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Sample records for neuromuscular control mechanisms

  1. Altered neuromuscular control mechanisms of the trapezius muscle in fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson Stefan J; Grönlund Christer; Gerdle Björn; Holtermann Andreas; Roeleveld Karin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background fibromyalgia is a relatively common condition with widespread pain and pressure allodynia, but unknown aetiology. For decades, the association between motor control strategies and chronic pain has been a topic for debate. One long held functional neuromuscular control mechanism is differential activation between regions within a single muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neuromuscular control, i.e. differential activation, between myalgic trapez...

  2. Altered neuromuscular control mechanisms of the trapezius muscle in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Stefan J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background fibromyalgia is a relatively common condition with widespread pain and pressure allodynia, but unknown aetiology. For decades, the association between motor control strategies and chronic pain has been a topic for debate. One long held functional neuromuscular control mechanism is differential activation between regions within a single muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neuromuscular control, i.e. differential activation, between myalgic trapezius in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Methods 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 healthy controls performed 3 minutes bilateral shoulder elevations with different loads (0-4 Kg with a high-density surface electromyographical (EMG grid placed above the upper trapezius. Differential activation was quantified by the power spectral median frequency of the difference in EMG amplitude between the cranial and caudal parts of the upper trapezius. The average duration of the differential activation was described by the inverse of the median frequency of the differential activations. Results the median frequency of the differential activations was significantly lower, and the average duration of the differential activations significantly longer in fibromyalgia compared with controls at the two lowest load levels (0-1 Kg (p Conclusion these findings illustrate a different neuromuscular control between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls during a low load functional task, either sustaining or resulting from the chronic painful condition. The findings may have clinical relevance for rehabilitation strategies for fibromyalgia.

  3. Mechanism of neuromuscular dysfunction in Krabbe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Maravilla, Erick; Marshall, Michael; Tamayo, Tammy; D'auria, Ludovic; Monge, John; Jeffries, James; Sural-Fehr, Tuba; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Li, Guannan; Garcia, Kelly; van Breemen, Richard; Vite, Charles; Garcia, Jesus; Bongarzone, Ernesto R

    2015-01-28

    The atrophy of skeletal muscles in patients with Krabbe disease is a major debilitating manifestation that worsens their quality of life and limits the clinical efficacy of current therapies. The pathogenic mechanism triggering muscle wasting is unknown. This study examined structural, functional, and metabolic changes conducive to muscle degeneration in Krabbe disease using the murine (twitcher mouse) and canine [globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) dog] models. Muscle degeneration, denervation, neuromuscular [neuromuscular junction (NMJ)] abnormalities, and axonal death were investigated using the reporter transgenic twitcher-Thy1.1-yellow fluorescent protein mouse. We found that mutant muscles had significant numbers of smaller-sized muscle fibers, without signs of regeneration. Muscle growth was slow and weak in twitcher mice, with decreased maximum force. The NMJ had significant levels of activated caspase-3 but limited denervation. Mutant NMJ showed reduced surface areas and lower volumes of presynaptic terminals, with depressed nerve control, increased miniature endplate potential (MEPP) amplitude, decreased MEPP frequency, and increased rise and decay rate constants. Twitcher and GLD dog muscles had significant capacity to store psychosine, the neurotoxin that accumulates in Krabbe disease. Mechanistically, muscle defects involved the inactivation of the Akt pathway and activation of the proteasome pathway. Our work indicates that muscular dysfunction in Krabbe disease is compounded by a pathogenic mechanism involving at least the failure of NMJ function, activation of proteosome degradation, and a reduction of the Akt pathway. Akt, which is key for muscle function, may constitute a novel target to complement in therapies for Krabbe disease. PMID:25632136

  4. Genes that control neuromuscular specificity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vactor, D V; Sink, H; Fambrough, D; Tsoo, R; Goodman, C S

    1993-06-18

    In each abdominal hemisegment of the Drosophila embryo, an array of 30 muscle fibers is innervated by about 34 motoneurons in a highly stereotyped and cell-specific fashion. To begin to elucidate the molecular basis of neural specificity in this system, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations affecting neuromuscular connectivity. We focus on 5 genes required for specific aspects of pathway (beaten path, stranded, and short stop) and target (walkabout and clueless) recognition. The different classes of mutant phenotypes suggest that neural specificity is controlled by a hierarchy of molecular mechanisms: motoneurons are guided toward the correct region of mesoderm, in many cases navigating a series of choice points along the way; they then display an affinity for a particular domain of neighboring muscles; and finally, they recognize their specific muscle target from within this domain. PMID:8513498

  5. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL IN LUMBAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Leinonen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Impaired motor and sensory functions have been associated with low back pain (LBP. This includes disturbances in a wide range of sensorimotor control e.g. sensory dysfunctions, impaired postural responses and psychomotor control. However, the physiological mechanisms, clinical relevance and characteristics of these findings in different spinal pathologies require further clarification.The purposes of this study were to investigate postural control, lumbar muscle function, movement perception and associations between these findings in healthy volunteers (n=35, patients with lumbar disc herniation (n=20 and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS, n=26.Paraspinal muscle responses for sudden upper limb loading and muscle activation during flexion-extension movement and the lumbar endurance test were measured by surface electromyography (EMG. Postural stability was measured on a force platform during two- and one-footed standing. Lumbar movement perception was assessed in a motorised trunk rotation unit in the seated position. In addition, measurements of motor-(MEP and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP and needle EMG examination of lumbar multifidus muscles were performed in the LSS patients. Clinical and questionnaire data were also recorded. A short latency paraspinal muscle response (~50 ms for sudden upper limb loading was observed. The latency of the response was shortened by expectation (p=0.017. The response latency for unexpected loading was similar in healthy persons and disc herniation patients but the latency was not shortened by expectation in the patients (p = 0.014. Also impaired postural control (p < 0.05 and lumbar movement perception (p = 0.012 were observed in disc herniation patients. The impaired lumbar movement perception (p=0.054 and anticipatory muscle activation (p = 0.043 tended to be restored after successful surgery but postural control had still not recovered after 3 months of follow-up. The majority of LSS patients were unable to sense a rotational movement in the lumbar area and thus had clearly impaired lumbar movement perception (p = 0.006. Abnormal MEPs had only inconsistent and SEPs showed no associations with impaired movement perception and postural stability in LSS. Abnormal needle EMG findings and flexion-extension activation of paraspinal muscles were frequently observed in LSS patients. Lumbar paraspinal muscle endurance was better than in previously evaluated healthy subjects and chronic LBP patients (p < 0.001.The results demonstrated clearly impaired lumbar sensory and motor function in sciatica and LSS patients. The pure reflex activation of paraspinal muscles was not affected in sciatica but a difference was found in the premotoneuronal response control. The impaired proprioceptive functions and premotoneuronal response control seem to recover at least partially but the maintenance of postural stability is a complex activity which does not seem to recover automatically in operated sciatica patients at least in three months follow-up. Paraspinal muscle denervation and dysfunction were clearly detectable in LSS but lumbar paraspinal muscle endurance was unexpectedly good

  6. Assessing neuromuscular mechanisms in human-exoskeleton interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, N; Bonnet, V; Venture, G; Armande, N; Fraisse, P

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we propose to evaluate a 7 DOF exoskeleton in terms of motion control. Using criteria from the human motor control literature, inverse optimization was performed to assess an industrial screwing movement. The results of our study show that the hybrid composition of the free arm movement was accurately determined. At contrary, when wearing the exoskeleton, which produces an arbitrary determined torque compensation, the motion is different from the naturally adopted one. This study is part of the evaluation and comprehension of the complex neuromuscular mechanism resulting in wearing an exoskeleton several hours per day for industrial tasks assistance. PMID:25570182

  7. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Kayla B.; Whitcomb, Tyler J.; Briggs, Wyatt O.; Hong, Junggi

    2012-01-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies s...

  8. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Kayla B; Whitcomb, Tyler J; Briggs, Wyatt O; Hong, Junggi

    2012-03-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently. PMID:23487249

  9. Neuromuscular function during stair descent in meniscectomized patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in knee range of motion (ROM), movement speed, ground reaction forces (GRF) profile, neuromuscular activity, and muscle coactivation during the transition between stair descent and level walking in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared with the nonoperated leg and with healthy controls.

  10. Invasive home mechanical ventilation, mainly focused on neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börger, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and background: Invasive home mechanical ventilation is used for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. This elaborate and technology-dependent ventilation is carried out via an artificial airway (tracheal cannula to the trachea. Exact numbers about the incidence of home mechanical ventilation are not available. Patients with neuromuscular diseases represent a large portion of it. Research questions: Specific research questions are formulated and answered concerning the dimensions of medicine/nursing, economics, social, ethical and legal aspects. Beyond the technical aspect of the invasive home, mechanical ventilation, medical questions also deal with the patient’s symptoms and clinical signs as well as the frequency of complications. Economic questions pertain to the composition of costs and the differences to other ways of homecare concerning costs and quality of care. Questions regarding social aspects consider the health-related quality of life of patients and caregivers. Additionally, the ethical aspects connected to the decision of home mechanical ventilation are viewed. Finally, legal aspects of financing invasive home mechanical ventilation are discussed. Methods: Based on a systematic literature search in 2008 in a total of 31 relevant databases current literature is viewed and selected by means of fixed criteria. Randomized controlled studies, systematic reviews and HTA reports (health technology assessment, clinical studies with patient numbers above ten, health-economic evaluations, primary studies with particular cost analyses and quality-of-life studies related to the research questions are included in the analysis. Results and discussion: Invasive mechanical ventilation may improve symptoms of hypoventilation, as the analysis of the literature shows. An increase in life expectancy is likely, but for ethical reasons it is not confirmed by premium-quality studies. Complications (e. g. pneumonia are rare. Mobile home ventilators are available for the implementation of the ventilation. Their technical performance however, differs regrettably. Studies comparing the economic aspects of ventilation in a hospital to outpatient ventilation, describe home ventilation as a more cost-effective alternative to in-patient care in an intensive care unit, however, more expensive in comparison to a noninvasive (via mask ventilation. Higher expenses arise due to the necessary equipment and the high expenditure of time for the partial 24-hour care of the affected patients through highly qualified personnel. However, none of the studies applies to the German provisionary conditions. The calculated costs strongly depend on national medical fees and wages of caregivers, which barely allows a transmission of the results. The results of quality-of-life studies are mostly qualitative. The patient’s quality of life using mechanical ventilation is predominantly considered well. Caregivers of ventilated patients report positive as well as negative ratings. Regarding the ethical questions, it was researched which aspects of ventilation implementation will have to be considered. From a legal point of view the financing of home ventilation, especially invasive mechanical ventilation, requiring specialised technical nursing is regulated in the code of social law (Sozialgesetzbuch V. The absorption of costs is distributed to different insurance carriers, who often, due to cost pressures within the health care system, insurance carriers, who consider others and not themselves as responsible. Therefore in practice, the necessity to enforce a claim of cost absorption often arises in order to exercise the basic right of free choice of location. Conclusion: Positive effects of the invasive mechanical ventilation (overall survival and symptomatic are highly probable based on the analysed literature, although with a low level of evidence. An establishment of a home ventilation registry and health care research to ascertain valid data to improve outpatient structures is necessary. Gathering specific G

  11. Neuromuscular control and rehabilitation of the unstable ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, You-jou

    2015-01-01

    Lateral ankle sprain is a common orthopedic injury with a very high recurrence rate in athletes. After decades of research, it is still unclear what contributes to the high recurrence rate of ankle sprain, and what is the most effective intervention to reduce the incident of initial and recurrent injuries. In addition, clinicians often implement balance training as part of the rehabilitation protocol in hopes of enhancing the neuromuscular control and proprioception of the ankle joint. Howeve...

  12. Simulations of neuromuscular control in lamprey swimming.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekeberg, O; Grillner, S.

    1999-01-01

    The neuronal generation of vertebrate locomotion has been extensively studied in the lamprey. Models at different levels of abstraction are being used to describe this system, from abstract nonlinear oscillators to interconnected model neurons comprising multiple compartments and a Hodgkin-Huxley representation of the most relevant ion channels. To study the role of sensory feedback by simulation, it eventually also becomes necessary to incorporate the mechanical movements in the models. By u...

  13. Enhancement of neuromuscular dynamics and strength behavior using extremely low magnitude mechanical signals in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mettlach, Gabriel; Polo-Parada, Luis; Peca, Lauren; Rubin, Clinton T; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise in general, and mechanical signals in particular, help ameliorate the neuromuscular symptoms of aging and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders by enhancing muscle function. To better understand the salutary mechanisms of such physical stimuli, we evaluated the potential for low intensity mechanical signals to promote enhanced muscle dynamics. The effects of daily brief periods of low intensity vibration (LIV) on neuromuscular functions and behavioral correlates were assessed in...

  14. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy : Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS: An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to either a 12-week neuromuscular exercise program that targeted neutral lower limb alignment or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary outcomes included additional measures of knee joint load distribution, patient-reported outcomes, maximal knee and hipmuscle strength, and physical function measures. RESULTS: 60 out of 62 randomized participants (97%) completed the trial. There were no significant between-group differences in the change in the peak knee adduction moment during normal pace walking (mean difference (95% CI), 0.22 (-0.11 to 0.55) Nm/BW×HT %, p=0.19), or during one-leg sit-to-stand (-0.01 (-0.33 to 0.31) Nm/BW×HT %, p = 0.95). There were also no significant between-group differences for any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients 3-12 months following a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, a neuromuscular exercise program did not alter the peak knee adduction moment, a key predictor of osteoarthritis structural disease progression. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (#ACTRN12612000542897).

  15. Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Stephen W

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular rehabilitation (VR is a well-accepted exercise program intended to remedy balance impairment caused by damage to the peripheral vestibular system. Alternative therapies, such as Tai Chi (TC, have recently gained popularity as a treatment for balance impairment. Although VR and TC can benefit people with vestibulopathy, the degree to which gait improvements may be related to neuromuscular adaptations of the lower extremities for the two different therapies are unknown. Methods We examined the relationship between lower extremity neuromuscular function and trunk control in 36 older adults with vestibulopathy, randomized to 10 weeks of either VR or TC exercise. Time-distance measures (gait speed, step length, stance duration and step width, lower extremity sagittal plane mechanical energy expenditures (MEE, and trunk sagittal and frontal plane kinematics (peak and range of linear and angular velocity, were measured. Results Although gait time-distance measures were improved in both groups following treatment, no significant between-groups differences were observed for the MEE and trunk kinematic measures. Significant within groups changes, however, were observed. The TC group significantly increased ankle MEE contribution and decreased hip MEE contribution to total leg MEE, while no significant changes were found within the VR group. The TC group exhibited a positive relationship between change in leg MEE and change in trunk velocity peak and range, while the VR group exhibited a negative relationship. Conclusion Gait function improved in both groups consistent with expectations of the interventions. Differences in each group's response to therapy appear to suggest that improved gait function may be due to different neuromuscular adaptations resulting from the different interventions. The TC group's improvements were associated with reorganized lower extremity neuromuscular patterns, which appear to promote a faster gait and reduced excessive hip compensation. The VR group's improvements, however, were not the result of lower extremity neuromuscular pattern changes. Lower-extremity MEE increases corresponded to attenuated forward trunk linear and angular movement in the VR group, suggesting better control of upper body motion to minimize loss of balance. These data support a growing body of evidence that Tai Chi may be a valuable complementary treatment for vestibular disorders.

  16. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES?=?0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES?=?0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES?=?0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES?=?0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES?=?0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES?=?0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES?=?-0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES?=?-0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES?=?0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES?=?-0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players. PMID:25556888

  17. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching : mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Melanie J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Riek, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques are commonly used in the athletic and clinical environments to enhance both active and passive range of motion (ROM) with a view to optimising motor performance and rehabilitation. PNF stretching is positioned in the literature as the most effective stretching technique when the aim is to increase ROM, particularly in respect to short-term changes in ROM. With due consideration of the heterogeneity across the applied PNF stretching research, a summary of the findings suggests that an 'active' PNF stretching technique achieves the greatest gains in ROM, e.g. utilising a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch, followed by a static contraction of the target muscle. The inclusion of a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle appears to have the greatest impact on enhancing ROM. When including a static contraction of the target muscle, this needs to be held for approximately 3 seconds at no more than 20% of a maximum voluntary contraction. The greatest changes in ROM generally occur after the first repetition and in order to achieve more lasting changes in ROM, PNF stretching needs to be performed once or twice per week. The superior changes in ROM that PNF stretching often produces compared with other stretching techniques has traditionally been attributed to autogenic and/or reciprocal inhibition, although the literature does not support this hypothesis. Instead, and in the absence of a biomechanical explanation, the contemporary view proposes that PNF stretching influences the point at which stretch is perceived or tolerated. The mechanism(s) underpinning the change in stretch perception or tolerance are not known, although pain modulation has been suggested. PMID:17052131

  18. Neuromuscular blockade in children / Bloqueadores neuromusculares em crianças

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Fernando Lourenço de, Almeida; W. Jorge, Kalil Filho; Eduardo J., Troster.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Os bloqueadores neuromusculares têm sido amplamente utilizados para controlar pacientes que necessitem imobilidade para algum tipo de intervenção médica, desde a realização de procedimentos invasivos até a obtenção de sincronismo com a ventilação mecânica. O objetivo básico desta monografia é revisa [...] r a farmacologia dos principais bloqueadores neuromusculares, analisar as diferenças existentes na junção neuromuscular de neonatos, lactentes, pré-escolares e adultos, além de discutir suas indicações em pacientes criticamente enfermos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Revisão computadorizada da literatura (Medline 1990-2000) associado a busca ativa de artigos compuseram o mecanismo de busca dos dados desta revisão. Abstract in english Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) have been widely used to control patients who need to be immobilized for some kind of medical intervention, such as an invasive procedure or synchronism with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this monograph is to review the pharmacology of the NMBAs, to com [...] pare the main differences between the neuromuscular junction in neonates, infants, toddlers and adults, and moreover to discuss their indications in critically ill pediatric patients. Continuous improvement of knowledge about NMBAs pharmacology, adverse effects, and the many other remaining unanswered questions about neuromuscular junction and neuromuscular blockade in children is essential for the correct use of these drugs. Therefore, the indication of these agents in pediatrics is determined with extreme judiciousness. Computorized (Medline 1990-2000) and active search of articles were the mechanisms used in this review.

  19. Neuromuscular blockade in children Bloqueadores neuromusculares em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fernando Lourenço de Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs have been widely used to control patients who need to be immobilized for some kind of medical intervention, such as an invasive procedure or synchronism with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this monograph is to review the pharmacology of the NMBAs, to compare the main differences between the neuromuscular junction in neonates, infants, toddlers and adults, and moreover to discuss their indications in critically ill pediatric patients. Continuous improvement of knowledge about NMBAs pharmacology, adverse effects, and the many other remaining unanswered questions about neuromuscular junction and neuromuscular blockade in children is essential for the correct use of these drugs. Therefore, the indication of these agents in pediatrics is determined with extreme judiciousness. Computorized (Medline 1990-2000 and active search of articles were the mechanisms used in this review.Os bloqueadores neuromusculares têm sido amplamente utilizados para controlar pacientes que necessitem imobilidade para algum tipo de intervenção médica, desde a realização de procedimentos invasivos até a obtenção de sincronismo com a ventilação mecânica. O objetivo básico desta monografia é revisar a farmacologia dos principais bloqueadores neuromusculares, analisar as diferenças existentes na junção neuromuscular de neonatos, lactentes, pré-escolares e adultos, além de discutir suas indicações em pacientes criticamente enfermos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Revisão computadorizada da literatura (Medline 1990-2000 associado a busca ativa de artigos compuseram o mecanismo de busca dos dados desta revisão.

  20. Enhancement of neuromuscular dynamics and strength behavior using extremely low magnitude mechanical signals in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettlach, Gabriel; Polo-Parada, Luis; Peca, Lauren; Rubin, Clinton T; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A

    2014-01-01

    Exercise in general, and mechanical signals in particular, help ameliorate the neuromuscular symptoms of aging and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders by enhancing muscle function. To better understand the salutary mechanisms of such physical stimuli, we evaluated the potential for low intensity mechanical signals to promote enhanced muscle dynamics. The effects of daily brief periods of low intensity vibration (LIV) on neuromuscular functions and behavioral correlates were assessed in mice. Physiological analysis revealed that LIV increased isometric force production in semitendinosus skeletal muscle. This effect was evident in both young and old mice. Isometric force recordings also showed that LIV reduced the fatiguing effects of intensive synaptic muscle stimulation. Furthermore, LIV increased evoked neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses but had no effect on spontaneous end plate potential amplitude or frequency. In behavioral studies, LIV increased mouse grip strength and potentiated initial motor activity in a novel environment. These results provide evidence for the efficacy of LIV in producing changes in the neuromuscular system that translate into performance gains at a behavioral scale. PMID:24157062

  1. The Role of Neuromuscular Changes in Aging and Knee Osteoarthritis on Dynamic Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint condition, with 30% of those over the age of 75 exhibiting severe radiographic disease. Nearly 50% of those with knee OA have experienced a fall in the past year. Falls are a considerable public health concern, with a high risk of serious injury and a significant socioeconomic impact. The ability to defend against a fall relies on adequate dynamic postural control, and alterations in dynamic postural control are seen with normal aging. Neuromuscular...

  2. Comprehensive Joint Feedback Control for Standing by Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation – a Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation pa...

  3. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Umbertina C

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo). Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de h...

  4. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars; Døssing, Simon; Alkjaer, T; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael; Aagaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The project aimed to implement neuromuscular training during a full soccer and handball league season and to experimentally analyze the neuromuscular adaptation mechanisms elicited by this training during a standardized sidecutting maneuver known to be associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. DESIGN: The players were tested before and after 1 season without implementation of the prophylactic training and subsequently before and after a full season with the ...

  5. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbertina C. Reed

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo. Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de hipotonia muscular secundária ao comprometimento do sistema nervoso central ou a doenças sistêmicas não-neurológicas, são enfatizados, com base na experiência clínica vinda do atendimento a crianças com doenças neuromusculares durante os últimos 12 anos, no ambulatório de doenças neuromusculares do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de São Paulo. A revisão bibliográfica foi efetuada através do Medline e do periódico Neuromuscular Disorders, publicação oficial da World Muscle Society. Síntese dos dados: nas crianças, a maior parte destas afecções é geneticamente determinada, sendo as mais comuns a distrofia muscular progressiva ligada ao sexo, de Duchenne, a amiotrofia espinal infantil, a distrofia muscular congênita, a distrofia miotônica de Steinert, e as miopatias congênitas, estruturais e não estruturais. Polineuropatias hereditárias, síndrome miastênica congênita e miopatias metabólicas são menos comuns, porém mostram correlação geno-fenotípica cada vez mais precisa. Conclusões: na década passada, inúmeros avanços da genética molecular facilitaram imensamente o diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético das doenças neuromusculares mais comuns das crianças, inclusive possibilitando diagnóstico fetal e, adicionalmente, vieram permitir melhor caracterização fenotípica e classificação mais objetiva.Objective: to discuss the most important aspects for performing a differential diagnosis among the main neuromuscular disorders in children, that include the diseases affecting the motor unity, i.e. spinal motor neurons, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction and muscular fibers. Sources: the review of the clinical aspects that should be considered for a prompt differential diagnosis among several neuromuscular disorders as well as between those and the main causes of secondary muscular hypotonia due to central nervous system or systemic disturbances is based on the clinical experience acquired along the last 12 years in following-up children with Neuromuscular Disorders attended at the outpatient Service of Neuromuscular Disorders at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. In addition, it is based on Medline and on the review of the most recent numbers of Neuromuscular Disorders, the official journal of the World Muscle Society. Summary of the findings: most of neuromuscular disorders are genetic conditions in children and the most common of them are X-linked Progressive Muscular Dystrophy of Duchenne, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Myotonic Dystrophy and Congenital Myopathies. Conclusions: due to the phenomenal development in human molecular genetics the pathogenesis of several neuromuscular disorders in children has been clarified over the last decade. Nowadays many new diagnostic methods, including techniques of fetal diagnosis, and a more objective genotype-phenotype correlation as well as classification are available.

  6. Doenças neuromusculares / Neuromuscular disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Umbertina C., Reed.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mi [...] oneural e músculo). Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de hipotonia muscular secundária ao comprometimento do sistema nervoso central ou a doenças sistêmicas não-neurológicas, são enfatizados, com base na experiência clínica vinda do atendimento a crianças com doenças neuromusculares durante os últimos 12 anos, no ambulatório de doenças neuromusculares do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de São Paulo. A revisão bibliográfica foi efetuada através do Medline e do periódico Neuromuscular Disorders, publicação oficial da World Muscle Society. Síntese dos dados: nas crianças, a maior parte destas afecções é geneticamente determinada, sendo as mais comuns a distrofia muscular progressiva ligada ao sexo, de Duchenne, a amiotrofia espinal infantil, a distrofia muscular congênita, a distrofia miotônica de Steinert, e as miopatias congênitas, estruturais e não estruturais. Polineuropatias hereditárias, síndrome miastênica congênita e miopatias metabólicas são menos comuns, porém mostram correlação geno-fenotípica cada vez mais precisa. Conclusões: na década passada, inúmeros avanços da genética molecular facilitaram imensamente o diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético das doenças neuromusculares mais comuns das crianças, inclusive possibilitando diagnóstico fetal e, adicionalmente, vieram permitir melhor caracterização fenotípica e classificação mais objetiva. Abstract in english Objective: to discuss the most important aspects for performing a differential diagnosis among the main neuromuscular disorders in children, that include the diseases affecting the motor unity, i.e. spinal motor neurons, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction and muscular fibers. Sources: the rev [...] iew of the clinical aspects that should be considered for a prompt differential diagnosis among several neuromuscular disorders as well as between those and the main causes of secondary muscular hypotonia due to central nervous system or systemic disturbances is based on the clinical experience acquired along the last 12 years in following-up children with Neuromuscular Disorders attended at the outpatient Service of Neuromuscular Disorders at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. In addition, it is based on Medline and on the review of the most recent numbers of Neuromuscular Disorders, the official journal of the World Muscle Society. Summary of the findings: most of neuromuscular disorders are genetic conditions in children and the most common of them are X-linked Progressive Muscular Dystrophy of Duchenne, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Myotonic Dystrophy and Congenital Myopathies. Conclusions: due to the phenomenal development in human molecular genetics the pathogenesis of several neuromuscular disorders in children has been clarified over the last decade. Nowadays many new diagnostic methods, including techniques of fetal diagnosis, and a more objective genotype-phenotype correlation as well as classification are available.

  7. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Nicholas; Rogers, Rebecca; Parr, Michael K; Hayes, Philip R

    2009-07-01

    Caplan, N, Rogers, R, Parr, MK, and Hayes, PR. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics. J Strength Cond Res 23(4): 1175-1180, 2009-There is a long-standing belief that increased range of movement (RoM) at the hip or knee will improve running mechanics; however, few studies have examined the effect of such an increase in RoM. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of 2 methods of stretch training (static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation [PNF]) on high-velocity running. Eighteen rugby league players were assessed for maximum sprinting velocity. They were randomly allocated into 2 stretch training groups: PNF or static. Each group trained their hamstrings 4 d x w(-1) for 5 weeks. Pre- and posttraining subjects were videoed while running at 80% of maximum velocity. The video was digitized to identify biomechanical changes in hip flexion (HF), knee extension (KE), stride length (SL), stride rate (SR), and contact time (tc). Stretch training resulted in gains (p < 0.05) in HF for the static stretch (SS) (4.9%) and PNF (7.6%) groups. There were reductions in KE (p < 0.05) for SS (1.0%) and PNF (1.6%) groups. Stride mechanics were also altered after training. There were increases in SL (p < 0.05) for SS (7.1%) and PNF (9.1%) and a concomitant reduction in SR (p < 0.05) for SS (1.9%) and PNF (4.3%). No changes were observed in tc in either group. In conclusion, both SS and PNF training improved HF RoM and running mechanics during high-velocity running. These findings suggest that stretch training undertaken at the end of regular training is effective in changing running mechanics. PMID:19528850

  8. Effects of neuromuscular lags on controlling contact transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    We present a numerical exploration of contact transitions with the fingertip. When picking up objects our fingertips must make contact at specific locations, and—upon contact—maintain posture while producing well-directed force vectors. However, the joint torques for moving the fingertip towards a surface (?m) are different from those for producing static force vectors (?f). We previously described the neural control of such abrupt transitions in humans, and found that unavoidable errors aris...

  9. Postoperative effects of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty : a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, SØren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the postoperative efficacy of a supervised programme of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty. METHODS: In this assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, we included 165 patients scheduled for hip or knee arthroplasty due to severe osteoarthritis (OA). An 8-week preoperative neuromuscular supervised exercise programme was delivered twice a week for 1 h as adjunct treatment to the standard arthroplasty procedure and compared with the standard arthroplasty procedure alone. The primary outcome was self-reported physical function measured on the activities of daily living (ADL) subscale in the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaires for patients with hip and knee OA, respectively. Primary endpoint was 3 months after surgery. RESULTS: 165 patients randomised to the two groups were on average 67±8 years, 84 (51%) had hip OA and 92 (56%) were women. 153 patients (93%) underwentplanned surgery and were evaluated postoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in effects between hip or knee patients (p=0.7370). Three months postoperatively, no difference was found between groups for ADL (4.4, 95% CI -0.8 to 9.5) or pain (4.5, 95% CI -0.8 to 9.9). However, there was a statistically significant difference indicating an effect of exercise over the entire period (baseline to 3-months postoperatively) (p=0.0029). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of supervised neuromuscular exercise prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee did not confer additional benefits 3 months postoperatively compared with TJA alone. However, the intervention group experienced a statistically significant short-term benefit in ADL and pain, suggesting an earlier onset of postoperative recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials NCT01003756.

  10. Mutational Analysis of Rab3 Function for Controlling Active Zone Protein Composition at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John P.; Alsharif, Peter; Graf, Ethan R.

    2015-01-01

    At synapses, the release of neurotransmitter is regulated by molecular machinery that aggregates at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones. The complement of active zone proteins at each site is a determinant of release efficacy and can be remodeled to alter synapse function. The small GTPase Rab3 was previously identified as playing a novel role that controls the distribution of active zone proteins to individual release sites at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Rab3 has been extensively studied for its role in the synaptic vesicle cycle; however, the mechanism by which Rab3 controls active zone development remains unknown. To explore this mechanism, we conducted a mutational analysis to determine the molecular and structural requirements of Rab3 function at Drosophila synapses. We find that GTP-binding is required for Rab3 to traffick to synapses and distribute active zone components across release sites. Conversely, the hydrolytic activity of Rab3 is unnecessary for this function. Through a structure-function analysis we identify specific residues within the effector-binding switch regions that are required for Rab3 function and determine that membrane attachment is essential. Our findings suggest that Rab3 controls the distribution of active zone components via a vesicle docking mechanism that is consistent with standard Rab protein function. PMID:26317909

  11. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction as a model system to study the molecular mechanisms of neurodevelopment and synaptic degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Füger, Petra

    2012-01-01

    More than a century ago the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was established as a genetic model system. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has proven as an adequate model system to study molecular mechanisms of development of glutamatergic synapses. Discoveries first made in flies had a brought impact on neuroscience research in vertebrates, as many genes and fundamental aspects of cell biology are conserved between Drosophila and vertebrates. In addition, Drosophila has established...

  12. Further Results on Predictor-Based Control of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibeji, Naji; Kirsch, Nicholas; Farrokhi, Shawn; Sharma, Nitin

    2015-11-01

    Electromechanical delay (EMD) and uncertain nonlinear muscle dynamics can cause destabilizing effects and performance loss during closed-loop control of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Linear control methods for NMES often perform poorly due to these technical challenges. A new predictor-based closed-loop controller called proportional integral derivative controller with delay compensation (PID-DC) is presented in this paper. The PID-DC controller was designed to compensate for EMDs during NMES. Further, the robust controller can be implemented despite uncertainties or in the absence of model knowledge of the nonlinear musculoskeletal dynamics. Lyapunov stability analysis was used to synthesize the new controller. The effectiveness of the new controller was validated and compared with two recently developed nonlinear NMES controllers, through a series of closed-loop control experiments on four able-bodied human subjects. Experimental results depict statistically significant improved performance with PID-DC. The new controller is shown to be robust to variations in an estimated EMD value. PMID:25850093

  13. Adaptive Control of Movement for Neuromuscular Stimulation-Assisted Therapy in a Rodent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Fairchild, Mallika D.; Iarkov (Yarkov), Alexandre; Abbas, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromotor therapy after spinal cord or brain injury often attempts to utilize activity-dependent plasticity to promote functional recovery. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation that activates paralyzed or paretic muscles may enhance passive assistance therapy by activating more muscle mass and enriching the sensory pattern with appropriately timed muscle spindle activation. To enable studies of activity-dependent plasticity, a rodent model for stimulation-assisted locomotor therapy was developed previously. To be effective, however, such a system must allow lengthy sessions of repetitive movements. In this study, we implemented an adaptive pattern generator/pattern shaper (PG/PS) control system for a rodent model of neuromotor therapy and evaluated its ability to generate accurate and repeatable hip movements in lengthy sessions by adjusting the activation patterns of an agonist/antagonist muscle pair. In 100-cycle movement trials, the PG/PS control system provided excellent movement tracking (<10% error), but stimulation levels steadily increased to account for muscle fatigue. In trials using an intermittent movement paradigm (100 sets of five-cycle bouts interspersed by 20-s rest periods), excellent performance (<8% error) was also observed with less stimulation, thus indicating reduced muscle fatigue. These results demonstrate the ability of the PG/PS control system to utilize an agonist/antagonist muscle pair to control movement at a joint in a rodent model. The demonstration of repeatable movements over lengthy intermittent sessions suggests that it may be well suited to provide efficient neuromotor therapy. PMID:19272884

  14. EEG controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the upper limb for stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hock Guan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Kong, Keng He; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Wei Tech

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system and the experiments to allow post-acute (EEG) to trigger neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-assisted extension of the wrist/fingers, which are essential pre-requisites for useful hand function. EEG was recorded while subjects performed motor imagery of their paretic limb, and then analyzed to determine the optimal frequency range within the mu-rhythm, with the greatest attenuation. Aided by visual feedback, subjects then trained to regulate their mu-rhythm EEG to operate the BCI to trigger NMES of the wrist/finger. 6 post-acute stroke patients successfully completed the training, with 4 able to learn to control and use the BCI to initiate NMES. This result is consistent with the reported BCI literacy rate of healthy subjects. Thereafter, without the loss of generality, the controller of the NMES is developed and is based on a model of the upper limb muscle (biceps/triceps) groups to determine the intensity of NMES required to flex or extend the forearm by a specific angle. The muscle model is based on a phenomenological approach, with parameters that are easily measured and conveniently implemented.

  15. Center of mass acceleration feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation for standing in presence of internal postural perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Raviraj Nataraj; Musa L. Audu, PhD; Ronald J. Triolo, PhD

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the feasibility and performance of center of mass (COM) acceleration feedback control of a neuroprosthesis utilizing functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to restore standing balance to a single subject paralyzed by a motor and sensory complete, thoracic-level spinal cord injury. An artificial neural network (ANN) was created to map gain-modulated changes in total body COM acceleration estimated from body-mounted sensors to optimal changes in stimulation required to...

  16. Center of Mass Acceleration Feedback Control of Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation for Standing in the Presence of Internal Postural Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Triolo, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the feasibility and performance of center of mass (COM) acceleration feedback control of a neuroprosthesis utilizing functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to restore standing balance to a single subject paralyzed by a motor and sensory complete, thoracic-level spinal cord injury (SCI). An artificial neural network (ANN) was created to map gain-modulated changes in total body COM acceleration estimated from body-mounted sensors to optimal changes in stimulation requi...

  17. Time scale dependence of the center of pressure entropy: What characteristics of the neuromuscular postural control system influence stabilographic entropic half-life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federolf, Peter; Zandiyeh, Payam; von Tscharner, Vinzenz

    2015-12-01

    The center of pressure (COP) movement in studies of postural control reveals a highly regular structure (low entropy) over short time periods and a highly irregular structure over large time scales (high entropy). Entropic half-life (EnHL) is a novel measure that quantifies the time over which short-term temporal correlations in a time series deteriorate to an uncorrelated, random structure. The current study suggested and tested three hypotheses about how characteristics of the neuromuscular postural control system may affect stabilometric EnHL: (H1) control system activity hypothesis: EnHL decreases with increased frequency of control system interventions adjusting COP motion; (H2) abundance of states hypothesis: EnHL decreases with increased number of mechanically equivalent states available to the postural system; and (H3) neurologic process hierarchy hypothesis: EnHL increases if postural control functions shift from the spinal level to the motor cortex. Thirty healthy participants performed quiet stance tests for 90 s in 18 different conditions: stance (bipedal, one-legged, and tandem); footwear (bare foot, regular sports shoe, and rocker sole shoes); and simultaneous cognitive task (two-back working memory task, no challenge). A four-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant changes in EnHL for the different stance positions and for different movement directions (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior). These changes support H1 and H2. Significant differences were also found between rocker sole shoes and normal or barefoot standing, which supports H3. This study contributes to the understanding of how and why EnHL is a useful measure to monitor neuromuscular control of balance. PMID:26303025

  18. Influência da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigação sobre o mecanismo de ação da procainamida na junção neuromuscular Influencia de la procainamida sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigación sobre el mecanismo de acción de la procainamida en la junción neuromuscular Influence of procainamide on the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium and investigation on the mechanism of action of procainamide on the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Thalita Duque Martins; Yolanda Christina S. Loyola; Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A potencialização da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pela d-tubocurarina já está comprovada, porém o mecanismo é controverso. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da procainamida no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigar os mecanismos desta interação. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 15 ratos (250 a 300 g) em preparação descrita por Bülbring. Formaram-se os seguintes grupos (n = 5 cada): procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (G...

