 is one in a set of 3 exploratory wells drilled in the ] Gongola basin of the upper Benue trough in Nigeria. Nasara-1 well was dry. Organic geochemical studies have been carried out to assess the qualities of source rocks penetrated by the well. The well penetrated entirely Cretaceous sequences of the Pindiga, Yolde and probably Bima formations. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents are generally very low, with none of the values in the siliciclastic sequences exceeding 1.0w%. About 50% of all TOC values lie between 0.50 -0.87wt%. Hydrogen indices (His) correlated against Tmax indicate source qualities that are of entirely gas-generative potential. However, at depths of between 4710- 4770 ft, TOC values of between 55.10 and 55.20wt% characteristic of coals have been recorded; with His of between 564 -589 mgHC/gTOC and Tmax of 423 -4280C. This is the first report of coal deposition in either the Pindiga, Yolde or Bima Formation. Extract yields (SOM) gave values of 360 -447mgHC/gTOC. Petrographic studies on the samples from this interval reported macerals of the amorphous bituminite group, indicating that the very high His and SOM resulted from migration of oil from probably deeper or laterally located yet to be identified source rocks. The total ion chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the extracts from this interval (4710 -4770ft) show some ramping of unresolved complex mixtures, attributable to biodegradation. Further biomarker data indicate a dominance of low molecular weight n-alkanes (C15 - C25)' pristane/phytane ratios of bewteen 0.8 tp 1.3 and very high contents of C28 regular steranes. These attributes indicate that the source Irock that generated the migrated oil was deposited in a lacustrine environment (C28) with high algal-bacterial contents, whose generated hydrocarbons have been intermittently subjected to anoxic to suboxic biodegradation processes

2003-11-16

82

Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices of Building Materials in Ogbomoso, South-West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This research study aims at assessing the radiological hazards indices of materials used for the construction of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical facility in Ogbomoso, South-West, Nigeria. The determination was sequel to the measurement of the radionuclide contents of the materials (Granite, Cement, Sand, and Concrete used in the construction of the building, using a high-purity germanium detector gamma spectrometer. The natural radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of 238U and 232Th as well as 40K and traces of globally released 137Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 27.79 and 30.65 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 29.22 Bq kg-1 for 238U; while for 232Th, the range was 16.69-22.73 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 19.71 Bq kg-1. Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in 40K with a range of 132.76-276.42 Bq kg-1, while the mean was 204.59 Bq kg-1. However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from 137Cs with a range of 1.03-14.90 Bq kg-1 and a mean of 13.32 Bq kg-1. All other values of other indicators were below the maximum permissible limit (MPL. The determination carried out prior to the building being occupied, showed no evidence of artificial radionuclide. Hence, the building materials may be considered safe for building construction and the values measured can therefore serve as reference for future measurement.

Ajayi Olanipekun Jonathan

2013-01-01

83

Assessment of a progressive electricity tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

2000-01-01

84

Obasanjo and the verdict of history: an assessment of Obasanjo’s administration in Nigeria 1999-2007  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of modern Nigeria cannot be complete without a mention of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. This is certainly because of the roles he had played in the leadership of Nigeria. He ruled Nigeria as a military Head of State from 1976 to 1979 and as a civilian president from 1999-2007, a feat no other Nigerian had accomplished.

Ifeanyi, Odoziobodo; Alu, Kevin; Ozigbo, Richards

2011-01-01

85

Assessment of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis  

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In a 5-year prospective study on idiopathic scoliosis, an attempt was made to elucidate the natural history of the disease and to determine which factors contribute to curve progression. A total of 85,622 children were examined for scoliosis in a prospective school screening study carried out in northwestern and central Greece. Curve progression was studied in 839 of the 1,436 children with idiopathic scoliosis of at least 10° detected from the school screening program. Each child was follow...

Soucacos, P. N.; Zacharis, K.; Gelalis, J.; Soultanis, K.; Kalos, N.; Beris, A.; Xenakis, T.; Johnson, E. O.

1998-01-01

86

Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

Orisakwe Orish

2012-08-01

87

Urban Households' Assessment of Environmental Safety: A Case Study of Ibadan, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Safe environment is a prerequisite for healthy living and socio-economic development of any nation. In this study, we analyzed the different forms of environmental problems being faced by households in Nigeria’s largest city. Data were collected from 120 households using the stratified sampling method. Our results show that majority of the households were faced with bushy and untidy environment, illegal structure/urban slum and improper disposal of refuse/feaces. Also, using the ranking method, the most pressing problems indicated to be solved are improper disposal of refuse and faeces, bad odors in the neighborhood, poor drainage and bushy/untidy environment. The study recommended serious enforcement of existing environmental laws in order to ensure safe environment for residents in Ibadan, among others.

A.S. Oyekale

2012-04-01

88

An Assessment of the Determinants of Share Price in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Listed Firms  

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Full Text Available This study examined the determinants of share prices in the Nigerian stock exchange market. To achieve the objective of this study, a total of 30 listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange market were selected and analyzed for the study using the judgmental sampling technique. Also, the Nigerian stock exchange fact book and the corporate annual reports for the period 2006-2010 were used for the study. The paper basically modelled the effects of financial performance, dividend payout and financial leverage on the share price of listed firms operating in the Nigerian stock exchange market using the regression analysis method. The study as part of its findings observed that there is a significant positive relationship between firms’ financial performance and the market value of share prices of the listed firms in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper concludes that firms’ financial performance, dividend payouts and financial leverage are strong determinants of the market value of share prices in Nigeria.

Uwalomwa Uwuigbe

2012-12-01

89

Land Resource Inventory and Ecological Vulnerability: Assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Key enviromental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its oil industry. The Delta covers 20,000 km2 within wetlands of 70,000 km2 formed predominently by sediment deposition.Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups,this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. It is the largest wetland and maintains the third-largest drainage area in Africa. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; freshwaterswamps and lowland rainforest.This incredibly well endowed ecosystem,which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet,in addition to supporting the abundant flora and fauna,arable terrain that can sustain a wide variety of crops,economic trees and more species of freshwater fish, than any ecosystem in West Africa.

O.J. Kamalu

2011-08-01

90

Preliminary Assessment of Flourine Level of Spring and Stream Water in South West Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four water samples from each of spring and stream in some locations across South-West, Nigeria, were analyzed for their fluoride levels and some other quality parameters. The samples coded 101, 202, 303, 404 representing spring water and 505, 606, 707, 808 representing stream water were analyzed for fluoride levels using Ion Selective Electrode method (ISE) while other quality parameters such as calcium, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and pH were determined using standard methods. The results...

2012-01-01

91

Assessment of Water Quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and Its Indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and we...

Kolawole, Olatunji M.; Ajayi, Kolawole T.; Olayemi, Albert B.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

92

Assessment of groundwater recharge in semi-arid region of northern nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average annual groundwater recharge value of three sites, representing the major geological basins of Northern Nigeria, ranged from 169 mm for Maiduguri to 837 mm in Kano area and the recharge coefficient for the zone ranged from 0.26 to 0.56. The month of August accounted for about 53% of the average annual estimate. About 69 mm (70%) of average annual potential natural groundwater recharge was lost, as a result. (author)

2008-01-01

93

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results ...

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

2007-01-01

94

Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale in Kano, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Resilience seemed to lie at the core of the recent promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. This concept has been well studied in western countries and less in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. The aim of the study is therefore, to demonstrate the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Resilience Scale (RS) and its 14-item short version (RS-14) in a Nigerian sample. Results The RS, RS-14, the Hospital Anxiety ...

Abiola Tajudeen; Udofia Owoidoho

2011-01-01

95

Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

Erim Daniel O

2012-09-01

96

Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June), mid rain (July–August) and late rain seasons (September–October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was c...

2010-01-01

97

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contam...

Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

2013-01-01

98

High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

Babalola, O.O.

1984-04-01

99

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

1992-05-01

100

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

An Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Development Centres (IDCS On Generation of Employment by Small –Scale Businesses in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study assessed the impact of Industrial Development Centres (IDCs on employment generation by small-scale businesses in Nigeria .The study was designed primarily to determine whether or not the generation of employment of small-scale businesses beneficiaries of the IDCs increased significantly after obtaining IDCs’ services. The study indicated that the services offered by many (66.7% of the IDCs led to significant increase in employment generation by large number of beneficiary small- scale businesses at 1% level but at 5% level the services offered by many (66.7% IDCs did not lead to significant increase in employment generation by large number of small-scale businesses beneficiaries. The study also indicated that there were significant differences among the IDCs regarding changes in employment generated by their beneficiary small-scale businesses after receiving services.

Dende Gbolagade Adejumo

2011-06-01

102

Nigeria:- Investment policy reform in Nigeria - OECD  

...Investment policy reform in Nigeria This Investment Policy Review examines Nigeria's achievements in developing an open and transparent investment regime and its efforts to ... Nigeria, policy framework for investment, PFI, investment regime, FDI Nigeria:- Investment policy reform in Nigeria - OECD Français ...E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Nigeria › Investment policy reform in Nigeria Investment policy reform in Nigeria ...Send Print Tweet   Since the return to democracy in 1999, Nigeria has embarked upon an ambitious reform programme towards greater economic openness and liberalisation. ...

103

Reading Framework for the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through The Nation's Report Card, the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students perform in…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2012

2012-01-01

104

Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Next Steps  

Science.gov (United States)

The report, "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress", provides a number of recommendations for addressing validity concerns about NAEP. This article identifies actions that could be taken by the Congress, the National Center for Education Statistics, and the National Assessment Governing Board--which share responsibility for…

Noell, Jay; Ginsburg, Alan

2009-01-01

105

Mathematics Framework for the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1973, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has gathered information about student achievement in mathematics. Results of these periodic assessments, produced in print and web-based formats, provide valuable information to a wide variety of audiences. They inform citizens about the nature of students' comprehension of the…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2012

2012-01-01

106

Reading Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through "The Nation's Report Card," the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students perform in…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2010

2010-01-01

107

An Assessment of the Effects of Interest Rate Deregulation in Enhancing Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study shows by means of robust statistical analysis, the changes in Agricultural production since the deregulation of interest rate in 1986. Using ordinary least square m ethod, data from 1986 to 2005 were examined. The empirical analysis carried out showed that interest rate deregulation has significant and positive impact on Agricultural productivity in Nigeria within the period under review. The empirical analysis also suggest that interest rate play a significant role in enhancing economic activities and as such, monetary authorities should ensure appropriate determination of interest rate level that will break the double - edge effect of interest rate on savers and local investors.

Abula Matthew

2010-03-01

108

Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and developments  

CERN Multimedia

A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of GOES. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Accordingly, a diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is designed to infer attributes of a favorable microburst environment. In addition, a GOES-West imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3 (upper level water vapor), band 4 (longwave infrared window), and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived products. This paper provides an updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst algorithms, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and presents validation results for the 2008 convective ...

Pryor, Kenneth L

2008-01-01

109

An Assessment of the State of Maintenance of Public Hospital Buildings in Southwest Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the state of maintenance of public hospitalbuildings in Southwest Nigeria, and in the process identifi es thesignifi cant difference(s in the operational state of Federal andState-owned public hospitals within the study area. In achievingthe aim, the study adopts a survey technique with a total of552 questionnaires, comprising 206 sampled maintenancestaff and 346 users of public hospitals. The survey covers 46public hospitals representing 40% of the total number of publichospitals existing in Southwest Nigeria. The 46 public hospitalsconsist of all the 11 Federal-owned hospitals and 35 randomlyselected State-owned. Data collected are analysed using theKendall Coeffi cient of Concordance and Pearson Chisquare. Thefi ndings of the study reveal that the state of maintenance of publichospital buildings is good. While the structure/fabric and physicalconditions are rated highly, the services are poorly rated. Thisstudy, which hypothesises that there is no difference in the stateof maintenance, fi nds statistical difference in the performance ofthe services. It recommends that Federal and State governmentsaddress neglect in the services sector and plan their maintenanceprogrammes more effectively.

Olumide Adenuga

2012-11-01

110

Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

A. Muhammad-Lawal

2013-09-01

111

Assessing the Knowledge and Skills in Clinical Ophthalmology of Medical Interns: Survey Results from Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To compare the skills and knowledge of clinical ophthalmology among medical interns in Enugu, Nigeria, to the recommendations of the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO). Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted of Medical Interns attending the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, from April 2010 to June 2010. Data on cohort demographics, undergraduate ophthalmology exposure, clinical skills and diagnostic competencies were collected and analyzed. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: The cohort comprised 81 males and 48 females (sex ratio = 1.7 : 1), aged 21–35 years (mean: 26.8 ± 2.4 years). The gender difference was significant (P < 0.05). The response rate was 88.7%. The duration of undergraduate ophthalmology exposure ranged from 1 to 4 weeks. Exposure was often adequate in cornea/external eye (95.3%), lens/cataract (95.3%) and glaucoma (92.2%); but not in vitreo-retinal disease (47.3%), neuro-ophthalmology (45.7%) and refractive surgery (0.0). The majority were competent at visual acuity testing (97.7%) and visual field examination (93.0%). There was lower competency at anterior chamber assessment (49.6%) and slit-lamp examination (39.5%). The majority could confidently diagnose conjunctivitis (96.1%) and cataract (90.7%), but not strabismus (42.6%) or macular degeneration (20.2%). Conclusions: Medical interns in Enugu displayed gaps in their undergraduate ophthalmology exposure, clinical knowledge and skills. This has implications for stakeholders in medical education and eye care delivery. Review of the curriculum, provision of training resources and compliance with ICO guidelines could address the deficiencies.

Eze, Boniface I.; Oguego, Ngozi C.; Uche, Judith N.; Shiwoebi, Jude O.; Mba, Chibuike N.

2012-01-01

112

Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study with research participants who had just consented to one of three ongoing research studies on oral health. Study sites included two centers, one in the northern and one in the southern part of Nigeria. Data were collected using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results A total of 113 research participants were interviewed. The southern part of the country had 58 respondents with the north having 55. The age range was 21 – 80 years. Mean age was 46.1 (SD16.3. The sample was predominantly male (69.9% and married (64.6%. There was poor understanding of some key elements of the informed consent process such as involvement in research, benefits, contacts, confidentiality and voluntariness. Some identified factors potentially compromising understanding were poverty, illiteracy, therapeutic misconception and confusion about the dual roles of the Dentist and the researcher. Conclusion The participants recruited into the oral health research in Nigeria did not adequately understand the studies they were invited to join nor do they understand their rights as research participants. Measures should be taken to include research bioethics into the curricula of Dental schools and to train oral health researchers in the country on research ethics.

Kass Nancy

2009-08-01

113

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while two institutions run the single mode distance education. The groundswell of interest is how computers can best be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the ODL system of education in the country. This led to the assessment of the computer literacy level of the distance learning students who are the beneficiaries of the ODL system in Lagos state. A sample of 858 ODL students from University of Lagos, National Teachers Institute (NTI and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN were used for the study. A self- developed questionnaire, made up of 15 items was administered to the respondents. The data collected were used to answer four research questions and test one hypothesis. It was found that 54.20% are computer literate; there exists gender differences in the computer literacy with 23.78% female and 30.42% male. There are also age differences. Some of the problems include lack of access to computers, inadequate electricity supply, slow broadband and high cost of internet access. The research hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected computer literacy level of the ODL students in Lagos state was rejected. Based on the results some conclusions and recommendations were made.

OSUJI, U. S. A

2010-10-01

114

Assessment of Qualities of Surface Water, Sediments and Aquatic Fish from Selected Major Rivers in South-Western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Available sources of portable water for drinking, domestic and industrial chores in Nigeria are dwindling because of concomitant increase in population, urbanization and industrial activities. This study assessed the qualities of Surface Water (SW, Sediment (SD and Tilapia Fish (Oreichromis niloticuss (TF samples collected from Asejire, Oni, Ona, Ogun, Ogunpa, Eleyele and Majidun rivers and Lagos lagoon in south-western Nigeria. Samples of SW, SD and TF were collected at strategic locations from each water source and analyzed using standard procedures. SW for all locations were grossly polluted with organics as indicated by high COD (72.8-292 mg/L and BOD (30.8-143 mg/L and low DO (1.04-6.68 mg/L levels. Lead levels in SW for all locations exceeded WHO and NIS limits for drinking water. Cadmium levels in sediments from Oni, Ona, Ogun and Ogunpa rivers also exceeded Canadian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG of 0.6 mg/kg. Fish from Lagos lagoon were most polluted with Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu. Principal Component analysis showed that 86.4% of overall metal load for SW was from Ogunpa and Eleyele rivers, whereas 62.9% metal load for S was from Ogunpa, Eleyele and Ogun rivers. The metal pollution index order was Pb>Cu>Co>Ni>Cr>Cd. Lead and nickel showed strong positive correlation between SW and SD, suggesting common source while Pb and Cr showed strong negative correlation with Cd between SW and TF. Unsafe disposal practices of wastes into or within the vicinity of water bodies should be discourage.

E.U. Etim

2012-12-01

115

Performance assessment task team progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

1994-01-01

116

Research progress in dynamic security assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

1982-12-01

117

Women participants in research: assessing progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviewed 1,050 articles published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the American Journal of Psychiatry, and the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in 1982 and 1991/92. The NEJM included the fewest female subjects at both assessments (26.6% in 1982 and 36.5% in 1991/92), and one way analysis of variance showed a significantly smaller percentage of women in the NEJM compared to either the AJP or the JCCP (F = (2,1048) = 11.5, p < .001) in 1991/92. The NEJM did increase the percentage of women participants over the decade (t(534) = 3.0, p = .001), but there was no increase in the proportion of its studies including women. Attempts to encourage the inclusion of women in health-related research have been only modestly successful. Medical research, in particular, continues to underrepresent women in its published studies. PMID:7900404

Low, K G; Joliceour, M R; Colman, R A; Stone, L E; Fleisher, C L

1994-01-01

118

The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS/WHO reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on protein which might be a contributing factor to students’ poor ...

Akinyemi, O.

2009-01-01

119

Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: Assessment of the effectiveness of public - private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna state, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : In an effort to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection, the Kaduna State TB program in Nigeria started Public-Private Mix (PPM DOTS) in 2002. This study assessed and compared the TB case management practices and treatment outcomes of the public and private health facilities involved in the TB program. Methods : A comparative cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 5 private and 10 public health facilities providing TB services for at least two years ...

2009-01-01

120

Parasitologic Assessment of Two-Dose and Monthly Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) in Lagos, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) is a key strategy in the control of malaria in pregnancy. However, reports of increasing level of resistance to SP using nonpregnant populations have made it imperative for the continuous monitoring of the efficacy of SP in pregnant women. This study assessed using microscopy, monthly dosing and the standard two-dose regimen among 259 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lagos, Nigeria that consent...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard was not made available. This study attempted to assess the spatial impact of the October 2012 flooding of the Niger-Benue basin on the surrounding areas using the moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometre (MODIS data of NASA Terra satellite and developed a geospatial methodology for detecting and extracting the flood risk areas and the vulnerable population to flooding within the basin. The integration of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data within the GIS platform was able to produce series of thematic maps which was used to generate a geospatial database for flood risk analysis and assessment. The result of the analysis effectively demonstrated the contribution of geospatial methods in mitigating and monitoring the effect of flooding along the Niger-Benue basin. It was therefore, suggested that government agencies and policy makers should adopt this powerful technique for reliable and well synthesized information which is a vital component of flood risk assessment and planning.

Felix Ndidi Nkeki

2013-04-01

122

Assessment of the Marketing of Frozen Fish (Iced Fish in Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the marketing of frozen fish in Edo State of Nigeria. The primary data used for the study were derived using structured questionnaires administered to 180 randomly selected frozen fish marketers from six markets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. From the findings, marketing of fish is mainly carried out by females, most of the respondents are in the economically active age group and are mostly married; they have a lot of experience in the business, majority of them are retailers selling less than four cartons of fish on daily basis and most of them have formal education. From the gross margin analysis and t-test, marketing of frozen fish is profitable in the area. However, it was recommended that major constraints like poor storage/preservation, inadequate capital and marketing costs should be tackled to improve the efficiency of marketing system of frozen fish in the State.

Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene

2013-09-01

123

The science assessment in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP of USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides a brief review on the science assessment in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP of USA in the last decade (1996, 2000 and 2005. It focuses on some key elements of the assessment framework and assessment criteria of NAEP and critically examines certain assessment items as selected from those three rounds of assessment exercise. Besides, there is a concise analysis on the educational implications of NAEP.

Helan WU

2008-06-01

124

Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

S. A. Arabi,

2011-08-01

125

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

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The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and f...

2012-01-01

126

An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

P.C. Mmom

2011-07-01

127

Managing Nigeria’s Environment: The Unresolved Issues  

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Full Text Available ntal Impact Assessment Act of 1992, as well as the Federal Ministry of Environment in 1999. This review study examines Nigeria’s environmental legal framework and the unresolved issues amidst environmental pollution and degradation in the country. Two decades of the EIA Act in Nigeria, the country’s environment is still characterized by ecological problems, unplanned growth and increasing problems of domestic and industrial waste disposal and pollution. Economic development activities, especially in the oil and gas sector, accelerate the loss of topsoil and deforestation, loss of habitat, loss of species and loss of biodiversity, as well as degeneration of wetlands. Water shortages and floods lead to deterioration of urban environmental quality and play a major role in transmission of communicable diseases. Corruption in the water sector is another major player in environmental degradation worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Weak implementation has rendered EIA Act a paper Tiger.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2011-01-01

128

An assessment of the eye care workforce in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and distribution of an appropriate eye care workforce are fundamental to reaching the goals of "VISION 2020: The right to sight", the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness launched jointly by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness with an international membership of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations. Periodic evaluation of these parameters is important in the journey towards achieving these goals. The objectives of the study were to determine the availability and distribution of human resources for eye care delivery in Enugu Urban, south-eastern Nigeria. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey, the setting for which was all public and privately owned eye care facilities in Enugu Urban, Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, in October 2006. The health map of Enugu Urban and the hospital register of the Public Health Department of the Enugu State Ministry of Health were used to identify the eye health care facilities in Enugu Urban. A structured, pretested, researcher-administered questionnaire was used to capture data on cadre and distribution of the eye care personnel in these facilities. Relevant population data were obtained from the Enugu Regional Office of the National Population Commission. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to generate percentages and proportions. Eye care personnel-to-population ratios were calculated and compared to World Health Organization recommendations. Results Out of Enugu State's population of three million, Enugu Urban accounts for 22%. The population of Enugu Urban is distributed between the three-component Local Government Areas comprising Enugu North (31%, Enugu South (30% and Enugu East (39%. There are 45 eye care facilities (public: 31 (69%; private: 14 (31% employing 252 eye care workers (public: 226 (90%; private: 26 (10% aged 18 to 63 (mean = 36.1 years, SD = 2 years comprising males (36: 14% and females (216: 86%, giving a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:6. The available eye care workforce is unevenly distributed between Enugu North (128: 51%, Enugu South (65: 26% and Enugu East (59: 23% Local Government Areas. Conclusion Using broad and crude World Health Organization standards for minimum provider-to-population ratios, there is a sufficient eye care workforce in Enugu Urban. However, the maldistribution of the workforce creates a major barrier to uptake of eye care services. Policy modifications could reverse this maldistribution.

Maduka-Okafor Ferdinand

2009-05-01

129

Water Quality Assessment of Ake Stream, Near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available Analysis of the physico-chemical and biological quality of Ake stream located near College of Advanced and Professional Studies Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria was examined over duration of 7 months. The survey was conducted in the period between April and September based on random sampling with a view to ascertaining the impurity level of the stream. The physico-chemical analysis gave average results for Temperature, Turbidity, Iron, Chromium and Sulphate as 28.70C, 200.5NTU, 2.0, 0.2 and 44.3mg/l respectively. The Bacterial load per 100ml of water ranged between 978 – 1800 giving average value of 1389. The overall results revealed that the stream is heavily stagnated, especially in terms of microbial load, which is an indication of human and feacal contamination. Most of the physical and chemical perimeters were above the maximum permissible levels, indicating that treatment is required before water from the source can be used for domestic applications.

Dr. Aho, I.M.

2013-10-01

130

Preliminary Assessment of Flourine Level of Spring and Stream Water in South West Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Four water samples from each of spring and stream in some locations across South-West, Nigeria, were analyzed for their fluoride levels and some other quality parameters. The samples coded 101, 202, 303, 404 representing spring water and 505, 606, 707, 808 representing stream water were analyzed for fluoride levels using Ion Selective Electrode method (ISE while other quality parameters such as calcium, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and pH were determined using standard methods. The results obtained showed low fluoride concentrations of 0.15 ppm and 0.03 ppm in samples 101 and 202 respectively (spring water while other water samples contained no traces of fluoride. These values are far below World Health Organization (WHO limits of 1.50 ppm fluoride for drinking water. The water contained low calcium and chloride contents, ranging from 20.0 mg/l to 37.5 mg/l (hardness indicating that the water is soft. pH values of between 5.6 and 6.0 were also obtained in contrast to 6.5-8.5 as stipulated in the World Health Organization guideline (WHO for drinking water.

Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

2012-01-01

131

Assessing Principals’ Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper examined principals’ quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. ‘Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance Questionnaire’ (SSPQAQ and ‘Students’ Academic Performance Checklist’ (SAPC were used to collect data for the study. The instruments were validated, and test-retest method used to determine their reliabilities yielded 0.74 and 0.71 respectively. One main hypothesis and five operational hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The study further showed that principals’ gender and school location had no significant impact on students’ academic performance. The implication of the findings is that ability of the principals to put in place strategies that would ensure quality in the production of school output is a critical factor in determining school effectiveness. It is against this background that the paper concludes that quality assurance is a function for all stakeholders within the school system. Because it is a management function, the principal should coordinate teachers and other staff members to see that their activities are geared towards ensuring quality in the schools. As part of quality assurance strategies, the principal should recognize the philosophy of education in all aspects of school activities.

Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi

2014-01-01

132

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Craig W. Hedberg

2013-08-01

133

Assessment of Water Quality in Asa River (Nigeria and Its Indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish  

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Full Text Available Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

Anthony I. Okoh

2011-11-01

134

Pollution Assessment of the Ebute Meta Creek Impacted by Domestic Sewage Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The ecological and economic significance of creeks is of global importance to coastal areas. These advantages have been underutilized in many developing countries resulting in considerable pollution of its water ways. This study investigates the degree of pollution of the Ebute Meta creek system Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. Surface water, ground water, soil, sediment and plant samples were collected between the months of May and July 2011. Average surface water DO (2.39±1.45 mg/L, BOD (167±53 mg/L, COD (329±106 mg/L, NO3 - (28.3±3.67 mg/L, NH3 (22.3±4.8 mg/L and (Pb 0.23±0.02 mg/L levels indicated gross organic and metal pollution. Ground water similarly, showed elevated levels of BOD (12.9±0.7 mg/L, nitrate (36.1±5.35 mg/L and ammonia (13.7±2.6 mg/L. Metal levels in surface water and sediment was strongly correlated (r=0.89. Topsoil and vegetation samples around the vicinity of the creek did not show any significant level of contamination. There was no significant differences (p=0.05 in surface and ground water quality among the sampling points. The creek water was classified as heavily polluted. This could affect the aquatic flora and fauna of the creek ecosystem. Remediation measures should be employed to clean up the water way system and the environment.

E.U. Etim

2012-08-01

135

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

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The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

136

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02±0.13 to 1.56±0.06 mg L-1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg L-1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

J.C. Akan

2007-01-01

137

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria  

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The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the 226Ra and 232Th contents were lower, whereas the 40K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

2010-01-01

138

Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish.  

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Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption. PMID:22163210

Kolawole, Olatunji M; Ajayi, Kolawole T; Olayemi, Albert B; Okoh, Anthony I

2011-11-01

139

Evaluation of NORM and Dose Assessment in an Aluminium Industry in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in bauxite ore, alumina, dross tailing, aluminium scraps and soil samples collected from an aluminium industry in Nigeria were determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K content of the samples ranged from 16 ± 6 (alumina to 31 ± 10 (scrap, 41 ± 0.12 (scrap to 134 ± 21(bauxite and 47 ± 14 (bauxite to 354 ± 8 (scrap Bq·kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K in all the samples are lower than the world average for soil while 232Th is higher with the exception of alumina and scrap. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and the members of the public, the radium equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to the radionuclides at 1 m above ground surface were calculated. The radium equivalent activities which varied between 88 ± 10 (alumina and 222 ± 34 (bauxite Bq·kg-1 are within the safety recommended limit of 370 Bq·kg-1. The mean annual effective doses calculated from the absorbed dose rates in air were between 54 ± 6 (alumina and 134 ± 20 (bauxite ?Sv·y-1, which is lower than the 1 mSv·y-1 recommended for the general public. The annual gonadal dose equivalent of all the samples with the exception of alumina was higher than the world average for soil.

Janet Ayobami Ademola

2013-10-01

140

An assessment of natural radioactivity of soils and its external radiological impact in southwestern Nigeria.  

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Soil samples collected from five states in the southwestern part of Nigeria have been analyzed for activity concentration of gamma-ray emitters. The States were Oyo, Lagos, Ondo, Ogun, and Osun. Activity concentration measurement was carried out using a co-axial type high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Spectral analyses were performed using spectrometry software. The activity concentration measured ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.2 Bq kg(-1) for 137Cs to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. (40)K accounted for most of the activity. The calculated absorbed dose rates in air at 1.0 m above the ground ranged from 6 to 303 nGy h(-1) with a mean and standard deviation of 60.5 nGy h(-1) and 63.2 nGy h(-1), respectively. Estimated annual outdoor effective dose equivalent varied from 8 to 370 mSv y(-1). The calculated collective dose equivalent values for the five states ranged from 87,000 person-Sv to 600,000 person-Sv. The estimated annual outdoor effective values were considerably higher than the world soil average value of 70 microSv y(-1) reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:18469589

Ajayi, O S; Ibikunle, S B; Ojo, T J

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

????????????——?????????? Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Service——Theory, Method and Progress  

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Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Ecosystem service is a new approach for human beings to understand forest ecosystems, and an important part of forestry sustainable development. By analysis of ecosystem service concept, value source and characteristics, the study indicates that: ecosystem services value is from of large amount of human’s labor to maintain the normal functions of ecosystem; ecosystem services are characterized by society and nature compound, secondary, multidimension, dynamic and commonweal. The main contents and value assessment methods of forest ecosystem services are introduced as well. Based on forest ecosystem service value assess-ment study progress at home and abroad, weak link and development trend of forest ecosystem services value assessment are predicted as follow: standardized indicator system, market mechanism and negative effect as-sessment.

???

2011-03-01

142

Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce barriers to condom use. Improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention behaviour are likely to require that these programmatic efforts be continued, scaled up, done in conjunction with other interventions, and targeted towards individuals with specific socio-demographic characteristics.

Adewuyi Alfred

2006-05-01

143

An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI  

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Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

Musa Haruna D.

2011-11-01

144

Using Landsat 5 imagery in the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks around Dutsin-Ma, northwestern Nigeria  

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Landsat's TM imagery of January 1986 covering Dustin - Ma and the surrounding areas in northwestern Nigeria was used for the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks (Basement Complex) terrain. Employing ER Mapper (5.2), surface indicator for the occurrence of groundwater such as thriving vegetation in non - irrigated lands, and fracture were identified. These were interpreted vis - a - vis the tectonic development of the are. Lineaments interpreted as fractures show two prominent strike maxima that lie between 0000 and 0300, with the more common lying between 0000 and 0100. These strike maxima correspond to the stress axis of the Pan African orogeny. The lushness of vegetation along these strikes is higher than in the neighbouring areas and indicate the presence of groundwater. On the basis of lineament density and relative lushness of the vegetal cover, the area was divided into three main hydrogeological zones namely, the zones with the highest, intermediate, and least groundwater potential, for which ground truthing is recommended for their confirmation. Geophysical surveys for the siting of boreholes are also recommended parallel to strikes between 270oand 300o. It is judged that the groundwater resource for this area is low because of the general lack of moist or seepage areas, the low threshold value. (0.12) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the generally dispersed nature of the vegetation

2000-01-01

145

Assessment of the Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment of Selected Communities in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This Paper assessed the "Impact of Oil and Gas Resource Exploration on the Environment" of Delta State oil producing communities of Nigeria. It examined the problems associated with Oil exploration and its mitigation. Primary and Secondary data were used to source data for the set objectives. The theoretical framework was based on the resource curse theory and the environmental externalities theory. It was established that various problems such as oil spillage, retardation of vegetation growth, soil infertility, ill-health to members of the community, displacement of the people of the area, constant protestation of host communities, socio-economic deprivation, and perceived marginalization of the people are associated with oil resource exploration. This research concludes that the oil bearing communities have not adequately been compensated for harm done them through degradation of the ecosystem caused by several years of oil exploration. Their oil resource wealth has been turned to oil resource curse as they are disempowered, and condemned to perpetual underdevelopment. It is recommended that Federal Government should exert maximum efforts in assuring strict compliance of its legal instruments by the oil participating industries for a sustainable development in the region.

Christiana Kayinwaye Omorede

2014-06-01

146

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN SOME ANTIPERSPIRANT FORMULATIONS MARKETED IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

Kasim, L. S.

2013-08-01

147

Assessment of Pollutants in Water and Sediment Samples in Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the levels of some physicochemical parameters in water and sediment samples from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from five point designated as S1 to S5 for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO total dissolved solid (TDS, total suspended solid (TSS anions and trace element. Sediment samples were also collected for the determination of heavy metals and total organic carbon (TOC. These parameters were determined using approved standard procedures. The levels of heavy metals in the water and sediment samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The concentrations of DO, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, TOC, nitrite, nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, and Chloride in the water samples from the five sampling point were higher than the WHO limits for the protection of fish and other aquatic life. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Co in the water samples were higher than the WHO guideline limits, indicating severed pollution of this portion of Lake Chad. This high level of heavy metals in the water samples is expected owing to runoff of wastewater from agricultural activities within the study area. However, the concentrations of all the metals in the sediment samples were higher than the recommended values stipulated by WHO; indicating that the sediment samples from this portion of Lake Chad were also polluted by heavy metals. Results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the concentrations of all the parameters studied were statistically significant among the sampling points. The prolonged presence of heavy metals in the water and sediment samples from this portion of Lake Chad give course for concern with time. The results of the study implies that continuous monitoring has to be carried out to ascertain the long-term impact of anthropogenic inputs to take remedial measures so as to ensure the health of aquatic life.

Fanna Inna Abdulrahman

2012-11-01

148

Improving quality of malaria treatment services: assessing inequities in consumers' perceptions and providers' behaviour in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about quality of malaria treatment services of different healthcare providers is needed to know how to improve the treatment of malaria since inappropriate service provision leads to increased burden of malaria. Hence, the study determined the technical and perceived quality of malaria treatment services of different types of providers in three urban and three rural areas in southeast Nigeria. Methods Questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected healthcare providers about the technical quality of their malaria treatment services. Exit polls were used to obtain information about perceived quality from consumers. A socio-economic status (SES index and comparison of data between urban and rural areas was used to examine socio-economic status and geographic differences in quality of services. Results The lowest technical quality of services was found from patent medicine dealers. Conversely, public and private hospitals as well as primary healthcare centres had the highest quality of services. Householders were least satisfied with quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops and were mostly satisfied with services rendered by public and private hospitals. The urbanites were more satisfied with the overall quality of services than the rural dwellers. Conclusion These findings provide areas for interventions to equitably improve the quality of malaria treatment services, especially for patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops, that are two of the most common providers of malaria treatment especially with the current change of first line drugs from the relatively inexpensive drugs to the expensive artemisinin-based combination therapy, so as to decrease inappropriate drug prescribing, use, costs and resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy.

Obikeze Eric

2010-10-01

149

Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Lead (Pb levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June, mid rain (July–August and late rain seasons (September–October for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb.

John Kanayochukwu Nduka

2010-06-01

150

Assessment of environmental distribution of lead in some municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April-June), mid rain (July-August) and late rain seasons (September-October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 +/- 0.00 and 80.36 +/- 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 +/- 0.01 and 4,238.29 +/- 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 +/- 0.01 and 21.28 +/- 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13-0.49 mg/kg and 0.15-0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 +/- 0.000 to 0.163 +/- 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb. PMID:20644686

Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2010-06-01

151

Assessment of simple movements and progression of Huntington's disease  

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Instrumental measurement of simple motion sequences reflects impairment in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). The objectives were to study the progress of symptoms of HD and tapping results in 42 patients with HD, without symptomatic drug treatment over 3?years. Assessment moments were at baseline, and at years 1, 2 and 3. Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) total score and UHDRS arm score significantly increased. Motor test outcomes considerably worsened. Instrumental t...

2007-01-01

152

Assessing and monitoring student progress in e-learning environments  

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E-learning has emerged as a form of pedagogy and as a delivery system with broad implications for meeting personnel needs nationally in special education. At present, it is important to make investments in research and development to ensure that this new pedagogy becomes fully developed and is appropriately applied. Assessment and monitoring of student progress in e-learning environments is an important element of this new form of pedagogy that requires research attention to ma...

Meyen, Edward L.; Aust, Ronald J.; Bui, Yvonne N.; Isaacson, Robert E.

2003-01-01

153

Oil and Debt Management in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nigeria’s debt at independent was put at about N488.8 million which was mainly long-term development soft loans. The world economic recession and fall in price of oil in 1982 were identified as major factors that led many countries to debt crisis. Nigeria’s debt accumulated due to gross mismanagement of resources and loans contracted as well as failure of governments to keep-up with repayment schedules. This paper assesses the management of Nigeria’s debt. It examined the role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs in discussing the politics of Nigeria’s debt management vis-à-vis motivational factor behind consideration for loans, disbursement and at what rate? The paper employed both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was sourced from Debt Management Office, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Nigeria and National Institute for Social and Economic Research while secondary data was sourced from journals, books, official government gazettes and internet. Data was analyzed using descriptive method. The result of the analyses revealed that 79% of the respondents agreed that Nigeria’s oil contributed to its huge debt accumulation and denied it debt cancellation. Also 65% believed that government has been prudent in managing the nation’s debt with every action taking in the interest of the people even when it failed to keep up with repayment schedules. The dependency theory formed the basis of discussion and analyses in this work. It concluded that, oil was a major factor behind the granting of loans to Nigeria as well as responsible for fiscal irresponsibility on part of the government which led to the failure of efficient management of such loans. This paper recommended that there should be prudent management of the economy while all forms of corruption must be eradicated to bring about real development.

Ako-Nai R. I.

2013-05-01

154

Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

Obiageli R. Ezeigbo

2013-04-01

155

GIS Based Assessment of Flood Risk and Vulnerability of Communities in the Benue Floodplains, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The focus of this study is to assess the 2012 floods incidence that swept the communities along the coastal areas of Nigeria as well as those along the valleys of the major rivers in the country. It was observed in the study that the floods at the valleys and downstream of River Benue were seriously devastating following the release of water from the Lagdo dam that was located at the upstream of River Benue in the Republic of Cameroon. The method of data collection employed in this study is the application of Geo-information techniques which involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS to capture the coordinates of 120 communities which cut across the seven LGAs located along the valleys of River Benue in Adamawa State. These communities were linked to a generated digital map of River Benue valley using ArcGIS software to assess each of the communities for flood vulnerability. Vulnerability was classified into four: highly vulnerable, vulnerable, marginally vulnerable and not vulnerable. The major findings revealed that all the 120 communities in the area were described as vulnerable to flood, that is, they are either highly vulnerable, vulnerable or marginally vulnerable. 29 communities representing 32.5% were located on highly vulnerable areas, 35 communities (representing 29.17% were found to be located within the Benue Basin but outside the buffer zones which are classified as vulnerable areas, while the remaining 46 communities (38.33% were located on the plains which are classified as marginally vulnerable areas. Escape routes and good sites for refugee camps during floods were also identified while database creation and analysis for flood vulnerability were also developed. It is therefore, recommended that all the settlements that were highly vulnerable be relocated to higher grounds to prevent future occurrence, while the communities that are located within the Benue Basin but outside the buffer zones should employ the use of GIS tool for effective planning and proper early warning systems.

Ikusemoran Mayomi

2013-12-01

156

Infiltration Rate Assessment of Coastal Plain (Ultisols Soils for Sustainable Crop Production in the Frontiers of Calabar-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study on infiltration rate assessment of coastal plain soils for sustainable crop production in the frontiers of Calabar, Nigeria, was carried out in order to examine the infiltration rate of soils in the area and its implication in the overall crop production process. Double ring infiltrometer were driven at 5cm into the soil with the aid of a sledge hammer before water was poured simultaneously into the rings. Infiltration rates were taken at 5,10,15, and 30 minutes intervals. The assessment or determination of infiltration rate was preceded by laboratory analysis of soil samples for the particle size distribution. The mean values of 74.0, 12.0: and 12.6 for sand, silt and clay were obtained respectively. While infiltration rates were well above the recommended values for crop production. Result from different locations proved that the area has monolithic soil characteristics. The result equally showed that the least range of infiltration rate of 14.4-60.0 was well above the optimal range of 0.7-3.5 or the suitable infiltration range of 3.5 - 7.5. It would be said, that, given the increasing need for food production to cope with the demand in Calabar Metropolis, the effect of excessive water infiltration as evidence in this study, will continue to impede sustainable crop production except appropriate measures are contemplated. These measures may include adequate cover cropping, temporary abandonment of farm land or skeletal crop farming with compost, green or farmyard manures. This will help improve the structure and restore soil potentials. Apart from these, suitability evaluation of land in order to effectively categorize soils on the basis of their potential for optimal use could as well be imperative.

EGBAI ORUK O.

2011-08-01

157

Assessment and Item Specifications for the NAEP 2009 Mathematics Assessment. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Mathematics NAEP, 2009  

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This paper presents the assessment and item specifications for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 mathematics assessment. "Chapter Two" contains descriptions of the five major content areas of mathematics (Number Properties and Operations, Measurement, Geometry, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability, and Algebra), as…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2007

2007-01-01

158

Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS)  

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The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P) were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Als...

2010-01-01

159

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.

Veronica O. Ameh

2014-04-01

160

Consumer assessment of perceived quality of antenatal care services in a tertiary health care institution in Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Objective: To describe consumer assessment of the perceived-quality of antenatal care services in a tertiary health care institution in Osun State.Material and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, information was obtained (utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire from 289 pregnant women randomly selected from the Antenatal Clinic (ANC of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital. Chi-square statistic test was used to explore associations. Level of significance was p<0.05.Results: Mean age of respondents was 30.93 + 9.109 years, the modal age group was 26-30 years, 6.2% were single while 93.8% were ever-married, 3.5% had no formal education, while 39.1%, 53.3% had secondary and tertiary education respectively. Rate of adolescent pregnancy in this study was 4.2%. About a third each of respondents had parity of one and two respectively. Age, occupation, husband’s payment of booking fees, and previous ANC attendance were all significantly related to place of previous delivery (p<0.05. More than 90% of respondents assessed health personnel’s attitudes positively; however, an assessment of poor quality of care in terms of time spent in clinic (too long/too short was given by 66.5% of respondents, whilst almost one quarter (22.5% were not satisfied with the over-all perceived quality of care received. The most frequently mentioned reason for non-satisfaction with quality of care received was wasting of time in the clinic.Conclusion: Although the majority of respondents assessed the overall quality of care received as satisfactory, a major point of dissatisfaction in many respondents is the length of time spent in the ANC. To achieve the MDG of reduction in maternal mortality especially in Nigeria, the quality of ANC care needs to be improved, which will, in turn, lead to increased utilization of ANC services and an ultimate reduction in maternal mortality rate.