  19. Efeitos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular durante a imobilização nas propriedades mecânicas do músculo esquelético Efectos de la estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular durante la inmovilización en las propiedades mecánicas del músculo esquelético Effects of neuromuscular electric stimulation during immobilization in the mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Chieregato Matheus

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM é um importante recurso utilizado em medicina esportiva para acelerar processos de recuperação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos da EENM durante a imobilização do músculo gastrocnêmio, em posições de alongamento (LP e encurtamento (SP. Para tanto, 60 ratas fêmeas jovens Wistar foram distribuídas em seis grupos e acompanhadas durante sete dias: controle (C, eletroestimuladas (EE, imobilizadas em encurtamento (ISP, imobilizadas em alongamento (ILP, imobilizadas em encurtamento e eletroestimuladas (ISP + EE e imobilizadas em alongamento e eletroestimuladas (ILP + EE. Para a imobilização, o membro posterior direito foi envolvido por uma malha tubular e ataduras de algodão juntamente à atadura gessada. A EENM foi utilizada com freqüência de 50Hz, 10 minutos por dia, totalizando 20 contrações em cada sessão. Após sete dias os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia e os músculos gastrocnêmios retirados para a realização do ensaio mecânico de tração em uma máquina universal de ensaios (EMIC®. A partir dos gráficos carga versus alongamento, foram calculadas as seguintes propriedades mecânicas: alongamento no limite de proporcionalidade (ALP, carga no limite de proporcionalidade (CLP e rigidez. As imobilizações SP e LP promoveram reduções significativas (p La estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular (EENM es un importante recurso utilizado en medicina deportiva para acelerar procesos de recuperación. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar los efectos de la EENM durante la inmovilización del músculo gastrocnemio, en posiciones de alongamiento (LP y contracción (SP. Para tal fin, 60 ratones hembras jóvenes Wistar fueron distribuidas en seis grupos y monitoreadas durante 7 días: control (C, electro estimuladas (EE, inmovilizadas en contracción (ISP, inmovilizadas en alongamiento (ILP, inmovilizadas en contracción y electro estimuladas (ISP + EE e inmovilizadas en alongamiento y electro estimuladas (ILP + EE. Para la inmovilización, el miembro posterior derecho fue envuelto por una malla tubular y vendas de algodón en conjunto con vendas de escayola. La EENM fue utilizada con una frecuencia de 50 Hz, 10 minutos por día, totalizando 20 contracciones en cada sesión. Después de 7 días los animales fueron sometidos a eutanasia y los músculos gastrocnemios fueron retirados para la realización del ensayo mecánico de tracción en una máquina universal de ensayos (EMIC®. A partir de los gráficos carga versus alongamiento se calculó las siguientes propiedades mecánicas: alongamiento en el límite de proporcionalidad (ALP, carga en el límite de proporcionalidad (CLP y rigidez. Las inmovilizaciones SP y LP dieron reducciones significativas (p The neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES is an important tool used in sports medicine to accelerate the recovery process. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NMES during immobilization of the gastrocnemius muscle, in lengthened (LP and shortened positions (SP. Sixty young female Wistar rats were distributed into six groups and followed for 7 days: control (C; electric stimulation (ES; immobilized in shortening (ISP; immobilized in lengthening (ILP; immobilized in shortening and electric stimulation (ISP + ES and immobilized in lengthening and electric stimulation (ILP + ES. For the immobilization, a tubular mesh and cotton rolls together with the plaster were wrapped around the rat's right posterior paw. NMES in a frequency of 50 Hz was used 10 minutes a day, totaling 20 contractions in each session. After 7 days the animals were sacrificed and their gastrocnemius muscles of the right paw were submitted to a mechanical test of traction in a universal test machine (EMIC®. From the load versus elongation curves the following mechanical properties were obtained: elongation in the yield limit (EPL, load in the yield limit (LPL and stiffness. The SP and LP immobilizations promoted significant reductions (p < 0.05 in the EPL and LPL properties, b

  20. Efeitos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular durante a imobilização nas propriedades mecânicas do músculo esquelético / Effects of neuromuscular electric stimulation during immobilization in the mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle / Efectos de la estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular durante la inmovilización en las propiedades mecánicas del músculo esquelético

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Paulo Chieregato, Matheus; Liana Barbaresco, Gomide; Juliana Goulart Prata de, Oliveira; José Batista, Volpon; Antônio Carlos, Shimano.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM) é um importante recurso utilizado em medicina esportiva para acelerar processos de recuperação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos da EENM durante a imobilização do músculo gastrocnêmio, em posições de alongamento (LP) e encurtamento (SP). Par [...] a tanto, 60 ratas fêmeas jovens Wistar foram distribuídas em seis grupos e acompanhadas durante sete dias: controle (C), eletroestimuladas (EE), imobilizadas em encurtamento (ISP), imobilizadas em alongamento (ILP), imobilizadas em encurtamento e eletroestimuladas (ISP + EE) e imobilizadas em alongamento e eletroestimuladas (ILP + EE). Para a imobilização, o membro posterior direito foi envolvido por uma malha tubular e ataduras de algodão juntamente à atadura gessada. A EENM foi utilizada com freqüência de 50Hz, 10 minutos por dia, totalizando 20 contrações em cada sessão. Após sete dias os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia e os músculos gastrocnêmios retirados para a realização do ensaio mecânico de tração em uma máquina universal de ensaios (EMIC®). A partir dos gráficos carga versus alongamento, foram calculadas as seguintes propriedades mecânicas: alongamento no limite de proporcionalidade (ALP), carga no limite de proporcionalidade (CLP) e rigidez. As imobilizações SP e LP promoveram reduções significativas (p Abstract in spanish La estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular (EENM) es un importante recurso utilizado en medicina deportiva para acelerar procesos de recuperación. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar los efectos de la EENM durante la inmovilización del músculo gastrocnemio, en posiciones de alongamiento (LP) y [...] contracción (SP). Para tal fin, 60 ratones hembras jóvenes Wistar fueron distribuidas en seis grupos y monitoreadas durante 7 días: control (C), electro estimuladas (EE), inmovilizadas en contracción (ISP), inmovilizadas en alongamiento (ILP), inmovilizadas en contracción y electro estimuladas (ISP + EE) e inmovilizadas en alongamiento y electro estimuladas (ILP + EE). Para la inmovilización, el miembro posterior derecho fue envuelto por una malla tubular y vendas de algodón en conjunto con vendas de escayola. La EENM fue utilizada con una frecuencia de 50 Hz, 10 minutos por día, totalizando 20 contracciones en cada sesión. Después de 7 días los animales fueron sometidos a eutanasia y los músculos gastrocnemios fueron retirados para la realización del ensayo mecánico de tracción en una máquina universal de ensayos (EMIC®). A partir de los gráficos carga versus alongamiento se calculó las siguientes propiedades mecánicas: alongamiento en el límite de proporcionalidad (ALP), carga en el límite de proporcionalidad (CLP) y rigidez. Las inmovilizaciones SP y LP dieron reducciones significativas (p Abstract in english The neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) is an important tool used in sports medicine to accelerate the recovery process. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NMES during immobilization of the gastrocnemius muscle, in lengthened (LP) and shortened positions (SP). Sixty youn [...] g female Wistar rats were distributed into six groups and followed for 7 days: control (C); electric stimulation (ES); immobilized in shortening (ISP); immobilized in lengthening (ILP); immobilized in shortening and electric stimulation (ISP + ES) and immobilized in lengthening and electric stimulation (ILP + ES). For the immobilization, a tubular mesh and cotton rolls together with the plaster were wrapped around the rat's right posterior paw. NMES in a frequency of 50 Hz was used 10 minutes a day, totaling 20 contractions in each session. After 7 days the animals were sacrificed and their gastrocnemius muscles of the right paw were submitted to a mechanical test of traction in a universal test machine (EMIC®). From the load versus elongation curves the following mechanical properties were obtained: elongation in the yield limit (EPL), load in the yield limit (LPL) and stiffness. The SP a

  1. Static balance and function in children with cerebral palsy submitted to neuromuscular block and neuromuscular electrical stimulation: Study protocol for prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazon Soráia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of botulinum toxin A (BT-A for the treatment of lower limb spasticity is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Following the administration of BT-A, physical therapy plays a fundamental role in potentiating the functionality of the child. The balance deficit found in children with CP is mainly caused by muscle imbalance (spastic agonist and weak antagonist. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is a promising therapeutic modality for muscle strengthening in this population. The aim of the present study is to describe a protocol for a study aimed at analyzing the effects of NMES on dorsiflexors combined with physical therapy on static and functional balance in children with CP submitted to BT- A. Methods/Design Protocol for a prospective, randomized, controlled trial with a blinded evaluator. Eligible participants will be children with cerebral palsy (Levels I, II and III of the Gross Motor Function Classification System between five and 12 years of age, with independent gait with or without a gait-assistance device. All participants will receive BT-A in the lower limbs (triceps surae. The children will then be randomly allocated for either treatment with motor physical therapy combined with NMES on the tibialis anterior or motor physical therapy alone. The participants will be evaluated on three occasions: 1 one week prior to the administration of BT-A; 2 one week after the administration of BT-A; and 3 four months after the administration of BT-A (end of intervention. Spasticity will be assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale. Static balance will be assessed using the Medicapteurs Fusyo pressure platform and functional balance will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale. Discussion The aim of this protocol study is to describe the methodology of a randomized, controlled, clinical trial comparing the effect of motor physical therapy combined with NMES on the tibialis anterior muscle or motor physical therapy alone on static and functional balance in children with CP submitted to BT-A in the lower limbs. This study describes the background, hypotheses, methodology of the procedures and measurement of the results. Trial registration RBR5qzs8h

  2. ACL injury risk in elite female youth soccer: Changes in neuromuscular control of the knee following soccer-specific fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ste Croix, M B A; Priestley, A M; Lloyd, R S; Oliver, J L

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. Thirty-six youth soccer players performed eccentric actions of the hamstrings in a prone position at 60, 120, and 180°/s before and after a soccer-specific fatigue trial. Surface electromyography was used to determine EMD from the semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. A time?×?age?×?muscle?×?velocity repeated measures analysis of variance was used to explore the influence of fatigue on EMD. A significant main effect for time (P?=?0.001) indicated that EMD was significantly longer post- compared with pre-fatigue (58.4% increase). A significant time?×?group interaction effect (P?=?0.046) indicated EMD was significantly longer in the U13 age group compared with the U15 (P?=?0.011) and U17 (P?=?0.021) groups and greater post-fatigue. Soccer-specific fatigue compromised neuromuscular feedback mechanisms and the age-related effects may represent a more compliant muscle-tendon system in younger compared with older girls, increasing risk of injury. PMID:25556396

  3. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 ?M) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (?-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to an occlusion effect. Inhibition of ryanodine receptors by ryanodine or dantrolene also reduced the action of NaHS on EPC amplitudes. Our results indicate that in mammalian neuromuscular synapses endogenously produced H2S increases spontaneously and evoked quantal transmitter release from motor nerve endings without changing the response of nerve endings. The presynaptic effect of H2S appears mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling and involves presynaptic ryanodine receptors. PMID:26192092

  4. Efeitos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular durante a imobilização nas propriedades mecânicas do músculo esquelético Efectos de la estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular durante la inmovilización en las propiedades mecánicas del músculo esquelético Effects of neuromuscular electric stimulation during immobilization in the mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Chieregato Matheus; Liana Barbaresco Gomide; Juliana Goulart Prata de Oliveira; José Batista Volpon; Antônio Carlos Shimano

    2007-01-01

    A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM) é um importante recurso utilizado em medicina esportiva para acelerar processos de recuperação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos da EENM durante a imobilização do músculo gastrocnêmio, em posições de alongamento (LP) e encurtamento (SP). Para tanto, 60 ratas fêmeas jovens Wistar foram distribuídas em seis grupos e acompanhadas durante sete dias: controle (C), eletroestimuladas (EE), imobilizadas em encurtamento (ISP), imobilizadas em ...

  5. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training, against the use of either braces or neuromuscular training as separate secondary preventive measures. This study expects to identify the most effective and cost-efficient secondary preventive measure for ankle sprains. The study results could lead to changes in the clinical guidelines on the prevention of ankle sprains, and they will become available in 2012. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2157

  6. Influência da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigação sobre o mecanismo de ação da procainamida na junção neuromuscular Influencia de la procainamida sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigación sobre el mecanismo de acción de la procainamida en la junción neuromuscular Influence of procainamide on the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium and investigation on the mechanism of action of procainamide on the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Duque Martins

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A potencialização da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pela d-tubocurarina já está comprovada, porém o mecanismo é controverso. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da procainamida no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigar os mecanismos desta interação. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 15 ratos (250 a 300 g em preparação descrita por Bülbring. Formaram-se os seguintes grupos (n = 5 cada: procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo I; rocurônio - 4 µg.mL-1 (Grupo II e rocurônio - 4 µg.mL-1 e procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo III. Avaliaram-se: 1 a amplitude das contrações musculares sob estimulação indireta em cada grupo, antes e após a adição dos fármacos; 2 os potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM; 3 a eficácia da 4-aminopiridina na reversão do bloqueio neuromuscular. O mecanismo da interação foi estudado em Biventer cervicis (n = 5 e diafragma de rato desnervado (n = 5, observando-se a influência da procainamida na resposta à acetilcolina antes e após a adição da procainamida. RESULTADOS: A procainamida isoladamente não alterou as respostas neuromusculares. O bloqueio produzido com o Grupo III foi de 68,6% ± 7,1%, com diferença significativa (p = 0,0067 em relação ao Grupo II (10,4% ± 4,5%, revertido pela 4-aminopiridina. A procainamida ocasionou aumento na freqüência dos PPTM, seguido de bloqueio revertido pela 4-aminopiridina. Em Biventer cervicis a procainamida aumentou a resposta à ação de contração da acetilcolina, resultado não observado com o diafragma desnervado. CONCLUSÕES: A procainamida potencializou o bloqueio produzido pelo rocurônio. As alterações observadas com PPTM e Biventer cervicis identificaram ação pré-sináptica. O antagonismo da 4-aminopiridina sobre o bloqueio dos PPTM sugeriu dessensibilização dos receptores pela procainamida.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La potenciación de la procainamida sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por la d-tubocurarina ya está comprobada, pero sin embargo el mecanismo es controvertido. El objetivo del estudio fue el de evaluar la influencia de la procainamida en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigar los mecanismos de esa interacción. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron 15 ratones (250 a 300 g en preparación descrita por Bülbring. Se formaron los siguientes grupos (n = 5 cada: procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo I; rocuronio - 4 µg.mL-1 (Grupo II y rocuronio - 4µg.mL-1 y procainamida - 20µg.mL-1 (Grupo III. Se evaluó: 1 la amplitud de las contracciones musculares bajo la estimulación indirecta en cada grupo, antes y después de la adición de los fármacos; 2 los potenciales de placa terminal en miniatura (PPTM; 3 la eficacia de la 4-aminopiridina en la reversión del bloqueo neuromuscular. El mecanismo de la interacción se estudió en Biventer cervicis (n = 5 y diafragma de ratón desnervado (n = 5, observándose la influencia de la procainamida en la respuesta a la acetilcolina antes y después de la adición de la procainamida. RESULTADOS: De forma aislada, la procainamida no alteró las respuestas neuromusculares. El bloqueo producido con el Grupo III fue de 68,6% ± 7,1%, con una diferencia significativa (p = 0,0067 con relación al Grupo II (10,4% ± 4,5%, revertido por la 4-aminopiridina. La procainamida ocasionó un aumento en la frecuencia de los PPTM, seguido de bloqueo revertido por la 4-aminopiridina. En Biventer cervicis, la procainamida aumentó la respuesta a la acción de contracción de la acetilcolina, resultado no observado con el diafragma desnervado. CONCLUSIONES: La procainamida potenció el bloqueo producido por el rocuronio. Las alteraciones observadas con PPTM y Biventer cervicis identificaron una acción presináptica. El antagonismo de la 4-aminopiridina sobre el bloqueo de los PPTMs sugirió la desensibilización de los receptores por la procainamida.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has already been proved that

  7. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme P. T., Areas; Audrey, Borghi-Silva; Arianne N., Lobato; Alessandra A., Silva; Renato C., Freire Jr; Fernando Z. S., Areas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB) combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle s [...] trength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10) or the control group (CG, n=10). Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and inspiratory pressure (MIP) were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p

  8. Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinger, Barney A; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2013-08-01

    Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male's courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors. PMID:23624091

  9. The drop-jump video screening test: retention of improvement in neuromuscular control in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Noyes, Frank R

    2010-11-01

    A valgus lower limb alignment is commonly documented during noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. We previously developed a videographic drop-jump test to measure overall lower limb alignment in the coronal plane as a screening tool to detect such an abnormal (valgus) position on landing. A neuromuscular retraining program developed for female athletes was shown to be effective in improving lower limb alignment on this test immediately after completion of training. What remained unknown was whether these improvements would be retained for longer periods of time. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine if these improvements in overall lower limb alignment would be retained up to 1 year after the training. Sixteen competitive, experienced female high-school volleyball players underwent the video drop-jump test and then completed the neuromuscular retraining program. The program consisted of a dynamic warm-up, jump training, speed and agility drills, strength training, and static stretching and was performed 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The athletes repeated the drop-jump test immediately upon completion of training and then 3- and 12-months later. Significant improvements were found in the mean normalized knee separation distance between the pre and posttrained values for all test sessions (p < 0.01). Immediately after training, 11 athletes (69%) displayed significant improvements in the mean normalized knee separation distance that were retained 12 months later. Five athletes failed to improve. The video drop-jump test, although not a risk indicator for a knee ligament injury, provides a cost-effective general assessment of lower limb position and depicts athletes who have poor control on landing and acceleration into a vertical jump. PMID:20940643

  10. Nonholonomic mechanics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book explores some of the connections between control theory and geometric mechanics; that is, control theory is linked with a geometric view of classical mechanics in both its Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations and in particular with the theory of mechanical systems subject to motion constraints. The synthesis of the topic is appropriate as there is a particularly rich connection between mechanics and nonlinear control theory. The book provides a unified treatment of nonlinear control theory and constrained mechanical systems and illustrates the elegant mathematics behind many simple, interesting, and useful mechanical examples. It is intended for graduate students who wish to learn this subject and researchers in the area who want to enhance their techniques. The book contains sections focusing on physical examples and elementary terms, as well as theoretical sections that use sophisticated analysis and geometry. The first four chapters offer preliminaries and background information, while the...

  11. Effects of home-based resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce-Brand Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM weakness is a feature of knee osteoarthritis (OA and exercise programs that strengthen this muscle group can improve function, disability and pain. Traditional supervised resistance exercise is however resource intensive and dependent on good adherence which can be challenging to achieve in patients with significant knee OA. Because of the limitations of traditional exercise programs, interest has been shown in the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES to strengthen the QFM. We conducted a single-blind, prospective randomized controlled study to compare the effects of home-based resistance training (RT and NMES on patients with moderate to severe knee OA. Methods 41 patients aged 55 to 75 years were randomised to 6 week programs of RT, NMES or a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was functional capacity measured using a walk test, stair climb test and chair rise test. Additional outcomes were self-reported disability, quadriceps strength and cross-sectional area. Outcomes were assessed pre- and post-intervention and at 6 weeks post-intervention (weeks 1, 8 and 14 respectively. Results There were similar, significant improvements in functional capacity for the RT and NMES groups at week 8 compared to week 1 (p?0.001 and compared to the control group (p? Conclusions Home-based NMES is an acceptable alternative to exercise therapy in the management of knee OA, producing similar improvements in functional capacity. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN85231954

  12. Center of mass acceleration feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation for standing in presence of internal postural perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Nataraj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the feasibility and performance of center of mass (COM acceleration feedback control of a neuroprosthesis utilizing functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS to restore standing balance to a single subject paralyzed by a motor and sensory complete, thoracic-level spinal cord injury. An artificial neural network (ANN was created to map gain-modulated changes in total body COM acceleration estimated from body-mounted sensors to optimal changes in stimulation required to maintain standing. Feedback gains were systematically tuned to minimize the upper-limb (UL loads applied by the subject to an instrumented support device during internally generated postural perturbations produced by volitional reaching and object manipulation. Total body COM acceleration was accurately estimated (>90% variance explained from 2 three-dimensional (3-D accelerometers mounted on the pelvis and torso. Compared with constant muscle stimulation employed clinically, COM acceleration feedback control of stimulation improved standing performance by reducing the UL loading required to resist internal postural disturbances by 27%. This case study suggests that COM acceleration feedback could potentially be advantageous in a standing neuroprosthesis since it can be implemented with only a few feedback parameters and requires minimal instrumentation for comprehensive 3-D control of dynamic standing function.

  13. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: ‘SCOPEX’ a randomised control trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Michelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. Methods/design 62 people aged 30–50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. Discussion The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during various tasks in people with a partial medial meniscectomy. If shown to reduce the knee adduction moment, neuromuscular exercise has the potential to prevent the onset of osteoarthritis or slow its progression in those with early disease. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12612000542897

  14. How do treadmill speed and terrain visibility influence neuromuscular control of guinea fowl locomotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joanne C; Rankin, Jeffery W; Daley, Monica A

    2015-10-01

    Locomotor control mechanisms must flexibly adapt to both anticipated and unexpected terrain changes to maintain movement and avoid a fall. Recent studies revealed that ground birds alter movement in advance of overground obstacles, but not treadmill obstacles, suggesting context-dependent shifts in the use of anticipatory control. We hypothesized that differences between overground and treadmill obstacle negotiation relate to differences in visual sensory information, which influence the ability to execute anticipatory manoeuvres. We explored two possible explanations: (1) previous treadmill obstacles may have been visually imperceptible, as they were low contrast to the tread, and (2) treadmill obstacles are visible for a shorter time compared with runway obstacles, limiting time available for visuomotor adjustments. To investigate these factors, we measured electromyographic activity in eight hindlimb muscles of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, N=6) during treadmill locomotion at two speeds (0.7 and 1.3?m?s(-1)) and three terrain conditions at each speed: (i) level, (ii) repeated 5?cm low-contrast obstacles (90% contrast, black/white). We hypothesized that anticipatory changes in muscle activity would be higher for (1) high-contrast obstacles and (2) the slower treadmill speed, when obstacle viewing time is longer. We found that treadmill speed significantly influenced obstacle negotiation strategy, but obstacle contrast did not. At the slower speed, we observed earlier and larger anticipatory increases in muscle activity and shifts in kinematic timing. We discuss possible visuomotor explanations for the observed context-dependent use of anticipatory strategies. PMID:26254324

  15. Randomised controlled trial of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for nocturnal hypoventilation in neuromuscular and chest wall disease patients with daytime normocapnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, S.; M. Chatwin; S. Heather; Simonds, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Long term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular and chest wall disease with hypercapnic ventilatory failure, but preventive use has not produced benefit in normocapnic patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Individuals with nocturnal hypercapnia but daytime normocapnia were randomised to a control group or nocturnal NIV to examine whether nocturnal hypoventilation is a valid indication for NIV.

  16. Comparing joint kinematics and center of mass acceleration as feedback for control of standing balance by functional neuromuscular stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj Raviraj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of feedback control systems for maintaining standing balance based on joint kinematics or total body center of mass (COM acceleration, and assess their clinical practicality for standing neuroprostheses after spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods In simulation, controller performance was measured according to the upper extremity effort required to stabilize a three-dimensional model of bipedal standing against a variety of postural disturbances. Three cases were investigated: proportional-derivative control based on joint kinematics alone, COM acceleration feedback alone, and combined joint kinematics and COM acceleration feedback. Additionally, pilot data was collected during external perturbations of an individual with SCI standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS, and the resulting joint kinematics and COM acceleration data was analyzed. Results Compared to the baseline case of maximal constant muscle excitations, the three control systems reduced the mean upper extremity loading by 51%, 43% and 56%, respectively against external force-pulse perturbations. Controller robustness was defined as the degradation in performance with increasing levels of input errors expected with clinical deployment of sensor-based feedback. At error levels typical for body-mounted inertial sensors, performance degradation due to sensor noise and placement were negligible. However, at typical tracking error levels, performance could degrade as much as 86% for joint kinematics feedback and 35% for COM acceleration feedback. Pilot data indicated that COM acceleration could be estimated with a few well-placed sensors and efficiently captures information related to movement synergies observed during perturbed bipedal standing following SCI. Conclusions Overall, COM acceleration feedback may be a more feasible solution for control of standing with FNS given its superior robustness and small number of inputs required.

  17. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome : A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; SØgaard, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and without SIS (n=16, No-SIS=15). Surface electromyography was measured from Serratus anterior (SA) and Trapezius during bilateral arm elevation (no-load, 1kg, 3kg). Mean relative muscle activity was calculated for SA and the upper (UT) and lower part of trapezius (LWT), in addition to activation ratio and time to activity onset. In spite of a tendency to higher activity among SIS 0.10-0.30 between-group differences were not significant neither in ratio of muscle activation 0.80-0.98 nor time to activity onset 0.53-0.98. The hypothesized between-group differences in neuromuscular activity of Trapezius and Serratus was not confirmed. The tendency to a higher relative muscle activity in SIS could be due to a pain-related increase in co-activation or a decrease in maximal activation. The negative findings may display the variation in the specific muscle activation patterns depending on the criteria used to define the population of impingement patients, as well as the methodological procedure being used, and the shoulder movement investigated.

  18. ALS as a distal axonopathy: molecular mechanisms affecting neuromuscular junction stability in the presymptomatic stages of the disease

    OpenAIRE

    ElizabethBrigitteMoloney; JoostVerhaagen; Fredde Winter

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is being redefined as a distal axonopathy, in that many molecular changes influencing motor neuron degeneration occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) at very early stages of the disease prior to symptom onset. A huge variety of genetic and environmental causes have been associated with ALS, and interestingly, although the cause of the disease can differ, both sporadic and familial forms of ALS show a remarkable similarity in terms of disease progression...

  19. Effects of repetitive work on proprioception and of stretching on sensory mechanisms : implications for work-related neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the thesis were (i) to investigate the impact of repetitive low-intensity work exposure on proprioception and (ii) to examine effects of muscle stretching (especially sensory effects and effects on muscle nociception) and to relate its application to the prevention, alleviation and/or treatment of work-related neuromuscular disorders. The effects of low-intensity repetitive work on the shoulder proprioception were tested in healthy subjects. The effect of working time on the reten...

  20. Stance control knee mechanism for lower-limb support in hybrid neuroprosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis S. To, PhD; Rudi Kobetic, MS; Thomas C. Bulea, MS; Musa L. Audu, PhD; John R. Schnellenberger, MS; Gilles Pinault, MD; Ronald J. Triolo, PhD

    2011-01-01

    A hydraulic stance control knee mechanism (SCKM) was developed to fully support the knee against flexion during stance and allow uninhibited motion during swing for individuals with paraplegia using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for gait assistance. The SCKM was optimized for maximum locking torque for body-weight support and minimum resistance when allowing for free knee motion. Ipsilateral and contralateral position and force feedback were used to control the SCKM. Through benc...

  1. Control of a Powered Ankle–Foot Prosthesis Based on a Neuromuscular Model

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Hartmut; Eilenberg, Michael Frederick; Herr, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    Control schemes for powered ankle-foot prostheses rely upon fixed torque-ankle state relationships obtained from measurements of intact humans walking at target speeds and across known terrains. Although effective at their intended gait speed and terrain, these controllers do not allow for adaptation to environmental disturbances such as speed transients and terrain variation. Here we present an adaptive muscle-reflex controller, based on simulation studies, that utilizes an ankle plantar fle...

  2. Contribución del soporte nutricional al tratamiento de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico / Contribution of nutritional support to treatment neuromuscular impairments of critically ill patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. C., Montejo González.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las alteraciones neuromusculares que tienen lugar en el paciente crítico han sido atribuidas a factores como la situación séptica, la liberación de mediadores inflamatorioso el empleo de fármacos que afectan desfavorablemente a la función neuro-muscular. El papel de factores metabólicos y nutriciona [...] les en el desarrollo de esta patología ha recibido poca atención. En la actualidad, el empleo de protocolos de control intensivo de la glucemia podría tener gran interés en la prevención de las alteraciones neuro-musculares de los pacientes críticos. Los mecanismos exactos de la implicación de la hiperglucemia en esta patología son, todavía, desconocidos, aunque la evidencia de los datos procedentes de la investigación es importante. La miopatía caquectizante (atrofia muscular) tiene lugar de manera habitual como consecuencia de los cambios obligados por la respuesta metabólica al estrés. El efecto del aporte de nutrientes sobre la ganancia de masa muscular es muy limitado, por lo que deben estudiarse otras acciones dirigidas a recuperar, de manera más rápida, la masa muscular perdida. Deben evitarse pautas agresivas de renutrición con objeto de prevenir el síndrome de realimentación y el consiguiente mayor deterioro de la función muscular. El aporte de substratos específicos, como la glutamina, podría tener un efecto beneficioso en la recuperación de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico. No obstante, no existen aún datos para justificar su empleo si el único objetivo es la recuperación de la función neuro-muscular. Abstract in english Neuromuscular impairments occurring in the critically ill patient have been attributed to factors such as sepsis, release of inflammatory mediators, or the use of drugs unfavorably affecting neuromuscular function. The role of metabolic and nutritional factors in the development of this condition ha [...] s received little attention. Currently, the use of protocols of intensive glycemia monitoring might be of great interest in preventing neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients. The precise mechanisms of hyperglycemia involvement in this condition are still unknown, although evidence from research data is important. Cachectic myopathy (muscle atrophy) usually is the result of the obliged changes of metabolic response to stress. The effect of nutrients intake on muscle mass gaining is very limited, so that other actions aimed at more rapidly recovering lost muscle mass should be studied. Aggressive renutrition schedules should be avoided in order to prevent re-nutrition syndrome and further deterioration of muscle function. Intake of specific substrates, such as glutamine,might have a beneficial effect on recovering neuromuscular impairments in the critically ill patient. However, there are still no data to justify its use if the only purpose is to recover neuromuscular function.

  3. What Is a Neuromuscular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Progress Search form Search What Is a Neuromuscular Disease? Neuromuscular diseases are rare acquired or inherited (genetic) conditions that ... United States are affected by some form of neuromuscular disease, and about 40 percent of them are under ...

  4. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis, pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and immediately following the program. Secondary outcomes include the external knee adduction moment angular impulse, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, knee and hip muscle strength, balance, functional ability, and quality-of-life. Discussion The findings will help determine whether neuromuscular exercise is superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening regarding effects on knee load, pain and physical function in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12610000660088

  5. Mechanisms in environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of implementation provides methods for decentralization of decisions in societies. By using mechanisms (game forms) it is possible (in theory) to implement attractive states in different economic environments. As an example the market mechanisms can implement Pareto-efficient and individual rational allocations in an Arrow-Debreu economic environment without market failures. And even when there exists externalities the market mechanism sometime can be used if it is possible to make a market for the goods not allocated on a market already - examples are marketable emission permits, and deposit refund systems. But environmental problems can often be explained by the existence of other market failures (e.g. asymmetric information), and then the market mechanism do not work properly. And instead of using regulation or traditional economic instruments (subsidies, charges, fees, liability insurance, marketable emission permits, or deposit refund systems) to correct the problems caused by market failures, some other methods can be used to deal with these problems. This paper contains a survey of mechanisms that can be used in environmental control when the problems are caused by the existence of public goods, externalities, asymmetric information, and indivisible goods in the economy. By examples it will be demonstrated how the Clarke-Groves mechanism, the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism, and other mechanisms can be used to solve specific environmental problems. This is only theory and examples, but a recent field study have used the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism to solve the problem of lake liming in Sweden. So this subject may be of some interests for environmental policy in the future. (au) 23 refs

  6. Características e impacto de la sedación, la analgesia y el bloqueo neuromuscular en los pacientes críticos que recibieron ventilación mecánica prolongada / Characteristics and impact of sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockage in critical patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Tobar; G., Bugedo; M., Andresen; M., Aguirre; M.T., Lira; J., Godoy; H., González; A., Hernández; V., Tomicic; J., Castro; J., Jara; H., Ugarte.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir el uso de sedantes, analgésicos y bloqueantes neuromusculares (BNM) en los pacientes con ventilación mecánica (VM) prolongada y evaluar los factores asociados a su empleo y asociación con la mortalidad a los 28 días. Diseño. Estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo y observacional de c [...] ohorte. Ámbito. Trece unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) en Chile. Pacientes. Pacientes con VM superior a 48h. Excluimos los pacientes con enfermedad neurológica, cirrosis hepática, insuficiencia renal crónica, sospecha de adicción a drogas y limitación precoz del esfuerzo terapéutico. Intervención. Ninguna Variables de interés principales. Proporción de uso y dosis de sedantes, analgésicos y BNM. Nivel de sedación observado (SAS [sedation-agitation scale "escala de sedación-agitación"]). Variables asociadas al nivel de la SAS, y el uso de sedantes, analgésicos y BNM. Regresión logística multivariada de variables asociadas a la mortalidad a los 28 días. Resultados. Participaron 155 pacientes (60±18 años, el 57% eran varones, SOFA 7 [6-10], APACHE II 18 [15-22], el 63% con sepsis y el 47% con lesión pulmonar aguda/síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. Los fármacos empleados fueron midazolam (85%; 4 mg/h [1,9-6,8]) y fentanilo (81%; 76 µg/h [39-140]). Un 30% de los pacientes usó BNM al menos un día. El 55% de la SAS fue 1-2. Existe una asociación entre el uso de BNM y la mortalidad a los 28 días, pero ésta no fue consistente en todos los modelos de uso de BNM evaluados. Conclusiones. En el grupo estudiado fue frecuente el uso de sedantes y la presencia de sedación profunda, el midazolam y el fentanilo fueron los fármacos más usados. El uso de BNM podría asociarse de forma independiente a una mayor mortalidad. Abstract in english Aim. To describe use of sedatives, analgesics, and neuromuscular blockers (NMB) in patients undergoing long-term mechanical ventilation and to assess factors associated with their use and their association with mortality at 28 days. Design. Prospective observational multicenter cohort study. Setting [...] . Thirteen intensive care units (ICU) in Chile. Patients. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48h. We excluded patients with neurological disorders, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic renal failure, suspected drug addiction, and early no resuscitation orders. Intervention. None. Main measurements. Proportion of use and dosage of sedatives, analgesics, and NMB. Level of sedation observed (SAS). Variables associated with the Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS), use of sedatives, analgesics, and NMB. Multivariate logistic regression of variables associated to mortality at 28 days. Results. A total of 155 patients participated (60±18 years, 57% male, SOFA 7 [6-10], APACHE II 18 [15-22], 63% with sepsis, and 47% with acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome. The drugs most frequently used were midazolam (85%, 4 [1.9-6.8]mg/hr) and fentanyl (81%, 76 [39-140]µg/hr). NMB were administered at least 1 day in 30% of patients. SAS score was 1 or 2 in 55% of patients. There was an association between NMB use and mortality at 28 days, but it was not consistent in all the models of NMB evaluated. Conclusions. Sedatives were frequently employed and deep sedation was common. Midazolam and fentanyl were the most frequently administered drugs. The use of NMB might be independently associated to greater mortality.

  7. Características e impacto de la sedación, la analgesia y el bloqueo neuromuscular en los pacientes críticos que recibieron ventilación mecánica prolongada Characteristics and impact of sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockage in critical patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tobar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir el uso de sedantes, analgésicos y bloqueantes neuromusculares (BNM en los pacientes con ventilación mecánica (VM prolongada y evaluar los factores asociados a su empleo y asociación con la mortalidad a los 28 días. Diseño. Estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo y observacional de cohorte. Ámbito. Trece unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI en Chile. Pacientes. Pacientes con VM superior a 48h. Excluimos los pacientes con enfermedad neurológica, cirrosis hepática, insuficiencia renal crónica, sospecha de adicción a drogas y limitación precoz del esfuerzo terapéutico. Intervención. Ninguna Variables de interés principales. Proporción de uso y dosis de sedantes, analgésicos y BNM. Nivel de sedación observado (SAS [sedation-agitation scale "escala de sedación-agitación"]. Variables asociadas al nivel de la SAS, y el uso de sedantes, analgésicos y BNM. Regresión logística multivariada de variables asociadas a la mortalidad a los 28 días. Resultados. Participaron 155 pacientes (60±18 años, el 57% eran varones, SOFA 7 [6-10], APACHE II 18 [15-22], el 63% con sepsis y el 47% con lesión pulmonar aguda/síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. Los fármacos empleados fueron midazolam (85%; 4 mg/h [1,9-6,8] y fentanilo (81%; 76 µg/h [39-140]. Un 30% de los pacientes usó BNM al menos un día. El 55% de la SAS fue 1-2. Existe una asociación entre el uso de BNM y la mortalidad a los 28 días, pero ésta no fue consistente en todos los modelos de uso de BNM evaluados. Conclusiones. En el grupo estudiado fue frecuente el uso de sedantes y la presencia de sedación profunda, el midazolam y el fentanilo fueron los fármacos más usados. El uso de BNM podría asociarse de forma independiente a una mayor mortalidad.Aim. To describe use of sedatives, analgesics, and neuromuscular blockers (NMB in patients undergoing long-term mechanical ventilation and to assess factors associated with their use and their association with mortality at 28 days. Design. Prospective observational multicenter cohort study. Setting. Thirteen intensive care units (ICU in Chile. Patients. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48h. We excluded patients with neurological disorders, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic renal failure, suspected drug addiction, and early no resuscitation orders. Intervention. None. Main measurements. Proportion of use and dosage of sedatives, analgesics, and NMB. Level of sedation observed (SAS. Variables associated with the Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS, use of sedatives, analgesics, and NMB. Multivariate logistic regression of variables associated to mortality at 28 days. Results. A total of 155 patients participated (60±18 years, 57% male, SOFA 7 [6-10], APACHE II 18 [15-22], 63% with sepsis, and 47% with acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome. The drugs most frequently used were midazolam (85%, 4 [1.9-6.8]mg/hr and fentanyl (81%, 76 [39-140]µg/hr. NMB were administered at least 1 day in 30% of patients. SAS score was 1 or 2 in 55% of patients. There was an association between NMB use and mortality at 28 days, but it was not consistent in all the models of NMB evaluated. Conclusions. Sedatives were frequently employed and deep sedation was common. Midazolam and fentanyl were the most frequently administered drugs. The use of NMB might be independently associated to greater mortality.

  8. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Andersen, Ole Trier; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1997-01-01

    In order to use the volitional electromyography (EMG) as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle, it is necessary to eliminate the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses caused by the stimulation. The stimulation artifacts, caused by the electric field in skin and tissue generated by the stimulation current, are relatively easy to eliminate by shutting down the EMG-amplifier at the onset of the stimulation pulses. The muscle response is a nonstationary signal, therefore, ...

  9. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To form an outer peripheral surface of a control rod driving rod with a spiral cut having a notched hole with which a pawl mechanism engages to thereby reduce pull-out speed of the control rod, thus avoiding rapid change in output. Structure: When an index tube is moved up in order to insert control rods into the reactor, a collet finger is outwardly biased by a diagonally chamfered inclined surface under the spiral notch to disengage the finger from the notched hole. Then, the index tube moves up along the collet finger, and if the collet finger is axially moved up, it is disengaged from the notched hole when the finger is moved down, whereby the index tube will move down at a speed adjusted by adjusting the thread pitch of the spiral cut and spacing of the notched hole. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score?5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was r...

  11. Neuromuscular interactions around the knee in children, adults and elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Mademli, Lida; Patikas, Dimitrios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Although injury and neuromuscular activation patterns may be common for all individuals, there are certain factors which differentiate neuromuscular activity responses between children, adults and elderly. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence on age differences in neural activation and muscle balances around the knee when performing single joint movements. Particularly, current evidence indicates that there are some interesting similarities in the neuromuscular mechanisms by...

  12. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona; Rosenberg, Jacob; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intense neuromuscular block may improve surgical conditions in ileus laparotomies; however, it is difficult to evaluate. The aim of this study was to investigate if neuromuscular block improved surgical conditions in pigs with artificial ileus laparotomy. METHODS: Six pigs were endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl, and randomized into two groups in a cross-over assessor-blinded design. Neuromuscular block was established with rocuron...

  13. Characteristics of neuromuscular control of the scapula after stroke: a first exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbet De Baets

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize scapular muscle timing in stroke patients with and without shoulder pain. Muscle activity of upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, infraspinatus and anterior deltoid was measured (Delsys Trigno surface EMG system, US in 14 healthy controls (dominant side and 30 stroke patients (hemiplegic side of whom 10 had impingement-like shoulder pain. Participants performed 45° and full range anteflexion, in two load conditions. The impact of group, anteflexion height, load condition and muscle was assessed for onset and offset of the different muscles relative to the onset and offset of anterior deltoid, using a 3 (group* 2 (height* 2 (load* 4 (muscle mixed model design. Recruitment patterns were additionally described. Across all load conditions and groups, serratus anterior had a significantly earlier onset and, together with lower trapezius, a significantly later offset in 45° compared to full range anteflexion tasks (p<.001. In stroke patients without pain, lower trapezius had furthermore a significantly earlier onset in comparison to stroke patients with shoulder pain (all tasks, p=.04. Serratus anterior also showed a significantly earlier offset in stroke patients with shoulder pain in comparison to controls (p=.01 and stroke patients without pain (p<.001. Analysis of muscle recruitment patterns indicated that for full range tasks, stroke patients without pain used early and prolonged activity of infraspinatus. In stroke patients with shoulder pain, recruitment patterns were characterized by delayed activation and early inactivity of serratus anterior. These timing results can serve as a reference frame for scapular muscle timing post-stroke, and when designing upper limb treatment protocols and clinical guidelines for shoulder pain after stroke.

  14. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ? 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity. PMID:25563677

  15. Development of the neuromuscular junction: genetic analysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanes, J R; Apel, E D; Burgess, R W; Emerson, R B; Feng, G; Gautam, M; Glass, D; Grady, R M; Krejci, E; Lichtman, J W; Lu, J T; Massoulié, J; Miner, J H; Moscoso, L M; Nguyen, Q; Nichol, M; Noakes, P G; Patton, B L; Son, Y J; Yancopoulos, G D; Zhou, H

    1998-01-01

    Formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction is a multi-step process that requires communication between the nerve and muscle. Studies in many laboratories have led to identification of factors that seem likely to mediate these interactions. 'Knock-out' mice have now been generated with mutations in several genes that encode candidate transsynaptic messengers and components of their effector mechanisms. Using these mice, it is possible to test hypotheses about the control of synaptogenesis. Here, we review our studies on neuromuscular development in mutant mice lacking agrin alpha CGRP, rapsyn, MuSK, dystrophin, dystrobrevin, utrophin, laminin alpha 5, laminin beta 2, collagen alpha 3 (IV), the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit, the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, fibroblast growth factor-5, the neural cell adhesion molecule, and tenascin-C. PMID:9789802

  16. Immediate Efficacy of Neuromuscular Exercise in Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee : A Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, SØren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the effects of exercise in severe and endstage osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a neuromuscular exercise program in patients with clinically severe hip or knee OA. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial. Patients received an educational package (care-as-usual) only, or care-as-usual plus an 8-week neuromuscular exercise intervention (NEMEX-TJR). NEMEX-TJR was supervised by a physiotherapist, twice weekly for 1 h. The primary outcome was Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale from the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. The secondary outcomes were the HOOS/KOOS subscales Pain, Symptoms, Sport and Recreation, and Joint-related Quality of Life. Exploratory outcomes were functional performance measures and lower limb muscle power. RESULTS: Included were 165 patients, 56% female, average age 67 years (SD ± 8), and a body mass index of 30 (SD ± 5), who were scheduled for primary hip or knee replacement. The postintervention difference between mean changes in ADL was 7.2 points (95% CI 3.5 to 10.9, p = 0.0002) in favor of NEMEX-TJR compared with control. Second, there were statistically significant differences between groups in favor of NEMEX-TJR on all self-reported outcomes and most functional performance tests (walk, chair stands, and 1-leg knee bends). Stratified analyses according to joint revealed moderate effect size for ADL for hip patients (0.63, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00). Corresponding effect size for knee patients was small (0.23 95% CI -0.14 to 0.60). CONCLUSION: Feasibility of neuromuscular exercise was confirmed in patients about to have total joint replacement. Self-reported activities of daily living and objective performance were improved and pain reduced immediately following 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise. While the effects were moderate in hip OA, they were only small in knee OA. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01003756.

  17. Immediate efficacy of neuromuscular exercise in patients with severe osteoarthritis of the hip or knee : a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, SØren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the effects of exercise in severe and endstage osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a neuromuscular exercise program in patients with clinically severe hip or knee OA. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial. Patients received an educational package (care-as-usual) only, or care-as-usual plus an 8-week neuromuscular exercise intervention (NEMEX-TJR). NEMEX-TJR was supervised by a physiotherapist, twice weekly for 1 h. The primary outcome was Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale from the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. The secondary outcomes were the HOOS/KOOS subscales Pain, Symptoms, Sport and Recreation, and Joint-related Quality of Life. Exploratory outcomes were functional performance measures and lower limb muscle power. RESULTS: Included were 165 patients, 56% female, average age 67 years (SD ± 8), and a body mass index of 30 (SD ± 5), who were scheduled for primary hip or knee replacement. The postintervention difference between mean changes in ADL was 7.2 points (95% CI 3.5 to 10.9, p = 0.0002) in favor of NEMEX-TJR compared with control. Second, there were statistically significant differences between groups in favor of NEMEX-TJR on all self-reported outcomes and most functional performance tests (walk, chair stands, and 1-leg knee bends). Stratified analyses according to joint revealed moderate effect size for ADL for hip patients (0.63, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00). Corresponding effect size for knee patients was small (0.23 95% CI -0.14 to 0.60). CONCLUSION: Feasibility of neuromuscular exercise was confirmed in patients about to have total joint replacement. Self-reported activities of daily living and objective performance were improved and pain reduced immediately following 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise. While the effects were moderate in hip OA, they were only small in knee OA. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01003756.

  18. Unmammed Gun Control Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAXMI NIDHI, PRATYUSHA ROY, SRISHTY NAYAK, RAJINE SWETHA R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available From ages it has been a desire of humans to achieve the ultimate in security and make his loved ones and loved things secure. It is this desire that prompted him to make the boundaries and secure them too from all unseen and unknown sources. For this it has been always necessary to maintain a huge sum of people to guard and raise alarms in cases of emergencies. To accomplish this we propose a mechanism which will employ image processing in which a camera (webcam will be continuously observing the ‘area under surveillance’. This data will be then processed by a MatLab code which will be running on a PC and will be able to detect a particular colour (Say Red in front of a white back ground (depicting snow. Depending on this processed data the information about the intruder location will be sent to a micro-controller (89c51 via the Serial/Parallel port of the PC and then a motor controlled gun will be used to point in the direction of the intruder. This mechanism will be online i.e. the gun will continuously be pointing in the direction of the intruder. Further depending on range (distance from the gun (fixed range in this project the gun can be activated and a Laser pointer will be switched ON depict “shooting the target”.

  19. Feedback Control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlessandraPedrocchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. Potential users of this system are patients with high-level spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative neuromuscular diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich ataxia, and multiple sclerosis. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm due to upper motor neuron lesions after spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e. a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 seconds.

  20. Effects of neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in severe primary hip or knee osteoarthritis : a controlled before-and-after study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Nilsdotter, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled before-and-after study were to compare baseline status to an age-matched population-based reference group and to examine the effects of neuromuscular training on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in patients with severe primary OA of the hip or knee.

  1. The effect on knee-joint load of instruction in analgesic use compared with neuromuscular exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis : study protocol for a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial (the EXERPHARMA trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Brian; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a mechanically driven disease, and it is suggested that medial tibiofemoral knee-joint load increases with pharmacologic pain relief, indicating that pharmacologic pain relief may be positively associated with disease progression. Treatment modalities that can both relieve pain and reduce knee-joint load would be preferable. The knee-joint load is influenced by functional alignment of the trunk, pelvis, and lower-limb segments with respect to the knee, as well as the ground-reaction force generated during movement. Neuromuscular exercise can influence knee load and decrease knee pain. It includes exercises to improve balance, muscle activation, functional alignment, and functional knee stability. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the efficacy of a NEuroMuscular EXercise (NEMEX) therapy program, compared with optimized analgesics and antiinflammatory drug use, on the measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis. METHOD/DESIGN: One hundred men and women with mild to moderate medial knee osteoarthritis will be recruited from general medical practices and randomly allocated (1:1) to one of two 8-week treatments, either (a) NEMEX therapy twice a week or (b) information on the recommended use of analgesics and antiinflammatory drugs (acetaminophen and oral NSAIDs) via a pamphlet and video materials. The primary outcome is change in knee load during walking (the Knee Index, a composite score of the first external peak total reaction moment on the knee joint from all three planes based on 3D movement analysis) after 8 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes include changes in the external peak knee-adduction moment and impulse and functional performance measures, in addition to changes in self-reported pain, function, health status, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: These findings will help determine whether 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise is superior to optimized use of analgesics and antiinflammatory drugs regarding knee-joint load, pain and physical function in people with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01638962 (July 3, 2012).

  2. Neuromuscular versus quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment : a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of neuromuscular exercise (NEXA) and quadriceps strengthening (QS) on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral distribution of knee load), pain, and physical function in patients with medial knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. METHODS: One hundred patients with medial knee pain, mostly moderate-to-severe radiographic medial knee OA, and varus malalignment were randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs. Each program involved 14 individually supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus a home exercise component. Primary outcomes were peak external knee adduction moment (3-dimensional gait analysis), pain (visual analog scale), and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). RESULTS: Eighty-two patients (38 [76%] of 50 in the NEXA group and 44 [88%] of 50 in the QS group) completed the trial. There was no significant between-group difference in the change in thepeak knee adduction moment (mean difference 0.13 Nm/[body weight × height]% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.08, 0.33]), pain (mean difference 2.4 mm [95% CI -6.0, 10.8]), or physical function (mean difference -0.8 units [95% CI -4.0, 2.4]). Neither group showed a change in knee moments following exercise, whereas both groups showed similar significant reductions in pain and improvement in physical function. CONCLUSION: Although comparable improvements in clinical outcomes were observed with both neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with moderate varus malalignment and mostly moderate-to-severe medial knee OA, these forms of exercise did not affect the knee adduction moment, a key predictor of structural disease progression.

  3. Active zone stability: insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotransmitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efficacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By studying a model synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephosphorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our findings and their implications for future research.

  4. Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawi, Mohamad J; Lark, Robert K; Fitch, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Scoliosis is a common deformity in neuromuscular disorders. This spinal deformity usually presents at an early age, rapidly progresses during growth, and continues to progress even after skeletal maturity. Neuromuscular scoliosis classically involves the entire thoracolumbar spine, often extending to the pelvis and causing pelvic obliquity. Physical examination can be challenging, but it is important to assess the flexibility of the spinal curve and associated joint contractures. Upright anteroposterior and lateral radiographs are the preferred imaging. When formulating a treatment plan, it is important to take into account not only the degree of curvature, but also each patient's needs and quality of life, the potentially high perioperative complication rates, and the natural history of the underlying neuromuscular disorder. Different neuromuscular conditions behave differently and should therefore be treated differently. With the exception of steroids for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, bracing remains the only reliable nonoperative intervention available. Preoperative optimization of medical comorbidities is crucial given the relatively high complication rate. Posterior segmental instrumentation has revolutionized the surgical management of neuromuscular scoliosis and is the most commonly used technique today. Despite reported improvement in postoperative quality of life, there are several limitations with currently used outcome measures that prevent a well-informed discussion on the outcomes after surgery. PMID:26091215

  5. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll Jeremiah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.

  6. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Driscoll, Jeremiah

    2011-06-09

    Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed\\/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.

  7. Effects of evidence-based prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in adolescent female athletes : a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent female football and handball players are among the athletes with the highest risk of sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. AIM: This study evaluated the effects of evidence-based lower extremity injury prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: 40 adolescent female football and handball players (15-16?years) were randomly allocated to a control group (CON, n=20) or neuromuscular training group (NMT, n=20). The NMT group performed an injury prevention programme as a warm-up before their usual training 3 times weekly for 12?weeks. The CON group completed their regular warm-up exercise programme before training. Players were tested while performing a side cutting movement at baseline and 12-week follow-up, using surface electromyography (EMG) and three-dimensional movement analysis. We calculated: (1) EMG amplitude from vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris 10?ms prior to initial contact(IC) normalised to peak EMG amplitude recorded during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and (2) VL-ST EMG preactivity difference during the 10?ms prior to foot contact (primary outcome). We measured maximal knee joint valgus moment and knee valgus angle at IC. RESULTS: There was a difference between groups at follow-up in VL-ST preactivity (43% between-group difference; 95% CI 32% to 55%). No between-group differences were observed for kinematic and kinetic variables. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week injury prevention programme in addition to training and match play in adolescent females altered the pattern of agonist-antagonist muscle preactivity during side cutting. This may represent a more ACL-protective motor strategy.

  8. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review / Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em pacientes graves em unidade de terapia intensiva: revisão sistemáticaNeuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas Lima, Ferreira; Luiz Carlos Marques, Vanderlei; Vitor Engrácia, Valenti.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Analisar os desfechos propiciados pela estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em pacientes graves assistidos em unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos Revisão sistemática da literatura, por meio de ensaios clínicos publicados entre 2002 e 2012 nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, MedLine e PE [...] Dro, usando os descritores “intensive care unit”, “physical therapy”, “physiotherapy”, “electric stimulation” e “randomized controlled trials”. Resultados Foram incluídos quatro ensaios clínicos. O tamanho amostral variou entre 8 a 33 sujeitos, de ambos os gêneros, com média de idade variando entre 52 e 79 anos, submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva. Dos artigos analisados, três indicaram benefícios significativos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em pacientes graves, como melhora na força muscular periférica, capacidade de exercício, funcionalidade ou espessura de perda da camada muscular. Conclusão A aplicação de estimulação elétrica neuromuscular promove uma resposta benéfica em pacientes graves em terapia intensiva. Objective To analyze the outcomes enabled by the neuromuscular electric stimulation in critically ill patients in intensive care unit assisted. Methods A systematic review of the literature by means of clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and PEDro using the descriptors “intensive care unit”, “physical therapy”, “physiotherapy”, “electric stimulation” and “randomized controlled trials”. Results We included four trials. The sample size varied between 8 to 33 individuals of both genders, with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years, undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Of the articles analyzed, three showed significant benefits of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients, such as improvement in peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, functionality, or loss of thickness of the muscle layer. Conclusion The application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation promotes a beneficial response in critically patients in intensive care. Abstract in english Objective To analyze the outcomes enabled by the neuromuscular electric stimulation in critically ill patients in intensive care unit assisted. Methods A systematic review of the literature by means of clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and [...] PEDro using the descriptors “intensive care unit”, “physical therapy”, “physiotherapy”, “electric stimulation” and “randomized controlled trials”. Results We included four trials. The sample size varied between 8 to 33 individuals of both genders, with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years, undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Of the articles analyzed, three showed significant benefits of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients, such as improvement in peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, functionality, or loss of thickness of the muscle layer. Conclusion The application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation promotes a beneficial response in critically patients in intensive care.

  9. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible

  10. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  11. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enhance the drive performance of a control rod drive (CRD) and the reliability of the CRD in joining and separating functions with a control rod (CR) by sufficiently enclosing the top of a hollow piston. Constitution: A flange having a bolt hole for mounting a control rod drive (CRD) in a CRD housing is provided at the lower portion of the CRD. A piston tube is arranged at the center of the CRD, and a sealer is mounted at the joint between the piston tube and the inner face of the flange. On the other hand, a hollow piston is engaged between the hollow piston and a cylinder tube, and a sealer for sealing the space of the cylinder tube is mounted at the lower portion of the hollow piston. Further, a joining member with the control rod is mounted at the top of the hollow piston. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  13. Adaptive Inverse optimal neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Sharma, Nitin; Johnson, Marcus; Gregory, Chris M; Dixon, Warren E

    2013-12-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a prescribed treatment for various neuromuscular disorders, where an electrical stimulus is provided to elicit a muscle contraction. Barriers to the development of NMES controllers exist because the muscle response to an electrical stimulation is nonlinear and the muscle model is uncertain. Efforts in this paper focus on the development of an adaptive inverse optimal NMES controller. The controller yields desired limb trajectory tracking while simultaneously minimizing a cost functional that is positive in the error states and stimulation input. The development of this framework allows tradeoffs to be made between tracking performance and control effort by putting different penalties on error states and control input, depending on the clinical goal or functional task. The controller is examined through a Lyapunov-based analysis. Experiments on able-bodied individuals are provided to demonstrate the performance of the developed controller. PMID:23757569

  14. Unmammed Gun Control Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    LAXMI NIDHI, PRATYUSHA ROY, SRISHTY NAYAK, RAJINE SWETHA R

    2013-01-01

    From ages it has been a desire of humans to achieve the ultimate in security and make his loved ones and loved things secure. It is this desire that prompted him to make the boundaries and secure them too from all unseen and unknown sources. For this it has been always necessary to maintain a huge sum of people to guard and raise alarms in cases of emergencies. To accomplish this we propose a mechanism which will employ image processing in which a camera (webcam) will be continuously observin...

  15. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score?5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility. PMID:25801907

  16. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score?5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility.

  17. Feedback control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Christian; Schauer, Thomas; Reichenfelser, Werner; Karner, Jakob; Zwicker, Sven; Gandolla, Marta; Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Hack, Marco; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Gföhler, Margit; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm and shoulder due to high level spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs) passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e., a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 s. PMID:25228853

  18. Effects of Tai Chi versus Proprioception Exercise Program on Neuromuscular Function of the Ankle in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu; Xue-Qiang Wang; Jie-Jiao Zheng; Yu-Jian Pan; Ying-Hui Hua; Shang-Min Zhao; Li-Yan Shen; Shuai Fan; Jiu-Gen Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese medicine exercise used for improving neuromuscular function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tai Chi versus proprioception exercise program on neuromuscular function of the ankle in elderly people. Methods. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 subjects per group. For 16 consecutive weeks, subjects participated in Tai Chi, proprioception exercise, or no structured exercise. Primary outcome measures in...

  19. Neuromuscular control of hovering wingbeat kinematics in response to distinct flight challenges in the ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sajeni; Welch, Kenneth C

    2013-11-15

    While producing one of the highest sustained mass-specific power outputs of any vertebrate, hovering hummingbirds must also precisely modulate the activity of their primary flight muscles to vary wingbeat kinematics and modulate lift production. Although recent studies have begun to explore how pectoralis (the primary downstroke muscle) neuromuscular activation and wingbeat kinematics are linked in hummingbirds, it is unclear whether different species modulate these features in similar ways, or consistently in response to distinct flight challenges. In addition, little is known about how the antagonist, the supracoracoideus, is modulated to power the symmetrical hovering upstroke. We obtained simultaneous recordings of wingbeat kinematics and electromyograms from the pectoralis and supracoracoideus in ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) hovering under the following conditions: (1) ambient air, (2) air density reduction trials, (3) submaximal load-lifting trials and (4) maximal load-lifting trials. Increased power output was achieved through increased stroke amplitude during air density reduction and load-lifting trials, but wingbeat frequency only increased at low air densities. Overall, relative electromyographic (EMG) intensity was the best predictor of stroke amplitude and is correlated with angular velocity of the wingtip. The relationship between muscle activation intensity and kinematics was independent of treatment type, indicating that reduced drag on the wings in hypodense air did not lead to high wingtip angular velocities independently of increased muscle work. EMG bursts consistently began and ended before muscle shortening under all conditions. During all sustained hovering, spike number per burst consistently averaged 1.2 in the pectoralis and 2.0 in the supracoracoideus. The number of spikes increased to 2.5-3 in both muscles during maximal load-lifting trials. Despite the relative kinematic symmetry of the hovering downstroke and upstroke, the supracoracoideus was activated ~1 ms earlier, EMG bursts were longer (~0.9 ms) and they exhibited 1.6 times as many spikes per burst. We hypothesize that earlier and more sustained activation of the supracoracoideus fibres is necessary to offset the greater compliance resulting from the presence of the supracoracoid tendon. PMID:23948477

  20. Genetic Modifiers for Neuromuscular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lamar, Kay-Marie; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular diseases, which encompass disorders that affect muscle and its innervation, are highly heritable. Genetic diagnosis now frequently pinpoints the primary mutation responsible for a given neuromuscular disease. However, the results from genetic testing indicate that neuromuscular disease phenotypes may vary widely, even in individuals with the same primary disease-causing mutation. Clinical variability arises from both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic modifiers can now b...

  1. Applications of skeletal muscle progenitor cells for neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Dyke, Jonathan Van; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular diseases affect skeletal muscle and/or nervous control resulting in direct disruption of skeletal muscle and muscle pathology, or nervous system disruption which indirectly disrupts muscle function. Stem cell-based therapy is well-recognized as a promising approach for several types of diseases including those affecting the neuromuscular system. To design a successful therapeutic strategy, it is important to choose the most appropriate stem cell type. Skeletal muscle progenitor ...

  2. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  3. Universal Controller for Spacecraft Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanas, Greg; McCarthy, Thomas; Hunter, Don; Buchanan, Christine; Johnson, Michael; Cozy, Raymond; Morgan, Albert; Tran, Hung

    2006-01-01

    An electronic control unit has been fabricated and tested that can be replicated as a universal interface between the electronic infrastructure of a spacecraft and a brushless-motor (or other electromechanical actuator) driven mechanism that performs a specific mechanical function within the overall spacecraft system. The unit includes interfaces to a variety of spacecraft sensors, power outputs, and has selectable actuator control parameters making the assembly a mechanism controller. Several control topologies are selectable and reconfigurable at any time. This allows the same actuator to perform different functions during the mission life of the spacecraft. The unit includes complementary metal oxide/semiconductor electronic components on a circuit board of a type called rigid flex (signifying flexible printed wiring along with a rigid substrate). The rigid flex board is folded to make the unit fit into a housing on the back of a motor. The assembly has redundant critical interfaces, allowing the controller to perform time-critical operations when no human interface with the hardware is possible. The controller is designed to function over a wide temperature range without the need for thermal control, including withstanding significant thermal cycling, making it usable in nearly all environments that spacecraft or landers will endure. A prototype has withstood 1,500 thermal cycles between 120 and +85 C without significant deterioration of its packaging or electronic function. Because there is no need for thermal control and the unit is addressed through a serial bus interface, the cabling and other system hardware are substantially reduced in quantity and complexity, with corresponding reductions in overall spacecraft mass and cost.

  4. Synaptic Defects in the Spinal and Neuromuscular Circuitry in a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Karen K. Y.; Lin, Ming-Yi; Zingg, Brian; Feng, Zhihua; Ko, Chien-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a major genetic cause of death in childhood characterized by marked muscle weakness. To investigate mechanisms underlying motor impairment in SMA, we examined the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry governing hindlimb ambulatory behavior in SMA model mice (SMN?7). In the neuromuscular circuitry, we found that nearly all neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in hindlimb muscles of SMN?7 mice remained fully innervated at the disease end stage and were capable of eliciti...

  5. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy : a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intense neuromuscular block may improve surgical conditions in ileus laparotomies; however, it is difficult to evaluate. The aim of this study was to investigate if neuromuscular block improved surgical conditions in pigs with artificial ileus laparotomy. METHODS: Six pigs were endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl, and randomized into two groups in a cross-over assessor-blinded design. Neuromuscular block was established with rocuronium. Artificial laparotomy for ileus was performed. We investigated the influence of intense neuromuscular block on surgical conditions with a subjective rating scale, force needed to close the fascia, incidences of abdominal contractions while suctioning the lungs, width of the wound diastase and operating time as outcome parameters. RESULTS: In all six pigs no abdominal contractions occurred while suctioning the lungs at intense neuromuscular block. Without neuromuscular block we detected abdominal contractions seen as hiccups and bucking. In all six pigs during intense neuromuscular block we found no visible electromyographic (EMG) activity in the abdominal muscles while suctioning the lungs. Without neuromuscular block suctioning the lungs elicited brief periods of abdominal EMG activity. No difference was found in the force needed to close the fascia when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the width of the diastase, operating time and subjective ratings using a four-point rating scale when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. However, these outcomes were related to the order of the suturing round. CONCLUSION: Intense neuromuscular block prevented abdominal muscle contractions but did not influence the force needed to close the fascia.

  6. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Roos, Ewa M.; Hodges, Paul W; Staples, Margaret P; Bennell, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS: An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated t...

  7. MRI in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  8. Impaired neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle fiber necrosis in mice lacking Na/Ca exchanger 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolow, S; Manto, M; Gailly, P.; Molgó, J.; Vandebrouck, C; Vanderwinden, J M; Herchuelz, A; Schurmans, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    We produced and analyzed mice deficient for Na/Ca exchanger 3 (NCX3), a protein that mediates cellular Ca(2+) efflux (forward mode) or Ca(2+) influx (reverse mode) and thus controls intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. NCX3-deficient mice (Ncx3(-/-)) present a skeletal muscle fiber necrosis and a defective neuromuscular transmission, reflecting the absence of NCX3 in the sarcolemma of the muscle fibers and at the neuromuscular junction. The defective neuromuscular transmission is characterized...

  9. Effect of preoperative neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on functional outcome after total knee replacement : an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Erika O; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving functional status preoperatively through exercise may improve postoperative outcome. Previous knowledge on preoperative exercise in knee osteoarthritis is insufficient. The aim of the study was to compare the difference in change between groups in lower extremity function from baseline to 3 months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) following a neuromuscular exercise programme (NEMEX-TJR) plus a knee school educational package (KS) or KS alone. METHODS: 45 patients (55-83 years, 53% male, waiting for TKR) were randomized to receive a minimum of 8 sessions of NEMEXTJR plus 3 sessions of KS or 3 sessions of KS alone. Function was assessed with the Chair Stand Test (CST, primary endpoint) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales focusing on daily living function (ADL) and pain (secondary endpoints). Assessments were performed immediately before and after the intervention, and at 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months after surgery by a physiotherapist, blinded to groupallocation. RESULTS: After intervention before surgery we observed a small improvement for primary and secondary endpoints in both groups, which did not differ significantly between groups: comparing the exercise to the control group the treatment effect for the CST was -1.5 seconds (95% CI: -5.3, 2.2), for KOOS ADL and KOOS pain the treatment effect was 1.3 points (-10.1, 12.8) and -2.3 (-12.4, 7.9) respectively. At 3 months after surgery we observed a small improvement in the primary endpoint in the control group and a significant improvement in the secondary endpoints in both exercise and control groups, which did not differ significantly between groups: comparing the exercise group to the control group the treatment effect in the CST was 2.0 seconds (-1.8, 5.8), for KOOS ADL and KOOS pain the treatment effect was -4.9 points (-16.3, 6.5) and -3.3 points (-13.5, 6.8) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A median (IQR) of 10 (8, 14) exercise sessions before surgery showed an additional small but non-significant improvement in all functional assessments compared to patient education alone. These benefits were not sustained after TKR. Our trial doesn't give a conclusive answer to whether additional preoperative exercise on postoperative functional outcomes is beneficial.

  10. Physical models of rehabilitation in neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignos, P J

    1983-06-01

    Physical methods of treatment for neuromuscular diseases constitute the mainstay of current management. The overall goals of management are the maintenance of independent ambulation and the optimal functional state consistent with the disease process. Maintenance of muscle strength requires regular daily physical activity. An active exercise program can give limited increases of strength in muscular dystrophy dependent on the severity of the disease. Active exercise programs do not result in overwork weakness when properly supervised. Endurance exercise training does not appear to be suitable for Duchenne muscular dystrophy but may have value in the less rapidly progressive neuromuscular diseases. contracture development can be retarded by passive stretching and splinting initiated early in the disease course. Weight control is important both for ambulatory and wheelchair-bound patients. Reliable assessment of the results of physical therapy programs has been improved by the introduction of newer, more objective methods for measuring muscle strength. PMID:6888414

  11. Comparison between two different neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocols for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial Comparação de diferentes procedimentos de estimulação elétrica neuromuscular utilizados no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço feminina: ensaio clínico randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila G. J. M. Alves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is widely treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI but there is no consensus in literature regarding the most effective treatment parameters. OBJECTIVE: To compare two NMESintra-vaginal protocols for the treatment of SUI in women. METHODS: The study included 20 volunteers with an average age of 55.55±6.51 years and with the clinical diagnosis of SUI. Volunteers were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (G1 received NMES with medium-frequency current and group 2 (G2 received NMES with low-frequency current. Functional assessments of pelvic floor muscles (PFM were performed by perineometry. The severity of signs and symptoms were objectively evaluated using the 1 hour pad test and subjectively evaluated using a visual analog scale that measured the discomfort caused by the SUI. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to analyze data normality, and the Friedman test was used to analyze nonparametric data. For analysis of symptoms related to SUI the Fisher exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were used. Significance level of 5% was set for all data analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences (p>0.05 were found between groups for any of the variable assessed. The within group analysis of initial and final evaluations (after NMES demonstrated significant differences (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM é amplamente utilizada no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE, no entanto não há consenso na literatura sobre os parâmetros de tratamento mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os procedimentos de EENM intravaginal no tratamento de mulheres com IUE. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 voluntárias com idade média de 55,55±6,51 anos, com diagnóstico clínico de IUE. As voluntárias foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo 1 (G1, que recebeu EENM com corrente de média frequência, e grupo 2 (G2, com corrente de baixa frequência. A avaliação funcional dos músculos do assoalho pélvico (MAP foi realizada por meio de perineometria, e a severidade dos sinais e sintomas da IUE foi avaliada, objetivamente, pelo pad test de uma hora e, subjetivamente, pela Escala Visual Analógica (EVA, que mediu o desconforto causado pela incontinência. Para a análise de normalidade dos dados, utilizou-se o teste Shapiro-Wilk, seguido do teste de Friedman para dados não paramétricos. Para a análise dos sintomas relacionados à IUE, usaram-se os testes Exato de Fisher e Mann-Whitney. Em todas as análises, considerou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05 entre os grupos em nenhuma variável avaliada. Na comparação intragrupos das avaliações iniciais e finais (após EENM, houve diferença significativa (p<0,05 na quantidade de urina perdida, no desconforto causado pela incontinência urinária e na pressão perineal. CONCLUSÃO: Os procedimentos de EENM utilizados neste estudo foram igualmente eficazes no tratamento da IUE.

  12. Comparison between two different neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocols for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial / Comparação de diferentes procedimentos de estimulação elétrica neuromuscular utilizados no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço feminina: ensaio clínico randomizado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila G. J. M., Alves; Fabiana R., Nunes; Elaine C. O., Guirro.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM) é amplamente utilizada no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE), no entanto não há consenso na literatura sobre os parâmetros de tratamento mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os procedimentos de EENM intravaginal no tratamen [...] to de mulheres com IUE. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 voluntárias com idade média de 55,55±6,51 anos, com diagnóstico clínico de IUE. As voluntárias foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo 1 (G1), que recebeu EENM com corrente de média frequência, e grupo 2 (G2), com corrente de baixa frequência. A avaliação funcional dos músculos do assoalho pélvico (MAP) foi realizada por meio de perineometria, e a severidade dos sinais e sintomas da IUE foi avaliada, objetivamente, pelo pad test de uma hora e, subjetivamente, pela Escala Visual Analógica (EVA), que mediu o desconforto causado pela incontinência. Para a análise de normalidade dos dados, utilizou-se o teste Shapiro-Wilk, seguido do teste de Friedman para dados não paramétricos. Para a análise dos sintomas relacionados à IUE, usaram-se os testes Exato de Fisher e Mann-Whitney. Em todas as análises, considerou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05) entre os grupos em nenhuma variável avaliada. Na comparação intragrupos das avaliações iniciais e finais (após EENM), houve diferença significativa (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) but there is no consensus in literature regarding the most effective treatment parameters. OBJECTIVE: To compare two NMESintra-vaginal protocols for the treatment of SUI in women. METHOD [...] S: The study included 20 volunteers with an average age of 55.55±6.51 years and with the clinical diagnosis of SUI. Volunteers were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (G1) received NMES with medium-frequency current and group 2 (G2) received NMES with low-frequency current. Functional assessments of pelvic floor muscles (PFM) were performed by perineometry. The severity of signs and symptoms were objectively evaluated using the 1 hour pad test and subjectively evaluated using a visual analog scale that measured the discomfort caused by the SUI. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to analyze data normality, and the Friedman test was used to analyze nonparametric data. For analysis of symptoms related to SUI the Fisher exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were used. Significance level of 5% was set for all data analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for any of the variable assessed. The within group analysis of initial and final evaluations (after NMES) demonstrated significant differences (p

  13. Control mechanisms for ecological-economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Burkov, Vladimir N; Shchepkin, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents and analyzes the optimization, game-theoretic and simulation models of control mechanisms for ecological-economic systems. It is devoted to integrated assessment mechanisms for total risks and losses, penalty mechanisms, risk payment mechanisms, financing and costs compensation mechanisms for risk level reduction, sales mechanisms for risk level quotas, audit mechanisms, mechanisms for expected losses reduction, economic motivation mechanisms, optimization mechanisms for regional environmental (risk level reduction) programs, and mechanisms for authorities' interests coordination. The book is aiming at undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as at experts in mathematical modeling and control of ecological economic, socioeconomic and organizational systems.

  14. Cambios en el control neuromuscular de seis músculos de miembro inferior durante CMJ máximos realizados con fatiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fábrica

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hay diferentes opiniones respecto a si existen cambios en el control muscular cuando saltos con contramovimiento (CMJ son realizados en condición de fatiga. Este trabajo evalúa si la actividad y la secuencia temporal de activación de seis músculos de miembro inferior durante CMJ cambian por causa de la fatiga. El nivel de actividad varió principalmente en los músculos biarticulares. Los tiempos de los picos de actividad eléctrica sugieren la existencia de grupos de acción muscular, si bien ocurren cambios en la secuencia de activación dentro de cada grupo. Fue posible establecer que existe un patrón general de control muscular durante el apoyo en los CMJ, con ajustes del nivel y tiempo de activación que dependen del periodo temporal analizado y el músculo considerado.