Esther Olufunmilayo Asekun-olarinmoye

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Geotechnical and geochemical assessments of shales in Anambra basin, SE-Nigeria as compacted clay liner in landfill system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. A major constraint to the development of properly engineered landfills is the high cost of synthetic liners and its scarcity in the local markets in developing country like Nigeria, which calls for alternative local materials for landfill liner. Consequently, crushed shale / clay shale deposits appear inexpensive and can be utilized to effectively retard the spread of leachate from landfills. Hence, this study focus on the assessment of geotechnical, geochemical and sorption characteristics of shale units from Anambra Basin, SE-Nigeria for suitability or otherwise as compacted clay liner (CCL) in landfills. Twelve samples consisting of three each from four different formations namely: Enugu, Nkporo, Imo and Ameki formations were collected and subjected to basic geotechnical tests such as grain size analysis, Atterberg's limits, compaction and coefficient of permeability following standard testing methods (BS 1377). In addition, mineralogical X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and geochemical ICP-MS / ICP-ES analyses were employed for geochemical characterization. CEC and batch sorption tests with respect to Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn as contaminant in leachates were also employed for sorption characterization. The results of the geotechnical tests conducted on the shale samples revealed that the crushed shale samples have liquid limit range of 55-79%, percentage fines of 80-93%, percentage clay of 23- 36% and activity of 0.8-2.1, all of which satisfy the basic requirements of clay liners according to the specifications of Daniel, 1993. Samples from Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shale have plasticity index range of 40- 54% which is above the recommended limit of 35% and thus likely to exhibit excessive shrinkage and settlement. However, the laboratory compaction shows maximum dry density of 16.8-18.4 kN/m3 and 17.3- 19.1 kN/m3 respectively for Standard Proctor and Modified AASHTO energy levels which suggests no significant change the density irrespective of the compaction level to be utilized in the field. In addition, the permeability of 2.14 - 9.12 x 10-5cm/s is higher than 1 x 10-7 cm/s recommended for typical isolation barriers, which implies negative impacts in respect of possible attendant contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater by the leachates. The geochemical analyses of the samples reflect relatively high SiO2 values of 52.1-55.8% compared to Al2O3 of 16.96-27.45% and Fe2O3 of 3.10-7.19%, which suggest the dominance of kaolinite as confirmed by the XRD. Nonetheless, the occurrence of illite in Enugu and Nkporo shales and smectite in Imo shale is a confirmation of the relatively high plasticity indices mentioned earlier and indication of good sorption properties. The CEC of the samples have relatively low value of 2.6 - 5.1 cmol/kg, which is less than the recommended minimum of 10 meq/100 g. The sorption capacity of the samples with respect to Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni ranges from 24.4 to 34.7 ppm with metal sorption in the order of Zn >Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni. The overall assessment revealed that the metal uptake, CEC and plasticity index of the shale samples are positively correlated suggesting strong influence of the clay mineralogy on the sorption characteristics of the samples. In spite of the observed relatively high permeability and swelling potential as well as moderate good sorption properties, the study shale units could be enhanced to the required specification through appropriate amendment technology. Though the shale units do not generally satisfy the requirements of compacted clay liners, however, based on the sorption characteristics, Enugu, Nkporo and Imo shales can be adequately employed for attenuation of contaminant leachates in double, composite or and multiple lining systems

2012-10-01

162

Challenges Facing the Administration of Educational Assessment Measures at the Secondary School Level in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examined some of the challenges posed to the authentic assessment and measurement procedures as a policy tool in the Nigerian education system, particularly, the acceptability and universality of common assessment of secondary school students. Considering fit diversified educational backgrounds of these students, it appears that our current educational assessment processes do not tally with, the practicability of the test end results. It was therefore, suggested that educational performance in common assessment measures should be based on the principles of crude grasp of the whole. Only in this would our pluralistic complex, society be recognized.

S.A. Onasanya

2010-01-01

163

Liver Function Assessment in Malaria, Typhoid and Malaria-Typhoid Co-Infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fever are among the most endemic diseases in the tropics and are associated with poverty and underdevelopment with significant morbidity and mortality. Both diseases can lead to liver damage if not properly treated. The liver function assessment was therefore conducted on (90 volunteer patients; comprising (30 patients with malaria only, (30 with typhoid only and (30 with malaria-typhoid co-infection randomly selected from Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and (20 healthy individuals were used as control. Blood samples collected from these subjects were screened for malaria parasite and Staphylococcus typhi using standard methods. Mean serum levels of ALP (112.55±84.23, AST (31.33±12.80, ALT (23.10±11.84, TB (19.43±5.02, CB (5.91±3.03 and ALP(116.69±48.68, AST (28.33±11.72, ALT (22.8±5.94, TB (19.31±5.84,CB (5.60±2.50 were obtained for those subjects with malaria and typhoid respectively and subjects with malaria-typhoid co-infection recorded the following; ALP (134.33±56.62, AST (33.97±8.43, ALT (24.40±4.37,TB (21.27±2.96,CB (6.58±3.10 while the control subjects had mean serum levels of ALP (71.05±18.18, AST (16.65±7.45, ALT (13.85±6.09,TB (10.05±4.85 and CB (3.00±1.67. These mean values were subjected to a statistical test using students t-test which revealed a significant increase (p<0.05.The results suggest that malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection can elevate ALP, AST, ALT,TB and CB serum levels and can lead to liver damage if not properly treated.

B.N. Enemchukwu

2014-01-01

164

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) ?Sv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) ?Sv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

2010-01-01

165

Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria  

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River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence...

2013-01-01

166

Complex assessment in progressive multiple sclerosis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study presents the case of a patient with progressive multiple sclerosis in relapses (PPMS) and proposes a comprehensive neuromuscular and biomechanical evaluation in order to achieve a predictive picture of gait evolution and balance disorders with disease progression. Patient and Methods: The evaluation included: clinical, functional and neuromuscular evaluation by tensiomyography (TMG) and biomechanics (by RSscan platform force). Elements evaluated included the calf muscle groups (tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius) and the following parameters were assessed from neuromuscular point of view: contraction time, sustain time, delay, relax time and displacement amplitude after electrical stimulation. Biomechanically, we assessed the subtalar angle, foot loading in metatarsian area, foot balance and pressure center distribution. Results and Conclusions: From neuromuscular point of view, we concluded that the right anterior tibial muscle developed compensatory muscle fibers resistant to fatigue. TMG analysis can estimate the possibility of developing gait disorders even in the absence of visible clinical manifestations. We also noted an increased muscle tone in the muscles of bilateral twins. Biomechanical evaluation revealed a symmetrical, abnormal gait, explained by the difference in the angle of left and right foot and in subtalar angle, which expresses the degree of coordination and control of foot gait initiation and execution. In this context, there is an exorotation of both feet. PMID:24715188

Neam?u, Marius Cristian; Rusu, Ligia; Neam?u, Oana Maria; D?nciulescu Miulescu, Rucsandra; Marin, Mihnea Ion

2014-01-01

167

Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

2009-01-01

168

On the Correspondence between Preference Assessment Outcomes and Progressive-Ratio Schedule Assessments of Stimulus Value  

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The current study examined whether stimuli of different preference levels would be associated with different amounts of work maintained by the stimuli, as determined through progressive-ratio schedule break points. Using a paired-choice preference assessment, stimuli were classified as high, moderate, or low preference for 4 individuals with…

DeLeon, Iser G.; Frank, Michelle A.; Gregory, Meagan K.; Allman, Melissa J.

2009-01-01

169

Physico-chemical quality assessment of shallow well-waters in Iwo, southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters of shallow well waters of Iwo have been assessed. Nine different locations in parts of Iwo were considered for this study. The physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard methods and methods described by Ademoroti (1996. Generally, results compare favourably with WHO (2006 standards for drinking water, except water temperature with slight high values compared with WHO limits of < 25 ºC for drinking water. This is an indication that the water may enhance the growth of micro-organisms, hence increase the problem related to taste, odour, colour and corrosion. The study revealed that the water in the area is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes. It is therefore recommended that periodical assessment of both physico-chemical and microbial analysis of the area should be carried out, as this would be helpful in early detection of any future degradation.

Godwin Oladele Olutona

2012-07-01

170

Assessment of Groundwater Quality and Saline Intrusions in Coastal Aquifers of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria  

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As a result of immense industrialisation and high population growth, groundwater is heavily relied on in Lagos metropolis to serve as an alternative source of water where surface water is seriously polluted. The continued reliance on ground water has resulted in its decline in quantity and quality. In this study, the coastal aquifers of Lagos metropolis were selected for an assessment of its groundwater quality and impact of saline intrusion. Water samples collected along the coastal region w...

Adewuyi Gregory Olufemi

2010-01-01

171

Assessment of Surface Water Quality around Dumpsites in the City of Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of surface water around Ring road and Orita-Aperin dumpsites were assessed for a period of one year (June 2005 to May 2009) using standards methods of analysis. The following parameters: temperature, turbidity, total dissolves solids (TDS), conductivity, hardness, nitrates, sulphates and ammonia were determined. The mean values per sampling point were temperature (28.40 oC), pH (7.20), total hardness (87.00 mgCaCO3L-1 nitrate (11.44 mgL-1

Aboho, S. Y.; Anhwange, B. A.; Onianwa, P. C.; Ekanem, E. O.

2012-01-01

172

Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006) stan...

2012-01-01

173

Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

174

Quantitative nonlinear optical assessment of atherosclerosis progression in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of atherosclerosis has been a challenging task owing to its complex pathology. In this study, we validated a quantitative approach for assessing atherosclerosis progression in a rabbit model using a numerical matrix, optical index for plaque burden, derived directly from the nonlinear optical microscopic images captured on the atherosclerosis-affected blood vessel. A positive correlation between this optical index and the severity of atherosclerotic lesions, represented by the age of the rabbits, was established based on data collected from 21 myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with age ranging between new-born and 27 months old. The same optical index also accurately identified high-risk locations for atherosclerotic plaque formation along the entire aorta, which was validated by immunohistochemical fluorescence imaging. PMID:24892226

Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B; Kohlenberg, Elicia K; Smith, Michael; Hewko, Mark; Major, Arkady; Sowa, Michael G; Ko, Alex C-T

2014-07-01

175

Ground Water Quality Assessment in the Basement Complex Areas of Kano State Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aimed at assessing the quality of underground water for safe drinking in the basement complex region of Kano state. In achieving this aim a total of twenty (20 boreholes were selected at random across the state. Thirteen (13 relevant parameters on the test of water quality were taken into consideration. The research found out that underground water in the area is safe for drinking due natural filtration process that the water undergo, because, the soil chemistry and mineralogy alters the chemistry of the water there by making it safe for drinking by meeting the standard requirement of World Health Organisation (WHO 1984. It is therefore recommended that, more boreholes should be constructed through the intervention of both government and other relevant organsations. Also surface water source should also be improve to reduce the burden that underground water source might have encountered.

Adamu G.K

2013-07-01

176

Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

2014-02-01

177

Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road junctions were digitized as points which are otherwise referred to as nodes while the roads as lines which are also called Arcs. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe the road condition, pavements and types of the road network in the study. The connectivity level in the road network was determined with the use of Beta Index (BI. The road density was determined with respect to the road length per unit area. The road density was high (8.07 km-1 while the connectivity level of road network was also high (0.77. In terms of road condition, the analysis revealed that road length of 26.66 km (97.19 % was tarred and in good condition out of 27.43 km of total road length in the study. In terms of road types, the analysis showed that the total length of dualized road type was 6.14 km (22.38 % while 21.29 km (77.62 % were not dualized.

Andrew Adesola Obafemi

2011-12-01

178

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the...

Farinde, A. J.; Owolarafe, O. K.; Ogungbemi, O. I.

2006-01-01

179

Impact assessment of the environmental protection policies in the upstream oil industry in Nigeria / A.M. Bayagbon.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need for energy and the associated economic benefits from the oil and gas deposits found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria necessitated the exploration and exploitation activities being carried out by the oil and gas Companies. However, these exploration and exploitation activities due to their unpredictable nature have a huge potential for environmental pollution as been experienced in the form of oil spills, gas flaring, irresponsible disposal of waste and several ...

Bayagbon, Anthony Mamurhomu

2011-01-01

180

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to proce...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sexual and family planning practices and needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: A rapid ethnographic assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : This study was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and it tries to understand their sexual and reproductive lives, with the aim of understanding what they know about reproductive health, social challenges of life they face daily and what are their needs. Method : The study was conducted in the Northern state of Kaduna, Nigeria; a qualitative approach was employed using group interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. ...

2007-01-01

182

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR), Wischmeier's erodibility index (K), clay dispersion index (CDI) and clay floccula-tion index (CFI) ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mean-weight diameter (MWD) in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictabil...

Ca, Igwe; Akamigbo, F. O. R.; Mbagwu, J. S. C.

1995-01-01

183

Assessing progress in the development of safety culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of safety culture was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the Summary Report on the Post-Accident Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident in 1986. The concept was further expanded in the 1988 INSAG-3 report, Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and again in 1991 in the INSAG-4 report. Recognizing the increasing role that safety culture is expected to play in nuclear installations worldwide, the Convention on Nuclear Safety states the Contracting Parties' desire 'to promote an effective nuclear safety culture'. The concept of safety culture is defined in INSAG-4 as follows: Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Safety culture is also an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behaviour. These are aimed at maintaining a self disciplined approach to the enhancement of safety beyond legislative and regulatory requirements. Therefore, the safety culture has to be inherent in the thoughts and actions of all the individuals at every level in an organization. The leadership provided by top management is crucial. Safety culture applies to conventional and personal safety as well as nuclear safety. All safety consideration are affected by common points of beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, and cultural differences, closely linked to a shared system of values and standards. The paper poses questions and tries to find answers relative to issues like: - how to assess progress; - specific organizational indicators of a progressive safety culture; - detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture (organizational issues, employee issues, technology issues); - revitalizing a weakened safety culture; - overall assesment of safety culture; - general evaluation model. In conclusion, there is no consistent and visible prescriptive formula for developing a strong safety culture. However, a prerequisite is genuine and consistent commitment by the top management of an organization to improving safety . Providing this commitment exists, the best recommendation is to due something tangible and visible to improve safety, preferably involving employees from the outset. The choice of practices for developing an improved safety culture should take account of the existing national and organizational culture in order to ensure effective implementation. The importance of the learning process has been emphasized. A mechanism is necessary to ensure that international experience of practices to develop a strong safety culture is shared on a regular and frequent basis. The maintenance and improvement of a safety culture is a process of continuous evolution. Indicators are available to assess positive progress in this evolution and to detect a weakening safety culture. (authors)

1999-10-15

184

Nigeria Gas Utilization Study: Presentation of NGUS Findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nigeria gas utilization study is an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Nigeria's discovered and undiscovered gas, an estimate of gas composition emphasizing ethane and liquids content. It also assesses, at a scoping level, the cost to develop, produce and deliver gas for domestic and export projects

2000-01-01

185

Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

Imoobe T.O.T.

2009-01-01

186

Assessment of Surface Water Quality around Dumpsites in the City of Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of surface water around Ring road and Orita-Aperin dumpsites were assessed for a period of one year (June 2005 to May 2009 using standards methods of analysis. The following parameters: temperature, turbidity, total dissolves solids (TDS, conductivity, hardness, nitrates, sulphates and ammonia were determined. The mean values per sampling point were temperature (28.40 oC, pH (7.20, total hardness (87.00 mgCaCO3L-1 nitrate (11.44 mgL-1 ammonia (0.12 mgL-1, sulphate (7.2 mgL-1, turbidity (431 FTU, total dissolved solids (365 mgL-1 and conductivity (47.00 mSm-2mol-1 for Ring road were not significantly different from those at Orita-Aperin and the other dumpsites. Also, mean values per samples of the same parameters from Agbowo control sites did not differ significantly from those at Ring road, the main dumpsites with the exception of their relatively, high pH, nitrate, ammonia and TDS values. The results were found to compare favourably with WHO and Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA limits, exception of turbidity. The study has revealed that surface water quality around the dumpsites has not been severely impacted as is usually assumed, even though it has been polluted to some degree. 

S. Y. Aboho

2012-01-01

187

Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

Ezechiel Longe

2010-05-01

188

An Assessment of Gully Erosion in Gombe Town, Gombe State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of gullies is one of the severe environmental problems in Gombe town. It has threatens urban infrastructure, properties, lives and the physical growth of the town. Knowing the rates of gully development in the last decade helped explain the reasons for current land degradation. This research work therefore assessed gully erosion in Gombe town. Data used in this study were derived from field measurements, satellite imageries, and laboratory analysis and questionnaire survey. Results from the interpretation of Spot 5(1999 and Quick Birds (2009 imageries and field measurements showed that gully variables (length, depth and widths have significantly increased in the last 10 years. Laboratory analysis of soil particle size revealed that sand proportion was 52%, silt 9.5% and clay 38.5%. The values of Atterberg limits (liquid limits; plasticity limit and the plasticity index (PI, shear strength (cohesion and angle of internal friction and bulk density values were low, soil chemical properties also showed that the soils are moderately acidic, contained low organic matter, and low exchangeable cations, with serious implication on biological methods of erosion control.

Lazarus Abore Mbaya

2012-06-01

189

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS OF OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Niger Delta is unique in Nigeria because it is the home of Nigeria’s oil industry, with its attendant environmental hazards such as water, land and air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hy¬drocarbons (PAHs are among the most toxic and persistent components of crude oil. The im¬pact of PAHs in the environment will be determined by the types and quantity of each PAH. This study was therefore designed to screen some rivers in oil-producing Delta state for pollu¬tion with PAHs. Water and fish samples were collected from six Rivers (Egbokodo River in Warri, River Ethiope in Sapele, Urie River in Igbide Isoko, Asaba-Ase creek, Aragba River in Abraka, and Uzere Creek in Delta State. The levels of PAHs were determined in the water and fish samples, and also in the processed dry ready-to-eat fish obtained from the same rivers. Generally, all the 16 priority PAHs were detected in five of the six Rivers, in three fresh fish samples and three dry ready-to-eat fish samples. The highest mean concentrations (3.79, 0.91, and 0.89 ppm of PAH in water samples were in Rivers Ethiope, Asaba-Ase and Egbokodo re-spectively. Fresh fish samples from Aragba, Oteri, and Egbokodo Rivers had PAH values of 10.35, 0.36, 0.09 mg/kg wet weight respectively, while dry ready to eat fish from Oteri, Asaba-Ase, and Sapele had 29.33, 23.96, 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. Total bioconcentration factors (BCF ranged from 0.0-1.73 in the rivers, except for aragba, which had a very high BCF (554.6 for anthracene. The results from this study portend a significant public health risk. An immediate attention from Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency is required in or-der to protect the river from further pollution and the people living in these communities.

Olanike K. Adeyemo

2012-01-01

190

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

191

Current approaches for assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in Nigeria: A case for dedicated early pregnancy services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: It has been suggested that women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy are best cared for in dedicated units which offer rapid and definitive ultrasonographic and biochemical assessment at the initial review of the patient. Aims: To describe the current protocols for the assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy as reported by Nigerian Gynecologists, and determine if dedicated early pregnancy services such as Early Pregnancy Assessment Units could be introduced to improve care. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of Nigerian Gynecologists attending the 46 th Annual Scientific Conference of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was by descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 17.0 for Windows (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: A total of 232 gynecologists working in 52 different secondary and tertiary health facilities participated in the survey. The mean age of the respondents was 42.6 ± 9.1 years (range 28-70 years). The proportion of gynecologists reporting that women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy were first managed within the hospital general emergency room was 92%. The mean reported interval between arrival in hospital and first ultrasound scan was 4.9 ± 1.4 hours (range ½-8 hours). Transvaginal scan was stated as the routine initial imaging investigation by only 17.2% of respondents. Approximately 94.8% of respondents felt that dedicated early pregnancy services were feasible and should be introduced to improve the care of women with early miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Conclusions: Reported protocols for managing early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in many health facilities in Nigeria appear to engender unnecessary delays and avoidable costs, and dedicated early pregnancy services could be both useful and feasible in addressing these shortcomings in the way women with such conditions are currently managed. PMID:24909463

Iyoke, C A; Ugwu, O G; Ezugwu, F O; Onah, H E; Agbata, A T; Ajah, L C

2014-01-01

192

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmers’ budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the traders’ budget revealed that from an investment cost of 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders’ are making a revenue of 41,700.00 (lint + seed and a net profit of 4,954.00 ton-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors. There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

T.M. Kudi

2007-01-01

193

Climate Change Reduction: A Mirage in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at assessing the weakness of Nigeria in efficaciously dealing with the menace of climate change within the country. The researchers examined how the campaigns against climate change has been embraced in the Real Estate Development Practices in Nigeria. Various surveys were conducted on deforestation, gas flaring, planning adaptations to climate change in selected housing estates, preservation of forests and the use of badly smoking vehicles on city roads. Campaigns an...

Pat-Mbano Edith C; Alaka Iheanyi N.

2012-01-01

194

Discharge against medical advice at a tertiary center in southeastern Nigeria: sociodemographic and clinical dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boniface Eze1, Kenneth Agu2, Jones Nwosu31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Surgery, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria Objective: To assess the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients discharged against medical advice (DAMA) at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria.Methods: The UNTH’s admission and discharge records between 1997 and 2006 we...

Boniface Eze; Kenneth Agu; Jones Nwosu

2010-01-01

195

Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

2012-01-15

196

Quantitative assessment of heavy metals in some tea marketed in Nigeria ——Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tea marketed in Nigeria was investigated. Four major and most consumed brand of tea were selected for the present study. Both aqueous and dry methods were used. Total contents of metal were determined by digesting 1g of each brand using a mixture (3:1) concentrated nitric acid (NNO3) and hypochlorous acid (HCLO4). The second method involved hot water extract of tea samples. After boiling and filtration, the residue was evaporated to near dryness and digested...

Albert Cosmas Achudume; Dayo Owoeye

2010-01-01

197

Risk Assessment Analysis of Accelerated Gully Erosion in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of accelerated erosion has been on in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area (LGA) in particular and Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living around the gullies in the area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining sediment loss from the gully sites, the vulnerable areas and threat posed by impact of gullies in the study LGA.

Oregbeni Housing E...

Aderemi Adediji; Iyamu Felix

2012-01-01

198

Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

1991-11-01

199

Progress in food irradiation: Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and some of its toxic metabolites has been studied. This involved the determination of radio-sensitivity of aflatoxins to gamma radiation and the toxicity of irradiated aflatoxins, the effect of irradiation on the formation of aflatoxins in some Nigerian foodstuffs and on the macronutrients of soya-gari diet, and isolation and characterisation of radiation-induced mutants in A. flavus. A research project is now underway to investigate the effect on nutrients in foodstuffs following the destruction of fungal toxins (aflatoxins) and fungi by gamma irradiation (OGBADU, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria). (orig.)

1978-01-01

200

Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach  

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Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.

Michael Olusesan Awoleye

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Impact Assessment of the Role of Micro Finance Banks in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The history of industrial Revolution in developed and developing countries have shown that small and medium enterprises are the driving force of industrial and economic development. This paper examines impact of the role played by micro finance banks MFBs in promoting the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. An empirical study was carried out using Garu Micro Finance bank in Bauchi, Bauchi State being one of the most successful Micro Finance Banks in North East sub region to determine impact of the role of MFBs in promoting small and medium enterprises growth. Out of the total number of employees in the bank, 15 members of staff whom constitute the middle and management staff were used as respondents. Questionnaire was developed and distributed to them which they all filled and returned. The study revealed that MFBs have contributed to the promotion of small and medium enterprises growth in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should further encourage the activities of Micro Finance Banks (MFBs by creating enabling environment so that they can further support SMEs growth.

Babagana, S. A.

2010-04-01

202

An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria  

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Introduction In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method This study is based on findings from a ‘mystery client’ approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities.

Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

2014-01-01

203

Preliminary assessment of the efficacy of mefloquine/-sulphadoxine/ pyrimethamine combination in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in North Eastern Nigeria.  