  15. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by the Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Andersen, Ole Trier; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1997-01-01

    Using the voluntary EMG as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle necessitates elimination of stimulus artifacts and the muscle response caused by the stimulation. The stimulus artifacts are easily eliminated by shutting down the amplifier during stimulation. The muscle response is a non-stationary signal, therefore an adaptive linear prediction filter is proposed. The filter is derived and tested for three filter lengths on both simulated and real data. The performance is compa...

  16. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  17. Urgencias en patología neuromuscular / Emergencies in neuromuscular pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T., Ayuso; I., Jericó.

    Full Text Available La debilidad muscular aguda (DMA) es el síntoma predominante de las urgencias neuromusculares, especialmente si afecta a la musculatura respiratoria u orofaríngea. La DMA es un síndrome plurietiológico y con distintos niveles lesionales en la unidad motora. Dentro del amplio grupo de enfermedades ne [...] uromusculares, las que con mayor frecuencia provocan DMA e insuficiencia respiratoria son el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y la miastenia gravis (MG). El SGB constituye la causa más frecuente de parálisis flácida aguda; puede ocasionar fallo respiratorio en un tercio de los casos precisando ventilación mecánica. El diagnóstico preciso de este síndrome permitirá iniciar tratamiento inmunomodulador, que ha demostrado que modifica el curso de la enfermedad. Además, la valoración clínica de los pacientes y el conocimiento de sencillos tests neurofisiológicos y de función respiratoria guiarán la decisión de ventilación mecánica evitando la intubación de urgencia. La urgencia más frecuente que ocasiona la MG es la crisis miasténica, definida por el deterioro en la función bulbar con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y riesgo de parada respiratoria. Ocurre en un 15-20% de pacientes miasténicos y puede desencadenarse por múltiples factores. Además del diagnóstico preciso de la crisis es importante la supresión de los factores desencadenantes y medidas de soporte ventilatorio. Entre las medidas farmacológicas son la plasmaféresis y las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas los instrumentos más útiles en la actualidad; estos tratamientos no sustituyen la vigilancia intensiva y el reconocimiento de los signos inminentes de fallo respiratorio que implican soporte ventilatorio invasivo o no invasivo. Abstract in english Acute muscle weakness (AMW) is the predominant symptom of neuromuscular emergencies, especially if it affects the respiratory or oropharyngeal musculature . AMW is a multi-etiological syndrome, with different lesion levels in the motor unit. Within the broad group of neuromuscular diseases, those th [...] at most frequently provoke AMW and respiratory failure are Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and myasthenia gravis (MG). GBS is the most frequent cause of acute flaccid paralysis; it can cause respiratory failure in a third of cases, making mechanical ventilation necessary. Accurate diagnosis of this syndrome enables immunomodulatory treatment to be started, which has been shown to modify the course of the disease. Besides, clinical evaluation of the patients and knowledge of the simple tests of neurophysiology and respiratory function will guide the decision on mechanical ventilation, avoiding emergency intubation. The most frequent emergency caused by MG is myasthenic crisis, defined by the deterioration in the bulbar function with acute respiratory insufficiency and risk of respiratory stoppage. This occurs in 15-20% of myasthenic patients and can be triggered by numerous factors. Besides early identification of the crisis, it is important to suppress the triggering factors and to provide measure of ventilatory support. Amongst the pharmacological measures, the most useful instruments at present are plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins; these treatments do not cancel the need for intensive vigilance and of checking for imminent signs of respiratory failure that will involve invasive or non-invasive ventilatory support.

  18. Patología neuromuscular en cuidados intensivos Neuromuscular abnormalities in critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Amaya Villar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La patología neuromuscular en los pacientes críticos ha comenzado a ser objeto de un importante número de estudios en los últimos años, si bien aún quedan muchas lagunas en el conocimiento de su etiología, patogenia, tratamiento y pronóstico. Dentro de esta patología debemos distinguir dos grandes grupos. En el primero, la debilidad muscular aparece antes del ingreso en UCI y es posible identificar una causa conocida. El síndrome de Guillain-Barré y la miastenia grave son las dos entidades que con mayor frecuencia requieren ser atendidas en nuestras unidades. En el segundo grupo, la debilidad muscular se adquiere en la UCI, en pacientes sin enfermedad neuromuscular previa, y es secundaria a la gravedad de la enfermedad que originó su ingreso en esta unidad y/o al tratamiento empleado. La polineuropatía del paciente crítico (PPC es, de todas ellas, la entidad más precisamente definida y de la que conocemos mejor sus características clínicas, diagnóstico y pronóstico; no obstante, aún quedan muchas sombras en cuanto a su etiopatogenia. Las alteraciones de la placa neuromuscular y sobre todo la miopatía, que frecuentemente coexiste con la PPC, son las otras complicaciones del sistema nervioso periférico que se desarrollan en pacientes críticos. Los avances en el conocimiento de estas afecciones podrían tener un importante impacto, sobre todo para el desarrollo de intervenciones terapéuticas y preventivas efectivas que mejoren el pronóstico de estos pacientes.The spectrum of neuromuscular disease encountered in today's intensive care units (ICU has evolved over the last few decades. However, in spite of many studies on neuromuscular disorders complicating critical illness as well as its epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prognosis, several key areas remain unclear. Two main groups are found among these neuromuscular abnormalities. The first group includes primary neuromuscular disorders present on admission to the ICU in which a possible etiology can be identified. Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia gravis are two of the most common diseases admitted to ours units. In the second group, weakness is acquired in the ICU in the absence of preexisting neuromuscular disease. It is believed to reflect illnesses or treatments occurring in the ICU. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP is the most clearly defined neuromuscular complication in this group. However, although we have better knowledge of its clinical, diagnosis, and prognosis features, its pathophysiological substrate has not been fully elucidated. Neuromuscular junction defects and specially myopathies, that frequently coexist with CIP, are the others main causes of acquired weakness in critically ill patients. Advances in understanding of these neuromuscular disorders could have an important impact in terms of developing effective preventive and therapeutic interventions that could help to improve the poor prognosis of these patients.

  19. Patología neuromuscular en cuidados intensivos / Neuromuscular abnormalities in critical illness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Amaya Villar; J., Garnacho-Montero; M.D., Rincón Ferrari.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La patología neuromuscular en los pacientes críticos ha comenzado a ser objeto de un importante número de estudios en los últimos años, si bien aún quedan muchas lagunas en el conocimiento de su etiología, patogenia, tratamiento y pronóstico. Dentro de esta patología debemos distinguir dos grandes g [...] rupos. En el primero, la debilidad muscular aparece antes del ingreso en UCI y es posible identificar una causa conocida. El síndrome de Guillain-Barré y la miastenia grave son las dos entidades que con mayor frecuencia requieren ser atendidas en nuestras unidades. En el segundo grupo, la debilidad muscular se adquiere en la UCI, en pacientes sin enfermedad neuromuscular previa, y es secundaria a la gravedad de la enfermedad que originó su ingreso en esta unidad y/o al tratamiento empleado. La polineuropatía del paciente crítico (PPC) es, de todas ellas, la entidad más precisamente definida y de la que conocemos mejor sus características clínicas, diagnóstico y pronóstico; no obstante, aún quedan muchas sombras en cuanto a su etiopatogenia. Las alteraciones de la placa neuromuscular y sobre todo la miopatía, que frecuentemente coexiste con la PPC, son las otras complicaciones del sistema nervioso periférico que se desarrollan en pacientes críticos. Los avances en el conocimiento de estas afecciones podrían tener un importante impacto, sobre todo para el desarrollo de intervenciones terapéuticas y preventivas efectivas que mejoren el pronóstico de estos pacientes. Abstract in english The spectrum of neuromuscular disease encountered in today's intensive care units (ICU) has evolved over the last few decades. However, in spite of many studies on neuromuscular disorders complicating critical illness as well as its epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prognosis, several key areas [...] remain unclear. Two main groups are found among these neuromuscular abnormalities. The first group includes primary neuromuscular disorders present on admission to the ICU in which a possible etiology can be identified. Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia gravis are two of the most common diseases admitted to ours units. In the second group, weakness is acquired in the ICU in the absence of preexisting neuromuscular disease. It is believed to reflect illnesses or treatments occurring in the ICU. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is the most clearly defined neuromuscular complication in this group. However, although we have better knowledge of its clinical, diagnosis, and prognosis features, its pathophysiological substrate has not been fully elucidated. Neuromuscular junction defects and specially myopathies, that frequently coexist with CIP, are the others main causes of acquired weakness in critically ill patients. Advances in understanding of these neuromuscular disorders could have an important impact in terms of developing effective preventive and therapeutic interventions that could help to improve the poor prognosis of these patients.

  20. Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program

    OpenAIRE

    Lephart, S; Abt, J; Ferris, C; Sell, T; Nagai, T; Myers, J.; Irrgang, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: In order to improve neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic deficits in female athletes, numerous injury prevention programs have been developed and have successfully reduced the number of knee ligament injuries. However, few have investigated the neuromuscular and biomechanical changes following these training programs. It is also largely unknown what type of program is better for improving the landing mechanics of female athletes.

  1. The Drosophila abrupt gene encodes a BTB-zinc finger regulatory protein that controls the specificity of neuromuscular connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Fambrough, D; Atashi, J R; Goodman, C S; Crews, S T

    1995-12-01

    Motor axons make synaptic connections with specific muscles, and this specificity unfolds during development as motoneuron growth cones make specific pathway choices and ultimately recognize and synapse on their specific muscle targets. The Drosophila clueless mutation was identified previously in a genetic screen for mutations that disrupt motoneuron guidance and connectivity. We show here that clueless is allelic to abrupt. The abrupt gene is required for the embryonic formation of specific synaptic connections between a subset of motoneurons and a subset of muscles. Mutations in abrupt also reveal its role in establishing and maintaining muscle attachments, adult sensory cell formation, and morphogenesis of adult appendages. The abrupt gene encodes a zinc finger protein with a conserved BTB domain. Abrupt is expressed in muscle nuclei but not motoneurons, suggesting that abrupt controls the muscle expression of molecules required for correct motoneuron targeting, as well as molecules required for correct muscle attachments. PMID:7498790

  2. Cambios en el control neuromuscular de seis músculos de miembro inferior durante CMJ máximos realizados con fatiga / Changes in neuromuscular control of six lower limb muscles during maximum CMJ with fatigue / Mudanças no controle neuromuscular de seis músculos de membro inferior durante a execução de CMJ máximos com fadiga

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Fábrica; Paula, González Rodríguez; Jefferson Fagundes, Loss.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Há diferentes opiniões a respeito da existência de mudanças no controle muscular quando os saltos com contramovimento (CMJ) são realizados em condição de fadiga. Este artigo avalia se as atividades e a sequência temporal de ativação de seis músculos do membro inferior durante o CMJ mudam devido à fa [...] diga. O nível de atividade variou principalmente nos músculos biarticulares. Os tempos dos picos de atividade elétrica sugerem a existência de grupos de ação muscular e mudanças na sequência de ativação dentro de cada grupo. Foi possível estabelecer a existência de um padrão geral de controle muscular durante o apoio nos CMJ, com ajustes do nível e tempo de ativação que dependem do período temporal analisado e o músculo considerado. Abstract in spanish Hay diferentes opiniones respecto a si existen cambios en el control muscular cuando saltos con contramovimiento (CMJ) son realizados en condición de fatiga. Este trabajo evalúa si la actividad y la secuencia temporal de activación de seis músculos de miembro inferior durante CMJ cambian por causa d [...] e la fatiga. El nivel de actividad varió principalmente en los músculos biarticulares. Los tiempos de los picos de actividad eléctrica sugieren la existencia de grupos de acción muscular, si bien ocurren cambios en la secuencia de activación dentro de cada grupo. Fue posible establecer que existe un patrón general de control muscular durante el apoyo en los CMJ, con ajustes del nivel y tiempo de activación que dependen del periodo temporal analizado y el músculo considerado. Abstract in english Previous studies have not reached an agreement regarding changes in muscle control when countermovement jump (CMJ) tests are performed in fatigue conditions. This paper evaluates whether the activity and time activation sequence of six lower limb muscles change, due to fatigue during CMJ. We found t [...] hat the activity level varied mainly in the bi-articular muscles. Also, the temporal characteristics of the electrical activity peak suggested that muscles actioned as coordinated groups, although there were changes in the activation sequence within each group. Finally, it was possible to establish a general muscle control pattern during CMJ stance phase. However, adjustments were made on activation time and level that depended on the time period analyzed and the muscle considered.

  3. Neuromuscular disease and extubation dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Smithard, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Post-extubation dysphagia is a common and serious problem. The presence of neuromuscular disease at the time of intubation is likely to increase this. Until recently, the prevalence and the association with length of intubation had not been clarified. Results published in this journal suggest that 93% of extubated patients with neuromuscular disease had post-extubation dysphagia, which in 33% of cases was considered severe. The number of days ventilated was the single predictor of severe dysp...

  4. Control of a mechanical gripper with a fuzzy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuzzy logic system is used to control a mechanical gripper. System is based in a NLX230 fuzzy micro controller. Control rules are programmed by a 68020 microprocessor in the micro controller memory. Stress and its derived are used as feedback signals in the control. This system can adapt its effort to the mechanical resistance of the object between the fingers. (Author)

  5. Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Sébastien L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates (CHOs, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and caffeine are known to improve running performance. However, no information is available on the effects of a combination of these ingredients on performance and neuromuscular function during running. Methods The present study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Thirteen trained adult males completed two protocols, each including two conditions: placebo (PLA and Sports Drink (SPD: CHOs 68.6 g.L-1, BCAAs 4 g.L-1, caffeine 75 mg.L-1. Protocol 1 consisted of an all-out 2 h treadmill run. Total distance run and glycemia were measured. In protocol 2, subjects exercised for 2 h at 95% of their lowest average speeds recorded during protocol 1 (whatever the condition. Glycemia, blood lactate concentration and neuromuscular function were determined immediately before and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (V?O2, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded during the exercise. Total fluids ingested were 2 L whatever the protocols and conditions. Results Compared to PLA, ingestion of SPD increased running performance (p = 0.01, maintained glycemia and attenuated central fatigue (p = 0.04, an index of peripheral fatigue (p = 0.04 and RPE (p = 0.006. Maximal voluntary contraction, V?O2, and HR did not differ between the two conditions. Conclusions This study showed that ingestion of a combination of CHOs, BCAAs and caffeine increased performance by about 2% during a 2-h treadmill run. The results of neuromuscular function were contrasted: no clear cut effects of SPD were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00799630

  6. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold's Tyson de Sousa; Moreira Dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  7. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  8. Neuromuscular disorders in acute leukemia and lymphoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Politova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms of neuromuscular complications, their clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options arepresented. The material is presented according to the level of nervous system damage, with inclusion of different clinical entities. Authors revieweda wide range of disease – disease of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and plexus, neuromuscular junction and muscle – as a result of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Systemic effects of drugs on peripheral nervous system, various departments of which can be simultaneously involved in the pathological process, were also highlighted.

  9. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Motor Restoration in Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jayme S; Fu, Michael J; Sheffler, Lynne R; Chae, John

    2015-11-01

    This article reviews the most common therapeutic and neuroprosthetic applications of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for upper and lower extremity stroke rehabilitation. Fundamental NMES principles and purposes in stroke rehabilitation are explained. NMES modalities used for upper and lower limb rehabilitation are described, and efficacy studies are summarized. The evidence for peripheral and central mechanisms of action is also summarized. PMID:26522909

  10. Protein defects in neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainzof M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined progressive disorders of the muscle with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from severe congenital forms with rapid progression to milder forms with later onset and a slower course. In recent years, several proteins from the sarcolemmal muscle membrane (dystrophin, sarcoglycans, dysferlin, caveolin-3, from the extracellular matrix (alpha2-laminin, collagen VI, from the sarcomere (telethonin, myotilin, titin, nebulin, from the muscle cytosol (calpain 3, TRIM32, from the nucleus (emerin, lamin A/C, survival motor neuron protein, and from the glycosylation pathway (fukutin, fukutin-related protein have been identified. Mutations in their respective genes are responsible for different forms of neuromuscular diseases. Protein analysis using Western blotting or immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies is of the utmost importance for the differential diagnosis and elucidation of the physiopathology of each genetic disorder involved. Recent molecular studies have shown clinical inter- and intra-familial variability in several genetic disorders highlighting the importance of other factors in determining phenotypic expression and the role of possible modifying genes and protein interactions. Developmental studies can help elucidate the mechanism of normal muscle formation and thus muscle regeneration. In the last fifteen years, our research has focused on muscle protein expression, localization and possible interactions in patients affected by different forms of muscular dystrophies. The main objective of this review is to summarize the most recent findings in the field and our own contribution.

  11. Protein defects in neuromuscular diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Vainzof; M., Zatz.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined progressive disorders of the muscle with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from severe congenital forms with rapid progression to [...] milder forms with later onset and a slower course. In recent years, several proteins from the sarcolemmal muscle membrane (dystrophin, sarcoglycans, dysferlin, caveolin-3), from the extracellular matrix (alpha2-laminin, collagen VI), from the sarcomere (telethonin, myotilin, titin, nebulin), from the muscle cytosol (calpain 3, TRIM32), from the nucleus (emerin, lamin A/C, survival motor neuron protein), and from the glycosylation pathway (fukutin, fukutin-related protein) have been identified. Mutations in their respective genes are responsible for different forms of neuromuscular diseases. Protein analysis using Western blotting or immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies is of the utmost importance for the differential diagnosis and elucidation of the physiopathology of each genetic disorder involved. Recent molecular studies have shown clinical inter- and intra-familial variability in several genetic disorders highlighting the importance of other factors in determining phenotypic expression and the role of possible modifying genes and protein interactions. Developmental studies can help elucidate the mechanism of normal muscle formation and thus muscle regeneration. In the last fifteen years, our research has focused on muscle protein expression, localization and possible interactions in patients affected by different forms of muscular dystrophies. The main objective of this review is to summarize the most recent findings in the field and our own contribution.

  12. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ArturoLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports.

  13. Neuromuscular Activity and Knee Kinematics in Adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L; Roos, Ewa M.; Rasmussen, Sten; Christensen, Birgitte H; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the neuromuscular control of the knee during stair descent among female adolescents with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and to report its association with self-reported clinical status assessed by the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS).

  14. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J; Grönlund, C; Karlsson, J S; Andersen, L L; Olsen, H B; Zebis, M K; Sjøgaard, G; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    Task-dependent differences in relative activity between "functional" subdivisions within human muscles are well documented. Contrary, independent voluntary control of anatomical subdivisions, termed neuromuscular compartments is not observed in human muscles. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether subdivisions within the human trapezius can be independently activated by voluntary command using biofeedback guidance. Bipolar electromyographical electrodes were situated on...

  15. LRP4 is critical for neuromuscular junction maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei; Xiong, Wen-cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-10-15

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critical for NMJ maintenance because null mutation of any of the three genes is perinatal lethal. In this study, we generated imKO mice, a mutant strain whose LRP4 gene can be deleted in muscles by doxycycline (Dox) treatment. Ablation of the LRP4 gene in adult muscle enabled studies of its role in NMJ maintenance. We demonstrate that Dox treatment of P30 mice reduced muscle strength and compound muscle action potentials. AChR clusters became fragmented with diminished junctional folds and synaptic vesicles. The amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials were reduced, indicating impaired neuromuscular transmission and providing cellular mechanisms of adult LRP4 deficiency. We showed that LRP4 ablation led to the loss of synaptic agrin and the 90 kDa fragments, which occurred ahead of other prejunctional and postjunctional components, suggesting that LRP4 may regulate the stability of synaptic agrin. These observations demonstrate that LRP4 is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the NMJ and that loss of muscle LRP4 in adulthood alone is sufficient to cause myasthenic symptoms. PMID:25319686

  16. How Are Neuromuscular Diseases Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of neuromuscular disease. Such therapy also benefits academic performance by allowing children to do more and stay healthier. Your student’s IEP may specify that a certain time must be set aside each day for him or her to work with a physical or occupational therapist. PT or ...

  17. Wireless Control Mechanism for a Trolling Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Basnet, Rupesh

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless control mechanism for a trolling motor. Widely used trolling motors are expensive ranging from 100 to over 1000 Euros. Manual control trolling motors are relatively less expensive than wireless trolling motor. The project was carried out to minimize the cost involved in wireless trolling motors. A goal was that having this mechanism developed, one could enjoy unconfined mobility within a boat while fishing at a lower cost. A manual control ...

  18. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, GK

    2001-01-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of ...

  19. Autoimmune disorders of the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Angela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular junction (NMJ is a specialized synapse with a complex structural and functional organization. It is a target for a variety of immunological disorders and these diseases usually respond well to immunotherapies. The understanding of the immunological basis of myasthenia gravis, the most common neuromuscular junction disorder, has improved in the recent years. Most patients have antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR, but around 10% have AChR antibodies that are only identified by novel methods, and up to 5% have muscle-specific kinase antibodies which define a different subgroup of myasthenia. The spectrum of antibodies and their pathophysiological aspects are being elucidated. Even though less common, Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS is important to recognize. The abnormality in LEMS is a presynaptic failure to release enough packets of ACh, caused by antibodies to the presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels. More than half these patients have a small cell carcinoma of lung. Acquired neuromyotonia (NMT is a condition associated with muscle hyperactivity. Clinical features include muscle stiffness, cramps, myokymia, pseudomyotonia and weakness. The immune mechanisms of acquired NMT relate to loss of voltage-gated potassium channel function. This review will focus on the important recent developments in the immune-mediated disorders of the NMJ.

  20. Exclusion of biglycan mutations in a cohort of patients with neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Peat, Rachel A; Gécz, Jozef; Fallon, Justin R.; Tarpey, Patrick S; Smith, Raffaella; Futreal, Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; Lamandé, Shireen R.; Yang, Nan; North, Kathryn N.

    2008-01-01

    Biglycan has been considered a good candidate for neuromuscular disease based on direct interactions with collagen VI and ?-dystroglycan, both of which are linked with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). We screened 83 patients with CMD and other neuromuscular disorders and six controls for mutations and variations in the biglycan sequence. We identified a number of novel sequence variations. After family analysis and control screening we found that none of these polymorphisms were disease-c...

  1. Development of a neuromuscular junction model on surfaces modified by plasma polymerization / Desarrollo de un modelo de unión neuromuscular sobre superficies modificadas por polimerización por plasma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Zuñiga-Aguilar; R., Godínez; O., Ramírez-Fernández; J., Morales; R., Olayo.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es implementar un modelo biológico de unión neuromuscular para el estudio de los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos intra e intercelulares empleando co-cultivos celulares. Con el fin de optimizar el crecimiento y desarrollo de las uniones neuromusculares, las células [...] se cultivaron sobre superficies de polipirrol obtenidas mediante polimerización por plasma que han mostrado ser adecuadas en otros tipos de cultivos celulares. Las líneas celulares que se emplearon fueron los modelos de motoneurona NG108-15 y muscular C2C12. Las células se evaluaron de acuerdo a su morfología y características electrofisiológicas. Para observar la expresión de proteínas clave de la sinapsis, se aplicaron técnicas inmunocitoquímicas utilizando anticuerpos específicos para la marcación de proteínas localizadas en las terminales nerviosas adquiriendo imágenes con microscopía de fluorescencia. Las imágenes de los co-cultivos celulares mostraron la formación de uniones neuromusculares. El método de preparación de uniones neuromusculares que se describe en este trabajo permitirá estudiar los mecanismos involucrados en sus funciones. Abstract in english The aim of this work is to implement a biological model of neuromuscular junctions to study the mechanisms involved in intra and inter cellular processes using cell co-cultures. To optimize growth and development of the neuromuscular junction, cells were seeded on plasma polymerized pyrrole which ha [...] s proven suitable for other types of cell cultures. The cell lines used were motor neuron NG108-15 and skeletal muscle C2C12. Cells were evaluated according to their morphology and electrophysiological characteristics. To observe the expression of specific proteins of the nerve synapse, immunocytochemical techniques were applied using dying antibodies. Proteins localized in nerve terminals were dyed and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images of cell co-cultures showed the formation of neuromuscular junctions. The preparation of neuromuscular junctions described in this work will allow the study of the mechanisms involved in their functions.

  2. Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero PA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs.The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

  3. Genetic mechanisms controlling cardiovascular development.

    OpenAIRE

    Bentham, J; Bhattacharya, S.

    2008-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and death in the West; the incidence is approximately 1 in 145 live births. Mendelian and chromosomal syndromes account for approximately 20% of CHD. The genetic mechanisms underlying non-chromosomal or non-Mendelian "sporadic" CHD, which account for the remaining 80%, are poorly understood. The genetic architecture of sporadic CHD likely includes accumulation of rare nonsynonymous variants in cardiac developmental genes l...

  4. Mechanisms controlling crescentic bar amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Roland; Dodd, Nicholas; Falqués Serra, Albert; Calvete Manrique, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The formation of crescentic bars from self-organization of an initially straight shore-parallel bar for shore-normal incident waves is simulated with a two-dimensional horizontal morphodynamical model. The aim is to investigate the mechanisms behind the saturation process defined as the transition between the linear regime (maximum and constant growth of the crescentic pattern) and the saturated state (negligible growth). The global properties of the morphodynamical patterns over the whole co...

  5. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Rudolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and postsynaptic origin. Consequently, neuromuscular junctions are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, neuromuscular junctions morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the neuromuscular junction in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported.

  6. Neuromuscular Junction Protection for the Potential Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Krakora; Corey Macrander; Masatoshi Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), leading to muscular atrophy and eventual respiratory failure. ALS research has primarily focused on mechanisms regarding MN cell death; however, degenerative processes in the skeletal muscle, particularly involving neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), are observed in the early stages of and throughout disease progression. According to the “dying-back”...

  7. INTERACTION OF VERAPAMIL AND LITHIUM AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ON RAT ISOLATED MUSCLE-HEMIDIAPHRAGM

    OpenAIRE

    H.R . Sadeghipour; M. Mesbahian1 A.R. Dehpour

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that cither lithium or verapamil can potentiate the neuromuscular blocking activity of certain neuromuscular blockers. In the present investigation, possible interaction of verapamil with lithium has been described. The dose ? response effects of verapamil and lithium on diaphragmatic contractility were assessed in vitro. Mechanical responses of the muscle to indirect (nerve) and direct (muscle) electrical stimulation were recorded. Verapamil depressed rat diaphragm twitc...

  8. Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis

  9. Splicing therapy for neuromuscular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, AG; Wood, MJ

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases in humans. Both conditions are fatal and no clinically available treatments are able to significantly alter disease course in either case. However, by manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing using antisense oligonucleotides, defective transcripts from the DMD gene and from the SMN2 gene in SMA can be modified to once again produce protein and restore function. A large numb...

  10. DYNAMIC NEUROMUSCULAR STABILIZATION & SPORTS REHABILITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Clare; Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic neuromuscular (core) stability is necessary for optimal athletic performance and is not achieved purely by adequate strength of abdominals, spinal extensors, gluteals or any other musculature; rather, core stabilization is accomplished through precise coordination of these muscles and intra?abdominal pressure regulation by the central nervous system. Understanding developmental kinesiology provides a framework to appreciate the regional interdependence and the inter?linking of the ske...

  11. Diseases of the neuromuscular junction.

    OpenAIRE

    McConville, J; Vincent, A.

    2002-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction is a prototype synapse and it is also the site of well-characterised autoimmune and hereditary disorders. In the presynaptic terminal, voltage-gated potassium channels and voltage-gated calcium channels are subtly altered in genetic disorders and mutations in the enzyme that synthesises acetylcholine have been demonstrated in a particular form of hereditary myasthenia syndrome. Recent advances have revealed agrin, muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and rapsyn as importan...

  12. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. PMID:25935686

  13. Neuromuscular Activity and Knee Kinematics in Adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L; Roos, Ewa M.; Rasmussen, Sten; Christensen, Birgitte H; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    : Purpose: To investigate neuromuscular control of the knee during stair descent among female adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) and report its association with self-reported clinical status assessed by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS).Methods: Fifty-seven previously untreated female adolescents diagnosed with PFP aged 15 to 19 years were recruited from schools. The control group consisted of 29 age-matched healthy female adolescents. Bipolar surface electrodes wer...

  14. American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicare Physician Fee Schedule > Lumbar Intradiscal Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A ... (SAEs) for electrodiagnostic medicine and neuromuscular medicine. Committees composed of neurologists and ...

  15. Packet Loss Control Using STLCC Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    G. Srikanth Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Presently the Internet accommodates simultaneous audio, video, and data traffic. This requires the Internet to guarantee the packet loss which at its turn depends very much on congestion control. A series of protocols have been introduced to supplement the insufficient TCP mechanism controlling the network congestion. CSFQ was designed as an open-loop controller to provide the fair best effort service for supervising the per-flow bandwidth consumption and has become helpless when the P2P flow...

  16. Reactive Neuromuscular Training: A Multi-level Approach to Rehabilitation of the Unstable Shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Guido, John A.; Stemm, John

    2007-01-01

    In this clinical commentary, the use of reactive neuromuscular training (RNT) will be discussed as part of an overall functional rehabilitation program in the treatment of the unstable glenohumeral joint. The RNT program is designed to restore the synchrony and synergy of muscle firing patterns about the shoulder, which are required for dynamic joint stability and fine motor control. Reactive neuromuscular training allows the clinician to bridge the gap between the achievement of clinical bas...

  17. Immediate Efficacy of Neuromuscular Exercise in Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Christensen, Robin; Roos, Ewa M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the effects of exercise in severe and endstage osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a neuromuscular exercise program in patients with clinically severe hip or knee OA. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial. Patients received an educational package (care-as-usual) only, or care-as-usual plus an 8-week neuromuscular exercise intervention (NEMEX-TJR). NEMEX-TJR was supervised by a physiotherapist, twice weekly ...

  18. Computed tomography of muscles in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137 patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied by CT scan. Four levels were chosen: mid-calf, mid-thigh, pelvic girdle, and spinal muscles. The scans were compared with normal control scans taken from the same sites. The patients were divided into those with myogenic diseases and those with neurogenic diseases. Of the 102 patients with myogenic changes, 17 had X-linked dystrophy, 13 had facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 22 had limb girdle dystrophy, 19 had myotonic dystrophy, 14 had inflammatory muscle diseases, and 17 had miscellaneous muscular diseases. Of the 35 patients with neurogenic changes, 8 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 16 had chronic spinal amyotrophies, 9 had peripheral neuropathies, and 2 had Friedreich's disease. The analysis of muscles changes (volume, outline, density) was established on the following muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus, soleus, gastrocnemius mediale, gastrocnemius laterale, quadriceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, adductor, gracilis, gluteus, spine extensors, and psoas

  19. Computed tomography of skeletal muscles in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT-documentation of skeletal muscular lesions caused by neuromuscular diseases implies an essential contribution to conventional techniques in the macroscopic field. Size, distribution and degree of lesions as well as compensatory mechanisms are proved thereby. We report about the different effects on muscle appearance referring to 106 patients of our own experience in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, polyradiculitis, polyneuropathy as well as peripheral traumatic nerve lesions. (orig.)

  20. Nestin negatively regulates postsynaptic differentiation of the neuromuscular synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jiefei; Dominguez, Bertha; de Winter, Fred; Gould, Thomas W.; Eriksson, John E; Lee, Kuo-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative regulation of neurotransmitter receptor aggregation on the postsynaptic membrane is a critical event during synapse formation. Acetylcholine (ACh) and agrin are two opposing signals that regulate ACh receptor (AChR) clustering during neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development. ACh induces dispersion of AChR clusters that are not stabilized by agrin via a cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)-mediated mechanism, but regulation of Cdk5 activation is poorly understood. Here we sho...

  1. Active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: formation, density, and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Presynaptic active zones are synaptic vesicle release sites that playessential roles in the function and pathology of mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The molecular mechanisms of active zone organization utilize presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in NMJs as scaffolding proteins. VDCCs interact extracellularly with the muscle-derived synapse organizer, laminin ?2, and interact intracellularly with active zone-specific proteins, such as Bassoon, CAST/Erc2/ELKS2alpha...

  2. Operation of Control Rod Driving Mechanism controller at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) achieved its first critical operation in 1995. Recently, there has been fast developments in the field of electronics. Many manufacturers of I and C components have disappeared or merged with the other companies. The suppliers of the control systems of the CRDM (Control Rod Driving Mechanism) at HANARO have disappeared. Therefore, we needed to change the control system of the CRDM since we cannot be provided with maintenance any longer. In this paper, we investigated the operation of the control system of the CRDM when the controller and motor driver are changed

  3. [The neuromuscular blocking effects of ORG 9426].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M; Doenicke, A; Hofmann, A; Angster, R; Peter, K

    1991-12-01

    ORG 9426 is a new non-depolarizing steroidal muscle relaxant with a short onset time and intermediate duration of action. Its ED90 ist estimated to be between 0.25 and 0.36 mg/kg. The present study investigated the onset time, duration of action and time to spontaneous recovery after 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg ORG 9426, respectively (i.e. about single or triple ED90). METHODS. Following the consent of the ethics committee and informed patient consent, two groups of 18 patients (ASA I or II) were formed, each scheduled for general or ORL surgery. After premedication with lormetazepam, anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.07 mg/kg) and etomidate (0.3 mg/kg) and maintained with N2O/O2 at a 65:35 ratio, enflurane (0.8-1.5%) and supplements of fentanyl as needed. The ulnar nerve was stimulated with supramaximal 2 Hz Train-of-four (TOF) every 20 s. Neuromuscular twitch response was registered with EMG. Muscle relaxation was achieved by administration of ORG 9426 0.3 (group 1) and 0.9 mg/kg (group 2), respectively. The following parameters were measured: onset time (time interval from injection to maximal or total block), T125/75 (time for T1 to reach 25% or 75% of control), TOF70 (time for TOF ratio to reach 70% of control), heart rate and blood pressure. RESULTS. (mean +/- SD). At a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, the onset time was 3.1 +/- 0.8 min and the maximum blockade was 87 +/- 9%. A dosage of 0.9 mg/kg led to complete paralysis (100%) in all patients within 1.2 +/- 0.3 min. The time for recovery of T1 to 25 and 75% of baseline was 18 +/- 7 and 26 +/- 8 min in group 1, in group 2 46 +/- 11 and 53 +/- 17 min, respectively. TOF70 (i.e., time to adequate spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function) was achieved after 30 +/- 10 and 63 +/- 14 min, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. At a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, ORG 9426 has an onset time of about 3 min and a duration of activity of nearly half an hour. Its neuromuscular effects are similar to a single ED90 dose of vecuronium. In contrast to a previous study, we observed a much shorter onset time of 70 s following the administration of 0.9 mg/kg. The clinical duration of action and spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function, however, were significantly prolonged to more than 1 h. The hemodynamic parameters showed only slight alterations. PMID:1664192

  4. LRP4 Is Critical for Neuromuscular Junction Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critic...

  5. Bayesian analysis of the kinetics of quantal transmitter secretion at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Anatoly; Khuzakhmetova, Venera; Samigullin, Dmitry; Skorinkin, Andrey; Kovyazina, Irina; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-10-01

    The timing of transmitter release from nerve endings is considered nowadays as one of the factors determining the plasticity and efficacy of synaptic transmission. In the neuromuscular junction, the moments of release of individual acetylcholine quanta are related to the synaptic delays of uniquantal endplate currents recorded under conditions of lowered extracellular calcium. Using Bayesian modelling, we performed a statistical analysis of synaptic delays in mouse neuromuscular junction with different patterns of rhythmic nerve stimulation and when the entry of calcium ions into the nerve terminal was modified. We have obtained a statistical model of the release timing which is represented as the summation of two independent statistical distributions. The first of these is the exponentially modified Gaussian distribution. The mixture of normal and exponential components in this distribution can be interpreted as a two-stage mechanism of early and late periods of phasic synchronous secretion. The parameters of this distribution depend on both the stimulation frequency of the motor nerve and the calcium ions' entry conditions. The second distribution was modelled as quasi-uniform, with parameters independent of nerve stimulation frequency and calcium entry. Two different probability density functions for the distribution of synaptic delays suggest at least two independent processes controlling the time course of secretion, one of them potentially involving two stages. The relative contribution of these processes to the total number of mediator quanta released depends differently on the motor nerve stimulation pattern and on calcium ion entry into nerve endings. PMID:26129670

  6. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em cães com atrofia muscular induzida Neuromuscular electric stimulation in dogs with induced muscle atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pelizzari; A. Mazzanti; A.G. Raiser; S.T.A. Lopes; D.L Graça; A.T. Ramos; F.Z. Salbego; R. Festugatto; D.V. Beckmann; L. B. SOUZA; M.G.M.C.M. Cunha; R.P. Santos; B. Garmatz; Silva, A.P.; D.A.F. Sturza

    2008-01-01

    Empregou-se a estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM) de baixa freqüência no músculo quadríceps femoral de cães com atrofia induzida e avaliou-se a ocorrência de ganho de massa nessa musculatura. Foram utilizados oito cães com pesos entre 15 e 30kg, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos denominados de I ou controle e II ou tratado. A articulação femorotibiopatelar esquerda foi imobilizada por 30 dias pelo método de transfixação percutânea tipo II, com retirada de aparelho de imobilizaç...