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Preliminary assessment of efficacy of mefloquine/-sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (MSP) combination in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium infections was conducted in-vivo in non-immune and semi-immune children in Damboa, in the North east of Nigeria using a 7-day protocol. Six hundred and forty-six (76.4%) subjects out of 846 screened had positive Plasmodium infections. Seventy-two patients aged 6 months to 11 years were enrolled, of whom 69 (95.8%) completed the study. MSP demonstrated high clinical efficacy, producing 100% cure rate against pure P. falciparum (77.8%), pure P. malariae (18.1%) and mixed P. falciparum and P. malariae (4.2%) infections. GMPDs for P. falciparum, P. malariae and mixed infections were 4,826, 3,680 and 12,573 a sexual stages per microl of whole blood. The mean parasite clearance time (MPCT) was 4.42 days for pure P. falciparum parasitaemia and 4.82 days for P. malariae alone. No parasitologic failure occurred in the patients. Clinical response occurred rapidly; all fever cases cleared within 24 hours. Moreover, significant (P<0.05) PCV improvement occurred in 7 days from an average of 33.8 +/- 4.5% on D0 to 35.5 +/- 3.5% on D7. Besides, this drug was well tolerated by majority of patients. Details of these findings are presented and discussed against the background of increased efforts towards effective malaria treatment and control in Nigeria. PMID:14513939

Molta, N B; Watila, I M; Akpede, G O; Ekanem, O J

2001-01-01

204

Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women of northeast Nigeria on risk factors associated with cancer of the Cervix  

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Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.

John S. Bimba

2013-08-01

205

National Assessment of Educational Progress: An Overview of NAEP. NCES 2013-455  

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This document provides an overview of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). NAEP is the largest nationally representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various subjects. NAEP serves a different role than state assessments. States have their own unique assessments which are…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

2013-01-01

206

An Introduction to NAEP: National Assessment of Educational Progress. NCES 2010-468  

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The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a continuing and nationally representative assessment of what this nation's students know and can do. NAEP has often been called the "gold standard" of assessments because it is developed using the best thinking of assessment and content specialists, education experts, and teachers from…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

2010-01-01

207

Mathematics Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress  

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An assessment framework is like a blueprint, laying out the basic design of the assessment by describing the mathematics content that should be tested and the types of assessment questions that should be included. It also describes how the various design factors should be balanced across the assessment. This is an assessment framework, not a…

National Assessment Governing Board, 2008

2008-01-01

208

Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10 vertical electricity soundings (VES was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands from boreholes within three (3 communities and ten (10 water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3 aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m, middle (82m and lower (102 to 115m aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3 fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984 standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of screen. The middle and lower aquifers are preferable. The middle aquifer is ideal for domestic boreholes while the lower aquifer should be developed for community and industrial boreholes.

Onunkwo – A, A

2012-06-01

209

The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the determinants of the real exchange rate in Nigeria. The objective of the study has been to present a dynamic model of real exchange rate determination and empirically test the implications of changes in possible determinants of the real exchange in Nigeria. With data covering 1970-2010, the parsimonious ECM result shows amongst others that the ratio of government spending to GDP, terms of trade and technological progress are not important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The result showed that capital flow, price level and nominal effective exchange rate are important determinants of the real effective exchange rate in Nigeria. The paper suggests that the Dutch Disease syndrome holds in Nigeria. The Johansen cointegration test suggests a long relationship among the variables. It is thus recommended amongst others that policies have to be put in place to stabilize the problem of inflation.

Victor E. Oriavwote

2012-07-01

210

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The term rural youths is best clarified at the onset, to remove the confusion that continues to exist as the concept of youths. The United Nations (1973 definition of youths as young men and women between the ages of 15 and 24 necessarily excludes many youths in the tradition of Nigerian Societies where the youths are any persons a particular society deems as youths. The notion of youth as a bachelor, still under-going training or looking for first employment as defined by Josue (1986 is unrealistic when applied to Nigeria. For instance, an average Nigerian rural girl of 15 years in some parts of Nigeria is a woman, because she is married and, therefore, cannot technically be classified as a youth, going by Josue’s definition. Also many children under the ages of 18 years in Nigeria are school leavers in the sense that they are never school beginners. Similarly, many people above the ages of 40 years are still under-going training or looking for first employment in Nigeria. Inspite of the obvious limitations of the above definitions, age category appears to be the most objective and widely acceptable definition of the concept of youth (Ekong, 1989; Akinola, 1991. Thus, the concept of youths in this study, is young men and women within the ages of 18 and 30. They are those people who are sufficiently matured, but have not acquired the full rights and successes of independent livelihood. The age 18 years had been conceived as a base from when a person can be said to be sufficiently prepared within a farming community to be gainfully involved on the farm (Kuvlesky, 1976; Toraimiro, 1999. The concern about youths development borders on the fact that they possess abundant physical energies, greater knowledge acquisition propensity and less conservative and, therefore, constitute the most important segment of any community development activities (Jibowo, 1989; Torimiro, 1999. They serve as a reservoir of important labour force which can most easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques than their adults counterparts (FAO/UN, 1990; Torimiro, 1999. For decades, institutions of higher learning have been criticized because they have not responded to the needs of agricultural and rural development. The major criticisms have been on the curricula that seemed incompatible with agricultural education objectives and lack of linkages between educational institutions and rural communities (Apantaku, 2004. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s main function is to undertake research into extension methodologies and adoption processes including intensification of the use of mass media. Conscious of those criticisms, the NAERLS has attempted to link up with farmers directly through extension outreach programs. One of such programs is the Rural Youths Extension Program (RUYEP. The major objective of the NAERLS’ RUYEP is to provide technical advisory services that would improve agricultural production and living standards of the youths. Action plans that have been developed and implemented include: formation of rural youths co-operative groups; provision of technical advisory services; provision of necessary production inputs; explore, assist and advise on market locations and current prices in order to increase their income and keep up productive enthusiasm. The RUYEP also implements a special small holder water pump hiring scheme to boost dry season farming amongst the youths (NAERLS, 2004. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of the NAERLS’ Extension Program on agricultural and income of rural youths. The specific objectives of the study were to identify demographic characteristics of the participants and non-participants to determine the impact of the Program on crop yields and farmers income and to assess the respondents’ perception of the effectiveness of the Program. It was also hypothesized that participation in the NAERLS’ RUYEP will have significant impact on crop yields a

Joseph Gambo Akpoko

2007-01-01

211

The use of some soil aggregate indices to assess potential soil loss in soils of south-eastern nigeria  

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Full Text Available Six aggregate indices and some soil properties were evaluated to predict potential soil loss in soils of Southeastern Nigeria. Of the aggregate indices tested, dispersion ratio (DR, Wischmeier's erodibility index (K, clay dispersion index (CDI and clay floccula-tion index (CFI ranked higher than geometric mean diameter (GMD and mean-weight diameter (MWD in predicting potential soil loss. Some aggregate indices found to correlate well with soil loss are in order of decreasing predictability CFI>CDI>DR>GMDŁMWD while organic carbon, % clay content and Fe.O. are some soil characteristics that predict the potential of these soils to erode fairly accurately. Dispersion and flocculation are shown to be influenced by metal-organic complexes which often leads to increased potential soil loss.

J.S.C. Mbagwu

1995-06-01

212

Gender Digital Divide: Comparative Assessment of the Information Communications Technologies and Literacy Levels of Students in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The Information Communications Technologies (ICTs are driving development. Their adoption and integration has become imperative for national development. This study investigated for comparison the ICTs literacy levels of boy and girl-students of senior secondary Grade III in Nigeria, using Enugu State as the case study. Although, ICTs literacy levels were generally poor, the boy-students were better all-round than the girl-students in ICTs literacy parameters tested, namely, ability to process words, access the web for browsing and managing web contents, thereby establishing existence of gender digital divide in the system. The implications of the poor literacy levels and the observed gender digital divide for development were given and recommendations were proffered for narrowing the divide.

Onyenekenwa Cyprian Eneh

2010-01-01

213

Comparative assessment of postmortem inspection and immunochromatographic techniques for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in slaughter cattle in Nigeria.  

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Animals with tuberculosis pose some risks to humans, especially in developing countries of the world. In this study, postmortem inspection (PMI) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) techniques were compared for the detection of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in slaughter cattle in Enugu State, Nigeria using culture as the gold standard. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January-June, 2011 on animals presented at four purposively selected slaughterhouses in the study area, involving a total of 500 randomly selected animals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of selected animals and serum samples harvested for ICA. Thorough PMI was carried out and tissue samples from the lung, liver, intestine, and lymph nodes were collected, with or without lesions for culture; from the animals examined, culture detected 11 positive cases giving a prevalence rate of 2.2 %, whereas PMI detected 22 positive cases including 7 (out of the 11) positive cases detected by culture, giving a prevalence rate of 4.4 %. Fifteen of the cases detected as positive by PMI were negative by culture. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of PMI were 64 and 97 %, respectively. ICA detected 59 positive cases including 10 of the 11 positive cases detected by culture, hence, a prevalence rate of 11.8 %. Forty-nine of the cases detected as positive by ICA were negative by culture. Hence, the sensitivity and specificity of ICA were 91 and 90 %, respectively. In conclusion, the performance of ICA was found sufficiently high to support its use in BTB surveillance and control in cattle in Enugu State, Nigeria. PMID:24643318

Okoro, Onyinye J; Anosa, George N; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Ezenduka, Ekene V

2014-06-01

214

Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other details supported by GPS locations was carried out. Seven dominant classes of feature: agro-forest/light forest, built-up area, exposed rock surfaces/bare land, forest reserve, shrub and arable land, ridge forest and water body were identified. A time series analysis of the LULC changes was carried out to provide the necessary understanding of the changes required for policy formulation and decision-making with respect to cocoa production, forest reserve management and landuse planning, control, coordination and budgeting while being mindful of environmental conservation. This indispensable geo-information is yet lacking in the cocoa growing belt of southwestern Nigeria. ArcView software was used to prepare the corresponding time series LULC maps of the study area. The study showed that the forest reserves within the study area reduced at an average rate of 2.78% per year while agro-forest/light forest reduced to 46.39% (i.e., at an average rate of 1.55% per year and, shrub and arable land increased by 323.06% (i.e., at an average rate of 10.77% per year for food production farming to feed the rapidly increasing population between 1972 and 2002.

R.O. Oyinloye

2012-07-01

215

Review of prostate cancer research in Nigeria  

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Prostate cancer (CaP) disparities in the black man calls for concerted research efforts. This review explores the trend and focus of CaP research activities in Nigeria, one of the ancestral nations for black men. It seeks to locate the place of the Nigerian research environment in the global progress on CaP disparities. Literature was reviewed mainly through a Pubmed search with the terms “prostate cancer”and “Nigeria”, as well as from internet and hard copies of journal pages.

Akinremi, Titilola O.; Ogo, Chidiebere N.; Olutunde, Ayodeji O.

2011-01-01

216

Assessment of progression of COPD: report of a workshop held in Leuven, 11–12 March 2004  

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Recently performed long term trials have enhanced the insight into the assessment of progression of COPD. The present review focuses on the initial assessment of COPD in general practice and the assessment of disease progression. Several variables may be used to assess this progression, all of which are associated with significant methodological problems. Finding the appropriate mix of outcome measures to capture all aspects of disease progression is a significant challenge.

Decramer, M.; Gosselink, R.; Rutten-van Mo?lken, M.; Buffels, J.; Schayck, O.; Gevenois, Pierre-alain; Pellegrio, R.; Backer, W.

2005-01-01

217

Assessment of Risk of Possible Exposure to Rabies among Processors and Consumers of Dog Meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan, by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6% were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4% were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9% knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6% knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8% did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49 and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43 at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9% of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure.

Leslie E. Odeh

2013-09-01

218

Assessment of risk of possible exposure to rabies among processors and consumers of dog meat in Zaria and Kafanchan, Kaduna state, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine rabies is endemic in Nigeria. Some of the dogs slaughtered for human consumption may be infected with rabies virus, thus exposing handlers of raw dog meat to the disease since the virus may be present in the nerves in the meat. A cross-sectional study was designed and a structured questionnaire was designed and administered to a convenience sample of 160 processors and consumers (100 from Zaria and 60 from Kafanchan), by face to face interview at the slaughter sites or dog meat sale points. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, rabies knowledge, attitude and actions the respondents would take if exposure occurs. Associations between demographic variables and categorized knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using x2 analysis. The relationship between non-categorized scores was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Also, 154 brain samples from slaughtered dogs (74 from Zaria and 80 from Kafanchan) were checked for rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Of the 160 respondents, 49 (30.6%) were involved in the slaughtering and sale of dog meat while 111(69.4%) were involved in handling and consumption of processed dog meat. Only 123(76.9%) knew that dogs are common source of rabies in Nigeria and 105(65.6%) knew that rabies affect humans. Also 110(68.8%) did not have adequate knowledge of the clinical signs of rabies. The level of knowledge, having positive attitudes and knowing acceptable practices were directly proportional to the level of education. Respondents from Kafanchan had higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes towards rabies than those from Zaria. There were significant correlations between knowledge and attitude scores (r=0.49) and between knowledge and practice scores (r=0.43) at p<0.001. Rabies antigen was detected in the brain of 6 (3.9%) of the slaughtered dogs. The findings indicate that processors and consumers of dog meat are deficient in the knowledge of rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at this high risk group to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure. PMID:24373274

Odeh, Leslie E; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

219

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management

1992-01-01

220

US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

1992-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Progress toward elimination of malaria in Nigeria: Uptake of artemisinin-based combination therapies for the treatment of malaria in households in Benin City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership converged in Abuja in 2000. In 2005, Nigeria adopted artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria. It was determined that by 2010, 80% of persons with malaria would be effectively treated. Objectives: To describe household practices for malaria treatment in Benin City; to explore demographic characteristics that may influence use of ACTs. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used to select households from each of the three local government areas in Benin City. Adult respondents were interviewed. Household reference persons (HRPs) were defined by International Labour Organization categories. Data were collected between December 2009 and February 2010 and were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0, at a significance level of P health care providers outside government hospitals, in line with the Nigerian reality. PMID:24923369

Akoria, Obehi Aituaje; Arhuidese, Isibor James

2014-01-01

222

Impact Assessment of the Role of Microfinance Banks in Financing Small Scale Enterprises in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This survey was aimed at determining the role of Microfinance Banks (MFBs in financing small scale enterprises in Ozoro and Warri parts of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the MFBs in the two selected parts of Delta State. For the sake of convenience, purposive sampling was employed to select six MFBn branches ( three from each part for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the MFBs and administered copies of a well structured questionnaire used as instrument for data collection. The study showed that Microfinance service, particularly, those sponsored by government, have resulted in an increased level of credit disbursement and gains in agricultural production and other activities, the effects were short- lived, due to the unsustainable nature of the programme. Microfinance banks should increase the interval between asking for loans repayment and the time of granting the loans as this renders useless the study or verification of the borrower feasibility study, more especially under an inflationary period.

Edafiaje, A. L.

2011-12-01

223

Sexual and family planning practices and needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: A rapid ethnographic assessment  

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Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs and it tries to understand their sexual and reproductive lives, with the aim of understanding what they know about reproductive health, social challenges of life they face daily and what are their needs. Method : The study was conducted in the Northern state of Kaduna, Nigeria; a qualitative approach was employed using group interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Individual PLWHAs, their associations and officials of the associations were interviewed. Results : People living with HIV/AIDS ( PLWHAs are a group of people whose life has not been studied very well, they have a lot of pressing social issues such as their circumstances of diagnosis, bad experiences following the diagnosis, and lack of adequate provisions for their healthcare. They wish to see their welfare addressed with provision of drugs and social support. Conclusion : PLWHAs and their associations expressed concerns about how they are treated by both medical workers and the society. There is need to address these issues in the way of research aimed at changing the views of policy makers favourably.

Garko S

2007-09-01

224

Risk Assessment Analysis of Accelerated Gully Erosion in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The problem of accelerated erosion has been on in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area (LGA in particular and Nigeria at large for some decades now and all past attempts at solving the problem have proved ineffective and thus constituting risk to the people living around the gullies in the area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining sediment loss from the gully sites, the vulnerable areas and threat posed by impact of gullies in the study LGA. Oregbeni Housing Estate and Ede School gully erosion sites in the Ikpoba-Okha LGA were purposively selected for this study. Primary data were collected using GPS receiver.These include the geographic coordinates and elevation of the study gullies catchments which were integrated with the secondary data obtained from satellite image, topographic, geologic, road and lay out maps of the area using Arc GIS 9.3 software. The results of the satellite image classification analysis showed that accelerated gully erosion accounted for 2% (100466.57 m2 of the total areal extent of the study LGA (5189010.57 m2. Of this 2%, Queen Ede School gully accounted for 96957.13 m2. The total estimated sediment loss from Queen Ede School and Oregbeni Housing Estate gullies were 359,173.22 and 48,212.62 tonnes, respectively. These indicated severe land degradation in the study area.

Aderemi Adediji

2012-10-01

225

Capital Flight and Nigeria Economic Growth  

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Full Text Available

This paper provides evidence on the negative impact of the assessment of capital flight on economic growth of Nigeria for 40 years (1970-2009. It provides a comprehensive analysis of capital flight and its resultant impact on domestic investment and the growth rate of the economy. The study used cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM as its main estimation techniques. It was discovered that capital flight and its assessments are significant factors for explaining economic trends in Nigeria. It was also discovered that capital flight have negative impact on the economy. Consequently, it is recommended that funds from foreign sources in form of loans, gifts, grants and aids should be judiciously used for economic development of Nigeria. Above all, government should provide enabling environment for business to thrive thereby encouraging foreign direct investment and discouraging capital flight.

AJAYI LAWRENCE BOBOYE

2012-06-01

226

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Department's continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene

1993-01-01

227

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

1993-08-01

228

Assessing Progress in Mastery of Counseling Communication Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine (Murphy, Murphy & Newcomb, 1937). However, during the second half of the last century this term also came into vogue for describing social interactions between humans (Argyle, 1981). Social sk...

Kuntze, A. J.

2009-01-01

229

Trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in Ebonyi, Southeastern Nigeria during 1999-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike previous annual WHO tuberculosis reports that reported case detection rate for only smear-positive tuberculosis cases, the 2010 report presented case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in line with the current Stop TB strategy. To help us understand how tuberculosis control programmes performed in terms of detecting tuberculosis, there is need to document the trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified in high burden countries. This evidence is currently lacking from Nigeria. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the trend in case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases notified from Ebonyi state compared to Nigeria national figures. Reports of tuberculosis cases notified between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed from the Ebonyi State Ministry of Health tuberculosis quarterly reports. Tuberculosis case detection rates were computed according to WHO guidelines. 22, 508 patients with all forms of tuberculosis were notified during the study. Case detection rate for all tuberculosis rose from 27% in 1999 to gradually reach a peak of 40% during 2007 to 2008 before a slight decline in 2009 to 38%. However, the national case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases in Nigeria rose from 7% in 1999 and progressively increased to reach a peak of 19% during 2008 and 2009. Since the introduction of DOTS in Ebonyi, the programme has achieved 40% case detection rate for all tuberculosis cases - about 20% better than national figures. However, with the current low case detection rates, alternative mechanisms are needed to achieve the current global stop- TB targets in Nigeria.

Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Alobu, Isaac; Ifebunandu, Ngozi Appolonia; Osakwe, Chijioke; Igwenyi, Chika

2013-01-01

230

ASSESSING AND FORECASTING THE IMPACT OF BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCT DERIVED FROM NIGERIA LOCAL RAW MATERIALS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS  

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Full Text Available As a contribution to the promotion of local content policy in the study of petroleum and environment in Nigeria, a bioremediation agent (Ecorem was formulated from local raw materials. Process kinetics to study operation mechanism of the product was subsequently embarked upon. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of the formulation on soil electrical conductivity (SEC as a part study on its effect on soil properties. Influence of product-soil weight ratio on SEC was examined and predictive equations were developed. Result showed that Ecorem increased SEC by 13.43 to 23.03%, improved the original soil status (159.25 ±9.25 µScm-1 by 8.63 to 52.94% and did not render the treated soil saline. The effect also varied with Ecorem – soil weight ratio, giving positive correlations with coefficients of up to 0.967 (p = 0.01; which is a function of petroleum product type. Predictive equations developed showed that for planning remediation project execution using Ecorem; for soil contaminated by petroleum products such as spent engine oil and crude oil, marginal negative errors of 9% and positive error of 2 to 17% should be taken into consideration.

ADEBOLA A. ADEKUNLE

2012-07-01

231

Assessment of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE in Kastina Area, Kastina State of Nigeria using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS  

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Full Text Available The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE parameters were assessed using Satellite Remote Sensing (RS and GIS with a view to model soil erosion in Kastina area, Kastina State of Nigeria. Data on parameters such as slope factors, crop cover and management practice support (P were obtained from Digital Elevation Model (DEM and Landsat ETM +, 2002 of the area.The estimated potential mean annual soil loss of 17.35 ton/ac/yr based on the refined RUSLE was obtained for the study area. Also, the potential erosion rates from the erosion classes identified ranged from 0.0 to 4185.12 ton/ac/yr. About 65.47% of the study area was under the first class with erosion rates lies between 0.0 and 10 ton/ac/yr.The most severe eroded area with erosion rates between 104.80 and 4,185.12 ton/ac/yr accounted for about 1.86% of the study area.On the whole, this study has demonstrated the significance of Satellite (RS and GIS technologies in modeling erosion.

k. Adepoju

2010-07-01

232

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor's organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of DOE's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES ampersand H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES ampersand H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES ampersand H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES ampersand H problems and new ES ampersand H initiatives

1993-01-01

233

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

1993-11-01

234

An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

Kola Adeyemi

2005-07-01

235

Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

Oduola Ayo MJ

2008-01-01

236

Assessment of the Chemical Characteristics of a Spring Water Source at Ife-Owutu, Ezinihite-Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available The chemical characteristics of the Giri Giri Nwanjoku Spring in Owutu Ezinihitte-Mbaise, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated to carefully determine some basic geochemical constituents of the water sourcewith a view to identifying those constituents whose concentrations are unacceptably high, compared with the maximum permissible level of a regulatory body and as such determine its wholesome portability for diverse usage. The resultant data conform to the Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007 and the World Health Organization (2006 Standard. The water source is generally neutral with an average pH of 6.85. However, the samples gave an average Calcium and Magnesium ion concentrations of 3.205mg/l and 0.82mg/l respectively and an average hardness (as CaCO3 of 11.375mg/l, indicating that the water is relatively soft. The Stiff and Schoeller plots show at a glance the spatial variations of the chemical constituents of the spring with Tri-oxo-carbonate and Calcium dominating. From the Box and Whisker plot, the greater amount of the cations and anions lie within the second quarter of the box ranging from 0.01meq/l to 0.05meq/l indicating similarity in origin. The Piper trilinear diagram reveals an alkaline earth and weak acid group predominantly the Tri-oxo-carbonate and as suchclassified as Ca-(Mg-Na-HCO3 water facies which indicates portability. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SARand Percentage Sodium (%Na values of 0.27 and 34.20% respectively show that the water is good for Agricultural use. The Pollution Index (PI value of 0.6 (which is less than the critical value of unity shows thatthe spring water is not polluted. For industrial use, the Saturation Index (SI value of -3.41 reveals that the water may lead to moderate corrosion if not properly treated.