  7. Stress controls the mechanics of collagen networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licup, Albert James; Münster, Stefan; Sharma, Abhinav; Sheinman, Michael; Jawerth, Louise M; Fabry, Ben; Weitz, David A; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2015-08-01

    Collagen is the main structural and load-bearing element of various connective tissues, where it forms the extracellular matrix that supports cells. It has long been known that collagenous tissues exhibit a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship, although the origins of this nonlinearity remain unknown. Here, we show that the nonlinear stiffening of reconstituted type I collagen networks is controlled by the applied stress and that the network stiffness becomes surprisingly insensitive to network concentration. We demonstrate how a simple model for networks of elastic fibers can quantitatively account for the mechanics of reconstituted collagen networks. Our model points to the important role of normal stresses in determining the nonlinear shear elastic response, which can explain the approximate exponential relationship between stress and strain reported for collagenous tissues. This further suggests principles for the design of synthetic fiber networks with collagen-like properties, as well as a mechanism for the control of the mechanics of such networks. PMID:26195769

  8. Efectos del vendaje neuromuscular: una revisión bibliográfica / Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review / Efeitos neuromusculares de bandages: uma revisão da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Antonio, Calero Saa; Gustavo Adolfo, Cañón Martínez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A kinesio taping é uma técnica que foi criada em 1979 por Dr. Kenzo Kase Estou procurando através dele que poderia gerar uma nova opção terapêutica para controlar a dor, melhorar o desempenho atlético e reduzir o impacto de distúrbios músculo-esqueléticos. Do Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, estatécnica c [...] omo uma alternativa terapêutica PTO e é composto de profissionais de saúde na área de reabilitação física e esporte. Alvo: Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar abordagens teóricas sobre oNeuromuscular curativo. Materiais e métodos: realizou hoje, para o qual realizou uma pesquisa bibliográficados bancos de dados, tais como como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs). O documento propõe um esquemade contextualização do cenário atual do uso e efeitos de kinesio taping na gestão dasdiferentes patologias do sistema músculo-esquelético no esporte. Conclusões: conclui-se quemuitos profissionais de saúde atualmente, e tomar as vandaje neuromuscular uma boa opção terapêutica no tratamento de doenças que afetam o corpo humano é investigada e cada dia mais sobre o assunto, o que torna esses novos métodosterapêuticos para adquirir um valor científico e transcende o conhecimento. Abstract in spanish El vendaje neuromuscular es una técnica creada en 1979 por el doctor Kenzo Kase, quien buscó proponer una nueva opción terapéutica para controlar el dolor, mejorar el rendimiento deportivo y reducir el impacto de los trastornos musculo-esqueléticos. A partir de los Juegos Olímpicos de Sydney 2000 es [...] ta técnica empleada por los profesionales de la salud en el campo del deporte y la rehabilitación física tomó fuerza como alternativa terapéutica. Objetivo: identificar las aproximaciones teóricas sobre el vendaje neuromuscular realizadas en la actualidad. Materiales y métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica en bases de datos como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs). El esquema del artículo propone una contextualización del panorama actual del uso y los efectos del vendaje neuromuscular en el campo deportivo y en el manejo de diferentes patologías del sistema musculo-esquelético. Conclusiones: se concluye que actualmente muchos profesionales de la salud toman el vendaje neuromuscular como un buena opción terapéutica en el manejo de patologías que afectan el cuerpo humano, por lo cual cada día se investiga más acerca del tema, otorgando un valor científico a estos nuevos métodos. Abstract in english The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I'm looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as [...] a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation. Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs). The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scie

  9. Optimal Control of Underactuated Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, I I; Hussein, Islam I.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use an affine connection formulation to study an optimal control problem for a class of nonholonomic, under-actuated mechanical systems. In particular, we aim at minimizing the norm-squared of the control input to move the system from an initial to a terminal state. We consider systems evolving on general manifolds. The class of nonholonomic systems we study in this paper includes, in particular, wheeled-type vehicles, which are important for many robotic locomotion systems. The two special aspects of this optimal control problem are the nonholonomic constraints and under-actuation. Nonholonomic constraints restrict the evolution of the system to a distribution on the manifold. The nonholonomic connection is used to express the constrained equations of motion. Furthermore, it is used to take variations of the cost functional. Many robotic systems are under-actuated since control inputs are usually applied through the robot's internal configuration space only. While we do not consider symmetri...

  10. Stance control knee mechanism for lower-limb support in hybrid neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis S. To, PhD

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A hydraulic stance control knee mechanism (SCKM was developed to fully support the knee against flexion during stance and allow uninhibited motion during swing for individuals with paraplegia using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS for gait assistance. The SCKM was optimized for maximum locking torque for body-weight support and minimum resistance when allowing for free knee motion. Ipsilateral and contralateral position and force feedback were used to control the SCKM. Through bench and nondisabled testing, the SCKM was shown to be capable of supporting up to 70 N-m, require no more than 13% of the torque achievable with FNS to facilitate free motion, and responsively and repeatedly unlock under an applied flexion knee torque of up to 49 N-m. Preliminary tests of the SCKM with an individual with paraplegia demonstrated that it could support the body and maintain knee extension during stance without the stimulation of the knee extensor muscles. This was achieved without adversely affecting gait, and knee stability was comparable to gait assisted by knee extensor stimulation during stance.

  11. Stance control knee mechanism for lower-limb support in hybrid neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Curtis S; Kobetic, Rudi; Bulea, Thomas C; Audu, Musa L; Schnellenberger, John R; Pinault, Gilles; Triolo, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    A hydraulic stance control knee mechanism (SCKM) was developed to fully support the knee against flexion during stance and allow uninhibited motion during swing for individuals with paraplegia using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for gait assistance. The SCKM was optimized for maximum locking torque for body-weight support and minimum resistance when allowing for free knee motion. Ipsilateral and contralateral position and force feedback were used to control the SCKM. Through bench and nondisabled testing, the SCKM was shown to be capable of supporting up to 70 N-m, require no more than 13% of the torque achievable with FNS to facilitate free motion, and responsively and repeatedly unlock under an applied flexion knee torque of up to 49 N-m. Preliminary tests of the SCKM with an individual with paraplegia demonstrated that it could support the body and maintain knee extension during stance without the stimulation of the knee extensor muscles. This was achieved without adversely affecting gait, and knee stability was comparable to gait assisted by knee extensor stimulation during stance. PMID:21938668

  12. Replacement means for control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To permit assembling and removal operation of a control rod drive mechanism to be carried out speedily and properly irrespective of the degree of skill of the operating personnel. Structure: When removing a control rod drive mechanism (CRD) a service platform and a frame body are operated for bringing a CRD lift guide frame to a position below the CRD to be removed. Then, a CRD receptacle is placed at the lower end of the CRD, and water is drained from the CRD. Subsequently, a chain is driven by a drive means in a direction which lowers the receptacle, and only the CRD is lowered along the CRD lift guide frame. Thereafter, the CRD is secured at its upper portion by a support means, and the CRD lift guide frame is lowered by a lift jack to thereby permit revolution of the CRD, The CRD lift frame after revolution is lifted and then removed to the outside. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  14. Control mechanisms in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zden?k

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and activity of mitochondria are key factors in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity and axogenesis. The majority of energy sources, necessary for cellular functions, originate from oxidative phosphorylation located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The adenosine-5’- triphosphate production is regulated by many control mechanism–firstly by oxygen, substrate level, adenosine-5’-diphosphate level, mitochondrial membrane potential, and rate of coupling and proton leak. Recen...

  15. La monitorización neuromuscular y su importancia en el uso de los bloqueantes neuromusculares / Neuromuscular monitoring and its importance in neuromuscular blockade

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Fabregat López; César Augusto, Candia Arana; Caridad Greta, Castillo Monzón.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La necesidad por incorporar nuevas guías o estrategias en la buena práctica de uso de los bloqueantes neuromusculares no es un hecho de obligado cumplimento en la actualidad dentro de la anestesiología. Solo existen recomendaciones de actuación con el propósito de convencer que la moni [...] torización neuromuscular es una herramienta muy útil para el buen uso racional de los bloqueantes neuromusculares. Metodología: Las complicaciones surgen, y la parálisis residual es un evento destacado. Por esta razón, los autores propugnamos que la monitorización del bloqueo neuromuscular puede ser un factor determinante en la mejora del cuidado de nuestros pacientes, disminuyendo tanto la morbilidad como la mortalidad. Esta revisión y su metodología en base a la experiencia de los autores solo pretende exponer de forma sencilla conocimientos que consideramos básicos para su utilización sistemática en nuestra práctica rutinaria. Resultados y conclusiones: Esta actualización describe los principios fundamentales de los métodos que disponemos en la actualidad, priorizando las medidas cuantitativas de registro. Y también demuestra el diferente comportamiento de la musculatura al efecto de los bloqueantes neuromusculares, fundamentos relevantes que es preciso conocer. La monitorización neuromuscular es una práctica que debe utilizarse siempre que un bloqueo neuromuscular sea necesario. Somos conscientes que generar una recomendación explícita es difícil. Pero nuestro entusiasmo parte del beneficio de una experiencia personal con estos métodos que son conocidos desde antiguo. Debido a la potencial morbilidad asociada con bloqueos neuromusculares residuales, la monitorización perioperatoria de la función neuromuscular es esencial. Abstract in english Introduction: The incorporation of new guidelines or strategies as part of good practices in the use of muscle relaxants is not a requirement at present in the practice of anesthesia. There are only action recommendations designed to persuade clinicians of the fact that neuromuscular monitoring is a [...] very useful tool for the rational use of muscle relaxants. Methodology:Complications occur, and residual paralysis is a significant event. For this reason, the authors advocate that monitoring neuromuscular block may be a determining factor in improving patient care and reducing morbidity and mortality. This review and its methodology based on the experience of the authors is designed to present, in a simple format, the knowledge that considered fundamental for the systematic use of neuromuscular monitoring in every day practice. Results and conclusions: This update describes the fundamental principles of the methods available at present, emphasizing quantitative recording measurements. It then describes the different ways in which muscles respond to the effect of neuromuscular blockade, as these are critical fundamental principles that have to be known. Neuromuscular monitoring is a practice that should be implemented every time a neuromuscular block is required. We are aware of the difficulty of generating an explicit recommendation, but our enthusiasm is derived from the benefits we have personally experienced when applying these methods that have been known for a long time. Due to the potential morbidity associated with residual muscle relaxation, perioperative monitoring of neuromuscular function is essential.

  16. PICU EXTUBATION FAILURE: THE ROLE OF NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Billan MD,

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuromuscular disorders (diseases of the motor unit, can cause respiratory problems such as impaired cough reflex, chest deformity, recurrent pneumonia and acute respiratory failure; these are the worst most common complications of these diseases and the leading cause of death in such patients (1, 2. Their management hence, very often, entails admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU (3,4 and during this phase, endotracheal intubation is almost always necessary, to maintain the patency of airways and to apply Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV. However, endotracheal intubation is always temporary, and its success or failure depends on the timely decision of its termination to restore the normal respiration or to avoid the risk of recurring respiratory failure (5, 6. We designed this study to evaluate the role of neuromuscular disorders in causing extubation failure as compared to that of other risk factors.Materials & MethodsIn an analytical cross-sectional study, the risk factors of reintubation and duration of mechanical ventilation in two groups of 30 patients each, was compared, the first successful extubation and the second with extubation failure.ResultsNeuromuscular disorders (including Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Guillain- Barre' Syndrome, Congenital Myopathies and Muscular Dystrophies were the main underlying diseases in extubation-failure group (P= 0.0002. Hypercapnia (PaCO2>50mmHg was shown to be the most common cause of both the first intubation (P=0.001 and reintubation (P=0.004 in the group of patients who failed extubation. The mean duration of intubation and mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with neuromuscular disorders who had extubation failure (P= 0.01.ConclusionThis study showed that, as underlying problems, neuromuscular disorders are the most common causes of prolonged intubation which defeat weaning from the ventilator and result in reintubation by inducing hypercapnia. Therefore the weaning process needs to be done gradually in these patients, and in conjunction with supportive measures, such as close observation for at least for 72 hours following extubation to monitor any possibility of recurrence of hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  17. Targeting RNA to treat neuromuscular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Muntoni, F; Wood, MJ

    2011-01-01

    The development of effective therapies for neuromuscular disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is hampered by considerable challenges: skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body, and many neuromuscular disorders are multisystemic conditions. However, despite these barriers there has recently been substantial progress in the search for novel treatments. In particular, the use of antisense oligonucleotides, which are designed to target RNA and modulate pre-mRNA splici...

  18. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical ...

  19. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami; Følsgaard, Søren; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gätke, Mona R

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight would provide a better surgical workspace. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, assessor- and patient-blinded randomised cross-over study. A total of 34 patients with planned laparoscopic umbi...

  20. Pelvic fixation for neuromuscular scoliosis deformity correction

    OpenAIRE

    Dayer, Romain; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Saran, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic fixation is most frequently indicated in the pediatric population for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis with significant pelvic obliquity. Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery is associated with a high risk of complications, and this is further increased by extension of fusion to the sacrum. Numerous techniques have been described for pelvic fixation associated with a long spine fusion each with its own set of specific benefits and risks. This article reviews the contemporary surgica...

  1. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular block in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Safiya I; Bellagali, Vijayalaxmi P

    2010-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation has been performed during the administration of Propofol anaesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. In the study, we have assessed tracheal intubating conditions and haemodynamic responses in children aged 4 to12 years by using combination of either Fentanyl and Propofol; or Propofol and a neuromuscular blocker, suxamethonium. Intubating conditions were assessed on a 1-4 scale based on ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, degree of coughing and jaw relaxatio...

  2. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin in neuromuscular diseases: focus on inflammatory myopathies / Aplicações clínicas de imunoglobulina em doenças neuromusculares com foco em miopatias inflamatórias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Victor Sgobbi de, Souza; Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende, Pinto; Acary Souza Bulle, Oliveira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, um número progressivo de doenças neuromusculares passaram a ser reconhecidas tanto por ser causadas por mecanismos autoimunes ou por envolver importantes componentes autoimunes. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos e as manifestações clínicas envolvidos têm sido mais bem reconhecidos e m [...] uitas de tais doenças são potencialmente tratáveis por imunossupressão ou imunomodulação com imunoglobulina intravenosa (IVIg). IVIg vem sendo utilizada em uma variedade de doenças neurológicas imunomediadas, sendo alvo de amplo uso em doenças dos sistemas nervosos central e periférico. Objetivo Oferecer uma visão global sobre os principais tópicos relacionados aos mecanismos de ação e aos diferentes usos terapêuticos da IVIg na prática neurológica, principalmente em doenças neuromusculares. Abstract in english During recent years, an increasing number of neuromuscular diseases have been recognized either to be caused primarily by autoimmune mechanisms, or to have important autoimmune components. The involved pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations have been better recognized and many of [...] these disorders are potentially treatable by immunosuppression or by immunomodulation with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). IVIg has been tried in a variety of immune-mediated neurological diseases, being target of widespread use in central and peripheral nervous systems diseases. Objective To give an overview of the main topics regarding the mechanism of action and different therapeutic uses of IVIg in neurological practice, mainly in neuromuscular diseases.

  3. The neuromuscular differential diagnosis of joint hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkervoort, S; Bonnemann, C G; Loeys, B; Jungbluth, H; Voermans, N C

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility is the defining feature of various inherited connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome and various types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and these will generally be the first conditions to be considered by geneticists and pediatricians in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with such findings. However, several congenital and adult-onset inherited myopathies also present with joint hypermobility in the context of often only mild-to-moderate muscle weakness and should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of joint hypermobility. In fact, on the molecular level disorders within both groups represent different ends of the same spectrum of inherited extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders. In this review we will summarize the measures of joint hypermobility, illustrate molecular mechanisms these groups of disorders have in common, and subsequently discuss the clinical features of: 1) the most common connective tissue disorders with myopathic or other neuromuscular features: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome; 2) myopathy and connective tissue overlap disorders (muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders), including collagen VI related dystrophies and FKBP14 related kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; and 3) various (congenital) myopathies with prominent joint hypermobility including RYR1- and SEPN1-related myopathy. The aim of this review is to assist clinical geneticists and other clinicians with recognition of these disorders. PMID:25821091

  4. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, John J. (Durham, NH)

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  5. Frecuencia de anticuerpos contra neospora caninum y toxoplasma gondii en canes con signos clínicos de afección neuromuscular / Frequency of antibodies against neospora caninum y toxoplasma gondii in dogs with clinical signs of neuromuscular disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Ruíz R; Eva, Casas A; Francisco, Suárez A; Diego, Díaz C; Viviana, Fernández P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii y Neospora caninum son causantes de enfermedades neuromusculares en canes. El objetivo de este estudio de Caso-Control fue encontrar la asociación entre la presencia de anticuerpos contra N. caninum y T. gondii en canes con signos clínicos neuromusculares. Se colectó muestras de sa [...] ngre a 96 y 120 canes con y sin signos clínicos de afección neuromuscular, respectivamente. Los sueros se analizaron con la prueba de Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFI) para la detección de anticuerpos (IgG), donde los sueros con fluorescencia completa del taquizoíto en la dilución 1:50 fueron considerados positivos. La frecuencia para T. gondii fue de 24.0 ± 8.5% (23/96) y de 3.3 ± 3.1 (4/120) para canes con y sin afecciones neuromusculares, respectivamente, y para N. caninum fue de 5.2 ± 4.4 (5/96) y de 1.7 ± 2.5 (2/120) para canes con y sin afecciones neuromusculares, respectivamente. Se observó asociación significativa entre la afección neuromuscular y la presencia de anticuerpos anti-T. gondii, mas no así con anticuerpos anti-N. caninum. Abstract in english Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum can cause neuromuscular disorders in dogs. The aim of the Case-Control study was to determine the association between antibodies anti N. caninum and anti-T. gondii in dogs with neuromuscular disorders. Blood samples were collected in 96 and 120 dogs with and wi [...] thout clinical signs of neuromuscular disorders respectively. Serum samples were analyzed by the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFI) for the detection of IgG antibodies, considering positive the sera showing complete fluorescence of the tachyzoite in the dilution 1:50. The frequency for T. gondii was 24.0 ± 8.5% (23/96) and 3.3 ± 3.1 (4/120) for dogs with and without signs of neuromuscular disorders, and for N. caninum was 5.2 ± 4.4 (5/96) and 1.7 ± 2.5 (2/120) for dogs with and without signs of neuromuscular disorders, respectively. There was a significant association between neuromuscular disorders and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies but not in the case of the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies.

  6. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC LOGO unit, an electrical motor, an electrical clutch, a belt, two pulleys, limit switches, push buttons, bulbs, a table (holder and power supply. According to suggested gear_ shifting method the driver can select the transmission gear ratio without moving his hands from the steering wheel by putting the gear shifting push buttons on the steering wheel. Using this method leaves to the driver the excitement of choosing the shifting moment.

  7. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower and maximum (upper level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, fabrication and mounting at a lower cost. Its testing had shown and proved that it works efficiently with Archimedes’ principle of floatation. This eliminates the frequent human intervention/monitoring of the water level in the overhead tank to control overflow manually, thereby eliminating water and energy wastages.

  8. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive “wires”. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the “passive” view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g. putting in a contact lens to highly forceful (emergency reactions. Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation.

  9. Effects of evidence-based prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in adolescent female athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.; Brandt, Mikkel; Myklebust, Grethe; Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne Bloch; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent female football and handball players are among the athletes with the highest risk of sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. AIM: This study evaluated the effects of evidence-based lower extremity injury prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: 40 adolescent female football and handball players (15-16?years) were randomly allocated to a control group (CON, n=20) or neuromuscular training group (N...

  10. Does perioperative tactile evaluation of the train-of-four response influence the frequency of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Viby-Mogensen, J; Bang, U; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Jensen, E; Engboek, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the usefulness of perioperative manual evaluation of the response to train-of-four (TOF) nerve stimulation. A total of 80 patients were divided into four groups of 20 each. For two groups (one given vecuronium and one pancuronium), the anesthetists assessed the degree of neuromuscular blockade during operation and during recovery from neuromuscular blockade by manual evaluation of the response to TOF nerve stimulation. In t...

  11. Control mechanisms for a nonlinear model of international relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentek, A.; Kadtke, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-07-15

    Some issues of control in complex dynamical systems are considered. The authors discuss two control mechanisms, namely: a short range, reactive control based on the chaos control idea and a long-term strategic control based on an optimal control algorithm. They apply these control ideas to simple examples in a discrete nonlinear model of a multi-nation arms race.

  12. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Roos, Ewa M.; Hodges, Paul W; Staples, Margaret; Bennell, Kim L

    2012-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supe...

  13. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  14. Mechanical control of epithelial lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Alejo E; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cells differentiate and polarize to build complete epithelial organs during development. The study of epithelial morphogenesis is instrumental to the understanding of disease processes where epithelial polarity is disrupted. Recently, we demonstrated that matrix-induced cell confinement controls the acquisition of three-dimensional epithelial polarity, by modulating the initiation of the apical membrane to form a central lumen (J Cell Biol 2012; 198:1011-1026). Cell confinement can be achieved by use of micropatterned culture chips that allow precise micrometric-scale control of the cell adhesion surface and its composition. Using micropattern chips, we demonstrated that polarizing epithelial cells require high confinement conditions to properly position the centrosome and the trafficking machinery toward the cell-cell contacts and to initiate lumen morphogenesis. Low confinement induces LKB1 and RhoA-mediated cell contractility, which inhibits this mechanism for lumen formation. Deactivation of Myosin-II-mediated contractility rescued normal lumen initiation in low confinement conditions. Our results indicate that a mechanotransduction pathway coordinates nuclear and centrosome positioning to initiate epithelial morphogenesis. Here we discuss the potential candidates that control this process, specifically the polarized activation of Rho and Rab-family GTPases, and also a group of recently characterized nuclear transcription factors. PMID:23511851

  15. Efeitos do aquecimento e do alongamento na resposta neuromuscular dos isquiotibiais / Effects of warm-up and stretching on the neuromuscular response of the hamstrings / Efectos del calentamiento y del alongamiento en la respuesta neuromuscular de los isquiotibiales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Felipe de Souza, Nogueira; Caio Alano de Almeida, Lins; Angelica Vieira Cavalcanti, Souza; Jamilson Simões, Brasileiro.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A preparação para a atividade esportiva frequentemente envolve aquecimento e/ou alongamento, no intuito de prevenir lesões e/ou melhorar o desempenho. No entanto, a maneira como essas práticas podem interferir nos mecanismos neuromusculares de controle articular não é clara. OBJETIV [...] O: Analisar o efeito imediato do alongamento e do aquecimento, isolados ou associados, no tempo de latência muscular (TLM) e na amplitude de ativação dos isquiotibiais, após perturbações repentinas da articulação do joelho. MÉTODOS: Sessenta voluntários do sexo feminino (média de idade de 22,3 ± 1,7 anos e IMC 21,4 ± 1,3 kg/cm2) foram divididas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: (1) controle, (2) aquecimento, (3) alongamento, (4) aquecimento + alongamento. A atividade elétrica dos isquiotibiais foi captada por eletromiografia de superfície durante uma perturbação súbita do joelho. Um eletrogoniômetro detectou o início da variação angular, enquanto os eletrodos captaram o início e a amplitude da atividade muscular antes e após as intervenções. Como procedimento estatístico utilizou-se ANOVA two-way e post-hoc de Tukey, considerando-se como nível de significância p Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: La preparación para la actividad deportiva frecuentemente vincula calentamiento y/o alongamiento, con la intención de prevenir lesiones y/o mejorar el desempeño. Mientras tanto, la manera en cómo esas prácticas pueden interferir en los mecanismos neuromusculares de control articular [...] no es clara. OBJETIVO: Analizar el efecto inmediato del alongamiento y del calentamiento, aislados o asociados, en el tiempo delatencia muscular (TLM) y en la amplitud de activación de los isquiotibiales, después de perturbaciones repentinas de la articulación de la rodilla. MÉTODOS: Sesenta voluntarias del sexo femenino (promedio de edad de 22,3 ± 1,7 años e IMC 21,4 ± 1,3 kg/cm2) fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos: (1) control, (2) calentamiento, (3) alongamiento, (4) calentamiento + alongamiento. La actividad eléctrica de los isquiotibiales fue captada por electromiografía de superficie durante una perturbación súbita de la rodilla. Un electrogoniómetro detectó el inicio de la variación angular, mientras que los electrodos captaron el inicio y la amplitud de la actividad muscular antes y después de las intervenciones. Como procedimiento estadístico se usó ANOVA two-way y post-hoc de Tukey, considerándose como nivel de significancia p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The preparation for sports activities often involves warm-up and/or stretching in order to prevent injuries and/or improve performance. However, how these practices may interfere with neuromuscular mechanisms of joint control is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate effect [...] of stretching and warm-up exercises, alone or combined, on muscle latency time (MLT) and hamstrings activation amplitude after sudden knee joint disturbances. METHODS: Sixty female volunteers (mean age 22.3±1.7 years, BMI 21.4±1.3kg/cm2) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) warm-up, (3) stretching, (4) warm-up + stretching. Hamstrings electrical activity was recorded by surface electromyography during a sudden knee disturbance. An electrogoniometer detected the onset of angular variation, while electrodes recorded the onset and amplitude of muscle activity before and after interventions. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey were used in statistical analysis, considering a significance level of p

  16. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  17. The role of humoral autoimmunity in gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Hubball, A; Martin, JE; Lang, B.; De Giorgio, R.; Knowles, CH

    2009-01-01

    Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal neuromuscular apparatus (including interstitial cells of Cajal) is presumed to underlie a heterogeneous group of disorders collectively termed gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases (GINMDs). There is increasing experimental and clinical evidence that some GINMDs are immune-mediated, with cell-mediated dysfunction relatively well studied. Humoral (antibody)-mediated autoimmunity is associated with several well-established acquired neuromuscular diseases an...

  18. The emerging diversity of neuromuscular junction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom-Davis, J

    2007-07-01

    Research advances over the last 30 years have shown that key transmembrane proteins at the neuromuscular junction are vulnerable to antibody-mediated autoimmune attack These targets are acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in myasthenia gravis, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) in neuromyotonia. In parallel with these immunological advances, mutations identified in genes encoding pre-synaptic, synaptic and postsynaptic proteins that are crucial to neuromuscular transmission have revealed a similar diversity of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). These discoveries have had a major impact on diagnosis and management. PMID:17915563

  19. Computed tomography (CT) in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 24 patients with confirmed neuromuscular disorders, the clinical picture of the disease was complemented with CT examination. It is concluded, in accordance with the literature, that CT has a supplementary value as regards the extent and degree of disorder of the affected muscle groups. The basic pathological picture includes muscular atrophies, dystrophies, hypertrophies, and their combinations. The CT images are non-specific for the individual neuromuscular disorders and are of minor importance in the diagnostic process. 1 tab., 7 figs., 6 refs

  20. Research highlights of partial neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the latest progression on neuromuscular disorders for clinicians, this review screened and systemized the papers on neuromuscular disorders which were collected by PubMed from January 2013 to February 2014. This review also introduced the clinical diagnosis and treatment hightlights on glycogen storage disease type ? (GSD ?, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The important references will be useful for clinicians. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.004

  1. Effects of a short proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching bout on quadriceps neuromuscular function, flexibility, and vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Blum, Yannick; Armand, Stéphane; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Behm, David G

    2013-02-01

    The inclusion of relatively long bouts of stretching (repeated static stretches of ?30 seconds) in the warm-up is usually associated with a drop in muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel self-administered proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) paradigm with short periods of stretching and contraction on quadriceps neuromuscular function, vertical jump performance, and articular range of motion (ROM). Twelve healthy men (age: 27.7 ± 7.3 years, height: 178.4 ± 10.4 cm, weight: 73.8 ± 16.9 kg) volunteered to participate in a PNF session and a control session separated by 2-7 days. The PNF stretching lasted 2 minutes and consisted of 4 sets of 5-second isometric hamstring contraction immediately followed by 5 seconds of passive static stretch of the quadriceps immediately followed by 5 seconds isometric quadriceps contraction for each leg. For the control session, the participants were asked to walk at a comfortable speed for 2 minutes. Active ROM of knee flexion, vertical jump performance, and quadriceps neuromuscular function were tested before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the intervention. The PNF stretching procedure did not affect ROM, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation level, M-wave and twitch contractile properties that could be attributed to PNF stretching. The present self-administered PNF stretching of the quadriceps with short (5-second) stretches is not recommended before sports where flexibility is mandatory for performance. PMID:22505131

  2. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  3. O uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil / Neuromuscular blockers in Brazil / El uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Simões de, Almeida.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dados estatísticos referentes ao uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil são desconhecidos. Este trabalho se propõe a análise estatística desse tópico. MÉTODO: Foram compiladas 831 respostas de um questionário preenchido em parte por anestesiologistas presentes ao 48 [...] º Congresso Brasileiro de Anestesiologia em Recife, 2001 e em parte via Internet, por anestesiologistas cujos endereços eletrônicos constam na página da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (www.sba.com.br). Foram analisados os seguintes dados: tempo de contato com a especialidade, região onde atuam os anestesiologistas, uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM) em ordem de preferência, indicações do uso de succinilcolina, uso do monitor da transmissão neuromuscular, critérios para se considerar o paciente descurarizado, uso de neostigmina, forma de administração dos BNM e descrição de complicações observadas. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos anestesiologistas em questão exerce a profissão há mais de 11 anos e o maior número de respostas foi proveniente da região sudeste do Brasil. O BNM mais empregado é o atracúrio, seguido de pancurônio e succinilcolina. A succinilcolina é mais empregada na indução rápida e em crianças (80% e 25% respectivamente). Monitores da transmissão neuromuscular, 53% dos anestesiologistas nunca usam, e como critério de recuperação, 92% consideram o paciente descurarizado mediante sinais clínicos. Em 45% das vezes os profissionais empregam a neostigmina de forma rotineira, e 94% administra os BNM sob forma de bolus. Cerca de 30% registra ter havido complicação decorrente do uso de BNM. As complicações mais apontadas foram o bloqueio prolongado, o broncoespasmo grave e a curarização residual. CONCLUSÕES: O atracúrio é o bloqueador neuromuscular mais empregado no Brasil, há percentual alto de uso da succinilcolina em situações não emergenciais, o uso de monitores da transmissão neuromuscular é raro, e, como um corolário, um percentual significativo de uso de critérios eminentemente clínicos para considerar o paciente descurarizado. Registrou-se que, cerca de 30% dos anestesiologistas teve algum tipo de complicação decorrente do uso desses fármacos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Dados estadísticos referentes al uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil son desconocidos. Este trabajo se propone el análisis estadístico de ese tópico. MÉTODO: Fueron compiladas 831 respuestas de un cuestionario llenado en parte por anestesiologistas presentes al 4 [...] 8º Congreso Brasileño de Anestesiologia en la ciudad de Recife, 2001 y en parte vía Internet, por anestesiologistas cuyas direcciones electrónicas constan en la página de la Sociedad Brasileña de Anestesiologia (www.sba.com.br). Fueron analizados los siguientes datos: tiempo de contacto con la especialidad, región donde actúan los anestesiologistas, uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM) en orden de preferencia, indicaciones del uso de succinilcolina, uso del monitor de transmisión neuromuscular, criterios para considerar el paciente descurarizado, uso de neostigmina, forma de administración de los BNM y descripción de complicaciones observadas. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los anestesiologistas en cuestión ejerce la profesión hace más de 11 años y el mayor número de respuestas fue proveniente de la región sudeste de Brasil. El BNM más empleado es el atracúrio, seguido de pancurónio y succinilcolina. La succinilcolina es más empleada en la inducción rápida y en niños (80% y 25% respectivamente). Monitores de la transmisión neuromuscular, 53% de los anestesiologistas nunca usan, y como criterio de recuperación, 92% consideran el paciente descurarizado mediante señales clínicas. En un 45% de las veces los profesionales emplean la neostigmina de forma rutinaria, y 94% administra los BNM bajo forma de bolus. Cerca del 30% registra que tuvieron complicación consecuente del uso de BNM. Las complicaciones más apuntadas fueron e

  4. THE ROLE OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR MEDICINE SPECIALIST AND PHYSIATRY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Craig M. McDonald; Fowler, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The neuromuscular medicine, and physiatry specialists are key health care providers who work cooperatively with a multidisciplinary team to provide coordinated care for persons with Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). The director or coordinator of the team must be aware of the potential issues specific to NMDs and be able to access the interventions that are the foundations for proper care in NMD. These include health maintenance and proper monitoring of disease progression and complications to p...

  5. Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

  6. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  7. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: gjin@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  8. Spectrum of Cyber threats & Available Control Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Mangla, Dr.S.N.Panda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is undoubtedly the largest public data network enabling and facilitating both personal & business communications worldwide. Wireless networking has experienced a tremendous growth becoming an integral part of homes, offices & all type of businesses. It provides many advantages, but it is also coupled with many security threats and alters the organizations overall information security risk profile. Although implementation of technological solution is the usual respond to the wireless security threats and vulnerabilities, wireless security is primarily a management issue. Cyber crime is constantly evolving and the growing increase in the number of threats that use social engineering techniques is causing concern for several businesses. All it takes is for one user to click on a malicious link and a firm’s network can be brought to a grinding halt. But the early days of cyber threats have gone now. Cyber threats have increased in large number. The volume of effect of these attacks has increased tremendously whereas the transaction time has decreased. The sources of attacks and exploitations are difficult to determine within time frames that enable victims to avoid damage, and any defensive measure is likely eventually to fail given the vulnerabilities of most cyber systems and the incapacities of users. In this paper we review different cyber threats and control mechanisms available and how these are affecting the network world.

  9. Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jerome

    This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

  10. Reversión del bloqueo neuromuscular inducido por vecuronio: sugammadex o neostigmina / Reversal of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade: sugammadex vs. neostigmine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Migdel G, Abreu Darias; Idoris, Cordero Escobar; Gisela, Pérez Martinez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se han descrito diferencias entre la reversión de los bloqueantes neuromusculares con sugammadex y neostigmina. La mayoría concuerda que los resultados con sugammadex son superiores. Objetivos: comparar la capacidad del sugammadex y la neostigmina para revertir el bloqueo neuromuscular [...] con vecuronio. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, para evaluar la capacidad del recobro muscular con vecuronio, tras la reversión con sugammadex y neostigmina. Se evaluó el recobro muscular por exploración clínica. Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 405 pacientes, al Grupo S, correspondieron 135 pacientes y al Grupo N 270. El tiempo medio de duración de la intervención quirúrgica, fue para el grupo S de 32,21±1,2 min y para el Grupo N de 33,16 ±1,2 min. El promedio de tiempo de la reversión en el grupo S fue de 2.2 minutos y en el grupo N de 14.4 min. La calidad de la recuperación, en ambos grupos fue buena, no obstante las diferencias observadas en la frecuencia de los revertidos con sugammadex, resultó estadísticamente significativa (p = 0.00001). Las complicaciones fueron mas frecuentes en el grupo N. Conclusiones: se corroboró la capacidad del sugammadex para revertir el bloqueo neuromuscular con vecuronio. El tiempo de reversión del bloqueo fue 6,54 veces más prolongado con neostigmina. La calidad de la recuperación fue 1.34 veces mejor con de sugammmadex. Las reacciones adversas fueron 11,02 veces mas frecuentes con neostigmina que con sugammadex. Abstract in english Introduction: studies are available about the differences between reversal of neuromuscular blockers with sugammadex and neostigmine. Most studies agree that results are better when sugammadex is used. Objectives: compare the capacity of sugammadex and neostigmine to revert vecuronium-induced neurom [...] uscular blockade. Methods: a case-control study was conducted to evaluate neuromuscular recovery with vecuronium after reversal with sugammadex and neostigmine. Muscular recovery was evaluated by clinical examination. Results: a total 405 patients were studied. Group S was composed of 135 patients and Group N of 270. Mean surgical duration was 32.21±1.2 min for Group S and 33.16 ±1.2 min for Group N. Average reversal time was 2.2 min in Group S and 14.4 min in Group N. The quality of recovery was good in both groups. However, the frequency differences found in patients reverted with sugammadex were statistically significant (p = 0.00001). Complications were more frequent in Group N. Conclusions: the capacity of sugammadex to revert vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade was confirmed. Reversal time was 6.54 longer with neostigmine. The quality of recovery was 1.34 times better with sugammadex. Adverse reactions were 11.02 times more frequent with neostigmine than with sugammadex.