Ibeneme, S.I.

2013-10-01

237

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

2005-09-01

238

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

239

Assessment of viability of exploiting artesian aquifers for municipal water supply in parts of south-east Nigeria using isotope techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steady growth in Nigeria's population, now about 140 million, and the continuing relocation of many citizens from rural to urban areas in pursuit of higher education and employment opportunities have placed considerable stress on social infrastructures particularly water supply in most of the state capitals. In parts of the Middle Belt and South East, artesian flows have been encountered in boreholes tapping the False bedded Ajali Sandstone and Upper Coal Measures geological formations. The IAEA sponsored TC Project No. NIR/8/007: 'Isotope-based Investigation of Groundwater in the Middle-Belt and South East' seeks to evaluate the source, recharge and hydrochemistry of these artesian aquifers through study of their hydro-geological setting, hydraulic and hydro-chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the source water. An inventory of most of the existing artesian boreholes has been completed. Thirty-three (33) water samples have been collected from surface and groundwater sources including artesian and non-artesian boreholes at varying depths, for isotopic and hydrochemical analysis, which results, when available would lie interpreted and discussed in a subsequent paper. This paper reviews the hydro-geology of the project area and outlines the way the project would progress with emphasis on the role isotope hydrology would play in resolving the sustainability question associated with exploitation of the artesian aquifers for municipal water supply schemes. It is envisaged that integrated interpretation of isotopic and hydrochemical data to be acquired together with baseline data would provide informed advice to water resources managers and decision-makers on the viability of planning large scale water supply schemes based on these artesian aquifers. (author)

2007-12-01

240

Microburst windspeed potential assessment: progress and recent developments  

CERN Multimedia

Recent testing and validation have found that the GOES microburst products are effective in the assessment and short-term forecasting of downburst potential and associated wind gust magnitude. Two products, the GOES sounder Microburst Windspeed Potential Index and the multispectral GOES imager product have demonstrated capability in downburst potential assessment. Each microburst product consists of a set of predictor variables that generates output of expected microburst risk. This paper compares and contrasts the sounder and imager microburst products and outlines the advantages of each product in the nowcasting process. An updated assessment of the sounder MWPI and imager microburst products, case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and validation results for the 2009 convective season over United States Great Plains is presented.

Pryor, Kenneth L

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

2013-01-01

242

Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

1998-01-01

243

Climate Change Reduction: A Mirage in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This paper aims at assessing the weakness of Nigeria in efficaciously dealing with the menace of climate change within the country. The researchers examined how the campaigns against climate change has been embraced in the Real Estate Development Practices in Nigeria. Various surveys were conducted on deforestation, gas flaring, planning adaptations to climate change in selected housing estates, preservation of forests and the use of badly smoking vehicles on city roads. Campaigns and policy statements to reduce the adverse effects of climate change are made but not implemented. The TPAs and CDAs were blamed for inefficiency in monitoring and supervision of real estate developments at the various housing Estates surveyed. Deforestation in the Northern Nigeria was attributed to Poverty and lack of electricity supply from the public mains. It was concluded that climate change in Nigeria may not be achieved unless practical adaptive measure are taken, and all agents of Government responsible for overseeing their enforcements rises to their responsibilities without prejudice. Way forward to achieving climate change reduction in Nigeria is proffered.

Keywords: Real estate developments; Climatic change; Implementation; Challenges; Reductive Measures

Pat-Mbano Edith C

2012-03-01

244

Constructing Rubrics and Assessing Progress Collaboratively with Social Studies Students  

Science.gov (United States)

When social studies students have a role in the processes of designing assignments, constructing rubrics, and conducting assessments, they participate in authentic democratic principles relative to their own learning. When given voice, choice, and ownership in their education, social studies students gain opportunities to strengthen their depth of…

Gallavan, Nancy P.; Kottler, Ellen

2009-01-01

245

Comparing Mathematics Content in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 Assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects information on student performance in key subject areas through the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), as well as through participation in international studies of student achie...

T. S. Neidorf M. Binkley K. Gattis D. Nohara

2006-01-01

246

Assessment of progressive deformation on the basis of elastic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of structures subjected to cyclic loading is complex. The structure may be in inelastic or plastic shakedown state or exhibit the ratchetting phenomenon. For reasons related to operation (functional play), geometric instability (buckling) and damage, it is important to estimate the maximum deformation reached on the structure when 'it stabilizes. A proposed solution to this problem is offered by the rule of the efficiency diagram based on a set of experimental results but, in certain cases, this method is impossible or difficult to apply. In this paper, we propose a general theoretical approach to the efficiency diagram and this will allow us to extend its field of application to cases of structures subjected to null primary loading. For this purpose, we demonstrate that, in certain cases, there is a coupling between primary and secondary loading. A new definition of primary stress, identified with the former definition in simple cases, is proposed. Finally, we will apply this method to structures bitubes and shells at free level, under thermomechanical loading and, therefore, generating secondary stresses liable to work in progressive deformation mode

1993-08-15

247

Education reforms in Nigeria: how responsive is the nursing profession?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstractworldwide because of the link between education and development. What appears not to have been fully explored in the Nigerian context is the responsiveness of various professions, especially nursing, to the consistently changing educational system. Yet innovative advances in health care system in the twenty-first century demands that Nursing as a profession should prepare practitioners who are well equipped to meet the challenges of care within the context of a complex milieu. This paper, therefore, examines the Nigeria educational system, its reforms and current status of nursing education in Nigeria. Some of the challenges in the emergence of professional nursing in Nigeria and the progress made so far to advance professional as well as university education for nurses are articulated with propositions of possibilities and the gains for the Nigeria nation. PMID:23629464

Ayandiran, Emmanuel Olufemi; Irinoye, Omolola Oladunni; Olayiwola Faronbi, Joel; Mtshali, Ntombi G

2013-01-01

248

An evaluation of molecular and clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis by assessing radiographic progression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. To determine whether molecular remission defined by a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score predicts a reduced risk of joint damage progression, and whether the MBDA score can augment existing classifications of remission. Methods. The study examined 271 visits for 163 RA patients in the Leiden Early Arthritis Cohort. The MBDA score and other variables from each visit were evaluated for prediction of progression [change in Sharp–van der Heijde Score (?SHS) >3] over the ensuing 12 months. Positive likelihood ratios (PLRs) for non-progression were calculated for remission based upon DAS based on 28-joint counts and CRP (DAS28-CRP <2.32), EULAR/ACR Boolean criteria and MBDA score (?25). Results. Ninety-three per cent of patients in MBDA-defined remission did not experience progression, compared with 70% of patients not in MBDA remission (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the fraction of non-progressers between patients in remission and those not in remission using either DAS28-CRP or EULAR/ACR criteria. The PLR for non-progression over 12 months for MBDA remission was 4.73 (95% CI 1.67, 15.0). Among patients in DAS28-CRP remission, those with a high MBDA score were 2.3 times as likely (95% CI 1.1, 3.7) to have joint damage progression during the next year. Conclusion. MBDA-defined remission was an indicator of limited radiographic progression over the following 12 months. For patients in DAS28-CRP remission, high MBDA scores were a significant indicator of elevated risk of progression. MBDA results may provide a useful adjunct to clinical assessment to identify progression-free remission and assess subclinical disease.

van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Knevel, Rachel; Cavet, Guy; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Haney, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

249

Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 {mu}Sv, 8.1 {mu}Sv and 8.8 {mu}Sv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 {mu}Sv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

Jibiri, N.N.; Farai, I.P. [Ibadan Univ., Radiation and Health Physics Research Lab., Dept. of Physics (Nigeria); Alausa, S.K. [Olabisi Onabanjo Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ago-Iwoye (Nigeria)

2009-04-15

250

Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226Ra and 232Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 ?Sv, 8.1 ?Sv and 8.8 ?Sv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 ?Sv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

2009-01-01

251

Tuberculosis case management and treatment outcome: Assessment of the effectiveness of public - private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna state, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : In an effort to increase tuberculosis (TB case detection, the Kaduna State TB program in Nigeria started Public-Private Mix (PPM DOTS in 2002. This study assessed and compared the TB case management practices and treatment outcomes of the public and private health facilities involved in the TB program. Methods : A comparative cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 5 private and 10 public health facilities providing TB services for at least two years in the four Local Governments Areas in Kaduna State where both public and private health facilities are involved in the TB program. The heads of the health facilities were interviewed and case notes of all the 492 TB patients registered in these facilities between January 2003 and December 2004 reviewed. Results : Except for the lower use of sputum microscopy for diagnosis, adherence to national TB treatment guidelines was high in both private and public health facilities. The private health facilities significantly saw more TB patients, an average of 51 patients per health facility compared to 23 patients in the public health facilities. There was better completion of records in the public health facilities while patient contact screening was very low in both public and private health facilities, 13.1% and 12.2% respectively. The treatment success rate was higher among patients managed in the private health facilities (83.7% compared to 78.6% in the public health facilities. Conclusion : Private health facilities adhere to national guidelines had higher TB patient case load and better treatment outcome than public health facilities in Kaduna State. PPM-DOTS should be scaled-up and consolidated.

Gidado M

2009-03-01

252

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of lead and cadmium via consumption of cow meat for an urban population in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087

Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B

2013-07-01

253

Assessment of Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilisation of Okra in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the production, processing, marketing and utilization of okra in Egbedore Local Government of Osun state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire and field observations from 100 okra farmers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 57.56 years with a standard deviation of 9.28 years. All the respondents are males and married. Women do not own personal okra farms but they do work with their husband on the family farms and mostly involved independently at the processing, preservation and marketing levels more than at the production level. About 49.0% of the respondents did not have any formal education while 51.0% were literates who have access to intermediate farm technology. The mean years of okra production experience is 16.91 years and the mean okra farm size is 3.64 acres with standard deviation of 2.58 acres. All the respondents practiced mixed cropping where other crops such as yam, banana, pineapples, cassava and others were planted with okra. Land preparation for okra production includes land clearing, ploughing, harrowing and heaping or ridging. About 80.0% of the okra farmers used cutlass and hoe regularly, which might have been responsible for okra production at subsistence or small-scale level. Only 20.0% of the okra farmers employed use of tractor. Majority of the farmers hired labour to supplement family labour. The mean persons day of family labour was 6.03 and that of hired labour was 1.25 persons day. Processing and preservation are carried out using traditional techniques of slicing, sun drying and grinding (using mortar and pestle. Sliced and dried okra are stored in gourd, basket and clay-pots. Fresh okra are put in basket lined with leave for maximum of three days during which it is marketed on retail and wholesale basis. Okra is consumed fresh and dried mostly to make draw soup by 81.0% of the respondents. Positive and significant relationships existed between socioeconomic characteristics of respondents investigated and total yield of okra produced. The r-value for variable related to land preparation and operation are low, between r = 0.234 and r = 0.470. The r-value of variables related to farm size and output (yield are very high between r = 0.550 and r = 0.922, which spelt out a situation tending towards a perfect relationship. There is also sharp difference in the r-value of farm size for okra (0.922 and farm size for other crops (0.550. It therefore means that okra yield depends on the size of the farm.

A.J. Farinde

2006-01-01

254

Adequacy of Dietary Iodine in Two Local Government Areas of Cross River State in Nigeria  

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The Cross River State of Nigeria was in the goiter-endemic or goiter belt of Nigeria before the introduction of Universal Salt Iodization (USI) in 1996. After several years of availability and consumption of iodized salt in Nigeria, it has become necessary to revisit some of these previously goiter endemic areas so as to measure the effect of USI on the iodine nutriture, especially since goiter has not completely disappeared. This study was therefore initiated to assess the current iod...

2008-01-01

255

Prevalence of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild and Captive Birds in Central Nigeria  

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Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute rapidly spreading, contagious, nervous and respiratory disease of domestic and wild birds caused by the Avian Paramxyovirus 1, the Newcastle disease (ND) virus. ND is endemic in Nigeria. The reservoir status of wild and captive birds for ND virus in central Nigeria is assessed in this study. Cloacal swabs were taken from one hundred and sixty three birds caught from five Local Government Council areas of Plateau, Benue and Kaduna States in central Nigeria. A...

2009-01-01

256

Study of Exclusion and Assessibility of Students with Disabilities in the 1994 Trial State Assessment (TSA) of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a survey of national trends in educational achievement, is attempting to expand its inclusion of students with disabilities or limitations that have previously caused them to be excluded from the assessment. The study described was a precursor to the 1996 changes in NAEP inclusion procedures.…

Stancavage, Fran; And Others

257

Taking Stock of Poverty Reduction Efforts in Nigeria  

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This study is an evaluation of the Poverty Eradication Programmes in Nigeria. It tries to assess their effectiveness in helping to improve on the lives of the poor. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administered to randomly selected adult male and female residents in Enugu State of Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from the Poverty Eradication office in the State. The analysis shows that most of the poverty reduction efforts had no significant impact on the lives...

2011-01-01

258

Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes. PMID:23601404

Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I

2013-10-01

259

Capital Flight and Nigeria Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides evidence on the negative impact of the assessment of capital flight on economic growth of Nigeria for 40 years (1970-2009). It provides a comprehensive analysis of capital flight and its resultant impact on domestic investment and the growth rate of the economy. The study used cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) as its main estimation techniques. It was discovered that capital flight and its assessments are significant factors for explaining economi...

AJAYI LAWRENCE BOBOYE

2012-01-01

260

Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

Krajcik, Joseph

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Post-consent assessment of dental subjects' understanding of informed consent in oral health research in Nigeria  

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Abstract Background Research participants may not adequately understand the research in which they agree to enroll. This could be due to a myriad of factors. Such a missing link in the informed consent process contravenes the requirement for an "informed" consent prior to the commencement of research. This study assessed the post consent understanding of Nigerian study participants of the oral health research they were invited to join. Methods A descript...

2009-01-01

262

Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria  

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With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water a...

2009-01-01

263

Physical therapy assessment tools to evaluate disease progression and phenotype variability in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs suffering from Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) present symptoms that are similar to human patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Phenotypic variability is common in both cases and correlates with disease progression and response to therapy. Physical therapy assessment tools were used to study disease progression and assess phenotypic variability in dogs with GRMD. At 5 (T0), 9 (T1), 13 (T2) and 17 (T3)months of age, the physical features, joint ranges of motion (ROM), limb and thorax circumferences, weight and creatine kinase (CK) levels were assessed in 11 dogs with GRMD. Alterations of physical features were higher at 13 months, and different disease progression rates were observed. Passive ROM decreased until 1 year old, which was followed by a decline of elbow and tarsal ROM. Limb and thorax circumferences, which were corrected for body weight, decreased significantly between T0 and T3. These measurements can be used to evaluate disease progression in dogs with GRMD and to help discover new therapies for DMD patients. PMID:21315399

Gaiad, T P; Silva, M B; Silva, G C A; Caromano, F A; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

2011-10-01

264

The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2011. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2012-457  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents results of the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading at grades 4 and 8. Nationally representative samples of 213,100 fourth-graders and 168,200 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. At each grade, students responded to questions…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

2011-01-01

265

ASSESSMENT OF COMPLIANCE TO TREATMENT AMONG AMBULATORY ASTHMATIC PATIENTS IN A SECONDARY HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the level of compliance using three different methods: pill count, self report and peak expiratory flow rate, in asthmatic patients attending a secondary health care facility. Self report (using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, peak expiratory flow rate and pill count were used to assess patient’s compliance and identify the factors which may be responsible for non compliance. Measurement of peak expiratory flow rate and the pill count were done at two different occasions. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics. The study showed that the patients were prescribed a range of one to four drugs: 54% (3 drugs, 32% (2 drugs, 8% (4 drugs and 2% (1 drug. The levels of compliance were 86.57% for self report and 83.56% for pill count (p > 0.05. Reasons given for non compliance were: apparent wellness (33.31%, forgetfulness (26.67%, cost of drugs (6.67%, dysphagia (6.67%, presence of non-disturbing symptoms (6.67%, side effects (6.67%, ignorance/fear of addiction (6.67%, perceived lack of benefit from treatment (6.67%, and lethargy towards chronic medication (6.67%. However, there was a significant difference in the readings of the peak expiratory flow rate measured at two different occasions (p < 0.05. The study showed no significant difference in the methods used to assess the level of compliance. Non compliance can be overcome by proper education of patients on the importance of complying with the administration of medication and proper usage of metered dose devices.

S. J. Showande et al.

2012-01-01

266

Assessing market for multi-national corporations at Nigeria's bottom of the pyramid: Hints from consumer behaviour  

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Undoubtedly, poverty reduction has become a front-burner issue in development and business agenda. Since its announcement and defense by its advocates as a potent weapon against poverty, the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) concept has been bedeviled by controversies. A major controversy is whether or not Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) can serve the BoP market profitably without further impoverishing the poor. The main objective of this study therefore is to assess if there is market for MNCs ...

Adebayo, Nathaniel Adeyemi

2013-01-01

267

Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g) of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>C...

Owamah, H. I.

2013-01-01

268

Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm2 or 107?W/m2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

2013-03-25

269

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna

2011-03-01

270

Anthropomertrically determined nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren in Mkurdi, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: No information exists on the nutritional status of primary school children residing in Makurdi, Nigeria. It is envisaged that the data could serve as baseline data for future studies, as well as inform public health policy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among urban school children in Makurdi, Nigeria.

Monyeki, Makama Andries; Goon, Daniel T.; Toriola, Abel L.; Shaw, Brandon S.; Amusa, Lateef O.; Akinyemi, Oluwadare; Alabi, Olubola A.

2011-01-01

271

GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing the state of coastal environments while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to provide a decision support tool for coastal resource managers in the assessment of environmental impacts of development in tropical areas. The fourth objective is to assess the extent of change in a tropical ecosystem with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper draws from primary and census data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem: initiatives and mitigation measures. The project offers some recommendations as part of the conservation strategies. In spite of concerted efforts by managers to address the problems, results revel that the study area experienced some significant changes in its coastal environments. These changes are attributed to socio-economic and environmental variables.

Edmund C. Merem

2006-03-01

272

Heavy metals determination and assessment in a petroleum impacted River in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in (mg/g of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe, Co, Cd, and Hg in the water and sediments of river Ijana Warri, were determined in order to assess the impact of petroleum-processing activities on the river and the surrounding environment. The data showed that the levels of these metals ranged between 0.15-1.18 mg/g and 0.10-0.48 mg/g in sediment and water respectively. The heavy metals concentrations reported for the water have an abundance trend in the order of Pb>Fe>Ni>Cr>Cu>Co> Cd >Hg, while those of the sediments is in the order of Pb > Fe > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd > Hg > Co. The control analysis was carried out in a non- oil polluted river (Ikpoba River and the values served as base line values for the study.

H.I Owamah

2013-02-01

273

An Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Potential of the Gombe Formation, Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria: Organic Geochemical Point of View  

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Full Text Available Gombe Formation is a heterogeneous sequence within the Upper Benue Trough consisting principally of shales with sands, clays and intercalations of coal. It is over 600 m thick maximally in some parts of the sub-basin and has been dated Maastritchtian. Fifteen (15 core samples from 3 boreholes (BA-7, BA-16 and BA-17 dug around the Maiganga Coal Mine have been studied geochemically using the Rock-Eval 6 method with the principal aim of evaluating their potential as possible source rocks for petroleum. The results of the Rock-Eval analysis for analyzed core samples from these boreholes within Gombe Formation shows that the samples in boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 contain Type II kerogen while those from borehole BA-17 contain Type III kerogen, and that the samples from boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 have very good generative potential while those from borehole BA-17 have good to very good potential. This study also reveals that the analyzed samples especially those from boreholes BA-7 and BA-16 may constitute good source rocks if the burial depth is sufficient. The Rock-Eval Tmax data available for thermal maturity assessment of the samples suggest that the analyzed samples from the three boreholes are thermally immature. This assessment is consistent with the immaturity status of their coeval Formations (Pindiga and Gongila Formations in other part of the Benue Trough, suggesting that these contemporaneous Formations may be related in depth and/or have experienced similar geothermal gradient. It is therefore recommended that the thermal maturity of the analyzed samples from the three boreholes be re-evaluated by other thermal maturity indices such as vitrinite reflectance measurement and biomarker evaluation in order to further authenticate the maturity status of the Formation.

U. S. Onoduku

2012-12-01

274

Progression of liver fibrosis in post-transplant hepatitis C: mechanisms, assessment and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver fibrosis results from an excessive wound healing response in most chronic liver diseases, such as hepatitis C. Despite great advances in antiviral therapy in recent years, progressive liver fibrosis remains a major problem for patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Liver biopsy remains a central tool in the management of HCV-positive liver transplant recipients, but reliable non-invasive methods for the assessment of liver fibrosis, such as ultrasound elastography, are increasingly being incorporated in the management of post-transplant patients, helping predict prognosis, guide treatment decisions, and stratify patients for emerging antifibrotic therapies. In this manuscript, we will review the natural history as well as tools to monitor fibrosis progression in the HCV-positive liver transplant recipient, the mechanisms underlying rapid fibrosis progression in up to 30% of these patients, the effect of antiviral therapies and highlight promising antifibrotic approaches. PMID:23262248

Berenguer, Marina; Schuppan, Detlef

2013-05-01

275

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

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Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing ...

2010-01-01

276

Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007  

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Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government ...

Stephen Ocheni; Nwankwo, Basil C.

2012-01-01

277

Special Education Provision in Nigeria: Analyzing Contexts, Problems, and Prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria has made some efforts to educate all of its citizenry, including those with disabilities. And, it has struggled to make sure that programs are available to those who need them. However, its traditional, sociocultural, and educational problems have prevented some programmatic consistency and progress. As a result, the special education…

Obiakor, Festus E.; Offor, MaxMary Tabugbo

2011-01-01

278

Assessment of the Training Needs of Fadama Farmers for Future Agricultural Extension Work Development in Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the training needs of fadama farmers in Osun State for future agricultural extension work development. Primary data on fadama farming were collected from 150 fadama farmers selected using random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression techniques. The results of analysis indicated that fadama farming is practiced mostly very close to boundaries of major towns and cities. The mean age of fadama farmers was 40 years. Areas of training needs identified by the fadama farmers include: chemical control of insect pest, use of appropriate chemical and correct dose of application; appropriate herbicide to be used to reduce drudgery and storage of fadama produce. The result showed a negative but significant relationship (b = -0.302 between the number of years of formal education and training need expressed by fadama farmers. Also the correlation coefficient showed that size of household (b = 1.230, size of fadama farmland (b = 1.245, hour spent on farm (b = 1.469 and previous fadama trainings attended (b = 7.567 were positive and significant at p=<0.05. The study concluded that extension agents and agencies should design regular training programmes for fadama farmers in the area of deficiencies identified and strengthen fadama associations such that tripartite problems of lack or high cost of inputs, lack of starting and operating capital and fadama land could be reduced/solved.

S.A. Adesoji

2006-01-01

279

Assessing Teaching Readiness of University Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications for Managing Teacher Education Reforms  

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Full Text Available This ex-post-facto designed study was geared towards assessing the readiness of would-be teachers in universities in Cross River State for the teaching profession, and how reforms can be managed to strengthen this. Three hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 200 students from the two universities in the state constituted the sample drawn from a population of 1684 graduating education students. Data were generated using “Students’ Teaching Readiness Questionnaire (S.T.R.Q.”. Population t-test and Independent t-test statistical techniques were used to analyze data collected. Results disclosed that teaching readiness of university education students is significantly low in terms of possession of communication skills, interpersonal skills, ICT skills and entrepreneurial skills; gender influences teaching readiness of university education students in one hand and in the other, it does not; teaching readiness of university education students does not significantly differ on the basis of institution of affiliation. On the strength of these findings, implications for managing teacher education reforms were articulated.

B. A. Akuegwu

2011-11-01

280

Assessment of Empowerment Support Initiative (ESI Programmes on Women Participation in Community Development Programmes, Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the Empowerment Support Initiative (ESI programmes on women participation in community development programmes in selected Local Government Areas of Rivers State. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consist 520 registered members of Empowerment Support Initiative programmes in Port Harcourt, Khana and Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Areas of Rivers State. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire supported by focus group discussion method. Three research assistants were used to administer the questionnaire.  Two hypotheses were formulated and tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that significant relationship exists between the forms of empowerment support Initiate programmes and the level of women participation in ESI programmes and that there is significant relationship existing between the impact of ESI programmes on women participation and their level of participation in Community Development programmes in Rivers State. It was recommended amongst others that ESI programmes should be expanded to benefit non participants of empowerment support initiative.

M.A. Oyebamiji

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

An Assessment of Beneficiaries’ Satisfaction of the Management of Loan Contract Components by Farmer Cooperative Societies in Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed beneficiaries’ satisfaction in the managementof loag-contract components by cooperatives involved inthe farm credit delivery in Edo State. The objective was toidentify the components of the farm loan contract, examine themanagement strategies and rate the beneficiaries’ satisfaction ofsuch management strategies. This was done by purposivelyselecting 40 cooperatives involved in farm credit delivery inOredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha LGAs of Edo State where thereis a proliferation of cooperatives who are actively involved infarm credit delivery. Data were analyzed using descriptivestatistics, queuing model and satisfaction indices.Results showedthe main loan-contract components to be loan volume, repaymentregime, interest rates charged, default management, collateralrequired, timeliness and loan monitoring. Average beneficiaries’index was 4.28 out of 5 indicating high satisfaction originatingfrom good queue management with traffic density of 1.12,moderate interest rate of 9% p.a, active loan monitoring, nophysical collateral, timely disbursement of loan and accommodativerepayment regime. Only individual loan volumes were low as aresult of inadequate loanable fund. Study recommends that cooperativesocieties should take advantage of external sources offunds to boost the volume of their loanable funds.

Grace Oghenerobor Alufohai

2013-03-01

282

Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria  

CERN Document Server

The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

2012-01-01

283

A Comparative Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Water quality monitoring at five (5 different gauge stations on the course of Njaba River was undertaken to understand the variability of the physico-chemical and microbial contents of the river water within a specified period of time (2003-2008. Collected water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Digital Meters and Standard Plate Counts. Results of the analyses indicated that average pH, electrical conductivity and the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS of the Njaba River in 2003 were 6.3, 22 µS/cm and 13.5 mg/l, respectively. Mean values in 2008 for the same parameters were 6.4, 24.4µS/cm and 14.7 mg/l, respectively. Mean concentrations of analyzed cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ in 2003 were 4.10, 0.15, 5.00 and 1.20 mg/l, respectively, and that obtained for same parameters in 2008 were 4.40, 0.18, 6.40 and 1.30 mg/l, respectively. The mean concentrations of analyzed anions (HCO3 - , SO4 2-, Cl- and NO3 - in 2003 were 20.0, 4.0, 1.30 and 0.20 mg/l, respectively and in 2008 the mean concentrations were 24.5, 4.20, 1.60 and 0.22 mg/l, respectively. Characterization of the river water followed the trend: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ (for the cations and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > NO3 - (for anions, showing the Njaba River is NaHCO3 water. Mean concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD of the river water were 7.2 and 2.2 mg/l, respectively in 2003, and 8.0 and 4.0 mg/l respectively, in 2008. Total Coliform Counts of the river water in 2003 ranged from 70 - 90 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 80 cfu/100ml, while the counts in 2008 ranged from 100 - 120 cfu/100ml with a mean value of 110 cfu/100 ml. Calculated Pollution Index (PI slightly increased from 0.72 in 2003 to 0.73 in 2008. These water quality determinants revealed gradual rise in the concentrations of the respective physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological constituents of the Njaba River water. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR of 1.37 in 2003 and 1.54 in 2008, however, indicated that the river remained excellent for irrigation purposes. Except for the observed low pH and poor bacteriological quality, all other measured parameters of the Njaba River water conformed to the World Health Organization (WHO standards for safe drinking water. The generally decreasing low pH value and progressively increasing Coliform Counts and nutrient contents (although still low were the major environmental problems observed in the Njaba River water. These problems are essentially associated with increased anthropogenic activities on the Njaba River Watershed within the period in focus.

Cosmas Ahamefula Ahiarakwem

2011-09-01

284

Niger Delta play types, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

Akinpelu, A.O. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos (Nigeria)

1995-08-01

285

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

1993-08-01

286

Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria; Mesure des radionucleides naturels et de l'evaluation de la dose de granits de l'Etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84) Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th contents were lower, whereas the {sup 40}K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ayeni, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-10-15

287

Geology and Geochemical Assessment of Metal Contamination of Stream Sediments at Igun and Its Environs, Ilesha Area South Western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The cause of heavy metal contamination in stream sediments is probably related to mining activities in Igun study area. Hence the degree of contamination of major and trace elements was carried out to ascertain environmental impact assessment of Igun and its environs, the geology of the study area shows that talc schist, quartzite, amphibolite and granite are the major rock types within the study area, while petrographic studies show quartz, microcline feldspar, biotite, muscovite and hornblende as the main mineral constituents. Total numbers of ten (10 stream sediment samples were collected, air dried at room temperature and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS techniques. From the result of geochemical analysis of the stream sediment samples, the mean concentration for trace elements revealed that Manganese (Mn, Strontium (Sr, Zinc (Zn, Gold (Au Nickel (Ni, Cobalt (Co and Lead (Pb have the mean values of 1704 ppm, 75.11 ppm, 55.80 ppm, 40.22 ppm, 26.15 ppm, 20.94 ppm, 10.60 ppm respectively. The contamination of metals was noticed from the geo accumulation index (Igeo, for stream sediments such as Nickel (0.1, copper (0.5, Manganese (0.6 with Igeo < 1 depicting that these metals are practically uncontaminated. Cobalt (0.1, Zinc  (1.1 with Igeo number > 1 < 2 are moderately contaminated and Gold with Igeo of (9.6 indicate very high contamination. In conclusion the results shows that some part of the study area are contaminated and this includes Imoo (location 4, Owena (location 9 and Oke - Ipa (location 1 compared to other locations in the study area which are not contaminated.

Akintola A. I.

2014-01-01

288

Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds.

Mmom Prince Chinedu

2010-10-01

289

Progress on quantitative assessment methods of biological aerosols in the atmosphere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological aerosol is one of the most important pollutants in the air, not only influencing public health, and air quality, but also playing an important role in climate change and both chemical and physical processing regulations in the atmosphere. Therefore, the quantification of biological aerosols in the air needs to be more accurate. This article reviews the progress on quantitative assessment methods of biological aerosols in the atmosphere as well as those related merits that each...

Liang, L.; He, K.; Duan, F.

2012-01-01

290

A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a wavelet-based on-line damage assessment approach based on the use of progressively transmitted multi-resolution sensor data. In extreme events like strong earthquakes, real-time retrieval of structural monitoring data and on-line damage assessment of civil infrastructures are crucial for emergency relief and disaster assistance efforts such as resource allocation and evacuation route arrangement. Due to the limited communication bandwidth available to data transmission during and immediately after major earthquakes, innovative methods for integrated sensor data transmission and on-line damage assessment are highly desired. The proposed approach utilizes a lifting scheme wavelet transform to generate multi-resolution sensor data, which are transmitted progressively in increasing resolution. Multi-resolution sensor data enable interactive on-line condition assessment of structural damages. To validate this concept, a hysteresis-based damage assessment method, proposed by Iwan for extreme-event use, is selected in this study. A sensitivity study on the hysteresis-based damage assessment method under varying data resolution levels was conducted using simulation data from a six-story steel braced frame building subjected to earthquake ground motion. The results of this study show that the proposed approach is capable of reducing the raw sensor data size by a significant amount while having a minor effect on the accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assessment. The proposed approach provides a valuable decision support tool for engineers and emergency response personnel who want to access the data in real time and perform on-line damage assessment in an efficient manner

2008-02-01

291

Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis  

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Full Text Available The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010 (AMCON Act and employs as a method, analytical exposition of the Act in this work. The paper finds that lack of corporate governance and incentive problems caused Nigeria's banking sector crisis. It argues that though the provisions of the AMCON Act are aimed at compelling corporate governance and international best practices, inherent weaknesses and inconsistencies with superior legislations leave a big question mark on its applicability and effectiveness. The paper calls for legislative rethink if Nigeria must prevent future failures in the banking sector and rebuild confidence in the investing public as well as in bank depositors.

Mmadu, R. A. O.

2012-12-01

292

High prevalence of hepatitis B virus among female sex workers in Nigeria Alta prevalência de hepatite pelo vírus B entre trabalhadoras do sexo feminino na Nigéria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and constitutes a public health menace. The prevalence of HBV infection in many professional groups has been described in Nigeria. However, literature on HBV infection among female sex workers (FSW) in Nigeria is scanty. FSW in Nigeria are not subjected to a preventive control of HBV infection. This study assesses the extent of spread of HBV among FSW in Nigeria. Seven hundred and twenty (n = 720) FSW (mean age = 26.7 years) were tested ...

Forbi, J. C.; Onyemauwa, N.; Gyar, S. D.; Oyeleye, A. O.; Entonu, P.; Agwale, S. M.

2008-01-01

293

National Assessment of Educational Progress and State Assessments: What Do the Data Really Mean?  

Science.gov (United States)

A high school principal and faculty celebrated after hearing that their students in each of the quartiles had improved in both reading and mathematics on the state accountability assessment. Because of the percent of increases in achievement levels on the test, the Florida Department of Education awarded the school an A for 2011. Shortly…

Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Gordon, William R., II

2011-01-01

294

Health impact assessment in Australia: A review and directions for progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides an overview of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) within Australia. We discuss the development and current position of HIA and offer some directions for HIA's progression. Since the early 1990s HIA activity in Australia has increased and diversified in application and practice. This article first highlights the emergent streams of HIA practice across environmental, policy and health equity foci, and how these have developed within Australia. The article then provides summaries of current practice provided by each Australian state and territory. We then offer some insight into current issues that require further progression or resolution if HIA is to progress effectively in Australia. This progress rests both on developing broad system support for HIA across government, led by the health sector, and developing system capacity to undertake, commission or review HIAs. We argue that a unified and clear HIA approach is required as a prerequisite to gaining the understanding and support for HIA in the public and private sectors and the wider community.

2011-07-01

295

Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the resea...

Retief, Francois Pieter; Morrison-saunders, Angus

2012-01-01

296

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a) adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b) the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most ...

2010-01-01

297

Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope

2010-12-01

298

Nigeria: human trafficking and migration  

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Full Text Available Readmission agreements between Nigeria and migrant destination countries fail to comply with international standards for the protection of migrants’ and trafficked persons’ rights.

Victoria Ijeoma Nwogu

2006-05-01

299

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

2004-12-02

300

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a ''client'' of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Assessment of Application of Due-Process Policy in Public Procurement and Contracts Under Obasanjo Administration in Nigeria, 2003-2007  

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Full Text Available

Many Nigerians identify corruption and poverty as the bane of the nation’s development paralysis. The Obasanjo administration in the country was determined to enthrone the principle of transparency and accountability in public life in Nigeria. The government of President Olusegun Obasanjo believes that without probity in public life, the ultimate aim of providing for the happiness and welfare of the citizenry will be an illusion. It is in the light of the above that the government embarked on a number of public sector reform programmes aimed at blocking leakages of all sorts in public sector service delivery and transactions. The official instrument designed to achieve this much desired honesty, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business especially in the award of contracts and procurement in the ministries, parastatals and departments in Nigeria is the introduction of the Due Process Policy.


Key words: Due process; Public procurement; Administration

Stephen Ocheni

2012-09-01

302

Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

2012-09-01

303

Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

1979-01-01

304

Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

1979-07-01

305

Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean{+-}SD extent, 30{+-}16%) and irregular lines (mean{+-}SD extent, 17{+-}7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean{+-}SD extent, 10{+-}6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean{+-}SD extent, 51{+-}26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean{+-}SD extent, 5{+-}5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p<0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors).

Hartman, T.E.; Primack, S.L.; Kang, E.Y. [Collaborative Research, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1997-03-01

306

The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. PMID:24284377

Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

2014-01-01

307

Solar energy implementation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply.

2008-01-01

308

An Assessment of Quality of Service (QoS In Voice Communications over Four GSM Networks in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the performances of four operators of mobile telecommunications services in voice communications in Lagos and Oyo States in South Western Nigeria for the first five years of operation. Using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU standard of measuring customer experience of voice telephony service through the voice quality scores known as the Mean Opinion Score (MOS, the study identified the quality of service in voice call between the year 2001 and 2006. The data used for the statistical analysis were obtained randomly from the subscribers of GSM services in the states. The research established that the voice quality for the first five years of operation on all the networks considered were below the ITU specified conversational voice quality of > 3.0 on the MOS scale.

T. O. OYEBISI

2011-09-01

309

How Do Other Countries Measure Up to the Mathematics Achievement Levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we mapped achievement levels from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) onto the score scales for selected assessments from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Achievement (PISA). The mapping was conducted on NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA Mathematics…

Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Smith, Zachary R.

2009-01-01

310

Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

2012-01-01

311

Taking Stock of Poverty Reduction Efforts in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study is an evaluation of the Poverty Eradication Programmes in Nigeria. It tries to assess their effectiveness in helping to improve on the lives of the poor. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administered to randomly selected adult male and female residents in Enugu State of Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from the Poverty Eradication office in the State. The analysis shows that most of the poverty reduction efforts had no significant impact on the lives of the poor. Even those that were recorded as effective had negligible impact on the populace to have reduced poverty. The study enumerates among others inadequate funding, mismanagement of resources and inadequate infrastructures as problems stifling most poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria. The study recommends that in addition to establishing these Poverty alleviation programmes, Nigeria should strive to move away from import dependent economy to an export oriented one.

Key words: Poverty eradication programmes; Nigeria; Effectiveness

Flora O. Ntunde

2011-12-01

312

Energy resurgence in Nigeria:Nuclear power initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the good uses and hazards of nuclear energy. The good uses include nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine, production of fissionable fuels, e.t.c. The hazards include radiations that cause cancer, genetic diseases, problem of radioactive wastes, reactor accidents, e.t.c. Next, is a critical assessment of nuclear power initiative in Nigeria, with five sensitive and thought provoking questions to show our inability to embark on nuclear technology. Finally, recommendation is made to emphasize that search for nuclear energy is not a fruitful venture for Nigeria.

2011-10-11

313

SERVICE TRADE AND NON-OIL EXPORT IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper was set to examine the relationship between different aspects of service trade and non oil export in Nigeria as well as assess the impact of capacity development on value of service trade and the implications for improving value of non oil export in Nigeria. Secondary data 1980 to 2010 were used. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results show that total service trade value in Nigeria has increased from $1126.59 million in 1980 to $3076.19 million in 2010. Significant correlations existed between the total value of service trade and all the types of service trade except with other service trade value. Road network, government (domestic capital expenditure on services, agricultural credit and domestic service GDP positively determine exportable services. Recommendations include improvement of service GDP and agricultural credit/loan facilities.

Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

2013-01-01

314

Equity in Health Care Expenditure in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Equity isone of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in theNigerian health financing policy. Despite acclaimed commitment to theimplementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes andinterventions, the level of inequity in health status and access to basichealth care interventions remain high. This paper examines the equity of healthcare expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocketspending( OOP for the country and separately for the six geopolitical zones ofthe country.The methodological framework rests onKakwani Progressivity Indices (KPIs, ReynoldSmolensky indices andconcentration indices (CIs using data from the 2004 Nigerian National LivingStandard Survey( NLSS collected by the National Bureau of Statistics. .The results reveal that health financing isregressive with the incidence disproportionately rest on poor households withabout 70% of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket paymentsby households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in theevent of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some intopoverty, and aggravate the poverty of others.The paper therefore suggests that thecountry’s health financingsystems must be designed not only to allow people to access services when theyare needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, byreducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within thehealth system.Keywords:                            Equity, Health careexpenditure, Kakwani progressivity index, Nigeria.

Olanrewaju Olaniyan

2013-07-01

315

75 FR 56509 - Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

...competitive pricing. The business culture relies heavily on the strength...of which are used cars and trucks. The government of Nigeria...the international aviation safety assessment program, which...equivalent to the FAA for aviation safety matters--meets...

2010-09-16

316

Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore concluded that supplementation with wheat offal at 1% metabolic weight may not be enough to counteract weight loss of grazing goats during the other periods of the dry season in this environment)

2009-06-08

317

Assessing urban runoff program progress through a dry weather hybrid reconnaissance monitoring design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterizing dry weather conditions in urban Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s), and then prioritizing and addressing problems due to urban pollutants, is a daunting challenge. The size and complexity of most MS4s and the ephemeral nature of many dry weather problems hamper efforts to identify and eliminate pollutant sources, and to track trends in condition. As a result, assessing overall program progress has proven difficult. We describe a hybrid dry weather urban monitoring design from southern California that combines probabilistic and targeted sampling to rigorously identify and prioritize problems and track program progress. Data from probabilistic sites define the urban background and establish tolerance intervals, which identify sites that persistently exceed the overall urban background. Targeted sites focus on locations where nearby activities and/or past history suggest that pollutant levels will be elevated. Embedding targeted monitoring within a probabilistic design enables data from targeted sites to be interpreted in a more meaningful regional context. Data from all sites are also used to construct site- and pollutant-specific control charts. These charts quickly identify instances where a site's behavior significantly changes, compared to its past behavior, suggesting an active source in the upstream drainage area. The hybrid design, and the use of formal statistical tools (tolerance intervals and control charts), permit the program to systematically prioritize problematic sites, compare conditions to the regional urban background, and track trends over time. In addition, the program's design allows several measures of program progress to be defined and thus consistently followed over time. Such hybrid designs can provide substantial advantages compared to more traditional monitoring approaches. PMID:18979175

Bernstein, Brock; Moore, Bruce; Sharp, Grant; Smith, Robert

2009-10-01

318

Progress of emphysema in severe ?1-antitrypsin deficiency as assessed by annual CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess serial CT as a measure of the progress of emphysema in patients with severe ?1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ). Material and Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled study of ?1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy, 22 patients with moderate emphysema were followed for 2-4 years with an annual lung CT. The images were analysed by means of semiautomatic lung detection, and the degree of emphysema was quantitated by the density-mask and the percentile methods. The influence of lung volume was standardised by a regression model. Results: A highly significant decline in Hounsfield units (HU) was found in low-density areas, corresponding to a mean (SE) annual loss of lung tissue of 2.1 (0.4) g/l lung volume. Analysis of a single slice at 5 cm below the level of the carina gave comparable results: 2.4 (0.4) g/l. Conclusion: Serial CT is a sensitive measure of the progress of emphysema in patients with severe ?1-antitrypsin deficiency. (orig.)

1997-09-01

319

Trends in health and health inequalities among major states of India: assessing progress through convergence models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergence in health and health inequalities reflects not only a sense of equity, but also provides a critical assessment tool for monitoring the health progress of differently placed individuals. This study examines convergence hypothesis for health and health inequalities across major Indian states, using both standard and cutting-edge convergence metrics. The findings lend support to the convergence in average health status among the states and the socioeconomic group of India, examined through select health indicators. However, results also suggest a setback in convergence in decline of health inequalities in recent times, particularly in life expectancy at birth, child immunization and underweight. Evidence signals that from the late 1990s, convergence in decline of health inequalities are replaced by emerging divergence. This paper contributes to health policy and planning by identifying areas where, India needs to work to achieve efficiency with equity in health status across geographical divisions and social groups. PMID:23442747

Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

2014-04-01

320

Groundwater evolution modeling for the second progress performance assessment (PA) report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Japanese program for research and development of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal defined by Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the second progress report (i.e., H-12 report) for performance assessment (PA) of HLW disposal is to be published by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and submitted to the Japanese government before the year 2,000 (AEC, 1997). This report presents the establishment of generic groundwater chemical compositions for the PA supporting the H-12 report. The following five hypothetical groundwaters are categorized for PA based on the results of the first progress report (i.e., H-3 report) and binary statistical analyses of the screened groundwater dataset. FRHP (Fresh-Reducing-High-pH) groundwater. FRLP (Fresh-Reducing-Low-pH) groundwater. SRHP (Saline-Reducing-High-pH) groundwater. SRLP (Saline-Reducing-Low-pH) groundwater. MRNP (Mixing-Reducing-Neutral-pH) groundwater. In order to define representative groundwater compositions for the PA for the H-12 report, JNC has established the representativeness of the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the following hypothetical reference groundwaters are selected for the performance assessment analysis in H-12 report, respectively: Reference Case groundwater. FRHP groundwater, and Alternative Geological Environment Case groundwater. SRHP groundwater. In addition, JNC has consulted with overseas experts on the concepts used in groundwater evolution modeling. This modeling effort has focussed on simulating equilibrium water-rock interactions to predict groundwater compositions resulting from reactions between initial water compositions and rock mineral assemblages. These discussions have centered on recommendations for developing more realistic groundwater evolution models. As the results, JNC has obtained important knowledge to develop more realistic groundwater evolution models in future. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Water quality issues in southern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or ?g/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria

2000-07-17

322

The Food Industry in Nigeria: Development and Quality Assurance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nigeria, the food processing sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises, as well as multinational food companies. Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. These standards are essential elements for local and international businesses which contribute to economic progress through industrial development and trade. This review takes a critical look on the Nigerian ...