  11. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  12. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System, a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS. In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  13. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Lund, Hans

    Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Holtermann A3, Lund H1,2, Søgaard K1 1University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, DK 2Institute of Occupational Therapy, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, DK E-mail: cmlarsen@health.sdu.dk AIMS: The aims were to understand potential mechanisms for impairment in the neuromuscular function of the scapular stabilisers in a general patient sample with SIS, and to assess the clinimetric properties of clinical assessment methods of scapular kinematics as important aspects for optimising effect measures of treatment in order to improve clinical guidelines in this area. METHODS: Scapular muscle activity was examined, 1) during a voluntary arm movement task and 2) selective activation tasks during sessions with and without on-line biofeedback, in a general population consisting of 16 SIS patients and 15 controls (No-SIS). Furthermore, 3) a systematic review was conducted of all available clinical scapular assessment methods and their associated clinimetric results, and the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to critically assess the quality of the involved studies for each measurement property. RESULTS: 1) In spite of a general tendency for higher scapular muscle activity among SIS patients, between-group differences were not significant, either in activity level, ratio of activation between muscles or in the time of activity onset of the muscles, 2) Using the defined criteria of: (i) a selective activation above 12% of maximum activation during which other muscle parts were below 1.5% activity or (ii) an activation ratio above 95% of the total activity of all muscles, significantly fewer SIS subjects than No-SIS subjects achieved selective activation of individual scapular muscle compartments without on-line biofeedback of muscle activity from each muscle compartment of the trapezius muscle, 3) On the basis of 46 included articles, a total of 55 names of clinical assessment methods were identified. Thirty-one of the studies included in the quality assessment of the reliability and validity domains were classified as ‘fair’ (55%) to ‘poor’ (45%), with only one study being rated as ‘good’. Few of the assessment methods in the included studies with ‘fair’ or ‘good’ measurement property ratings demonstrated acceptable results for reliability and validity. Responsiveness was not investigated. CONCLUSION: 1) No between-group differences of SIS and No-SIS subjects in neuromuscular activity of scapular stabilising muscles were observed, 2) and when provided with visual EMG feedback, the SIS group performed equally well as the No-SIS group, However, when assessing the neuromuscular function with and without the use of biofeedback, the findings show that without biofeedback, the SIS group had alower scapular muscle control, 3) When addressing the possibility for measuring scapular kinematics clinically, the findings show a substantially larger number of clinical assessment methods for scapular position and function than previously reported. None of the included clinical assessment methods had been examined for all three domains: reliability, validity (diagnostic accuracy), as well as responsiveness. Based on these results, the current findings question the generalisability of current rehabilitation guidelines to the general population with SIS, however, SIS patients may benefit from biofeedback training. Lastly, these results indicate that very few clinical assessment methods have sufficient clinimetric properties that can be recommended for clinical use.

  14. Neuromuscular transmission studies in human chronic Chagas' disease / Estudio de la transmisión neuromuscular en la enfermedad de Chagas crónica humana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Garcia, Erro; O., Genovese; J., Correale; R. E. P., Sica.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Cincuenta y ocho pacientes con edades entre los 1 y 58 años, con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Chagas crónica fueron estudiados para evaluar la transmisión neuromuscular. Se estimuló en forma supramáxima el nervio cubital a nivel de muñeca, con registro de electrodos de superficie en hipotenar. Dicha [...] estimulación se realizó a 3 Hz durante 2 segundos y 10 Hz durante 1 segundo en condiciones basales, trás 4 minutos de ejercicio mecánico, luego de 4 minutos de ejercicio mecánico mas isquemia y trás 2 minutos de liberada la isquemia. Se procedió a medir la amplitud del 3, 5, 6 y 10 potencial, que fueron expresados como variación porcentual con respecto al primero al que se le asignó un valor de 100%. Treinta pacientes no evidenciaron diferencias con respecto a la curva obtenida en 20 sujetos controles, 4 mostraron una caida del potencial evocado muscular, 6 una caida del mismo cuando el estímulo se realizó la bajas frecuencias y un incremento cuanto el estímulo fue a altas frecuencias. En los restantes 18 pacientes se observó un incremento del pem. Estos hallazgos sugieren una posible alteración de la transmisión neuromuscular en algunos pacientes que han alcanzado el estadio crónico de la enfermedad de Chagas de probable localización pré y/o post-sináptica. Abstract in english An electrophysiological investigation of the state of the neuromuscular transmission (nmt) was carried out in 58 patients with the diagnosis of chronic Chagas' disease. On repetitive supramaximal nerve stimulation it was found that some patients did not show abnormalities, others had decremental mus [...] cle responses, others developed enhancement of the muscle evoked potential amplitudes, while some other patients combined both types of pathological responses. The findings suggest that some patients with chronic Chagas' disease develop impairement of nmt, though data obtained in this study do not give information about neither the type of impairement nor the localization (pre or postsynaptic, or both) of the damage.

  15. Interacciones farmacológicas con el uso de bloqueantes neuromusculares / Drug interactions with the use of neuromuscular blockers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Idoris, Cordero Escobar.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la interacción medicamentosa es la capacidad que tiene un fármaco de alterar los efectos farmacológicos de otro que se administre simultáneamente. Objetivo: realizar una actualización sobre la interacción farmacológica de los bloqueantes neuromusculares, con fármacos de uso frecuente. [...] Desarrollo: los bloqueadores neuromusculares, se utilizan para relajar la musculatura estriada, garantizar la intubación traqueal, la ventilación y producir un plano quirúrgico suficiente. Muchos medicamentos interactúan con ellos y con frecuencia potencian el efecto bloqueante muscular. Esto resulta de importancia clínica en el caso de antibióticos, anestésicos inhalatorios, litio y ciclosporina. Se puede producir dificultad en la reversión del bloqueo con los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio y la polimixina. Otros como la fenitoína, carbamazepina y litio pueden provocar resistencia a estos fármacos. Existen compuestos que tienen la capacidad de producir relajación muscular por su propia acción, de forma aditiva o sinérgica. En algunas situaciones dichas interacciones pueden ser beneficiosas, como en el caso de los agentes inhalados que cursan con buena relajación muscular y disminuyen los requerimientos de las dosis de bloqueantes neuromusculares; pero en la mayoría de los casos las interacciones son peligrosas. Conclusiones: aunque el anestesiólogo moderno tiene suficientes conocimientos teóricos sobre interacciones medicamentosas, debe tener presenta las que pueden producir los bloqueantes neuromusculares, pues pueden inducir un bloqueo neuromuscular impredecible en la práctica diaria. Abstract in english Introduction: drug interaction is the capacity of a drug to alter the pharmacological effects of another one being administered simultaneously. Objective: carry out an update of the interaction of neuromuscular blockers with frequently used drugs. Results: neuromuscular blockers are used to relax th [...] e striated muscle, permit tracheal intubation and ventilation, and create sufficient surgical plane. Many drugs interact with them, and they frequently enhance the muscular blocking effect. The process is clinically important in the case of antibiotics, inhaled anesthetics, lithium and cyclosporin. Difficulty in blockade reversal may arise when calcium channel blockers and polymyxin are administered. Other drugs, such as phenytoin, carbamazepine and lithium, may cause resistance to these medications. There are compounds which may cause muscular relaxation due to their own action or in an additive or synergic manner. Some such interactions may be beneficial, as is the case with inhaled agents, which produce good muscular relaxation and lower the dose requirements of neuromuscular blockers. But in most cases interactions are dangerous. Conclusions: even though modern anesthesiologists have sufficient theoretical knowledge about drug interactions, they should bear in mind those produced by neuromuscular blockers, for they may induce unpredictable neuromuscular blockade in daily practice.

  16. Congenital myasthenic syndromes and the formation of the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, David; Webster, Richard; Cossins, Judith; Lashley, Daniel; Spearman, Hayley; Maxwell, Susan; Slater, Clarke R; Newsom-Davis, John; Palace, Jacqueline; Vincent, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting neuromuscular transmission. Underlying mutations have been identified in at least 11 different genes. The majority of CMS patients have disorders due to mutations in postsynaptic proteins. Initial studies focused on dysfunction of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) itself as the major cause of CMS. However, it is becoming apparent that mutations of proteins involved in clustering the AChR and maintaining neuromuscular junction structure form important subgroups. Analysis of the mutations in the AChR-clustering protein, rapsyn, show diverse causes for defective AChR localization and suggest that the common mutation rapsyn-N88K results in AChR clusters that are less stable than those generated by wild-type rapsyn. More recently, mutations in the newly identified endplate protein Dok-7 have been shown to affect AChR clustering and the generation and maintenance of specialized structures at the endplate. Dok-7 binds MuSK and many of the mutations of DOK7 impair the MuSK signaling pathway. Components of this pathway will provide attractive gene candidates for additional forms of CMS. The phenotypic characteristics of the different CMS in which muscle groups may be differentially affected not only provide clues for targeted genetic screening, but also pose further intriguing questions about underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:18567858

  17. Neuromuscular effects of G93A-SOD1 expression in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Sakowski Stacey A; Lunn J; Busta Angela S; Oh Sang; Zamora-Berridi Grettel; Palmer Madeline; Rosenberg Andrew A; Philip Stephen G; Dowling James J; Feldman Eva L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder involving the degeneration and loss of motor neurons. The mechanisms of motor neuron loss in ALS are unknown and there are no effective treatments. Defects in the distal axon and at the neuromuscular junction are early events in the disease course, and zebrafish provide a promising in vivo system to examine cellular mechanisms and treatments for these events in ALS pathogenesis. Results We demonstrate that transient g...

  18. Role of exercise in maintaining the integrity of the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Stanford, John A.; Mori, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing chronic disease in adults and the elderly. Exercise has beneficial effects on the nervous system, including at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Exercise causes hypertrophy of NMJs and improves recovery from peripheral nerve injuries, whereas decreased physical activity causes degenerative changes in NMJs. Recent studies have begun to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise. These mechanisms involve B...

  19. O uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil El uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil Neuromuscular blockers in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dados estatísticos referentes ao uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil são desconhecidos. Este trabalho se propõe a análise estatística desse tópico. MÉTODO: Foram compiladas 831 respostas de um questionário preenchido em parte por anestesiologistas presentes ao 48º Congresso Brasileiro de Anestesiologia em Recife, 2001 e em parte via Internet, por anestesiologistas cujos endereços eletrônicos constam na página da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (www....

  20. Mechanisms and Control of Silk-based Electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Feng; Zuo, Baoqi; Fan, Zhihai; Xie, Zonggang; LU, QIANG; Zhang, Xueguang; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers, formed through electrospinning, have attractive utility in regenerative medicine due to the biocompatibility, mechanical properties and tailorable degradability. The mechanism of SF electrospun nanofiber formation was studied to gain new insight into the formation and control of nanofibers. SF electrospinning solutions with different nanostructures (nanospheres or nanofilaments) were prepared by controlling the drying process during the preparation of regenerated...

  1. Control of a mechanical gripper with a fuzzy controller; Control de una garra robotizada mediante un controlador borroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Gamero, E.; Navarrete, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    A fuzzy logic system is used to control a mechanical gripper. System is based in a NLX230 fuzzy micro controller. Control rules are programmed by a 68020 microprocessor in the micro controller memory. Stress and its derived are used as feedback signals in the control. This system can adapt its effort to the mechanical resistance of the object between the fingers. (Author)

  2. The tested control rod drive mechanism system based on PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to test control rod drive mechanism would be match the functions and performance of the requirements of the design specifications, and complete the factory test, design this test device for test drive mechanism. The device based on programmable logic controller realized rod lifting, rod keeping, rod inserting and integrated alarm etc. Function. It introduces the working principle and realization method of the test device of control rod drive mechanism. Through connecting debugging with driving mechanism. The result proved that the test device would be match requirements of the technical agreement, the function and performance of CRDM meet the requirements of the design specifications of the production. (authors)

  3. Humans robustly adhere to dynamic walking principles by harnessing motor abundance to control forces

    OpenAIRE

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Human walking dynamics are typically framed in the context of mechanics and energetics rather than in the context of neuromuscular control. Dynamic walking principles describe one helpful theoretical approach to characterize efficient human walking mechanics over many steps. These principles do not, however, address how such walking is controlled step-by-step despite small perturbations from natural variability. Our purpose was to identify neuromechanical control strategies used to achieve co...

  4. Controlling a mechanical oscillator with a tunable coherent feedback network

    CERN Document Server

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Ku, H S; Kindel, William F; Cicak, Katarina; Simmonds, Raymond W; Lehnert, K W

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a fully cryogenic microwave feedback network composed of distinct superconducting devices interconnected by waveguides and designed to control a mechanical oscillator coupled to one of the devices. The network is partitioned into an electromechanical device to be controlled and a dynamically tunable controller that coherently receives, processes and feeds back continuous microwave signals that modify the dynamics and readout of the mechanical state. While previous electromechanical systems represent some compromise between efficient control and efficient readout of the mechanical state, as set by the electromagnetic decay rate, this flexible controller yields a closed-loop network that can be dynamically and continuously tuned between both extremes much faster than the mechanical response time. We demonstrate that the microwave decay rate may be modulated by at least a factor of 10 at a rate greater than $10^4$ times the mechanical response rate.

  5. Two Mechanisms to Avoid Control Conflicts Resulting from Uncoordinated Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Wagner, David A.; Bennett, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a real-time access control protocol that is intended to make all connected users aware of the presence of other connected users, and which of them is currently in control of the system. Here, "in control" means that a single user is authorized and enabled to issue instructions to the system. The software The software also implements a goal scheduling mechanism that can detect situations where plans for the operation of a target system proposed by different users overlap and interact in conflicting ways. In such situations, the system can either simply report the conflict (rejecting one goal or the entire plan), or reschedule the goals in a way that does not conflict. The access control mechanism (and associated control protocol) is unique. Other access control mechanisms are generally intended to authenticate users, or exclude unauthorized access. This software does neither, and would likely depend on having some other mechanism to support those requirements.

  6. Method of inspecting control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct inspection for control rod drives and fuel handling operations in parallel without taking out the entire fuel, while maintaining the reactor in a subcritical state. Method: Control rod drives are inspected through the release of connection between control rods and control rod drives, detachment and dismantling of control rod drives, etc. In this case, structural materials having neutron absorbing power equal to or greater than the control rods are inserted into the gap after taking out fuels. Since the structural materials have neutron absorbing portion, subcriticality is maintained by the neutron absorbing effect. Accordingly, there is no requirement for taking out all of the fuels, thereby enabling to check the control rod drives and conduct handling for the fuels in parallel. As a result, the number of days required for the inspection can be shortened and it is possible to improve the working efficiency for the decomposition, inspection, etc. of the control rod drives and, thus, improve the operation efficiency of the nuclear power plant thereby attaining the predetermined purpose. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. The emerging diversity of neuromuscular junction disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Research advances over the last 30 years have shown that key transmembrane proteins at the neuromuscular junction are vulnerable to antibody-mediated autoimmune attack These targets are acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in myasthenia gravis, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) in neuromyotonia. In parallel with these immunological advances, mutations identified in g...

  8. Neuromuscular forms of glycogen branching enzyme deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, C; Cassandrini, D.; Assereto, S.; Orhan Akman, H; Minetti, C; Di Mauro, S

    2007-01-01

    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme is causative of Glycogen Storage Disease type IV (GSD-IV), a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the glycogen synthesis, characterized by the accumulation of amylopectin-like polysaccharide, also known as polyglucosan, in almost all tissues. Its clinical presentation is variable and involves the liver or the neuromuscular system and different mutations in the GBE1 gene, located on chromosome 3, have been identified in both phenotypes. This review will ...

  9. Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autono...

  10. Acute neuromuscular responses to car racing

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Jani

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine racing car drivers’ acute neuromuscular responses to race driving. The secondary purpose was to compare the cardiovascular loading of driving to that of maximal rowing action. Methods: The subjects of the present cross-sectional study (n = 9) were international level karting drivers. The study was performed in two parts; the laboratory tests and driving test. All subjects took part to the laboratory tests and five of the subjects per...

  11. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in mana...

  12. Flightless Flies: Drosophila models of neuromuscular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Thomas E; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a long and rich history as an important model organism for biologists. In particular, study of the fruit fly has been essential to much of our fundamental understanding of the development and function of the nervous system. In recent years, studies using fruit flies have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Fly models of spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dyst...

  13. Prevalence of complications in neuromuscular scoliosis surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Shallu; Wu, Chunsen; Andersen, Thomas; Wang, Yu; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody Eric

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our objectives were primarily to review the published literature on complications in neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) surgery and secondarily, by means of a meta-analysis, to determine the overall pooled rates (PR) of various complications associated with NMS surgery. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies reporting the outcomes and complications of NMS surgery, published from 1997 to May 2011. We focused on NMS as defined by the Scoliosis Research Society's classif...

  14. Neuromuscular disorder as a presenting feature of coeliac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjivassiliou, M; CHATTOPADHYAY, A; DAVIES-JONES, G; Gibson, A; GRUNEWALD, R; Lobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the range of neuromuscular disorders which may be associated with cryptic coeliac disease.?METHODS—Nine patients were described with neuromuscular disorders associated with circulating antigliadin antibodies, whose duodenal biopsies later confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Neurological symptoms antedated the diagnosis of coeliac disease in all, and most had minimal or no gastrointestinal symptoms at the onset of the neuromuscular disorder.?RES...

  15. Surgical advances in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Canavese, Federico; Rousset, Marie; Le Gledic, Benoit; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are a group of diseases affecting the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Children with neuromuscular disorders frequently develop progressive spinal deformities with cardio-respiratory compromise in the most severe cases. The incidence of neuromuscular scoliosis is variable, inversely correlated with ambulatory abilities and with a reported risk ranging from 80% to 100% in non-ambulatory patients. As surgical and peri-operative techniques have improved, more severely affec...

  16. Strength training induced adaptations in neuromuscular function of premenopausal women with fibromyalgia: comparison with healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkinen, A; Hakkinen, K.; Hannonen, P.; Alen, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effects of 21 weeks' progressive strength training on neuromuscular function and subjectively perceived symptoms in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia (FM).?METHODS—Twenty one women with FM were randomly assigned to experimental (FMT) or control (FMC) groups. Twelve healthy women served as training controls (HT). The FMT and HT groups carried out progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The major outcome measures were muscle strength and electro...

  17. Neuromuscular scoliosis - surgical management and outcomes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Puddu; RN, Dunn.

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular scoliosis affects a heterogeneous group of patients with myopathic, upper and lower motor neuron diseases. Spinal surgery is often required to optimise respiratory, sitting and ambulatory function. OBJECTIVES: Review of management and outcomes of surgically treated neuromuscular scolio [...] sis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of prospectively maintained data, including demographics, intra-operative variables, pre- and post-operative imaging, complications, outcomes and a telephonic follow-up questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients (45 male and 53 female) were included in the study. The average operating time was 230 (100-525 ± 60.9) minutes and an average of 15.4 (8-19 ± 2.9) levels were fused. Pedicle screw only constructs corrected the primary curve by 63% initially and 56% correction at last follow-up. Hybrid constructs had an immediate correction of 69% and 47% at last follow-up. Although pedicle screw constructs lost less correction when compared to hybrid constructs, this was not a statistically significant difference. Pelvic obliquity was corrected from 14.02 (0-80 ± 15.54) to 4.06 (0-35 ± 7.69) degrees. The majority of the telephonic responses were positive. CONCLUSION: : Corrective spinal surgery in the neuromuscular patient is demanding with a high rate of complications but outcomes are good, with radiographic correction maintained in the long term and high level of patient and parent satisfaction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III

  18. Experimental quadriceps muscle pain impairs knee joint control during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans; Simonsen, Erik B; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Pain is a cardinal symptom in musculoskeletal diseases involving the knee joint, and aberrant movement patterns and motor control strategies are often present in these patients. However, the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms linking pain to movement and motor control are unclear. To investigate the functional significance of muscle pain on knee joint control during walking, three-dimensional gait analyses were performed before, during, and after experimentally induced muscle pain by means of i...

  19. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular na reversão da ossificação heterotópica / Neuromuscular electric stimulation in heterotropic ossification regression

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Bechara Jacob, Ferreira; Henrique Cambraia, Lippelt; Alberto, Cliquet Júnior.

    Full Text Available A ossificação heterotópica é uma complicação freqüente após a lesão medular. Os avanços graduais no campo da fisiopatologia, reabilitação e novos métodos de tratamento são uma esperança para a reversão do quadro clínico do lesado medular num futuro próximo. O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar a respos [...] ta da ossificação heterotópica das articulações coxo femorais à estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em pacientes tetraplégicos após trauma raquimedular. Seis pacientes foram submetidos à estimulação elétrica neuromuscular por um período médio de 16,6 meses, sendo avaliados radiologicamente. Foi identificada a melhora radiológica em dois pacientes e a não progressão do quadro nos demais. A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em lesados medulares pode ser um método válido no tratamento da ossificação heterotópica e prevenção de sua progressão. Abstract in english Heterotropic ossification is a common complication after spinal cord injury. Gradual advancements in the physiopathology and rehabilitation fields, and new treatment methods are a hope for the recovery of the clinical picture of injured individuals in the near future. The objective of this study was [...] to evaluate the heterotropic ossification response of the thigh-femoral joints to neuromuscular electric stimulation in tetraplegic patients after rachial-medullar trauma. Six patients were submitted to neuromuscular electric stimulation for an average period of 16.6 months, being evaluated for X-ray imaging. Improvements on X-ray images were identified in two patients and the non-progression of the picture was observed in the remaining patients. Neuromuscular electric stimulation in spinal cord-injured individuals could be a useful method for treating heterotropic ossification and related progression prevention.

  20. Oil pollution control mechanisms - statutes and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide a detailed picture of federal statutes and regulations, as well as case law, bearing on oil spill prevention and control. Emphasis has been placed on federal action occurring after a spill, although some effort is directed toward review of prevention statutes and regulations. In-depth consideration is given the control of oil pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act but this analysis also touches lightly upon acts that have a lesser effect on oil pollution control. These acts being: The Refuse Act; The Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972; The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; The Oil Pollution Act of 1961; The Deepwater Port Act of 1974, and The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

  1. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-01-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the...

  2. A synaptic nidogen: Developmental regulation and role of nidogen-2 at the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyth Neil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skeletal neuromuscular junction is a useful model for elucidating mechanisms that regulate synaptogenesis. Developmentally important intercellular interactions at the neuromuscular junction are mediated by the synaptic portion of a basal lamina that completely ensheaths each muscle fiber. Basal laminas in general are composed of four main types of glycosylated proteins: laminins, collagens IV, heparan sulfate proteoglycans and nidogens (entactins. The portion of the muscle fiber basal lamina that passes between the motor nerve terminal and postsynaptic membrane has been shown to bear distinct isoforms of the first three of these. For laminins and collagens IV, the proteins are deposited by the muscle; a synaptic proteoglycan, z-agrin, is deposited by the nerve. In each case, the synaptic isoform plays key roles in organizing the neuromuscular junction. Here, we analyze the fourth family, composed of nidogen-1 and -2. Results In adult muscle, nidogen-1 is present throughout muscle fiber basal lamina, while nidogen-2 is concentrated at synapses. Nidogen-2 is initially present throughout muscle basal lamina, but is lost from extrasynaptic regions during the first three postnatal weeks. Neuromuscular junctions in mutant mice lacking nidogen-2 appear normal at birth, but become topologically abnormal as they mature. Synaptic laminins, collagens IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycans persist in the absence of nidogen-2, suggesting the phenotype is not secondary to a general defect in the integrity of synaptic basal lamina. Further genetic studies suggest that synaptic localization of each of the four families of synaptic basal lamina components is independent of the other three. Conclusion All four core components of the basal lamina have synaptically enriched isoforms. Together, they form a highly specialized synaptic cleft material. Individually, they play distinct roles in the formation, maturation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction.

  3. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Schefer, Yannick; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD) on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and r...

  4. Avaliação da ativação neuromuscular em indivíduos com escoliose através da eletromiografia de superfície / Assessment of neuromuscular activation in individuals with scoliosis using surface electromyography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Bassani; CT, Candotti; M, Pasini; M, Melo; M, La Torre.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o potencial da eletromiografia (EMG) de superfície para a avaliação da eficiência neuromuscular e da fadiga muscular localizada dos extensores lombares em indivíduos com escoliose. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 20 indivíduos divididos igualmente e [...] m dois grupos, (1) Grupo com Escoliose e (2) Grupo Controle, que foram submetidos a um teste de indução dos músculos extensores lombares a fadiga, o qual constituiu da realização de uma contração voluntária máxima isométrica (CVM), e realização de um teste com esforço a 80% da CVM. Foram coletados simultaneamente sinais de força e eletromiográficos (sinal EMG). O sinal EMG foi processado no domínio da freqüência, utilizando-se a transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT), por meio da mediana da freqüência (MF), e no domínio do tempo, pelo cálculo do valor root mean square (RMS). Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância one-way para verificar as diferenças entre os dois grupos. Para verificar a simetria entre os lados direito e esquerdo, foi realizado o teste t pareado. O nível de significância adotado foi 0,05. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que indivíduos com escoliose apresentaram: (1) simetria de ativação neuromuscular entre os lados; (2) menor eficiência neuromuscular; (3) maior capacidade de resistir a fadiga; e (4) valores de força 42,6% menores que os indivíduos do GC. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que a EMG de superfície corresponde a um efetivo instrumento de avaliação funcional da escoliose, embora o protocolo estabelecido tenha limitado a participação dos indivíduos com escoliose, do ponto de vista da eficiência neuromuscular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of surface electromyography (EMG) for assessing neuromuscular efficiency and localized muscle fatigue in the lumbar extensors, in individuals with scoliosis. METHODS: Twenty individuals participated in this study, divided equally into [...] two groups: (1) Scoliosis Group and (2) Control Group. These subjects underwent a fatigue induction test on their lumbar extensor muscles, consisting of one maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) followed by a test at 80% of the MVIC effort. Force and EMG signals were collected simultaneously. The EMG signal was processed in the frequency domain by means of fast Fourier transforms using the median frequency; and in the time domain by calculating the root mean square value. The data were analyzed by means of one-way analysis of variance to investigate the differences between the two groups. Paired t test was used to investigate the symmetry between the right and left sides. The significance level adopted was 0.05. RESULTS: The results showed that the individuals with scoliosis presented: (1) symmetrical neuromuscular activation between the sides; (2) lower neuromuscular efficiency; (3) greater capacity to resist fatigue; and (4) force values 42.6% lower than those of the individuals in the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that surface EMG is an effective tool for functional assessments of scoliosis, although the protocol established limited the participation of individuals with scoliosis, from the perspective of neuromuscular efficiency.

  5. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F

    2015-01-01

    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  6. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2013-01-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases.

  7. A compartmentalized microfluidic neuromuscular co-culture system reveals spatial aspects of GDNF functions

    OpenAIRE

    Zahavi, Eitan Erez; Ionescu, Ariel; Gluska, Shani; Gradus, Tal; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Perlson, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Bidirectional molecular communication between the motoneuron and the muscle is vital for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation and maintenance. The molecular mechanisms underlying such communication are of keen interest and could provide new targets for intervention in motoneuron disease. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform with motoneuron cell bodies on one side and muscle cells on the other, connected by motor axons extending through microgrooves to form functional NMJs. Using this ...

  8. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive “wires”. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the “passive” view...

  9. Stress in Families of Children With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1979-01-01

    This study compared parents of children with neuromuscular diseases to parents of children with psychiatric diagnoses, using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress. The groups showed different patterns of stress relating to child care. Within the neuromuscular group, parental stress increased with the severity of the child's illness.…

  10. Recent achievements in restorative neurology: Progressive neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 27 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Computed Tomography of Muscles in Neuromuscular Disease; Mapping the Genes for Muscular Dystrophy; Trophic Factors and Motor Neuron Development; Size of Motor Units and Firing Rate in Muscular Dystrophy; Restorative Possibilities in Relation to the Pathology of Progressive Neuromuscular Disease; and An Approach to the Pathogenesis of some Congenital Myopathies

  11. The immediate effect of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment on the standing balance in younger persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Ko; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in standing balance of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 57 healthy young people, who were divided into three groups: The NJF group, and the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) group and the control group. [Methods] Functional reach test and body sway were measured before and after intervention in three groups. Four hip patterns of NJF or PNF were used. Two-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons were performed. [Results] The rate of change of FRT in the NJF group increased than the PNF group. The root mean square area at NJF and PNF group increased than control group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that caput femoris rotation function can be improved by NJF treatment, and that improvement of caput femoris rotation contributes to improve dynamic balance. PMID:26157245

  12. Mechanics and model-based control of advanced engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Advanced Engineering Systems collects 32 contributions presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines, which took place in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2012. The workshop continued a series of international workshops, which started with a Japan-Austria Joint Workshop on Mechanics and Model Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures and a Russia-Austria Joint Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. In the present volume, 10 full-length papers based on presentations from Russia, 9 from Austria, 8 from Japan, 3 from Italy, one from Germany and one from Taiwan are included, which represent the state of the art in the field of mechanics and model based control, with particular emphasis on the application of advanced structures and machines.

  13. Analysis and Comparison of Access Control Policies Validation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aqib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Validation and verification of security policies is a critical and important task to ensure that access control policies are error free. The two most common problems present in access control policies are: inconsistencies and incompleteness. In order to detect such problems, various access control policy validation mechanisms are proposed by the researchers. However, comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the existing access control policy validation techniques is missing in the literature. In this paper, we have provided a first detailed survey of this domain and presented the taxonomy of the access control policy validation mechanisms. Furthermore, we have provided a qualitative comparison and trend analysis of the existing schemes. From this survey, we found that only few validation mechanisms exist that can handle both inconsistency and incompleteness problem. Also, most of the policy validation techniques are inefficient in handling continuous values and Boolean expressions.

  14. Novel Mechanism Control Algorithm for Wired Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kirubanand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A critical issue in wireless network where the data can hack by the person and we add a novel encryption mechanism to protect the data transfer from client to server and vice versa. Approach: We present a queuing model of a client and server that uses for bulk arrival service. The arrival of data requests is assumed to Markov Poisson Distributed Process (MPDP and the events are considered in the server for process sharing. We obtained the parameter of service rate, arrival rate, expected waiting time and expected busy period. We also derive the expression for the data value of threshold. Results: The total number of packets request processed, there was no time limit to arrivals, while compared to m/m/1 model. Our model m/m (1,b/1 was more efficient to find response and request time in between client and server. Conclusions: Our proposed simulation model validated through Java programming.

  15. Molecular motors: design, mechanism and control

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Biological functions in each animal cell depend on coordinated operations of a wide variety of molecular motors. Some of the these motors transport cargo to their respective destinations whereas some others are mobile workshops which synthesize macromolecules while moving on their tracks. Some other motors are designed to function as packers and movers. All these motors require input energy for performing their mechanical works and operate under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The typical size of these motors and the forces they generate are of the order of nano-meters and pico-Newtons, respectively. They are subjected to random bombardments by the molecules of the surrounding aqueous medium and, therefore, follow noisy trajectories. Because of their small inertia, their movements in the viscous intracellular space exhibits features that are characteristics of hydrodynamics at low Reynold's number. In this article we discuss how theoretical modeling and computer simulations of these machines by...

  16. The effects of band exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscular strength in lower extremity

    OpenAIRE

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Su-Hyun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a six-week elastic band exercise program using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can increase isotonic strength of abductor muscles in the lower extremity. Twenty-eight healthy students from S university were divided into an experimental group and control group. Each group was participated in pre and post-measurement in isotonic strength using an isotonic analyzer, En-treeM. Experimental group performed elastic band exercise using...

  17. The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were ass...

  18. Cross-training effects of a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise programme on knee musculature

    OpenAIRE

    Kofotolis, N.D.; ?????????, ?.?.; Kellis, E.; ??????, ?.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the cross-training effects of a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training (PNF) program on peak torque and endurance. Design: Factorial design. Participants: Twenty-three males were assigned to a PNF group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Interventions: The PNF program included training of the knee extensor and flexor muscles for a period of 8 weeks, exercising three times a week. PNF training included performance of knee movements through range of motion agai...

  19. Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion i) reduces maximal muscle activation and ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: i) before and after prolonged mental exertion leading to mental fatigue; ii) before and after an easy cognitive task (control). Both cognitive tasks lasted 90...

  20. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, N N; Cools, A; De Wilde, B; Boon, M; Witvrouw, E

    2009-08-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs have been shown to be the most effective stretching technique to increase the range of motion (ROM). The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism of effect of PNF stretching on changes in the ROM. Sixty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups: a PNF stretching group and a control group. The PNF group performed a 6-week stretching program for the calf muscles. Before and after this period, all subjects were evaluated for dorsiflexion ROM, passive resistive torque (PRT) of the plantar flexors and stiffness of the Achilles tendon. The results of the study revealed that the dorsiflexion ROM was significantly increased in the PNF group (DeltaROMext: 5.97+/-0.671 degrees ; DeltaROMflex: 5.697+/-0.788 degrees ). The PRT of the plantar flexors and the stiffness of the Achilles tendon did not change significantly after 6 weeks of PNF stretching. These findings provide evidence that PNF stretching results in an increased ankle dorsiflexion. However, this increase in ROM could not be explained by a decrease of the PRT or by a change in stiffness of the Achilles tendon, and therefore can be explained by an increase in stretch tolerance. PMID:18627559

  1. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2011-01-01

    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Reliability characteristics associated with criticality control mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likelihood of a criticality control factor failing is ascertainable through the application of maximum entropy analysis. Since reactor operation can occur within a range of system conditions without abrupt uncontrollable deviations from stability manifesting themselves, catastrophe theory models are useful in demonstrating the reactor system functioning in the vicinity of uncontrollable deviations. A Fokker-Planck equation is used to describe the domains of reactor operation wherein it is most appropriate to specify behavior either in terms of relaxation times for criticality disturbances to return to equilibrium or in terms of diffusion constants for the propagation of instabilities wherein these relaxation times and diffusion constants are functions of the criticality parameters. The reactor criticality phenomena are related to the impact of such phenomena upon human life and behavior through the utilization of the principle of minimum regret and its ramifications as expressed by regret theory. (author)

  3. MECHANISMS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES WITH TRICHODERMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on biological control with Trichoderma species has demonstrated that different mechanisms are important for different host/disease/biocontrol agent interactions. While antibiosis is important in the control of seedling disease caused by Pythium species, antibiosis and mycoparasitism have l...

  4. Research on Internal Flow Control Mechanism of For CES Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhuge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the communication efficiency and security between Control Elements (CEs and Forwarding Elements (FEs of For CES routers, this study researches on internal flow control mechanism. Firstly, an evaluation model based on communication of Transport Mapping Layer (TML is proposed, which is used to improve service performance of TML. Secondly, in order to prevent redirect channel interference with control channel, this study proposes a bandwidth allocation algorithm called Dynamic Probabilistic Priority Based on Rate and Buffer (DPPBRB. Lastly, to avoid the potential congestion on control channel between one CE and multiple FEs, this study puts forward an internal flow control mechanism. These internal flow control methods that this study proposed effectively prevents the DoS attack from redirect messages and improves reliability of For CES routers. Simulation and experiment results show the feasibility and effectiveness of these methods.

  5. Evaluation of skeletal muscular involvement in neuromuscular disorders with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent as well as severity of pathologic changes of skeletal muscles were analyzed with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) in 29 cases of various types of neuromuscular diseases (18 cases of myogenic and 11 cases of neurogenic muscular diseases) and 14 cases of normal controls. After intravenous injection of 2 mCi of thallium-201 chloride, WBS was performed for 15 minutes using a gamma camera with twin-opposed large rectangular detectors. Counts at brachia, forearms, thighs, and calves were assessed after reconstruction of the scintigram of the whole body by taking the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior data. WBS showed uniform tracer activities in the 4 extremities in 12 cases among 14 controls. Laterality in distribution of counts of both legs and arms was noted in the remaining 2 controls. WBS revealed decrease of perfusion in the extremities with muscular atrophy and/or weakness in neuromuscular diseases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of WBS for evaluation of skeletal muscle involvement was 75 to 80 % except for the bilateral brachia for which it decreased to 65 %. All of the three cases of muscular dystrophy with pseudohypertrophy of the calves or thighs showed unequivocal decrease of perfusion of those regions in WBS. In conclusion, thallium-201 WBS was considered to be a useful clinical means in evaluating the extent and severity of muscular involvement of various types of neuromuscular disorders. (author)

  6. Sliding mode control on electro-mechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim I. Utkin; Hao-Chi Chang

    2002-01-01

    The first sliding mode control application may be found in the papers back in the 1930s in Russia. With its versatile yet simple design procedure the methodology is proven to be one of the most powerful solutions for many practical control designs. For the sake of demonstration this paper is oriented towards application aspects of sliding mode control methodology. First the design approach based on the regularization is generalized for mechanical systems. It is shown that stability of zero dy...

  7. Research on Internal Flow Control Mechanism of For CES Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhuge; Cheng Yu; Kang-ping Liu; Wei-ming Wang,

    2011-01-01

    To improve the communication efficiency and security between Control Elements (CEs) and Forwarding Elements (FEs) of For CES routers, this study researches on internal flow control mechanism. Firstly, an evaluation model based on communication of Transport Mapping Layer (TML) is proposed, which is used to improve service performance of TML. Secondly, in order to prevent redirect channel interference with control channel, this study proposes a bandwidth allocation algorithm called Dynamic Prob...

  8. Immunoglobulins from Animal Models of Motor Neuron Disease and from Human Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Passively Transfer Physiological Abnormalities to the Neuromuscular Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Stanley H.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Garcia, Jesus; Stefani, Enrico

    1991-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human disease of upper and lower motoneurons of unknown etiology. In support of the potential role of autoimmunity in ALS, two immune-mediated animal models of motoneuron disease have been developed that resemble ALS with respect to the loss of motoneurons, the presence of IgG within motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction, and with respect to altered physiology of the motor nerve terminal. To provide direct evidence for the primary role of humoral immunity, passive transfer with immunoglobulins from the two animal models and human ALS was carried out. Mice injected with serum or immunoglobulins from the animal disease models and human ALS but not controls demonstrated IgG in motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction. The mice also demonstrated an increase in miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency, with normal amplitude and time course and normal resting membrane potential, indicating an increased resting quantal release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminal. The ability to transfer motoneuron dysfunction with serum immunoglobulins provides evidence for autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of both the animal models and human ALS.