Ojinnaka, M. C.

2011-01-01

323

Practice, Trends and Challenges of Mobile Commerce in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications in Nigeria. However, nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure. Now that our daily transactions have gone mobile, E-commerce has also joined the band wagon, resulting in the ability to carry out commerce while on the move via mobile devices (phones, PDA`s etc.). This is refer...

Obe, O. O.; Balogun, V. F.

2007-01-01

324

Proteinuria among adult sickle cell anemia patients in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Objective : The life expectancy of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) has improved with modern medical care, and this has led to frequent observation of various chronic complications of the disease including abnormalities in renal function. Proteinuria is not only a marker of renal disease but is also a predictor of disease progression. This screening study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of proteinuria among adult SCA patients in Kano, Nigeria, which has not been...

2011-01-01

325

Snake bite in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four families of venomous snakes are found in Nigeria--Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae and Actraspididae but three species carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) and puff adder (Bitis arietans), belonging to the first two families, are the most important snakes associated with envenoming in Nigeria. The incidence of bites has been reported as 497 per 100,000 population per year with a 12 percent natural mortality, with Echis ocellatus accounting for at least 66 percent in certain foci. Bites occur more often while victims were farming, herding or walking although the spitting cobra may bite victims who roll upon it in their sleep. Carpet viper venom contains a prothrombin activating procoagulant, haemorrhagin and cytolytic fractions which cause haemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock and local reactions/ necrosis. The spitting cobra bite manifests with local tissue reaction and occassionally with bleeding from the site of bite, but no classic neurotoxic feature has been observed except following Egyptian cobra (N. haje) bites. Cardiotoxicity and renal failure may occassionally occur following bites by the carpet viper and the puff adder. In the laboratory, haematological and other features are noted and immunodiagnosis has a role in species identification. Immobilisation of the bitten limb is probably the single most important first aid measure. Antivenom should be used cautiously when indicated. As only 8.5 percent of snake bite victims attend hospitals in Nigeria, health education should be the main preventive measure, mean-while, the study of immunisation of occupationally predisposed individuals in endemic areas should be intensified. A new Fab fragment antivenom specific to Nigerian Echis ocellatus was investigated clinically, just as the local herbs-Aristolochia spp, Guiera spp and Schummaniophyton spp are investigated experimentally. PMID:14510123

Habib, A G; Gebi, U I; Onyemelukwe, G C

2001-09-01

326

Micro-computed tomography assessment of the progression of fracture healing in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mouse fracture model is ideal for research into the pathways of healing because of the availability of genetic and transgenic mice and the ability to create cell-specific genetic mutations. While biomechanical tests and histology are available to assess callus integrity and tissue differentiation, respectively, micro-computed tomography (?CT) analysis has increasingly been utilized in fracture studies because it is non-destructive and provides descriptions of the structural and compositional properties of the callus. However, the dynamic changes of ?CT properties that occur during healing are not well defined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine which ?CT properties change with the progression of fracture repair and converge to values similar to unfractured bone in the mouse femur fracture model. A unilateral femur fracture was performed in C57BL/6 mice and intramedullary fixation performed. Fractured and un-fractured contralateral specimens were harvested from groups of mice between 2 and 12 weeks post-fracture. Parameters describing callus based on ?CT were obtained, including polar moment of inertia (J), bending moment of inertia (I), total volume (TV), tissue mineral density (TMD), total bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). For comparison, plain radiographs were used to measure the callus diameter (D) and area (A); and biomechanical properties were evaluated using either three-point bending or torsion. The ?CT parameters J, I, TV, and TMD converged toward their respective values of the un-fractured femurs over time, although significant differences existed between the two sides at every time point evaluated (p<0.05). Radiograph measurement D changed with repair progression in similar manner to TV. In contrast, BV/TV and BMD increased and decreased over time with statistical differences between callus and un-fractured bone occurring sporadically. Similarly, none of the biomechanical properties were found to distinguish consistently between the fractured and un-fractured femur. Micro-CT parameters assessing callus structure and size (J, I, and TV) were more sensitive to changes in callus over time post-fracture than those assessing callus substance (TMD, BV/TV, and BMD). Sample size estimates based on these results indicate that utilization of ?CT requires fewer animals than biomechanics and thus is more practical for evaluating the healing femur in the mouse fracture model. PMID:22453081

O'Neill, Kevin R; Stutz, Christopher M; Mignemi, Nicholas A; Burns, Michael C; Murry, Matthew R; Nyman, Jeffry S; Schoenecker, Jonathan G

2012-06-01

327

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The concern about youths development borders on the believe that they constitute an important labour force which can easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques of agricultural production. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in recognition of these potentials has established a rural youths extension out-reach Program to encourage the youths to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this program on agricultural production. This study was carried out during the 2005/2006 cropping season by comparing the performance of the program participants with non-participants. The results revealed that the participants had an adoption level of improved practices higher than the non-participants. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01). Yield of major crops and income of farmers were slightly higher among the participants than the non-participants. The results of the study have helped to identify for the benefit of policy makers, the type of extension approaches required to encourage rural youths to adopt modern farming techniques.

Gambo Akpoko, Joseph; Kudi, Thomas M.

328

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in the work environments of a secondary iron and steel smelting and a paint industry in Lagos, Nigeria, were investigated using gravimetric sampling techniques and TXRF spectrometric analysis. The TXRF was used to analyse the concentration of toxic trace elements and heavy metals in the air-borne particulate. The elements detected included Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. Toxicity potentials of PM10 and PM2.5 suspended particulate matter and that of Pb were determined using USEPA national ambient air quality standards. Results were used to evaluate the possible occupational exposure for workers in the sampling areas, as well as those of the general public. These indicate that the concentrations of respirations dust and heavy metals in the work environments, especially the iron and steel smelter are high enough to affect the health of workers and the general public who reside in the neighbourhood. If combined with the effect of traffic pollution in this areas, the total air pollution load may be much higher than values recommended by WHO for general public protection. The need to investigate the options for emission reduction and the management of occupational and general public exposure was highlighted. (author)

2003-06-10

329

Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

2001-12-01

330

Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40K, 238U and 232Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 ?Sv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 ?Sv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

2010-01-01

331

Assessment of occupational exposure to toxic metals in some paint and secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Nigeria using TXRF technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lagos has remained one of the fastest growing cities especially in industrial infrastructure development. This has led to increased environmental problems. Yet there has been very little effort to monitor occupational exposure at various workplaces. Few selected paint industries and few secondary iron and steel industries in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria, were targeted for monitoring the heavy metal concentrations in their working environment. Ambient air at strategic locations within selected industries was sampled for twelve hour periods during the day time and the night time. Sampling was done using a stacked 'Gent' PM10 sampler and a twin-flow portable sampler, the latter for total suspended particulate matter. The filter holders were held at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The filters were digested using ultra-pure acids and then analysed with a tube-excited Mo target x-ray source operating at 40 kV. Concentrations of toxic metal pollutants were measured using the total refection x-ray fluorescence technique. Quantification of concentrations of toxic metals was done using QXAS analysis package from IAEA. Ga was used as internal standard in the analysis. The elements of interest detected were Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb. The ratios of the fine size fractions (dp p 3 to 36.2 ?g/m3 for the inhalable fraction. Toxicity potentials for the various elements were determined. (author)

2003-06-09

332

Assessment of the post harvest knowledge of fruits and vegetable farmers in Garun Mallam L.G.A of Kano, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among fruits and vegetable producers of Garun Mallam Local Governments Area of Kano State Nigeria. Information was obtained on the farmers post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables, i.e types of produce, time of harvesting, ways of cooling, packaging and transporting of their produce. All of the farmers have more than ten years of farming experience, harvesting was found to be done at no specific time, and none of the farmers was found to harvest at matured green stage. All of the farmers experienced post harvest losses, ranging from 20-50% of their harvest. Local baskets and bags were used in packaging produce, and transportation was carried out at anytime of the day in open pick-ups, Lorries and trucks. Results of the survey was analyzed and presented in percentages. It was concluded that the farmers lack general knowledge of postharvest handling despite their years of farming experience, therefore it was concluded that the lack of knowledge of post harvest could be responsible for the huge losses of fruits and vegetables in the country, intense enlightenment by concerned bodies like NSPRI, ADP, and KNADA was recommended to be intensified.

Muhammad, R.H

2012-09-01

333

The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted...

Amadi, Hippolite Onyejiaka; Azubuike, Jonathan C.; Etawo, Uriah S.; Offiong, Uduak R.; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Olateju, Eyinade; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Osibogun, Akin; Ibeziako, Ngozi; Iroha, Edna O.; Dutse, Abdulhameed I.; Chukwu, Christian O.; Okpere, Eugene E.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; El-nafaty, Aliyu U.

2010-01-01

334

Malaria among antenatal clients attending primary health care facilities in Kano state, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Malaria in pregnancy remains a major public health problem especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the prevalence of clinical and asymptomatic infection among antenatal client (ANC) attendees is largely unknown, especially at primary health care (PHC) level in northern Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of fever, malarial parasitemia and anemia among pregnant women attending PHC facilities in Kano, northern Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive ...

Gajida A; Iliyasu Z; Zoakah A

2010-01-01

335

Blue-yellow colour vision in an onchocercal area of northern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM—To determine if the City University Tritan Test is a useful addition to visual function assessment in rural communities in northern Nigeria.?METHODS—The study was a cross sectional survey. The participants were 8394 people, aged 5 years and over, living in 37 rural communities, mesoendemic and non-endemic for onchocerciasis, in Kaduna State in northern Nigeria. The main outcome measures were the detection of a defect in blue-yellow colour vision by two criteria: (1) failure w...

1998-01-01

336

Nigeria’s Economic Growth: Emphasizing the Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Transfer of Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth and development of Africa and indeed Nigeria’s economy depends largely on foreign direct investment (FDI, which has been described as the major carrier for transfer of new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. The need to step up Nigeria’s industrialization process and growth, calls for more technology spill-over through foreign investment. This article examines Nigeria’s Economic situation, explores the link between FDI and technology transfer to foreign subsidiaries and spillover to Nigeria’s domestic firms. In doing so it offers sustained analysis of available literature, policy documents, official reports and economic information on Nigeria. The article concludes that FDI can facilitate economic growth in Nigeria by generating both technological and efficiency spillovers to local firms, encouraging innovation, allowing technology adoption and developing human capital.

A Y Dutse

2008-09-01

337

Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

2010-07-15

338

Wind Energy Potential In Eastern Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria are presented. Monthly mean wind speeds throughout the year have been processed, analysed and presented for Eastern Nigeria. From these values, the wind energy potentials in Eastern Nigeria were estimated using three different methods. In view of this analysis, Enugu can be considered as the most suitable site for the installation of wind energy conversion system (WESC) in Eastern Nigeria

2004-09-15

339

Nation's Report Card: Arts 2008: Music and Visual Arts. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of the 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the arts, which was given to a nationally representative sample of 7,900 eighth grade public and private school students. Approximately one-half of these st...

2009-01-01

340

Assessment of Radionuclide Concentrations and Absorbed Dose from Consumption of Community Water Supplies in Oil and Gas Producing Areas in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A survey of radioactivity concentration in water supplies used for domestic and industrial purposes in the oil and gas producing communities of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a well-calibrated High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector system. The study area was partitioned into ten sections and a total of two samples per partition were collected for analysis. Samples of water from a non-producing area were also collected as control. In all, a total number of forty three samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was acidified at the rate of 10 ml of 11 M HCl per litre of water to prevent the absorption of radionuclides into the wall of the container and sealed in a properly cleaned container for at least one month so as to attain a state of secular radioactive equilibrium before analysis. The photopeaks observed with reliable regularity belong to the naturally occurring series-decay radionuclide headed by 238U and 232Th, as well as the non-series decay type 40K. The mean specific activity obtained for 40K was 49 ± 15 Bq L–1 with a range of 6 - 177 Bq L–1 while for 238U, the mean specific activity was 3 ± 1 Bq L–1 with a range of 1 - 12 Bq L–1 and the mean specific activity for 232Th was 3 ± 2 Bq L–1 with a range of 2 - 10 Bq L–1 and the total annual effective dose, which vary between 0 - 2 ?Sv y–1, did not show any significant health impact.

Pascal Tchokossa

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

DOE progress in assessing the long term performance of waste package materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA)[1], the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) is conducting activities to select and characterize candidate sites suitable for the construction and operation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. DOE is funding three first repository projects: Basalt Waste Isolation Project, BWIP; Nevada Nuclear Waste Isolation Project, NNWSI; and Salt Repository Project Office, SRPO. It is essential in the licensing process that DOE demonstrate to the NRC that the long-term performance of the materials and design will be in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.113 on substantially complete containment within the waste packages for 300 to 1000 years and a controlled release rate from the engineered barrier system (EBS) for 10,000 years of 1 part in 105 per year for radionuclides present in defined quantities 100 years after permanent closure. Obviously, the time spans involved make it impractical to base the assessment of the long term performance of waste package materials on real time, prototypical testing. The assessment of performance will be implemented by the use of models that are supported by real time field and laboratory tests, monitoring, and natural analog studies. Each of the repository projects is developing a plan for demonstrating long-term waste package material performance depending on the particular materials and the package-perturbed, time-dependent environment under which the materials must function. An overview of progress in each of these activities for each of the projects is provided in the following

1987-01-01

342

Beyond the Rhetorics of Statecraft in Africa: Searching for a New Paradigm of Leadership in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Leadership question features most prominently in virtually all reported analyses, comments and interviews in the media, especially the print media. One thing that is evident is the recognition of leadership deficit as an important factor in understanding Africa and indeed Nigeria’s predicament. Chinua Achebe, in “The Trouble with Nigeria” identified leadership failure as the bane of development in Nigeria and by implication in most of Africa. As a matter of fact, even honest African leaders like the late Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria, late Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana, and Nelson Mandela (South Africa had in the past pointed at the leadership malaise in development in the continent. This paper therefore examines leadership and governance in Nigeria within the framework of servant- leadership. We noted that for Nigeria to evolve a positive and focus leadership with morals, values and accountability, there is the need for selfless in the form of putting others above self in service delivery, which is the essence of servant-leadership. The creating of a culture of servant leader-leadership in Nigeria would mean the replacement of the top-bottom culture with one where attributes of servant-leadership as already identified flourish. It would require having in place a leadership that has “worked well enough to be considered valid.” It is, therefore, an evidence of internalization of values and “a stabilizing force which creates social reality for its techniques for creating a culture of servant-leadership which is not possible except there is progress in evolving a team of servant-leaders.

J. David Agaba

2010-01-01

343

An evaluability assessment of a West Africa based Non-Governmental Organization's (NGO) progressive evaluation strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

While program evaluations are increasingly valued by international organizations to inform practices and public policies, actual evaluation use (EU) in such contexts is inconsistent. Moreover, empirical literature on EU in the context of humanitarian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) is very limited. The current article focuses on the evaluability assessment (EA) of a West-Africa based humanitarian NGO's progressive evaluation strategy. Since 2007, the NGO has established an evaluation strategy to inform its maternal and child health care user-fee exemption intervention. Using Wholey's (2004) framework, the current EA enabled us to clarify with the NGO's evaluation partners the intent of their evaluation strategy and to design its program logic model. The EA ascertained the plausibility of the evaluation strategy's objectives, the accessibility of relevant data, and the utility for intended users of evaluating both the evaluation strategy and the conditions that foster EU. Hence, key evaluability conditions for an EU study were assured. This article provides an example of EA procedures when such guidance is scant in the literature. It also offers an opportunity to analyze critically the use of EAs in the context of a humanitarian NGO's collaboration with evaluators and political actors. PMID:22885653

D'Ostie-Racine, Léna; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry

2013-02-01

344

Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria  

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Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cance...

Abimbola, Oluwatosin O.; Oladepo Oladimeji

2006-01-01

345

Non-invasive diagnostic methods for atherosclerosis and use in assessing progression and regression in hypercholesterolemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the wall thickening and stenosis rate (ASI), the calcification rate (ACI), and the wall thickening and calcification stenosis rate (SCI) of the lower abdominal aorta calculated by the 12 sector method from simple or enhanced computed tomography. The intra-observer variation of the calculation of ASI was 5.7% and that of ACI was 2.4%. In 9 patients who underwent an autopsy examination, ACI was significantly correlated with the rate of the calcification dimension to the whole objective area of the abdominal aorta (r=0.856, p<0.01). However, there were no correlations between ASI and the surface involvement or the atherosclerotic index obtained by the point-counting method of the autopsy materials. In the analysis of 40 patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases, ASI and ACI were also highly correlated with the percentage volume of the arterial wall in relation to the whole volume of the observed artery (r=0.852, p<0.0001) and also the percentage calcification volume (r=0.913, p<0.0001) calculated by the computed method, respectively. The percentage of atherosclerotic vascular diseases increased in the group of both high ASI (over 10%) and high ACI (over 20%). We used SCI as a reliable index when the progression and regression of atherosclerosis was considered. Among patients of hypercholesterolemia consisting of 15 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 6 non-FH patients, the change of SCI (d-SCI) was significantly correlated with the change of total cholesterol concentration (d-TC) after the treatment (r=0.466, p<0.05) and the change of the right Achilles' tendon thickening (d-ATT) was also correlated with d-TC (r=0.634, p<0.005). However, no correlation between d-SCI and d-ATT was observed. In conclusion, CT indices of atherosclerosis were useful as a noninvasive quantitative diagnostic method and we were able to use them to assess the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. (author)

1990-01-01

346

Fish Breeding in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

J.A. Akankali

2011-06-01

347

LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES FOR NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

Mary Gloria C. Njoku

2013-10-01

348

Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse area linguistically with over 60 distinct languages still spoken today. It is also a region of great historical importance, being a adjacent to the likely homeland from which Bantu-speaking people migrated across most of sub-Saharan Africa 3000-5000 years ago and b the location of Calabar, one of the largest centres during the Atlantic slave trade. Over 1000 DNA samples from 24 clans representing speakers of the six most prominent languages in the region were collected and typed for Y-chromosome (SNPs and microsatellites and mtDNA markers (Hypervariable Segment 1 in order to examine whether there has been substantial gene flow between groups speaking different languages in the region. In addition the Cross River region was analysed in the context of a larger geographical scale by comparison to bordering Igbo speaking groups as well as neighbouring Cameroon populations and more distant Ghanaian communities. Results The Cross River region was shown to be extremely homogenous for both Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers with language spoken having no noticeable effect on the genetic structure of the region, consistent with estimates of inter-language gene flow of 10% per generation based on sociological data. However the groups in the region could clearly be differentiated from others in Cameroon and Ghana (and to a lesser extent Igbo populations. Significant correlations between genetic distance and both geographic and linguistic distance were observed at this larger scale. Conclusions Previous studies have found significant correlations between genetic variation and language in Africa over large geographic distances, often across language families. However the broad sampling strategies of these datasets have limited their utility for understanding the relationship within language families. This is the first study to show that at very fine geographic/linguistic scales language differences can be maintained in the presence of substantial gene flow over an extended period of time and demonstrates the value of dense sampling strategies and having DNA of known and detailed provenance, a practice that is generally rare when investigating sub-Saharan African demographic processes using genetic data.

Mendell Nancy R

2010-03-01

349

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2? × 2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6 Bqkg?1 to 94.2 ± 7.7 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0 Bqkg?1 for 226Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0 Bqkg?1 to 47.5 ± 5.3 Bqkg?1 with mean value of 29.7 ± 4 Bqkg?1 for 232Th and 107.0 ± 10.2 Bqkg?1 to 712.4 ± 38.9 Bqkg?1 with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0 Bqkg?1 for 40K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3 Bq.kg?1, 0.8 Bqkg?1, 54.6 ?Gyh?1, 0.07 ?Svy?1, 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (Eff Dose), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the pontial radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. - Highlights: ? The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, Th and 40K) in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state. ? Gamma spectroscopy operated on a 2” × 2” NaI(TI) detector was used and the values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries. ? The calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. ? The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public.

2012-07-01

350

Measurement of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activity concentrations of the selected radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured in surface soil samples collected from 38 cities in the southwest region of Nigeria by means of gamma spectroscopy with a high-purity germanium detector. Measured activity concentration values of (40)K varied from 34.9 +/- 4.4 to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) (given on a dry mass (DM) basis) with a mean value of 286.5 +/- 308.5 Bq kg(-1); that of (226)Ra varied from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to 198.1 +/- 13.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 54.5 Bq kg(-1) and a standard deviation of 38.7 Bq kg(-1), while that of (232)Th varied from 5.4 +/- 1.1 to 502.0 +/- 16.5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 91.1 Bq kg(-1) and standard deviation of 100.9 Bq kg(-1). The mean activity concentration values obtained for (226)Ra and (232)Th are greater than the world average values reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation for areas of normal background radiation. Radiological indices were estimated for the radiation/health hazards of the natural radioactivity of all soil samples. Estimated absorbed dose rates in air varied from 12.42 +/- 2.25 to 451.33 +/- 19.06 nGy h(-1), annual outdoor effective dose rates from 0.015 +/- 0.003 to 0.554 +/- 0.023 mSv year(-1), internal hazard index from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 3.02 +/- 0.16, external hazard index from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 2.60 +/- 0.11, representative level index from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 6.84 +/- 0.29, activity index from 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 3.42 +/- 0.15, and radium equivalent activity from 26.95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits. PMID:19352690

Ajayi, Oladele Samuel

2009-08-01

351

?-Spectroscopy measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples from oil fields environment of Delta State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) has been carried out in soil samples collected from oil and gas field environment of Delta state, using gamma spectroscopy operated on a Canberra vertical high purity 2?×2? NaI(TI) detector. The activity concentration of the samples ranges from 19.2 ± 5.6Bqkg(-1) to 94.2 ± 7.7Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 41.0 ± 5.0Bqkg(-1) for (226)Ra, 17.1 ± 3.0Bqkg(-1) to 47.5 ± 5.3Bqkg(-1) with mean value of 29.7 ± 4Bqkg(-1) for (232)Th and 107.0 ± 10.2Bqkg(-1) to 712.4 ± 38.9Bqkg(-1) with a mean value of 412.5 ± 20.0Bqkg(-1) for (40)K. These values obtained are well within the world range and values reported elsewhere in other countries, but are little above some countries reported average values and some part of Nigeria. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained are, 98.5 ± 12.3Bq.kg(-1), 0.8Bqkg(-1), 54.6?Gyh(-1), 0.07?Svy(-1), 0.3 and 0.4 for Radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), Representative level index (I?), Absorbed Dose rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate associated with it are well below their permissible limit. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be use as construction materials without posing any immediate radiological threat to the public. However, oil workers in the fields and host communities are cautioned against excess exposure to avoid future accumulative dose of these radiations from sludge and sediment of this area. PMID:22310017

Agbalagba, E O; Avwiri, G O; Chad-Umoreh, Y E

2012-07-01

352

Executive Immunity in Nigeria: Putting Off Old Garments  

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Full Text Available The idea of immunity from legal process is, as a general rule, abhorrent to modern legal civilization. The origin of this class of immunity traces back to the era of absolute monarchs, when it was believed that a king could do no wrong, thus the term sovereign immunity, of which the expression ‘executive immunity’ is a derivative. This paper examines, albeit briefly, the constitutional immunity from prosecution conferred on certain political office holders in Nigeria. The order of progression of this paper shall be an examination of the concept of immunity followed by its uses and abuses in Nigeria, some arguments for and against its retention in the Constitution, comparative analysis of the position in a few other countries, a brief consideration of the rule of law and finally some recommendations and conclusion.