  9. Mechanisms of using mutations in pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional chemically based methods for insect control have been shown to have serious limitations, and many alternative approaches have been developed and evaluated, including those based on the use of different types of mutation. The mutagenic action of ionizing radiation was well known in the field of genetics long before it was realized by entomologists that it might be used to induce dominant lethal mutations in insects, which, when released, could sterilize wild female insects. The use of radiation to induce dominant lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique is now a major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Specific types of mutations can also be used to make improvements to the sterile insect technique, especially for the development of strains for the production of only male insects for sterilization and release. These strains utilize male translocations and a variety of selectable mutations, either conditional or visible, so that at some stages of development, the males can be separated from the females. (author)

  10. The influence of gender on neuromuscular pre-activity during side-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that female athletes are at increased risk for sustaining ACL injuries in sports, where sudden changes of direction are a frequent movement pattern. The underlying neuromuscular mechanisms related to the elevated ACL injury rate in female athletes has yet to be fully investigated. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine gender differences in neuromuscular pre-activity during a maneuver that mimics a movement associated with the incidence of ACL injuries. Twenty-four team handball players (12 male and 12 female) with no history of ACL injury were tested for EMG pre-activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris during a side-cutting maneuver. Mean EMG amplitude 50ms prior to toe down was normalized to maximal EMG obtained during maximal isometric contraction. The results showed that females had significantly lower hamstring EMG pre-activity 50ms prior to toe-down than males (P

  11. INTERACTION OF VERAPAMIL AND LITHIUM AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ON RAT ISOLATED MUSCLE-HEMIDIAPHRAGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Sadeghipour

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cither lithium or verapamil can potentiate the neuromuscular blocking activity of certain neuromuscular blockers. In the present investigation, possible interaction of verapamil with lithium has been described. The dose ? response effects of verapamil and lithium on diaphragmatic contractility were assessed in vitro. Mechanical responses of the muscle to indirect (nerve and direct (muscle electrical stimulation were recorded. Verapamil depressed rat diaphragm twitch tensions induced by nerve stimulation in a dose - dependent manner with the 50 percent depression of the original twitch tensions (ICSQ by 5.6 xlO^mmol/l."nThe IC50 of verapamil for direct stimulation of the muscle was LI x W'5 mmol II. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by lithium chloride (0.5, 1.5 and 5 mmol /1 in the medium did not change the depressant effect of verapamil on muscle twitches induced by direct (muscle or indirect (nerve electrical stimulation.

  12. Synthesis of dissipative output feedback controllers. Application to mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, Erling Aarsand

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents new results on the synthesis of linear controllers with passivity, or more general, dissipativity properties. These methods may be applied to obtain more accurate control over mechanical systems and in the control of chemical processes that involve dissipative subsystems. The thesis presents two different approaches for synthesis of dissipative controllers: (1) A method that exploits the Riccati equation solution to the state space formulation of the H{sub {infinity}} control problem is investigated, illustrated by synthesising a controller for damping of flexible modes in a beam. (2) A more general method for dissipative control synthesis is developed that retains the well-known techniques of loop-shaping and frequency weighting in H{sub {infinity}}. A method is also presented for controller synthesis directly from frequency response data. 82 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Spinal mechanisms may provide a combination of intermittent and continuous control of human posture: predictions from a biologically based neuromusculoskeletal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Leonardo Abdala; Watanabe, Renato Naville; Kohn, André Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Several models have been employed to study human postural control during upright quiet stance. Most have adopted an inverted pendulum approximation to the standing human and theoretical models to account for the neural feedback necessary to keep balance. The present study adds to the previous efforts in focusing more closely on modelling the physiological mechanisms of important elements associated with the control of human posture. This paper studies neuromuscular mechanisms behind upright stance control by means of a biologically based large-scale neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) model. It encompasses: i) conductance-based spinal neuron models (motor neurons and interneurons); ii) muscle proprioceptor models (spindle and Golgi tendon organ) providing sensory afferent feedback; iii) Hill-type muscle models of the leg plantar and dorsiflexors; and iv) an inverted pendulum model for the body biomechanics during upright stance. The motor neuron pools are driven by stochastic spike trains. Simulation results showed that the neuromechanical outputs generated by the NMS model resemble experimental data from subjects standing on a stable surface. Interesting findings were that: i) an intermittent pattern of muscle activation emerged from this posture control model for two of the leg muscles (Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius); and ii) the Soleus muscle was mostly activated in a continuous manner. These results suggest that the spinal cord anatomy and neurophysiology (e.g., motor unit types, synaptic connectivities, ordered recruitment), along with the modulation of afferent activity, may account for the mixture of intermittent and continuous control that has been a subject of debate in recent studies on postural control. Another finding was the occurrence of the so-called "paradoxical" behaviour of muscle fibre lengths as a function of postural sway. The simulations confirmed previous conjectures that reciprocal inhibition is possibly contributing to this effect, but on the other hand showed that this effect may arise without any anticipatory neural control mechanism. PMID:25393548

  14. Metabolic syndrome: aggression control mechanisms gone out of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Prajakta V; Watve, Milind G; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Bhat, Dattatraya S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Jog, Maithili

    2010-03-01

    An upcoming hypothesis about the evolutionary origins of metabolic syndrome is that of a 'soldier' to 'diplomat' transition in behaviour and the accompanying metabolic adaptations. Theoretical as well as empirical studies have shown that similar to the soldier and diplomat dichotomy, physically aggressive and non-aggressive strategists coexist in animal societies with negative frequency dependent selection. Although dominant individuals have a higher reproductive success obtained through means such as greater access to females, subordinate individuals have alternative means such as sneak-mating for gaining a substantial reproductive success. The alternative behavioural strategies are associated with different neurophysiologic and metabolic states. Subordinate individuals typically have low testosterone, high plasma cholesterol and glucocorticoids and elevated serotonin signalling whereas dominant ones are characterized by high testosterone, low brain serotonin and lower plasma cholesterol. Food and sex are the main natural causes of aggression. However, since aggression increases the risk of injury, aggression control is equally crucial. Therefore chronic satiety in the form of fat should induce aggression control. It is not surprising that the satiety hormone serotonin has a major role in aggression control. Further chronically elevated serotonin signalling in the hypothalamus induces peripheral insulin resistance. Meta-analysis shows that most of the anti-aggression signal molecules are pro-obesity and pro-insulin-resistance. Physical aggression is known to increase secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in anticipation of injuries and EGF is important in pancreatic beta cell regeneration too. In anticipation of injuries aggression related hormones also facilitate angiogenesis and angiogenesis dysfunction is the root cause of a number of co-morbidities of insulin resistance syndrome. Reduced injury proneness typical of 'diplomat' life style would also reorient the immune system resulting into delayed wound healing on the one hand and increased systemic inflammation on the other. Diabetes is negatively associated with physically aggressive behaviour. We hypothesize that suppression of physical aggression is the major behavioural cue for the development of metabolic syndrome. Preliminary trials of behavioural intervention indicate that games and exercises involving physical aggression reduce systemic inflammation and improve glycemic control. PMID:19800745

  15. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocross riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Tomi; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine physiological and neuromuscular responses during motocross riding at individual maximal speed together with the riding-induced changes in maximal isometric force production. Seven A-level (group A) and 5 hobby-class (group H) motocross-riders performed a 30-minute riding test on a motocross track and maximal muscle strength and oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests in a laboratory. During the riding the mean (+/-SD) VO2 reduced in group A from 86 +/- 10% to 69 +/- 6% of the maximum (P motocross is a sport that causes great physical stress and demands on both skill and physical capacity of the rider. Physical stress occurs as the result of handling of the bike when receiving continuous impacts in the situation requiring both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Our data suggest that both maximal capacity and strain during the ride should be measured to analyze the true physiological and neuromuscular demands of motocross ride. For the practice, this study strongly suggests to train not only aerobic and anaerobic capacity but also to use strength and power training for successful motocross riding. PMID:18296976

  16. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. (orig.)

  17. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  18. A Markov computer simulation model of the economics of neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow John L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the intensive care unit (ICU is clinically challenging and costly. Neuromuscular blocking agents may facilitate mechanical ventilation and improve oxygenation, but may result in prolonged recovery of neuromuscular function and acute quadriplegic myopathy syndrome (AQMS. The goal of this study was to address a hypothetical question via computer modeling: Would a reduction in intubation time of 6 hours and/or a reduction in the incidence of AQMS from 25% to 21%, provide enough benefit to justify a drug with an additional expenditure of $267 (the difference in acquisition cost between a generic and brand name neuromuscular blocker? Methods The base case was a 55 year-old man in the ICU with ARDS who receives neuromuscular blockade for 3.5 days. A Markov model was designed with hypothetical patients in 1 of 6 mutually exclusive health states: ICU-intubated, ICU-extubated, hospital ward, long-term care, home, or death, over a period of 6 months. The net monetary benefit was computed. Results Our computer simulation modeling predicted the mean cost for ARDS patients receiving standard care for 6 months to be $62,238 (5% – 95% percentiles $42,259 – $83,766, with an overall 6-month mortality of 39%. Assuming a ceiling ratio of $35,000, even if a drug (that cost $267 more hypothetically reduced AQMS from 25% to 21% and decreased intubation time by 6 hours, the net monetary benefit would only equal $137. Conclusion ARDS patients receiving a neuromuscular blocker have a high mortality, and unpredictable outcome, which results in large variability in costs per case. If a patient dies, there is no benefit to any drug that reduces ventilation time or AQMS incidence. A prospective, randomized pharmacoeconomic study of neuromuscular blockers in the ICU to asses AQMS or intubation times is impractical because of the highly variable clinical course of patients with ARDS.

  19. Consecuencias clínicas de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Clinical consequences of neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesejo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La patología neuromuscular en el paciente crítico se desarrolla en dos contextos: enfermedades neurológicas primarias que requieren su ingreso en Medicina Intensiva por necesitar vigilancia estricta o ventilación mecánica y manifestaciones del sistema nervioso periférico secundarias a enfermedades sistémicas críticas. En el primer grupo son las más frecuentes el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré y la Miastenia Gravis y en el segundo la Polineuropatía y la Miopatía del paciente crítico. El patrón clínico común más frecuente consiste en el desarrollo de un cuadro de acusada debilidad y cuadriparesia cuya manifestación más típica es la necesidad de respiración asistida o la dificultad/imposibilidad para su retirada. Se consideran factores desencadenantes el fracaso multiorgánico y la sepsis en la polineuropatía y los esteroides y bloqueantes neuromusculares en la miopatía, actuando como coadyuvantes en ambos casos la malnutrición, particularmente la hipoalbimunemia, y la hiperglucemia. Considerando que la afectación neuropática y miopática coexisten con frecuencia, se ha acuñado el término polineuromiopatía del paciente crítico. Tanto el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré como la polineuropatía del paciente crítico se localizan a nivel del nervio periférico, por lo que debe efectuarse un diagnóstico diferencial entre ambos. La forma de presentación es diferente ya que el primero es una patología aguda que motiva su ingreso en UCI, mientras que la polineuropatía se adquiere durante la hospitalización. En el primero es frecuente la afectación del sistema nervioso autónomo y la disociación albúmino-citológica en el LCR, lo que no se da en la polineuropatía. Los estudios electrofisiológicos muestran signos de desmelinización con disminución de la velocidad de conducción y normalidad en la amplitud de potenciales motores en el Síndrome de Guillain- Barré frente a velocidad de conducción normal y amplitud reducida de potenciales motores en la polineuropatía axonal. La crisis miasténica afecta a la unión neuromuscular y su diagnóstico suele ser más fácil al tener en la mayoría de los casos un diagnóstico previo de miastenia gravis.La debilidad muscular aumenta durante la actividad repetida (fatiga muscular y mejora con el reposo. Su confirmación diagnóstica se realiza con el test del edofronio y con la estimulación nerviosa repetitiva, que provoca una rápida disminución del 10-15% en la amplitud de las respuestas provocadas. La miopatía del paciente crítico se localiza en el músculo y provoca una debilidad generalizada con cuadriparesia, muy similar a la de la polineuropatía, que impide o retrasa la desconexión de la ventilación mecánica y que en sus grados avanzados puede provocar un aumento de CPK y mioglobina, junto con alteraciones en la exploración neurofisiológica. Esta última es difícil de discernir de la encontrada en la polineuropatía, aunque la normalidad en los potenciales de acción sensitiva y la redución en el potencial de ación motora con estimulación muscular directa, puede ayudar a diferenciarlos. El pronóstico funcional de las alteraciones musculares primarias suele ser bastante bueno, pero tanto la polineuropatía como la miopatía evolucionan lentamente a lo largo de semanas o meses, pudiendo quedar un importante déficit residual a los dos años en los casos más graves.Neuromuscular pathology in the critically ill patient develops within two settings: primary neurological diseases that require admission in the Intensive Care Medicine Unit for close monitoring or mechanical ventilation, and peripheral nervous system manifestations secondary to critical systemic diseases. The most frequent conditions in the first group are Guillain-Barré syndrome and Myasthenia Gravis, and in the second group, polyneuropathy and myopathy of the critically ill patient. The most commonly shared clinical pattern is the development of severe weakness and quadriplegia which most typical manifestation is the need for assisted ventilation and/or

  20. Consecuencias clínicas de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico / Clinical consequences of neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Mesejo; E., Pérez-Sancho; E., Moreno.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La patología neuromuscular en el paciente crítico se desarrolla en dos contextos: enfermedades neurológicas primarias que requieren su ingreso en Medicina Intensiva por necesitar vigilancia estricta o ventilación mecánica y manifestaciones del sistema nervioso periférico secundarias a enfermedades s [...] istémicas críticas. En el primer grupo son las más frecuentes el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré y la Miastenia Gravis y en el segundo la Polineuropatía y la Miopatía del paciente crítico. El patrón clínico común más frecuente consiste en el desarrollo de un cuadro de acusada debilidad y cuadriparesia cuya manifestación más típica es la necesidad de respiración asistida o la dificultad/imposibilidad para su retirada. Se consideran factores desencadenantes el fracaso multiorgánico y la sepsis en la polineuropatía y los esteroides y bloqueantes neuromusculares en la miopatía, actuando como coadyuvantes en ambos casos la malnutrición, particularmente la hipoalbimunemia, y la hiperglucemia. Considerando que la afectación neuropática y miopática coexisten con frecuencia, se ha acuñado el término polineuromiopatía del paciente crítico. Tanto el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré como la polineuropatía del paciente crítico se localizan a nivel del nervio periférico, por lo que debe efectuarse un diagnóstico diferencial entre ambos. La forma de presentación es diferente ya que el primero es una patología aguda que motiva su ingreso en UCI, mientras que la polineuropatía se adquiere durante la hospitalización. En el primero es frecuente la afectación del sistema nervioso autónomo y la disociación albúmino-citológica en el LCR, lo que no se da en la polineuropatía. Los estudios electrofisiológicos muestran signos de desmelinización con disminución de la velocidad de conducción y normalidad en la amplitud de potenciales motores en el Síndrome de Guillain- Barré frente a velocidad de conducción normal y amplitud reducida de potenciales motores en la polineuropatía axonal. La crisis miasténica afecta a la unión neuromuscular y su diagnóstico suele ser más fácil al tener en la mayoría de los casos un diagnóstico previo de miastenia gravis.La debilidad muscular aumenta durante la actividad repetida (fatiga muscular) y mejora con el reposo. Su confirmación diagnóstica se realiza con el test del edofronio y con la estimulación nerviosa repetitiva, que provoca una rápida disminución del 10-15% en la amplitud de las respuestas provocadas. La miopatía del paciente crítico se localiza en el músculo y provoca una debilidad generalizada con cuadriparesia, muy similar a la de la polineuropatía, que impide o retrasa la desconexión de la ventilación mecánica y que en sus grados avanzados puede provocar un aumento de CPK y mioglobina, junto con alteraciones en la exploración neurofisiológica. Esta última es difícil de discernir de la encontrada en la polineuropatía, aunque la normalidad en los potenciales de acción sensitiva y la redución en el potencial de ación motora con estimulación muscular directa, puede ayudar a diferenciarlos. El pronóstico funcional de las alteraciones musculares primarias suele ser bastante bueno, pero tanto la polineuropatía como la miopatía evolucionan lentamente a lo largo de semanas o meses, pudiendo quedar un importante déficit residual a los dos años en los casos más graves. Abstract in english Neuromuscular pathology in the critically ill patient develops within two settings: primary neurological diseases that require admission in the Intensive Care Medicine Unit for close monitoring or mechanical ventilation, and peripheral nervous system manifestations secondary to critical systemic dis [...] eases. The most frequent conditions in the first group are Guillain-Barré syndrome and Myasthenia Gravis, and in the second group, polyneuropathy and myopathy of the critically ill patient. The most commonly shared clinical pattern is the development of severe weakness and quadriplegia which most typical manifestation is the

  1. Insuficiência respiratória crônica nas doenças neuromusculares: diagnóstico e tratamento / Chronic respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular diseases: diagnosis and treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilma Aparecida, Paschoal; Wander de Oliveira, Villalba; Mônica Corso, Pereira.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças neuromusculares prejudicam a renovação do ar alveolar e, por esta razão, produzem insuficiência respiratória crônica. A instalação da insuficiência respiratória pode acontecer de modo agudo, como nos traumas, ou ser lenta ou rapidamente progressiva, como na esclerose lateral amiotrófica, [...] distrofias musculares, doença da placa mioneural, etc. O comprometimento da musculatura respiratória prejudica também a eficiência da tosse e, no estado atual da terapêutica disponível no Brasil para estes doentes, pode-se dizer que a morbimortalidade nestes indivíduos está mais associada ao fato de que eles tossem mal do que de que ventilam mal. Nesta revisão, uma breve compilação histórica procura mostrar a evolução das órteses e próteses respiratórias, desde o final do século XIX até agora, com o objetivo de apresentar as opções de máquinas disponíveis para o suporte e substituição da ventilação nas doenças neuromusculares. Além disso, são enfatizados os elementos fundamentais para o diagnóstico da hipoventilação alveolar e da falência do mecanismo protetor da tosse: história clínica, determinação do pico de fluxo da tosse, medida da pressão expiratória máxima e da pressão inspiratória máxima, espirometria em dois decúbitos (sentado e supino), oximetria de pulso, capnografia e polissonografia. São apresentados os valores limites disponíveis na literatura tanto para a indicação do suporte noturno da ventilação como para a extensão do suporte para o período diurno. As manobras para incremento da eficiência da tosse são aqui também discutidas, assim como o momento adequado para sua introdução. Abstract in english Neuromuscular diseases affect alveolar air exchange and therefore cause chronic respiratory failure. The onset of respiratory failure can be acute, as in traumas, or progressive (slow or rapid), as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophies, diseases of the myoneural junction, etc. Respi [...] ratory muscle impairment also affects cough efficiency and, according to the current knowledge regarding the type of treatment available in Brazil to these patients, it can be said that the high rates of morbidity and mortality in these individuals are more often related to the fact that they cough inefficiently rather than to the fact that they ventilate poorly. In this review, with the objective of presenting the options of devices available to support and substitute for natural ventilation in patients with neuromuscular diseases, we have compiled a brief history of the evolution of orthopedic braces and prostheses used to aid respiration since the end of the 19th century. In addition, we highlight the elements that are fundamental to the diagnosis of alveolar hypoventilation and of failure of the protective cough mechanism: taking of a clinical history; determination of peak cough flow; measurement of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures; spirometry in two positions (sitting and supine); pulse oximetry; capnography; and polysomnography. Furthermore, the threshold values available in the literature for the use of nocturnal ventilatory support and for the extension of this support through the daytime period are presented. Moreover, the maneuvers used to increase cough efficiency, as well as the proper timing of their introduction, are discussed.

  2. Insuficiência respiratória crônica nas doenças neuromusculares: diagnóstico e tratamento Chronic respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular diseases: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Aparecida Paschoal

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças neuromusculares prejudicam a renovação do ar alveolar e, por esta razão, produzem insuficiência respiratória crônica. A instalação da insuficiência respiratória pode acontecer de modo agudo, como nos traumas, ou ser lenta ou rapidamente progressiva, como na esclerose lateral amiotrófica, distrofias musculares, doença da placa mioneural, etc. O comprometimento da musculatura respiratória prejudica também a eficiência da tosse e, no estado atual da terapêutica disponível no Brasil para estes doentes, pode-se dizer que a morbimortalidade nestes indivíduos está mais associada ao fato de que eles tossem mal do que de que ventilam mal. Nesta revisão, uma breve compilação histórica procura mostrar a evolução das órteses e próteses respiratórias, desde o final do século XIX até agora, com o objetivo de apresentar as opções de máquinas disponíveis para o suporte e substituição da ventilação nas doenças neuromusculares. Além disso, são enfatizados os elementos fundamentais para o diagnóstico da hipoventilação alveolar e da falência do mecanismo protetor da tosse: história clínica, determinação do pico de fluxo da tosse, medida da pressão expiratória máxima e da pressão inspiratória máxima, espirometria em dois decúbitos (sentado e supino, oximetria de pulso, capnografia e polissonografia. São apresentados os valores limites disponíveis na literatura tanto para a indicação do suporte noturno da ventilação como para a extensão do suporte para o período diurno. As manobras para incremento da eficiência da tosse são aqui também discutidas, assim como o momento adequado para sua introdução.Neuromuscular diseases affect alveolar air exchange and therefore cause chronic respiratory failure. The onset of respiratory failure can be acute, as in traumas, or progressive (slow or rapid, as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophies, diseases of the myoneural junction, etc. Respiratory muscle impairment also affects cough efficiency and, according to the current knowledge regarding the type of treatment available in Brazil to these patients, it can be said that the high rates of morbidity and mortality in these individuals are more often related to the fact that they cough inefficiently rather than to the fact that they ventilate poorly. In this review, with the objective of presenting the options of devices available to support and substitute for natural ventilation in patients with neuromuscular diseases, we have compiled a brief history of the evolution of orthopedic braces and prostheses used to aid respiration since the end of the 19th century. In addition, we highlight the elements that are fundamental to the diagnosis of alveolar hypoventilation and of failure of the protective cough mechanism: taking of a clinical history; determination of peak cough flow; measurement of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures; spirometry in two positions (sitting and supine; pulse oximetry; capnography; and polysomnography. Furthermore, the threshold values available in the literature for the use of nocturnal ventilatory support and for the extension of this support through the daytime period are presented. Moreover, the maneuvers used to increase cough efficiency, as well as the proper timing of their introduction, are discussed.

  3. Contraction velocity influence the magnitude and etiology of neuromuscular fatigue during repeated maximal contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, B; Clémençon, M; Rota, S; Millet, G Y; Bishop, D J; Brosseau, O; Rouffet, D M; Hautier, C A

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the magnitude and etiology of neuromuscular fatigue during maximal repeated contractions performed in two contraction modes (concentric vs isometric) and at two contraction velocities (30/s vs 240°/s). Eleven lower limb-trained males performed 20 sets of maximal contractions at three different angular velocities: 0°/s (KE0), 30/s (KE30), and 240°/s (KE240). Cumulated work, number of contraction, duty cycle, and contraction time were controlled. Torque, superimposed and resting twitches, as well as gas exchange, were analyzed. Increasing contraction velocity was associated with greater maximal voluntary torque loss (KE0: -9.8?±?3.9%; KE30: -16.4?±?8.5%; KE240: -32.6?±?6.3%; P?mode influenced the origin of the neuromuscular fatigue. The metabolic stress and peripheral fatigue increased but reduction of VA is attenuated when the contraction velocity increased from 0°/s to 240°/s. PMID:25556533

  4. Enhancement of neuromuscular activity by natural specimens and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps Sinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05 enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  5. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmerling Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.

  6. Training the Antifragile Athlete: A Preliminary Analysis of Neuromuscular Training Effects on Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-10-01

    Athletic injuries typically occur when the stable, emergent coordination between behavioral processes breaks down due to external noise, or variability. A physiological system that operates at an optimal point on a spectrum of rigidity and flexibility may be better prepared to handle extreme external variability, and the purpose of the current experiment was to examine whether targeted neuromuscular training resulted in changes to the rigidity and flexibility of the gluteal muscle tonus signal as measured with electromyography prior to the landing phase of a drop vertical jump task. 10 adolescent female athletes who participated in a targeted 10-week neuromuscular training program and 6 controls participated, and their tonus dynamics were examined with recurrence quantification analysis prior to training and after the 10-week program. The dependent measures, percent laminarity (%LAM) and percent determinism (%DET) were hypothesized to decrease following training, and were submitted to a one tailed mixed-model ANOVA. The training group exhibited a decrease in %LAM and %DET after training compared to pre-training and controls. The present findings indicate increased metaflexibility (i.e., greater intermittency and an increase in internal randomness) in tonus dynamics following neuromuscular training, and have important implications for the prevention of musculoskeletal injury in sport, specifically within the context of external noise and antifragility. PMID:26375937

  7. Depression of Hoffmann reflexes following voluntary contraction and implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M A; Kukulka, C G

    1991-04-01

    Postcontraction depression of Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) amplitudes was examined to study the rationale underlying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation relaxation techniques. The time course of H-reflex amplitude depression was used to assess postcontraction changes in motoneuron reflex excitability. Sixteen healthy female subjects performed voluntary isometric plantar-flexion contractions (65%-75% of maximal voluntary contraction) in a prone position. H-reflex stimulation began at a postcontraction delay of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, or 5 seconds and continued every 10 seconds for 1 minute. Reflexes were depressed (mean = 67% decrease) by 0.05 second postcontraction, reached maximal depression (mean = 83.3% decrease) from 0.1 to 1 second postcontraction, recovered to 70% of control amplitudes (mean = 30% decrease) by 5 seconds postcontraction, and reached 90% control amplitudes (mean = 10% decrease) by 10.05 seconds postcontraction. The results indicate that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques (eg, hold-relax) purported to produce a phase of relaxation following voluntary contraction do appear to produce a strong, but brief, neuromuscular inhibition that may be clinically useful for applying stretch. PMID:2008455

  8. Activation of fast skeletal muscle troponin as a potential therapeutic approach for treating neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Alan J; Hartman, James J; Hinken, Aaron C.; Muci, Alexander R; Kawas, Raja; Driscoll, Lena; Godinez, Guillermo; Lee, Kenneth H; Marquez, David; Browne, William F; Chen, Michael M; Clarke, David; Collibee, Scott E; Garard, Marc; Hansen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Limited neuromuscular input results in muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease either because of a reduction in the density of muscle innervation, the rate of neuromuscular junction activation or the efficiency of synaptic transmission1. We developed a small molecule fast skeletal troponin activator, CK-2017357, as a means to increase muscle strength by amplifying the response of muscle when neuromuscular input is diminished secondary to a neuromuscular disease. Binding selectively to the fa...

  9. Optimal piezo-electro-mechanical coupling to control plate vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandroni, Silvio; Dell'Isola, Francesco; Frezza, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    A new way of coupling electrical and mechanical waves, using piezoelectric effect, is presented here. Since the energy exchange between two systems supporting wave propagation is maximum when their evolution is governed by similar equations, hence, an optimal electromechanical coupling is obtained by designing an electric network which is "analog" to the mechanical structure to be controlled. In this paper, we exploit this idea to enhance the coupling, between a Kirchhoff-Lo...

  10. A Mechanism Design Approach for Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the coordination of a population of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) with unknown parameters to achieve group objectives. The problem involves designing the device bidding and market clearing strategies to motivate self-interested users to realize efficient energy allocation subject to a peak energy constraint. This coordination problem is formulated as a mechanism design problem, and we propose a mechanism to implement the social choice functio...

  11. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-01-01

    É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso) deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural;...

  12. A systematic literature review on the use of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in neuromuscular rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Yugal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to review and critically analyze the literatures from 1990 to 2013 in order to investigate the methodological quality of the studies, indications and goals of PNF treatment, and to explore the components of PNF that are being used in treatment of neurological disorders. And to overview on the effectiveness and use of PNF approach in neuromuscular rehabilitation through the findings of this study. The research method used for this thesis was systematic litera...

  13. Dynamics and control of mechanical systems in offshore engineering

    CERN Document Server

    He, Wei; How, Bernard Voon Ee; Choo, Yoo Sang

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics and Control of Mechanical Systems in Offshore Engineering is a comprehensive treatment of marine mechanical systems (MMS) involved in processes of great importance such as oil drilling and mineral recovery. Ranging from nonlinear dynamic modeling and stability analysis of flexible riser systems, through advanced control design for an installation system with a single rigid payload attached by thrusters, to robust adaptive control for mooring systems, it is an authoritative reference on the dynamics and control of MMS. Readers will gain not only a complete picture of MMS at the system level, but also a better understanding of the technical considerations involved and solutions to problems that commonly arise from dealing with them. The text provides:                                                                                                                                 ...

  14. Nonmuscle Myosin II helps regulate synaptic vesicle mobility at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xinping

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanistic details of the vesicle transport process from the cell body to the nerve terminal are well described, the mechanisms underlying vesicle traffic within nerve terminal boutons is relatively unknown. The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated but exactly how actin or actin-binding proteins participate in vesicle movement is not clear. Results In the present study we have identified Nonmuscle Myosin II as a candidate molecule important for synaptic vesicle traffic within Drosophila larval neuromuscular boutons. Nonmuscle Myosin II was found to be localized at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction; genetics and pharmacology combined with the time-lapse imaging technique FRAP were used to reveal a contribution of Nonmuscle Myosin II to synaptic vesicle movement. FRAP analysis showed that vesicle dynamics were highly dependent on the expression level of Nonmuscle Myosin II. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that Nonmuscle Myosin II is present presynaptically, is important for synaptic vesicle mobility and suggests a role for Nonmuscle Myosin II in shuttling vesicles at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This work begins to reveal the process by which synaptic vesicles traverse within the bouton.

  15. The Drosophila wings apart gene anchors a novel, evolutionarily conserved pathway of neuromuscular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Ginny R; Jaramillo, Carmelita T; Mikolajczak, Crystal M; Duong, Sandy; Jaramillo, Maryann S; Cripps, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    wings apart (wap) is a recessive, semilethal gene located on the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for normal wing-vein patterning. We show that the wap mutation also results in loss of the adult jump muscle. We use complementation mapping and gene-specific RNA interference to localize the wap locus to the proximal X chromosome. We identify the annotated gene CG14614 as the gene affected by the wap mutation, since one wap allele contains a non-sense mutation in CG14614, and a genomic fragment containing only CG14614 rescues the jump-muscle phenotypes of two wap mutant alleles. The wap gene lies centromere-proximal to touch-insensitive larva B and centromere-distal to CG14619, which is tentatively assigned as the gene affected in introverted mutants. In mutant wap animals, founder cell precursors for the jump muscle are specified early in development, but are later lost. Through tissue-specific knockdowns, we demonstrate that wap function is required in both the musculature and the nervous system for normal jump-muscle formation. wap/CG14614 is homologous to vertebrate wdr68, DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 7, which also are expressed in neuromuscular tissues. Thus, our findings provide insight into mechanisms of neuromuscular development in higher animals and facilitate the understanding of neuromuscular diseases that may result from mis-expression of muscle-specific or neuron-specific genes. PMID:24026097

  16. Flexible neural mechanisms of cognitive control within human prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Braver, Todd S.; Paxton, Jessica L.; Locke, Hannah S.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in research on executive control is to reveal its functional decomposition into underlying neural mechanisms. A typical assumption is that this decomposition occurs solely through anatomically based dissociations. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis that different cognitive control processes may be implemented within the same brain regions, with fractionation and dissociation occurring on the basis of temporal dynamics. Regions within lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) wer...

  17. Soft Time-Suboptimal Controlling Structure for Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, Piotr; Wisniewski, Rafal; Kowalski, Piotr; Krawiec, Karol

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents conception of a soft control structure based on the time-optimal approach. Its parameters are selected in accordance with the rules of the statistical decision theory and additionally it allows to eliminate rapid changes in control values. The object is a basic mechanical system, with uncertain (also non-stationary) mass treated as a stochastic process. The methodology proposed here is of a universal nature and may easily be applied with respect to other uncertainty elements o...

  18. Mechanical Control of Graphene on Engineered Pyramidal Strain Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Stephen T.; Hinnefeld, John H.; Zhu, Shuze; Swanson, William T.; Li, Teng; Mason, Nadya

    2015-01-01

    Strain can tune desirable electronic behavior in graphene, but there has been limited progress in controlling strain in graphene devices. In this paper, we study the mechanical response of graphene on substrates patterned with arrays of mesoscale pyramids. Using atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate that the morphology of graphene can be controlled from conformal to suspended depending on the arrangement of pyramids and the aspect ratio of the array. Non-uniform strains in...

  19. Active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: formation, density, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Presynaptic active zones are synaptic vesicle release sites that play essential roles in the function and pathology of mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The molecular mechanisms of active zone organization use presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in NMJs as scaffolding proteins. VDCCs interact extracellularly with the muscle-derived synapse organizer, laminin ?2 and interact intracellularly with active zone-specific proteins, such as Bassoon, CAST/Erc2/ELKS2alpha, ELKS, Piccolo, and RIMs. These molecular mechanisms are supported by studies in P/Q- and N-type VDCCs double-knockout mice, and they are consistent with the pathological conditions of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and Pierson syndrome, which are caused by autoantibodies against VDCCs or by a laminin ?2 mutation. During normal postnatal maturation, NMJs maintain the density of active zones, while NMJs triple their size. However, active zones become impaired during aging. Propitiously, muscle exercise ameliorates the active zone impairment in aged NMJs, which suggests the potential for therapeutic strategies. PMID:23252894

  20. The Role of Chest Physiotherapy in Prevention of Postextubation Atelectasis in Pediatric Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat BILAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Bilan N, Poorshiri B.The Role of Chest Physiotherapy in Prevention of Postextubation Atelectasis in Pediatric Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:21-24. ObjectiveThere are controversial findings in the literature on the effects of chest physiotherapy on postextubation lung collapse in pediatric age group. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in prevention of postextubation atelectasis in pediatric patients. Materials & Methods In a case-control study from March 2007 to March 2011, two groups of patients (35 patients in each group susceptible to lung collapse were enrolled in the study. The studied patients had neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, and cerebral palsy. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (case and control; The case group underwent daily chest physiotherapy through vibrator and chest percussion and the control group was under supervision. In the latter group, the underlying disease was treated and the lung collapse was managed, if occurred. Results The frequency of atelectasis was lower in the case group who received prophylactic chest physiotherapy compared to the control group (16.6% vs. 40%. Conclusion Chest physiotherapy as well as appropriate and regular change of position can considerably reduce the rate of pulmonary collapse in pediatric patients.References Jorgensen J, Wei JL, Sykes KJ, Klem SA, Weatherly RA, Bruegger DE, Latz AD, Nicklaus PJ. Incidence of and risk factors for airway complications following endotracheal intubation for bronchiolitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007;137(3:394-9.Flenady VJ, Gray PH. Chest physiotherapy for preventing morbidity in babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(2:CD000283.Odita JC, Kayyali M, Ammari A. Post-extubation atelectasis in ventilated newborn infants. Pediatr Radiol 1993;23(3:183-5.Balachandran A, Shivbalan S, Thangavelu S. Chest physiotherapy in pediatric practice. Indian Pediatr 2005;42(6:559-68.Finer NN, Moriartey RR, Boyd J, Phillips HJ, Stewart AR, Ulan O. Postextubation atelectasis: a retrospective review and a prospective controlled study. J Pediatr 1979;94(1:110-3.Al-Alaiyan S, Dyer D, Khan B. Chest physiotherapy and post-extubation atelectasis in infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1996;21(4:227-30.Bloomfield FH, Teele RL, Voss M, Knight DB, Harding JE. The role of neonatal chest physiotherapy in preventing postentubation atelectasis. J pediatr 1998;133(2:269-71.Bagley CE, Gray PH, Tudehope DI, Flenady V, Shearman AD, Lamont A. Routine neonatal postextubation chest physiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. J Paediatr Child Health 2005;41(11:592-7.Vivian-Beresford A, King C, Macauley H. Neonatal post-extubation complications: the preventive role of physiotherapy. Physiother Can 1987;39:184-90.Bagley C, Flenady V, Tudehope D, Gray P. The role of postextubation chest physiotherapy: A randomised controlled trial. Proceedings of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 4th Annual Congress. Brisbane: 1999.Reines HD, Sade RM, Bradford BF, Marshall J. Chest physiotherapy fails to prevent postoperative atelectasis in children after cardiac surgery. Ann Surg 1982;195(4:451-5. Cavenaghi S, Moura SC, Silva TH, Venturinelli TD, Marino LH, Lamari NM. Importance of pre- and postoperative physiotherapy in pediatric cardiac surgery. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2009;24(3:397-400.Deakins K, Chatburn RL. A comparison of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation and conventional chest physiotherapy for the treatment of atelectasis in the pediatric patient. Respir Care 2002;47(10:1162-7.