Ibraheem Ojo Tajudeen

2013-08-01

353

The Food Industry in Nigeria: Development and Quality Assurance  

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Full Text Available In Nigeria, the food processing sector is dominated by small and medium enterprises, as well as multinational food companies. Quality standards are usually related to improving the safety of food products suitable for consumption in accordance to specifications by food regulatory bodies. These standards are essential elements for local and international businesses which contribute to economic progress through industrial development and trade. This review takes a critical look on the Nigerian food industry development in terms of quality standards that are necessary to be given consideration in the production of food and also ways of improving food production in Nigeria through the use of Total Quality Management (TQM technique and the use of computerized systems to produce high quality and high value products while at the same time reducing production time and cost.

M.C. Ojinnaka

2011-01-01

354

Variations in under-five mortality estimates in Nigeria: explanations and implications for program monitoring and evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 aims at reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. However, monitoring this goal is a challenging task. With an estimated 162 million people in 2011, Nigeria is Africa's most populous country with generally poor maternal and child health indicators. Maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 545 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008 and recent data show that under-five mortality rates have varied tremendously. This paper provides a synthesis of the data collection and estimation procedures used by the two major sources of child mortality data in Nigeria (the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys; and Demographic and Health Surveys) and the importance of reflecting on these dynamics in order to utilize the mortality estimates in program monitoring and evaluation. While efforts to seek explanations for the unstable trends in mortality rates are ongoing, this study calls for stakeholders to seek studies that employ more detailed and robust disaggregation methods that take into account the relative impact of socio-demographic, medical, and public health variables on mortality rates. This will be crucial in assessing the effectiveness of selected interventions in reducing mortality. Further, the study encourages collection, use, and triangulation of health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and other available data which could assist in monitoring progress towards achieving MDGs since HDSS as well as census or survey data would provide an opportunity to measure and evaluate interventions through longitudinal follow-up of populations. PMID:23073663

Doctor, Henry Victor

2013-10-01

355

Activity Based Costing System and Nigeria’s March towards VISION 20: 2020  

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Full Text Available The paper examines the need to develop Activity Based Costing Systems (ABC in accounting practices among manufacturing firms in Nigeria as a tool for product costing as Nigeria marches to the top 20 economics of the World come 2020. With the aid of a structured questionnaire, a total of 50 copies of questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of Accountants, Managers and Auditors in the manufacturing sector but only 45 copies were returned. T-test of difference between means was used to statistically test hypotheses one, two and three. Based on these, the study found among other things that there is extreme low adoption of ABC among manufacturing firms in Nigeria, possibly because of low level of ICT. Secondly, ABC improves efficiency, reduces operational costs, and properly cost products better than traditional cost accounting systems. The implication of these on the study is that in this era of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT and ICT development, traditional cost accounting systems used decades ago when the manufacturing sector was labour intensive and less automated may no longer give the required result. This should give way to Activity Based Costing system, an offshoot of the new manufacturing innovation with capabilities to cost product properly, recognizing causality and transactions involved. Consequent upon these, the study recommends that with expectations of the country to march towards a vision of attaining the height of top 20 economies of the world, Activity Based Costing systems are the challenges we need to face now. The system is in tandem with progressive ideas and new way of thinking in accounting in the manufacturing sector.

Amaechi Patrick Egbunike

2013-10-01

356

Marine Accidents in Northern Nigeria: Causes, Prevention and Management  

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Full Text Available Boat mishaps tend to be increasing in Nigeria in spite of all regulatory measures which have been taken to prevent and control marine accidents. Boat mishaps could occur anywhere water transportation takes place. However, there is a general impression that water transportation takes place only in the riverine areas located in Southern Nigeria but, this paper reports about marine accident cases in Northern Nigeria. It evaluates the safety measures put in place by operators and other institutional bodies in the areas and assesses the level of infrastructure in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility to boat operators, boat users and institutional staff. Questionnaires were administered through individual and group interviews with boat owners, boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat engine mechanics, local government officials, maritime workers union, the marine police, traditional regulators and staff of the federal government agencies for maritime affairs. The paper found that marine transportation is neglected in Northern Nigeria with dilapidated jetties, ill-equipped marine police, non-functional ferries and boast meant to be used by federal officials and wrecks in water channels without removal. Maritime safety is therefore compromised with cases of overloading carrying people, animals, grains and petroleum products in one boat without fire extinguisher and no lifejackets. The paper concludes that there are considerable water transportation activities in Northern Nigeria without a corresponding government attention. It is therefore recommend that government should intervene by providing lifejackets, fire extinguishers, training of surveyors, refurbishing ferries for enforcement as well as creating safety awareness in the region.

Lawal Bello Dogarawa

2012-11-01

357

Bank Credit and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper assesses the significance of real bank credit in stimulating real output growth in the case of Nigeria. The study observes that credit Granger causes output. In testing the factors that mobilise credit, it finds that exports in general are negatively related to credit. However, while oil exports are negatively related to credit, non-oil export has positive relationship with credit. Credit is also positively linked to capital inflows and imports. These findings suggest that...

Roseline Oluwatoyin Oluitan

2012-01-01

358

The provider cost of treating tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Nigeria  

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The study was aimed at assessing the economic cost shouldered by government, as providers, in the provision of free tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment services in Bauchi State, northern Nigeria. A cost analysis study was designed and questionnaires administered by the principal investigators to officers in charge of 27 randomly sampled government TB services providers across the State of Bauchi. Seventeen of these centers were primary care centers, 9 secondary care providers and one wa...

2011-01-01

359

French RPV PTS assessment: an overview of EDF research and development in progress on thermalhydraulic, materials and mechanical aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant extensive Research and Development work is conducted by Electricite de France (EDF) related to the structural integrity re-assessment of the French 900 and 1300 MWe reactor pressure vessels in order to increase their lifetime. Within the framework of this programme, numerous developments have been implemented or are in progress related to the methodology to assess flaws during a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event. The paper contains three aspects: a short description of the specific French approach for RPV PTS assessment, a presentation of recent improvements on thermalhydraulic, materials and mechanical aspects, and finally an overview of the present R and D programme on thermalhydraulic, materials and mechanical aspects. Regarding the last aspect on present R and D programme, several projects in progress will be shortly described. This overview includes the redefinition of some significant thermalhydraulic transients based on some new three-dimensional CFD computations (focused at the present time on small break LOCA transient), the assessment of vessel materials properties, and the improvement of the RPV PTS structural integrity assessment including several themes such as warm pre-stress (WPS), crack arrest, constraint effect. (author)

2003-12-01

360

Biomarkers and atrial fibrillation: A new paradigm for assessing the progression of left atrial endocardial remodelling  

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Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is a heterogeneous disorder that is usually characterized by paroxysmal onset, particularly in patients without structural heart disease. Defining biological markers of atrial remodelling would help identify patients at high risk who would benefit most from prophylactic treatment and careful monitoring. Biomarkers of atrial fibrillation progression would be helpful for following patients that present with asymptomatic atrial fibrillation. Notably, the roles of such markers in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation must be determined. Some markers may indicate the presence, complications or progression of the disease, while others may be involved in key pathological processes and thus represent novel therapeutic targets. Although a number of markers have been reported as potential predictors of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation progression towards persistent arrhythmia, their usefulness and clinical value need further validation. This report reviews several newly identified markers of atrial fibrillation progression.

Alina Scridon

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

An evaluation of molecular and clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis by assessing radiographic progression  

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Objectives. To determine whether molecular remission defined by a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score predicts a reduced risk of joint damage progression, and whether the MBDA score can augment existing classifications of remission.

Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Knevel, Rachel; Cavet, Guy; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Haney, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

362

Assessment of inner retina dysfunction and progressive ganglion cell loss in a mouse model of glaucoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The DBA/2J mouse is a model of ocular hypertension and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, the main features of which are iris pigment dispersion (IPD) and iris stromal atrophy (ISA). These animals also experience glaucomatous changes, including an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) beginning at about 9-12 months of age and sectorial RGC death in the retina. The aim of this study was to determine the onset of functional changes exhibited by DBA/2J mice in the inner retina. This was performed by means of electroretinographic recordings (scotopic threshold response, STR) and their correlation with morphological changes (loss of RGCs). To this end, we recorded the scotopic threshold response in control C57BL/6J and in DBA/2J mice at different ages. The RGCs, in both DBA/2J and C57BL/6J animals, were identified at 15 months of age by retrograde tracing with an analogue of fluorogold, hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt), applied on the superior colliculi. Whole mount retinas were processed to quantify the population of RGCs identified by fluorogold tracing and Brn3a immunodetection, and were counted using image analysis software; an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. DBA/2J mice showed a significant reduction in the positive STR (pSTR) amplitudes at 12 months of age, as compared to control C57BL/6J mice of the same age. The pSTR mean amplitude decreased to approximately 27.82% of the values recorded in control mice (p = 0.0058). STR responses decreased in both strains as a result of the natural process of aging, but the decrease was more pronounced in DBA/2J mice. Furthermore, quantification of the total number of RGCs identified by OHSt and Brn3a expression showed a reduced population of RGCs in DBA/2J mice as compared to control mice. Regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the decrease in pSTR and a non-homogeneous reduction in the number of RGCs throughout the retina. Our results indicate the existence of a correlation between retinal function impairment and RGC loss. This functional and morphological analysis allows a reliable assessment of the progression of the disease. PMID:24631335

Pérez de Lara, María J; Santano, Concepción; Guzmán-Aránguez, Ana; Valiente-Soriano, F Javier; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; de la Villa, Pedro; Pintor, Jesús

2014-05-01

363

Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

1995-10-30

364

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

365

Towards the Restructing and Commercialization of University Theatres in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the fact that theatres are economically viable nationally and globally, the potentials of university theatres in government owned universities (Federal and State in Nigeria, are yet to be fully maximized to generate financial resources for their development and the university in general. Contextually, the Department of Theatre/Performing Arts are programmed towards academic exercise than commercial or business construct and making of professional artists. However, with the establishment of private universities and adjunct Department of Theatre/Performing Arts, the university theatres in government owned universities would be facing stiff opposition and competition in the production and sell of artiste goods and services. Perhaps, these arguments generate further questions, thus; what are university theatres in government owned universities for? How resourceful are university theatres in Nigerian government owned universities? This paper posits that theatre is a business venture and the university theatres in government owned universities have the potentials to be made economically vibrant ventures in Nigeria through proper approaches and adoption of the ideas of commercialization. In terms of research design, the paper relied on content analysis and personal observation to advance its position. The paper concludes that the university theatres in Nigeria could benefit from adopting partial commercialization by selling some artistic goods and services to generate income for its sustenance and progressive development.Keywords: Commercialization; Restructuring; University Theatres; Public and Private Universities; Artistic Goods and Services

Charles U. Adora

2010-06-01

366

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ondo State being the highest producer of Cocoa in Nigeria constitutes the most probable area with the highest use of chemical pesticides to enhance cocoa production. As effective as these chemicals may be in achieving this goal, the incidence of their residues on non-targeted substances and the total environment, with the attendant adverse effects have being of serious concerns. Our objective in this paper is to assess contamination of farm soils by organochlorine pesticides applied on cocoa farms within the Central Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from selected cocoa farms and analysed for organochlorine pesticides residues using GC-MS. Some soil physicochemical properties including pH, particle size and organic matter that may influence the dynamics of the pollutants were also determined. Organochlorine compounds detected at varied concentrations include Endosulfan I and Endosulfan II occurring most frequently with highest concentrations of 350.10 mg/kg and 3.55 mg/kg respectively. Other organochlorine compounds detected were Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Aldrin, Deldrin,, isomers of Benzene hexachloride: ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, and ?-BHC (lindane. The concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (mg/kg measured in the soil samples showed significant (p<0.05 correlation with the total organic matter contents of the soil. Findings from this research thus, provide information on the current and health risk residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in soil from this region with which future environmental performance on the use of pesticides on cocoa farms could be progressively monitored.

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi

2012-05-01

367

Managing Nigeria's Image Crisis: Akunyili’s Rebranding Programme to the Rescue (?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research examines the current image problem in Nigeria, the attem pt to launder this im age via rebranding, the kind of reactions that rebranding has elicited and a prognosis on w hat can be done. This is against the background of the image crisis that the country suffered from between 1993 and 1999. The image crisis in that period was largely attributed to Nigeria’s lack of democratic progress. This image crisis was again compounded by the fraud that characterized the 2007 general elections. While arguing that the rebranding programme seems to be more of a cosmetic remedy, the paper recommends among other things that beyond sloganeering, the Nigerian government needs to address the issues that gave rise to the image crisis in the first place. This is the only way that N igeria can get out of the image quagmire.

Victor Egwemi

2010-08-01

368

Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

369

Radiographic assessment of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing early disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic disease predominantly involving the joints. Since the pathogenesis, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of RA have only been partially elucidated, a definitive therapy has not been established. Precise diagnosis and follow-up therapy requires objective quantification, and radiological analyses are considered to be the most appropriate method. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the time-dependent progression of joint damage in patients with pharmacologically-treated RA, and to determine which therapeutic agents demonstrate the highest efficacy. Outpatient records, laboratory values, therapy schemes and radiographs from hands and feet of 150 RA patients were collected, analyzed and statistically evaluated. Radiographs were quantified using the Larsen score and supportively using the 'RheumaCoach-Rheumatology' computer software. Our observations reveal that radiologically-detectable damage is most pronounced during the first year of disease, while mitigated and generally progressing linearly thereafter. Overall Larsen scores linearly increased from year 0 to 10 (r=0.853), during which the mean Larsen score increased 7.93 ± 0.76 per year. During the first year, RA progression was similar regardless of the medication administered (gold-compounds, AU; chloroquine, CQ; methotrexate, MTX; sulfasalazine SSZ). While MTX and CQ treatment showed no difference when examined as mean 5-year increment of Larsen score, AU and SSZ showed up to 3 fold higher RA progression compared with MTX. The Larsen score in year 1 did not correlate with that of years 2 to 5. In contrast, Larsen scores in year 2 were linearly related to each of the subsequent 3 years. Despite similar ESR values in various medication groups, cumulative ESR correlated with RA progression, and its reduction with therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this study found that, (i) early DMARD-treated RA progressed more rapidly during the first than in subsequent years, and (ii) a linear increase during the first ten years after diagnosis upon retrospective assessment using the original Larsen score, (iii) therapy with methotrexate and chloroquine yielded equal results, and were superior to sulfasalazine or oral gold-compounds, and (iv) despite the effectiveness of cumulative ESR in evaluating RA progression, (v) radiographs of the hands and feet to predict RA were most useful when assessed using the original Larsen score at baseline, after one and two years. (author)

2002-01-01

370

Road traffic accidents and posttraumatic stress disorder in an orthopedic setting in south-eastern Nigeria: a controlled study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Psychiatric liaison services are rare in trauma units of various hospitals in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries. The occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTAs) resulting from low standard of road construction and inadequate maintenance have been on the increase in Nigeria. While the physical consequences of such RTAs are obvious, the psychological consequences are often not apparent. This study assessed the prevalence of posttraumatic stress...

Iteke Obiora; Bakare Muideen O; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Uwakwe Richard; Onwukwe Jojo U

2011-01-01

371

Antimalarial drug prescribing practice in private and public health facilities in South-east Nigeria: a descriptive study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Nigeria's national standard has recently moved to artemisinin combination treatments for malaria. As clinicians in the private sector are responsible for attending a large proportion of the population ill with malaria, this study compared prescribing in the private and public sector in one State in Nigeria prior to promoting ACTs. Objective To assess prescribing for uncomplicated malaria in government and private health facilities in Cross Ri...

2007-01-01

372

Food Security among Urban Households: A Case Study of Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban areas are faced with the problem of increasing population and consequently inadequate supply of food items. Many urban households and individuals in Nigeria merely eat for Survival. This study was therefore designed to assess the state of food security among urban households in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the study area. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and Food Security Scale. T...

Ibrahim, H.; Uba-eze, N. R.; Oyewole, S. O.; Onuk, E. G.

2009-01-01

373

Solar energy applications in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

2010-09-15

374

Uranium favourability study in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological considerations indicate that four types of uranium deposits, three from within the crystalline rocks and the fourth from the sedimentary formations, can be explored for in Nigeria. The Precambrian Basement Complex underwent crustal reactivation in Pan-African times (600 ± 150 Ma) during which migmatites and rocks of the Older Granite suite were emplaced. The occurrences of these rocks in northeastern, north-central and central Nigeria are possible hosts for the granitic type of uranium deposit. Vein-type uranium deposits are often localized in areas of the Basement Complex which have undergone intense brittle deformation. The high-level, anorogenic, peralkaline Younger Granites of Nigeria of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age have geochemical characteristics which are similar to those of the host rocks of non-orogenic type uranium deposit in alkali complexes such as the Bokan mountains of Alaska. The sandstone type of uranium deposit may be found in the Cretaceous-Recent continental sandstone formations in the Sokoto, Niger, Chad and Benue Basins of Nigeria and in the sediments overlying the Oban Massif in Cross Rivers State. Geologically similar sandstone occurrences elsewhere in the world (Gabon, Niger and Colorado, U.S.A.) are known to harbour important uranium mineralization.

Oshin, I. O.; Rahaman, M. A.

375

Hope and violence in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long history of political uncertainty and corruption in Nigeria is outlined with particular emphasis on its impact on the National Nigerian Petroleum Company (NNPC). Recent political developments and the consequent crackdown on rampant corruption has meant that there are better prospects for NNPC to begin to properly contribute to joint ventures with the major international oil companies. (UK)

1998-07-01

376

A Content Analysis of the DMI Mathematics Systems Instructional Objectives Inventory according to the 1985-86 National Assessment of Educational Progress Content by Process Matrix for Mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the DMI Mathematics Systems Objective Inventory (DMIMS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) content by process matrix prepared for the Fourth Assessment of Mathematics. The DMIMS is a criterion-referenced standardized test comprised of seven levels, and it can be used…

Solomon, Alan

377

The Nation's Report Card: Arts 2008--Music & Visual Arts. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 8. NCES 2009-488  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of the 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the arts, which was given to a nationally representative sample of 7,900 eighth-grade public and private school students. Approximately one-half of these students were assessed in music, and the other half were assessed in visual arts. The Music…

Keiper, S.; Sandene, B. A.; Persky, H. R.; Kuang, M.

2009-01-01

378

The Inclusion of Students with Disabilities and Limited English Proficient Students in Large-Scale Assessments: A Summary of Recent Progress. Research and Development Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a compendium of approaches to the inclusion of students with disabilities or of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in large-scale assessments such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) or state assessment programs. Chapter 1 presents an overview and lists organizations involved in this effort. Chapters 2 and…

Olson, John F.; Goldstein, Arnold A.

379

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

2011-12-23

380

Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Clinical nurses' perception of continuing professional education as a tool for quality service delivery in public hospitals Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the perception of nurses on various aspects of continuing professional education (CPE). A mixed method design (quantitative/qualitative) was adopted. A self-explanatory, semi-structured questionnaire was validated and used to collect data in addition to unstructured interview. One hundred and fifty nurses were selected through stratified random sampling from two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria and served as participants. Participants generally perceived CPE as valuable and worthwhile and participated because it is mandatory and helps them to retain their jobs. The content of CPE were perceived to be more relevant for clinicians than for nurse educators; clinical skills and quantitative research methodology were adequately covered while evidence-based practice, attitudinal issues, nursing theories and patient safety were inadequately covered. CPE was perceived to be fragmented without gaining points, follow-up monitoring and evaluation after CPE which make it difficult to objectively assess the influence of CPE on quality of care. It is recommended that nurse leaders in Nigeria should develop online CPE modules for nursing, and allocate points to them so that participation may contribute to career progression. Effective monitoring and evaluation systems should be put in place to assess impact of CPE on staff competence and patient outcomes. PMID:23664784

Nsemo, Alberta D; John, Mildred E; Etifit, Rita E; Mgbekem, Mary A; Oyira, Emilia J

2013-07-01

382

BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria has recently been confronted with increased terrorist activity by a group called Boko Haram. This group has been able to survive counterterrorist measures by the Nigerian government and has increased its attacks on targets inside and outside its traditional area of operation. On Christmas 2011, at least 25 churchgoers were killed. Earlier, Boko Haram hit the headquarters of the United Nations in Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital, in a suicide attack, leaving at least 23 people kil...

Theo Brinkel; Soumia Ait-Hida

2012-01-01

383

Day case surgery in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient care in Nigeria is mostly government funded, from primary to tertiary levels, with little contribution from private sector and non-governmental organizations. Healthcare provision has become more complex and expensive partly due to increasing population, aging, and frequent cancellations of electives, but also due to the increasing emergence of new diseases, as well as shrinkage of resources in many developing countries like Nigeria, resulting from recent economic downturn, and political instability. Therefore, it is important to introduce and popularize the concept of day case surgery, as this may help hospitals and healthcare providers to streamline resources by reducing length of hospital stay, decreasing morbidity and mortality, and providing valuable bed services to emergencies. It also helps to reduce time lost away from work and indirectly helps to decrease loss of revenue for the individual and state. Many hospitals in Nigeria provide day care services with patients admitted to the general surgical wards, and no dedicated day surgery units (DSUs), as currently practised in developed countries. DSUs are the best way to achieve results and so it is important for all to embrace this concept in order to improve healthcare delivery to the rapidly expanding populations. A systematic search of the current published litera