  1. Performance Analysis of Concurrency Control Mechanisms for OLTP Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaspi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concurrency control (CC in distributed and multidimensional databases is becoming more important due to recent increase in high-volume data storage with increasing online transaction processing (OLTP requirements for medium and large organisations. This paper examines three concurrency control mechanisms commonly adopted and analyses their performance in distributed databases for OLTP operational systems of enterprises. The three CC mechanisms investigated are, two phase locking (2PL, wait depth limited (WDL and optimistic concurrency control. These CC mechanisms have been studied well in disk-based systems. However, with the recent advances of cost-effective main memory or in-memory storage that can support much higher transaction rates than disk-based systems, there is sufficient motivation to re-investigate the performance of such CC mechanisms in diverse processor configurations. This paper presents a comparison of their behaviour and performance in terms of throughput rates achieved with varying transaction size and contention. The outcome of this study has resulted in further research proposals for improving the performance of these CC mechanisms for OLTP databases.

  2. The knockdown of ?kap alters the postsynaptic apparatus of neuromuscular junctions in living mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pena Y Valenzuela, Isabel; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Chen, Po-Ju; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    A muscle-specific nonkinase anchoring protein (?kap), encoded within the calcium/calmodulin kinase II (camk2) ? gene, was recently found to control the stability of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters on the surface of cultured myotubes. However, it remains unknown whether this protein has any effect on receptor stability and the maintenance of the structural integrity of neuromuscular synapses in vivo. By knocking down the endogenous expression of ?kap in mouse sternomastoid muscles with shRNA, we found that the postsynaptic receptor density was dramatically reduced, the turnover rate of receptors at synaptic sites was significantly increased, and the insertion rates of both newly synthesized and recycled receptors into the postsynaptic membrane were depressed. Moreover, we found that ?kap shRNA knockdown impaired synaptic structure as postsynaptic AChR clusters and their associated postsynaptic scaffold proteins within the neuromuscular junction were completely eliminated. These results provide new mechanistic insight into the role of ?kap in regulating the stability of the postsynaptic apparatus of neuromuscular synapses. PMID:25834039

  3. Fluid Mechanics of Wing Adaptation for Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Wilder, M. C.; Carr, L. W.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The unsteady fluid mechanics associated with use of a dynamically deforming leading edge airfoil for achieving compressible flow separation control has been experimentally studied. Changing the leading edge curvature at rapid rates dramatically alters the flow vorticity dynamics which is responsible for the many effects observed in the flow.

  4. Composite Control of the n–link Chained Mechanical Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zikmund, Ji?í

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 44, ?. 5 (2008), s. 664-684. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA102/08/0186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : nonlinear systems * exact linearization * underactuated mechanical systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.281, year: 2008

  5. Radiation fibrosis syndrome: neuromuscular and musculoskeletal complications in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Radiation-induced toxicity is a major cause of long-term disability after cancer treatment. Radiation fibrosis describes the insidious pathologic fibrotic tissue sclerosis that can occur in response to radiation exposure. Radiation fibrosis syndrome describes the myriad clinical manifestations of progressive fibrotic tissue sclerosis resulting from radiation treatment. Radiation-induced damage can include "myelo-radiculo-plexo-neuro-myopathy," causing muscle weakness and dysfunction and contributing to neuromuscular injury. Similarly, radiation damage to neuromuscular structures contributes to radiation-induced trismus and cervical dystonia in head and neck cancer survivors. This narrative review discusses the pathophysiology, anatomy, evaluation, and treatment of neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, and functional disorders that can result as late effects of radiation treatment. Rehabilitation medicine physicians with extensive training in neuromuscular and musculoskeletal medicine as well as in the principles of functional restoration are uniquely positioned to help lead efforts to improve the quality of life for cancer survivors with radiation fibrosis syndrome. PMID:22108231

  6. Genetics of Pediatric-Onset Motor Neuron and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Muscular Dystrophy; Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress 1; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Neuron Disease; Neuromuscular Disease; Peroneal Muscular Atrophy; Fragile X Syndrome

  7. New techniques in the tissue diagnosis of gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Charles H Knowles, Joanne E Martin

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders of children and adults in which symptoms are presumed or proven to arise as a result of neuromuscular (including interstitial cell of Cajal) dysfunction. Common to most of these diseases are symptoms of impaired motor activity which manifest as slowed or obstructed transit with or without evidence of transient or persistent radiological visceral dilatation. A variety of histopathological techniques and a...

  8. Molecular targets for autoimmune and genetic disorders of neuromuscular transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, A; Beeson, D; Lang, B.

    2000-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction is the target of a variety of autoimmune, neurotoxic and genetic disorders, most of which result in muscle weakness. Most of the diseases, and many neurotoxins, target the ion channels that are essential for neuromuscular transmission. Myasthenia gravis is an acquired autoimmune disease caused in the majority of patients by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel. The antibodies lead to loss of acetylcholine receptor, reduced efficiency ...

  9. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmerling Thomas; Russo Gianluca; Bracco David

    2008-01-01

    There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary) sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and i...

  10. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P; Li, M K; Woo, T; de Bie, J; Maktabi, M; Lee, J; Kwo, J; Pino, R; Sabouri, A S; McGovern, F; Stæhr Rye, Anne Kathrine; Eikermann, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent ad...

  11. NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION INDUCED FORELIMB MOVEMENT IN A RODENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Lynskey, James V.; Protas, Danielle; Abbas, James J.; Jung, Ranu

    2007-01-01

    Upper extremity neuromuscular electrical stimulation (FNS) has long been utilized as a neuroprosthesis to restore hand-grasp function in individuals with neurological disorders and injuries. More recently, electrical stimulation is being used as a rehabilitative therapy to tap into central nervous system plasticity. Here, we present initial development of a rodent model for neuromuscular stimulation induced forelimb movement that can be used as a platform to investigate stimulation-induced pl...

  12. Sliding mode control on electro-mechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first sliding mode control application may be found in the papers back in the 1930s in Russia. With its versatile yet simple design procedure the methodology is proven to be one of the most powerful solutions for many practical control designs. For the sake of demonstration this paper is oriented towards application aspects of sliding mode control methodology. First the design approach based on the regularization is generalized for mechanical systems. It is shown that stability of zero dynamics should be taken into account when the regular form consists of blocks of second-order equations. Majority of applications in the paper are related to control and estimation methods of automotive industry. New theoretical methods are developed in the context of these studies: sliding made nonlinear observers, observers with binary measurements, parameter estimation in systems with sliding mode control.

  13. Accessory hardware for neuromuscular measurements during functional MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Z; Zhang, Luduan; Yao, Bing; Yue, Guang H

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly being used for human sensorimotor function research. Few studies, however, have been able to acquire peripheral neuromuscular data (e.g. joint force and electromyograms [EMG]) online with fMRI measurements. The lack of muscle output information hinders interpretation of fMRI data and prevents investigators from designing more sophisticated experiments. We developed a data-acquisition system that can record force and EMG data simultaneously with fMRI signals. This system included three major components: a hydraulic, pressure transducer-based force measurement device, a well-shielded EMG-recording apparatus, and a visual feedback setup. The three components were integrated with a laptop computer equipped with data acquisition hardware and software. System evaluation experiments demonstrated that no significant mutual interference occurred between the MRI environment and the force-EMG data-acquisition system, i.e. the system can record relatively noise-free force and EMG signals while maintaining the quality of fMRI data. The system has enabled us to study human motor control function involving motor tasks such as handgrip and finger pinch that require precision control of force and EMG. This accessory equipment can facilitate fMRI investigations of human sensorimotor function. PMID:11755092

  14. Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, S P; Wortman, M; Blanke, D

    1982-06-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on the flexibility of the shoulder, trunk, and hamstring muscles were compared in college men. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: control (n=10), ballistic (n=11), static (n=10), or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) (n=12). Baseline measurements (Leighton flexometer) were obtained on 2 separate days prior to and following a 3-day per week, 6-week flexibility training program. A 4x3 (subject group x muscle group) unweighted mean factorial analysis of variance for the difference scores (post minue pre) revealed significant (p less than 0.05) main effects for the 4 subjects groups and the 3 muscle groups. Post hoc analysis showed that only the PNF group had flexibility increases (10.6 degrees) greater than the control (3.4 degrees), and that the hamstrings (9.4 degrees increase) improved more than the trunk (5.2 degree increase). Furthermore, reliability was generally higher for the post-training scores, and the variability between days was lower for the post-training scores of the shoulder and hamstrings (p less than 0.05). The significant (p less than 0.05) between-day changes in flexibility pre-training confirm the importance of establishing baseline data prior to any training study. The findings indicate that PNF may be the preferred technique for improving flexibility, and that flexibility training results in an increased consistency of flexibility scores. PMID:7082151

  15. Neuromuscular blocking activity of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves in the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridtitid, W; Rattanaprom, W; Thaina, P; Chittrakarn, S; Sunbhanich, M

    1998-06-01

    Methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (Piperaceae) leaves was studied for the neuromuscular blocking activity in rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. The plant extract, at concentrations of 3.2, 4.0, 4.8 and 6.4 mg/ml, exhibited an initially transient increase in twitch tension which was followed by a marked dose-related neurally-evoked twitch depression. The neuromuscular blocking effect produced by the plant extract was compared with d-tubocurarine (dTC) and succinylcholine (SCh). The EC50 for neurally-evoked twitch depression of the extract, dTC and SCh was 4.07 mg/ml, 1.1 microM and 15 microM, respectively. The neurally-evoked twitch depression produced by the extract was partially antagonized by tetraethylammonium (TEA) but not by neostigmine (NS). These findings suggested that the plant extract possessed a marked neuromuscular blocking activity at the neuromuscular junction and a possible mechanism which was likely to inhibit neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release at the presynaptic terminal. PMID:9683344

  16. Optimal piezo-electro-mechanical coupling to control plate vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandroni, S; Frezza, F

    2010-01-01

    A new way of coupling electrical and mechanical waves, using piezoelectric effect, is presented here. Since the energy exchange between two systems supporting wave propagation is maximum when their evolution is governed by similar equations, hence, an optimal electromechanical coupling is obtained by designing an electric network which is "analog" to the mechanical structure to be controlled. In this paper, we exploit this idea to enhance the coupling, between a Kirchhoff-Love plate and one possible synthesis of its circuital analog, as obtained by means of a set of piezoelectric actuators uniformly distributed upon the plate. It is shown how this approach allows for an optimal energy exchange between the mechanic and the electric forms independent of the modal evolution of the structure. Moreover, we show how an efficient electric dissipation of the mechanical energy can be obtained adding dissipative elements in the electric network.

  17. Vendaje neuromuscular: Efectos neurofisiológicos y el papel de las fascias / Neuromuscular Bandage: Neurophysiological Effects and the Role of Fascias / Bandagem neuromuscular: Efeitos neurofisiológicos e o papel das fáscia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ximena María, Villota Chicaíza.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos anos a bandagem neuromuscular, um aplicativo terapêutico criado em 1979 pelo doutor KJenzo Kase tem vindo se introduzindo no maneio de muitas alterações do sistema musculoesquelético e especialmente no tratamento de transtornos neurológicos; esta ferramenta terapêutica que consist [...] e em uma bandagem elástica autoadesiva, permite a recuperação da parte lesada sem diminuir sua função corporal. De acordo com a literatura existente sobre os efeitos fisiológicos produzidos por este aplicativo terapêutico no organismo poderia se dizer que existe consenso. No entanto, neste artigo a autora quer destacar o significativo ainda pouco destacado papel que jogam as fáscias nos efeitos terapêuticos da bandagem neuromuscular, analisando desde uma perspectiva reflexiva o efeito analgésico, neuromecânico e circulatório, como efeitos fundamentais da bandagem neuromuscular e a função das fáscias, tentando aportar um entendimento global na forma como se relacionam todos os tecidos conectivos, aspectos que são de grande importância tanto para a avaliação de alterações quanto para a prescrição adequada da bandagem neuromuscular. Abstract in spanish Durante los últimos años, el vendaje neuromuscular, un aplicativo terapéutico creado en 1979 por el doctor Kenzo Kase, ha venido introduciéndose en el manejo de muchas alteraciones del sistema músculo-esquelético y más aún en el tratamiento de trastornos neurológicos; esta herramienta terapéutica qu [...] e consiste en un vendaje elástico autoadhesivo permite la recuperación de la parte lesionada sin disminuir su función corporal. De acuerdo con la literatura existente sobre los efectos fisiológicos producidos por este aplicativo terapéutico en el organismo, se podría decir que existe consenso. Sin embargo, en este artículo la autora quiere destacar el significativo aunque poco resaltado papel que juegan las fascias en los efectos terapéuticos del vendaje neuromuscular, analizando desde una perspectiva reflexiva el efecto analgésico, neuromecánico y circulatorio, como efectos fundamentales del vendaje neuromuscular y la función de las fascias en los mismos, con lo que intenta aportar un entendimiento global en la manera como se relacionan todos los tejidos conectivos, aspectos que son de gran importancia tanto para la evaluación de alteraciones como para la prescripción adecuada del vendaje neuromuscular. Abstract in english During the last years, neuromuscular bandage, a therapeutic application created in 1979 by doctor Kenzo Kase has been introduced in the management of many disorders of the musculo-skeletal system and even more so in the treatment of neurological disorders; This therapeutic tool which consists of a s [...] elf adhesive elastic bandage allows recovery of the injured party without diminish- ing its bodily function. According to the existing literature on the physiological effects of this therapeutic application in the body, you could say that there is consensus. However in this article the author wants to highlight the significant although little highlighted role played by the fascias on the therapeutic effects of neuromuscular bandage, analyzing from a reflective perspective the analgesic, neuromechanical and circulatory effects, as fundamental effects of neuromuscular bandage and fascias in the same function, trying to bring a global understanding on the way they relate to all connective tissues, aspects that are of great importance for the proper evaluation of alterations and prescription of neuromuscular bandage.

  18. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other, between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (UK)

  19. Neuromuscular disease. DOK7 gene therapy benefits mouse models of diseases characterized by defects in the neuromuscular junction.

    OpenAIRE

    Arimura, S.; Okada, T.; Tezuka, T.; Chiyo, T; Kasahara, Y.; Yoshimura, T.; Motomura, M.; Yoshida, N.; Beeson, D; Takeda, S.; Yamanashi, Y

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. Defects in NMJ transmission cause muscle weakness, termed myasthenia. The muscle protein Dok-7 is essential for activation of the receptor kinase MuSK, which governs NMJ formation, and DOK7 mutations underlie familial limb-girdle myasthenia (DOK7 myasthenia), a neuromuscular disease characterized by small NMJs. Here, we show in a mouse model of DOK7 myasthenia that therapeutic administration of an aden...

  20. Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontaneous speech by 5 healthy speakers of American English. We then use locally-weighted linear regression to estimate the articulatory forward map from low-level articulator variables to high-level task/goal variables for these postures. We quantify the overall magnitude of the first derivative of the forward map as a measure of mechanical advantage. We find that postures assumed during grammatical pauses in speech as well as speech-ready postures are significantly more mechanically advantageous than postures assumed during absolute rest. Further, these postures represent empirical extremes of mechanical advantage, between which lie the postures assumed during various vowels and consonants. Relative mechanical advantage of different postures might be an important physical constraint influencing planning and control of speech production. PMID:25133544

  1. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em cães com atrofia muscular induzida / Neuromuscular electric stimulation in dogs with induced muscle atrophy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Pelizzari; A., Mazzanti; A.G., Raiser; S.T.A., Lopes; D.L., Graça; A.T., Ramos; F.Z., Salbego; R., Festugatto; D.V., Beckmann; L.B., Souza; M.G.M.C.M., Cunha; R.P., Santos; B., Garmatz; A.P., Silva; D.A.F., Sturza.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Empregou-se a estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM) de baixa freqüência no músculo quadríceps femoral de cães com atrofia induzida e avaliou-se a ocorrência de ganho de massa nessa musculatura. Foram utilizados oito cães com pesos entre 15 e 30kg, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos denom [...] inados de I ou controle e II ou tratado. A articulação femorotibiopatelar esquerda foi imobilizada por 30 dias pelo método de transfixação percutânea tipo II, com retirada de aparelho de imobilização após esse período. Decorridas 48 horas da remoção, foi realizada a EENM nos cães do grupo II, cinco vezes por semana, com intervalo de 24 horas cada sessão, pelo período de 60 dias. Foram avaliadas a circunferência da coxa, a goniometria do joelho, a análise clínica da marcha, as enzimas creatina-quinase (CK) e aspartato-amino-transferase (AST) e a morfometria das fibras musculares em cortes transversais do músculo vasto lateral colhido mediante biópsia muscular. A EENM foi empregada no músculo quadríceps femoral na freqüência de 50Hz, duração de pulso de 300 milisegundos e relação de tempo on/off de 1:2. Quanto à morfometria das fibras do músculo vasto lateral, no grupo tratado houve aumento significativo (P Abstract in english Low frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was used on the femoral quadriceps of dogs with induced muscular atrophy and the occurrence of gain in mass in these muscles was evaluated. Eight dogs from 15 to 30kg were randomly distributed in two groups named I, or control; and II, or tre [...] ated. For the induction of muscular atrophy, the left femoral-tibial-patellar joint was immobilized for 30 days by percutaneous transfixation type II. After 30 days, the immobilization device was removed. The NMES treatment began 48 hours after the removal of the immobilization device of the dogs of group II, and it was carried out five times per week with an interval of 24 hours between each session, for 60 days. The following parameters were measured: thigh circumference, goniometry of the knee, clinical gait analysis, creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes, and morphometry of the muscular fibers in transversal cuts of the vastus lateralis muscle collected through muscular biopsy. The NMES was applied on the femoral quadriceps at a frequency of 50 Hz, with pulse duration of 300 milliseconds, and the on/off time was at a proportion of 1:2. Regarding the morphometry of the vastus lateralis fibers, a significant increase (P

  2. Model Predictive Vibration Control Efficient Constrained MPC Vibration Control for Lightly Damped Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Takács, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    Real-time model predictive controller (MPC) implementation in active vibration control (AVC) is often rendered difficult by fast sampling speeds and extensive actuator-deformation asymmetry. If the control of lightly damped mechanical structures is assumed, the region of attraction containing the set of allowable initial conditions requires a large prediction horizon, making the already computationally demanding on-line process even more complex. Model Predictive Vibration Control provides insight into the predictive control of lightly damped vibrating structures by exploring computationally efficient algorithms which are capable of low frequency vibration control with guaranteed stability and constraint feasibility. In addition to a theoretical primer on active vibration damping and model predictive control, Model Predictive Vibration Control provides a guide through the necessary steps in understanding the founding ideas of predictive control applied in AVC such as: ·         the implementation of ...

  3. Neuromuscular Fatigue after Submaximal Intermittent Contractions in Motorcycle Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, P; Cabib, C; Morales, M; Valls-Sole, J; Marina, M

    2015-10-01

    Highly repetitive submaximal intermittent contractions of the forearm muscles during periods of 30-50?min partially explain why motorcycle races are so demanding for the neuromuscular system. This study investigated the contribution of central and peripheral mechanisms of fatigue on the exerted and contralateral extensor digitorum communis following an intermittent fatigue protocol (IFP) designed for motorcycle riders. 12 riders performed an IFP, which simulates the braking and throttle handle gesture. We examined the time course of recovery of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), M-wave, motor evoked potential (MEP) to transcranial magnetic stimuli in relaxed and facilitated condition, and the cortical silent period (CSP) at time windows of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20?min after the IFP. Whereas MVC, M-wave and MEP decreased, CSP lengthened significantly in the fatigued limb after completion of the IFP. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in the contralateral limb. All neurophysiological parameters reverted to baseline values in less than 20?min, while MVC remained lower in the exercised limb. No cross-over effects were observed in the contralateral non-exercised limb. Our results suggest that local factors are those mainly responsible for the incomplete MVC recovery after an intermittent muscle contraction protocol. PMID:26140690

  4. Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  5. Scheduling mechanisms and admission control policies for DQPB and ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhaut, Kris; Degieter, Kurt; Brissinck, Wouter

    1995-02-01

    Scheduling mechanisms and admission policies play an important role in optimizing resource allocation in networks offering integrated services. The scheduler mediates the low-level contention for service between cells of different classes, while admission control regulates the acceptance or blocking of incoming traffic on a connection-by-connection basis. These two levels of control are of course closely related in the sense that if too much traffic is allowed to enter the network by an overly lax admission control policy, then no scheduler will be able to provide the requested Quality of Service (QoS) for all traffic classes. A functioning admission control is a prerequisite for any guarantee of cell-level QoS while its merit is to guarantee QoS efficiently and fairly. We focus on a DQDB and an ATM switch to demonstrate these principles.

  6. Analysis of femtosecond quantum control mechanisms with colored double pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gerhard; Nuernberger, Patrick; Selle, Reimer; Dimler, Frank; Brixner, Tobias; Gerber, Gustav

    2006-09-01

    Fitness landscapes based on a limited number of laser pulse shape parameters can elucidate reaction pathways and can help to find the underlying control mechanism of optimal pulses determined by adaptive femtosecond quantum control. In a first experiment, we employ colored double pulses and systematically scan both the temporal subpulse separation and the relative amplitude of the two subpulses to acquire fitness landscapes. Comparison with results obtained from a closed-loop experiment demonstrates the capability of fitness landscapes for the revelation of possible control mechanisms. In a second experiment, using transient absorption spectroscopy, we investigate and compare the dependence of the excitation efficiency of the solvated dye molecule 5,5' -dichloro-11-diphenylamino- 3,3' -diethyl-10,12-ethylene thiatricarbocyanine perchlorate (IR140) on selected pulse shapes in two parametrizations. The results show that very different pulse profiles can be equivalently adequate to maximize a given control objective. Fitness landscapes thus provide valuable information about different pathways along which a molecular system can be controlled with shaped laser pulses.

  7. Analysis of femtosecond quantum control mechanisms with colored double pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitness landscapes based on a limited number of laser pulse shape parameters can elucidate reaction pathways and can help to find the underlying control mechanism of optimal pulses determined by adaptive femtosecond quantum control. In a first experiment, we employ colored double pulses and systematically scan both the temporal subpulse separation and the relative amplitude of the two subpulses to acquire fitness landscapes. Comparison with results obtained from a closed-loop experiment demonstrates the capability of fitness landscapes for the revelation of possible control mechanisms. In a second experiment, using transient absorption spectroscopy, we investigate and compare the dependence of the excitation efficiency of the solvated dye molecule 5,5'-dichloro-11-diphenylamino-3,3'-diethyl-10,12-ethylene thiatricarbocyanine perchlorate (IR140) on selected pulse shapes in two parametrizations. The results show that very different pulse profiles can be equivalently adequate to maximize a given control objective. Fitness landscapes thus provide valuable information about different pathways along which a molecular system can be controlled with shaped laser pulses

  8. Cable control and take-up mechanisms and x-ray scanning apparatus incorporating such mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this patent, an invention for cable control and take-up mechanisms for elongated, flexible cables is described. Such cables are used in X-ray scanner apparatus to provide power, electronic signals and fluids. A detailed design and description is given of the cable harness, control and take-up mechanism that would be used in conjunction with an X-ray scanner. As a result of this invention, the cables are prevented from becoming prematurely worn or entangled in the X-ray apparatus during the rotational and translational movements necessary in tomographic examinations. This invention is also applicable to other types of apparatus and environments where a number of different positions is required and where it is necessary to control the take-up of elongated, flexible, cable-like members. (U.K.)

  9. Antenna mechanism of length control of actin cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya; Kondev, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This antenna mechanism involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentra...

  10. Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, L. A.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Zhang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscientists are often interested in grouping variables to facilitate understanding of a particular phenomenon. Factor analysis is a powerful statistical technique that groups variables into conceptually meaningful clusters, but remains underutilized by neuroscience researchers presumably due to its complicated concepts and procedures. This paper illustrates an application of factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of whole-body muscle activation during treadmill walking. Ten male subjects walked on a treadmill (6.4 km/h) for 20 s during which surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from the left side sternocleidomastoid, neck extensors, erector spinae, and right side biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. Factor analysis revealed 65% of the variance of seven muscles sampled aligned with two orthogonal factors, labeled 'transition control' and 'loading'. These two factors describe coordinated patterns of muscular activity across body segments that would not be evident by evaluating individual muscle patterns. The results show that factor analysis can be effectively used to explore relationships among muscle patterns across all body segments to increase understanding of the complex coordination necessary for smooth and efficient locomotion. We encourage neuroscientists to consider using factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of neuromuscular activation that would be obscured using more traditional EMG analyses.

  11. Differential responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osternig, L R; Robertson, R N; Troxel, R K; Hansen, P

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sustained stretch and two common proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch techniques on hamstring muscle activation and knee extension range of motion (ROM) in different athletic populations. Three stretch techniques: stretch-relax (SR), contract-relax (CR), and agonist contract-relax (ACR) were applied to 10 endurance athletes (EN), 10 high intensity athletes (HI), and 10 control subjects (C). The results revealed that ACR produced 89-110% greater hamstring EMG activity (P less than 0.05) and 9-13% more knee joint ROM than CR and SR, respectively. This same pattern was evident for the individual subject groups. Comparisons of mean data among the three subject groups revealed that the EN athletes generated 58-113% more hamstring EMG activity (P less than 0.05) than the HI and C groups, respectively, across all stretch conditions, whereas the EN group attained significantly less ROM than the HI and C groups for CR and ACR conditions. It was postulated that high intensity-short term activity training necessitates less hamstring resistance to knee extension than long term endurance training. The findings suggest that decreases in muscle activity may not be strongly related to increases in joint range of motion and that factors other than muscle relaxation are important in achieving increased ROM. Also, the differential effects of various stretch techniques between dissimilar athletic populations should be considered if stretch-induced injury is to be avoided. PMID:2304405

  12. Mechanical impulses can control metaphase progression in a mammalian cell

    OpenAIRE

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kuwana, Kenta; Kan, Tetsuo; Shimoyama, Isao; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation machinery is controlled by mechanochemical regulation. Tension in a mitotic spindle, which is balanced by molecular motors and polymerization-depolymerization dynamics of microtubules, is thought to be essential for determining the timing of chromosome segregation after the establishment of the kinetochore-microtubule attachments. It is not known, however, whether and how applied mechanical forces modulate the tension balance and chemically affect the molecular processe...

  13. Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Scott B.; Del'Haye, Pascal; Diddams, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Robust control and stabilization of optical frequency combs enables an extraordinary range of scientific and technological applications, including frequency metrology at extreme levels of precision, novel spectroscopy of quantum gases and of molecules from visible wavelengths to the far infrared, searches for exoplanets, and photonic waveform synthesis. Here we report on the stabilization of a microresonator-based optical comb (microcomb) by way of mechanical actuation. This...

  14. Invasive mechanism and control strategy of Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Liu, WanXue; Guo, JianYing; Qiang, Sheng; Li, BaoPing; Wang, JinJun; Yang, GuoQing; Niu, HongBang; Gui, FuRong; Huang, WenKun; Jiang, ZhiLin; Wang, WenQi

    2010-11-01

    In order to ascertain the invasive mechanism and control strategy of the invasive Crofton weed, Ageratina adenophora, its ecological adaptability and population differentiation, the formation of single dominant population, displacement of native plants and sustainable management strategies were investigated. The present results helped to clarify and explain such issues as the adaptability post invasion, interaction and competition between inter- and intra-species and community resistance, thereby providing important references to researches on other invasive alien species. PMID:21046320

  15. Workload Control Release Mechanisms: From Practice Back to Theory Building

    OpenAIRE

    Thürer, Matthias; Silva, Cristovao; Stevenson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Much Workload Control research has focussed on the order release stage but failed to address practical considerations that impact practical application. Order release mechanisms have been developed through simulations that neglect job size variation effects while empirical evidence suggests groups of small/large jobs are often found in practice. When job sizes vary, it is difficult to release all jobs effectively – small jobs favour a short period between releases and a ti...

  16. Multi-finger prehension: control of a redundant mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2009-01-01

    The human hand has been a fascinating object of study for researchers in both biomechanics and motor control. Studies of human prehension have contributed significantly to the progress in addressing the famous problem of motor redundancy. After a brief review of the hand mechanics, we present results of recent studies that support a general view that the apparently redundant design of the hand is not a source of computational problems but a rich apparatus that allows performing a variety of tasks in a reliable and flexible way (the principle of abundance). Multi-digit synergies have been analyzed at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in the control of prehensile actions. At the upper level, forces and moments produced by the thumb and virtual finger (an imagined finger with a mechanical action equal to the combined mechanical action of all four fingers of the hand) co-vary to stabilize the gripping action and the orientation of the hand-held object. These results support the principle of superposition suggested earlier in robotics with respect to the control of artificial grippers. At the lower level of the hierarchy, forces and moments produced by individual fingers co-vary to stabilize the magnitude and direction of the force vector and the moment of force produced by the virtual finger. Adjustments to changes in task constraints (such as, for example, friction under individual digits) may be local and synergic. The latter reflect multi-digit prehension synergies and may be analyzed with the so-called chain effects: Sequences of relatively straightforward cause-effect links directly related to mechanical constraints leading to non-trivial strong co-variation between pairs of elemental variables. Analysis of grip force adjustments during motion of hand-held objects suggests that the central nervous system adjusts to gravitational and inertial loads differently. The human hand is a gold mine for researchers interested in the control of natural human movements. PMID:19227523

  17. Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontan...

  18. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  19. Control rod drive mechanism test program. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing and development of three control rod drive mechanisms, Types A, B, and C, for use on commercial PWR plants designed by B and W. The three parts of the report describe each of the drives and the individual testing performed to verify the structural and functional adequacy of each drive. The test results indicate that all three drives are reliable and ensure safe, dependable reactor operation

  20. Biogeochemical Mechanisms Controlling Reduced Radionuclide Particle Properties and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim K. Fredrickson; John M. Zachara; Matthew J. Marshall; Alex S. Beliaev

    2006-06-01

    Uranium and Technetium are the major risk-driving contaminants at Hanford and other DOE sites. These radionuclides have been shown to be reduced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) under anoxic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that reduction results in the formation of poorly soluble hydrous oxides, UO2(s) and TcO2n?H2O(s), that are believed to limit mobility in the environment. The mechanisms of microbial reduction of U and Tc have been the focus of considerable research in the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP). In spite of equal or greater importance in terms of controlling the environmental fate of the contaminants relatively little is known regarding the precipitation mechanism(s), reactivity, persistence, and transport of biogenic UO2(s) and TcO2(s).

  1. A influência da fadiga neuromuscular e da acidose metabólica sobre a corrida de 400 metros / Influence of neuromuscular fatigue and metabolic acidosis on the 400-meter race

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio Roberto, Pelicer; Wonder Passoni, Higino; Ricardo Yoshio, Horita; Franco Carlos, Meira; Alexandre Policher, Alves.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Exercícios inabituais podem levar a danos musculares que persistem por alguns dias diminuindo a capacidade de desempenho em decorrência da fadiga. Além disso, o aumento da acidose intramuscular pode limitar o metabolismo celular no processo de gerar trabalho. Com isso, esta pesquisa teve como finali [...] dade analisar a influência da fadiga neuromuscular e da acidose metabólica sobre a corrida de 400 metros. Foram selecionados 20 indivíduos, sedentários, com idade entre 18 e 35 anos. Estes foram submetidos aos seguintes protocolos: teste incremental em esteira, para determinação do VO2max; limiares aeróbio e anaeróbio, teste de 400m (400/C), atividade pliométrica, com repouso ativo/passivo, seguida de corrida de 400m logo após (400/Pós) e 24 horas após a atividade pliométrica (400/24h). Os resultados obtidos mostram que, quando comparados os grupos ativo e passivo, não apresentaram diferenças significantes no desempenho dos 400/ Pós, mas o tempo deste foi maior, para os dois grupos quando comparado com os 400/C. No entanto, o 400/24h não foi significantemente diferente quando comparado com o 400/C para ambos os grupos. Concluise que, independente do tipo de recuperação - ativa ou passiva -, a diminuição de desempenho em uma corrida de 400 metros após atividade pliométrica parece ser ocasionada por mecanismos neuromusculares que levam à fadiga e não a limitações metabólicas. Abstract in english Unusual exercises can lead to muscle damage that persists for a few days reducing performance ability due to fatigue onset. Moreover, intramuscular acidity increase can limit the cell metabolism in the process of producing work. Therefore, the objective of this research was to analyze the influence [...] of neuromuscular fatigue and metabolic acidity in the 400 m race. The selected sample consisted of 20 sedentary individuals, aged between 18 and 35 years. They were submitted to the following protocols: treadmill incremental test for determination of VO2max; aerobic and anaerobic threshold; 400m race test (400/R); plyometric activity with active/passive rest followed by 400m race immediately after (400/Post) and 24 hours after the plyometric activity (400/24h). The obtained results show that when the active and passive groups are compared, they do not show significant difference in 400/Post performance, but this time was longer for both groups when compared with the 400/R. Nevertheless, the 400/24h was not significantly different when compared with the 400/R to both groups. It was concluded that regardless of the kind of recovery, active or passive, the performance reduction in a 400-meter race after plyometric activity seems to occur by neuromuscular mechanisms that lead to fatigue and not to metabolic limitations.

  2. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced

  3. Mechanical design and optimal control of humanoid robot (TPinokio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Chew Wee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical structure and the control of the locomotion of bipedal humanoid is an important and challenging domain of research in bipedal robots. Accurate models of the kinematics and dynamics of the robot are essential to achieve bipedal locomotion. Toe-foot walking produces a more natural and faster walking speed and it is even possible to perform stretch knee walking. This study presents the mechanical design of a toe-feet bipedal, TPinokio and the implementation of some optimal walking gait generation methods. The optimality in the gait trajectory is achieved by applying augmented model predictive control method and the pole-zero cancellation method, taken into consideration of a trade-off between walking speed and stability. The mechanism of the TPinokio robot is designed in modular form, so that its kinematics can be modelled accurately into a multiple point-mass system, its dynamics is modelled using the single and double mass inverted pendulum model and zero-moment-point concept. The effectiveness of the design and control technique is validated by simulation testing with the robot walking on flat surface and climbing stairs.

  4. Spatial factors and muscle spindle input influence the generation of neuromuscular responses to stimulation of the human foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Charles S.; Forth, Katharine E.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2005-05-01

    Removal of the mechanical pressure gradient on the soles leads to physiological adaptations that ultimately result in neuromotor degradation during spaceflight. We propose that mechanical stimulation of the soles serves to partially restore the afference associated with bipedal loading and assists in attenuating the negative neuromotor consequences of spaceflight. A dynamic foot stimulus device was used to stimulate the soles in a variety of conditions with different stimulation locations, stimulation patterns and muscle spindle input. Surface electromyography revealed the lateral side of the sole elicited the greatest neuromuscular response in ankle musculature, followed by the medial side, then the heel. These responses were modified by preceding stimulation. Neuromuscular responses were also influenced by the level of muscle spindle input. These results provide important information that can be used to guide the development of a "passive" countermeasure that relies on sole stimulation and can supplement existing exercise protocols during spaceflight.

  5. Sleep polygraphic parameters in neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pradella

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In a polysomnography study of 32 neuromuscular patients - 22 with a form of muscular dystrophy, 3 with a form of congenital myopathy, 4 with a form of spinal muscular atrophy, 1 with a recurrent form of polymyositis and 1 with osteogenesis imperfecta syndrome - of which 21 were nonambulatory, we observed sleep related respiratory disturbances represented by: drops in oxygen saturation (SaO2, cardiac arrythmia, sleep disruption, apneas, tachypnea, tachycardia and snoring. Nine out of the cohort of 32 patients presented with significant desaturations periods. These patients presented with an associated restrictive syndrome and thoracic deformities, some with tachypnea and/or SaO2 below 90% during wakefulness. In this group, snoring was observed in those patients with a form of muscular dystrophy while tachypnea was observed in patients who presented the highest desaturations levels. Sleep quantification revealed an increase of stage 1 sleep coupled with a decrease or even total absence of REM sleep. This is, we believe, a likely consequence of episodic desaturations that may accompany sleep hypoventilation which is potentialised during REM sleep stage.

  6. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal.

  7. Neuromuscular Fatigue During 200 M Breaststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Conceição

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: i to analyze activation patterns of four upper limb muscles (duration of the active and non-active phase in each lap of 200m breaststroke, ii quantify neuromuscular fatigue, with kinematics and physiologic assessment. Surface electromyogram was collected for the biceps brachii, deltoid anterior, pectoralis major and triceps brachii of nine male swimmers performing a maximal 200m breaststroke trial. Swimming speed, SL, SR, SI decreased from the 1st to the 3rd lap. SR increased on the 4th lap (35.91 ± 2.99 stroke·min-1. Peak blood lactate was 13.02 ± 1.72 mmol·l-1 three minutes after the maximal trial. The EMG average rectified value (ARV increased at the end of the race for all selected muscles, but the deltoid anterior and pectoralis major in the 1st lap and for biceps brachii, deltoid anterior and triceps brachii in the 4th lap. The mean frequency of the power spectral density (MNF decreased at the 4th lap for all muscles. These findings suggest the occurrence of fatigue at the beginning of the 2nd lap in the 200m breaststroke trial, characterized by changes in kinematic parameters and selective changes in upper limb muscle action. There was a trend towards a non-linear fatigue state.

  8. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Katherine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Results Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT and three controlled clinical trials (CCT. Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI 0.54 to 0.84 and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71 lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72 injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76 and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86 injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42. The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76 in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP significantly reduces the incidence of anterior knee pain (RR 0.27, CI 0.14 to 0.54 in military recruits. Conclusions Effective implementation of practical neuromuscular warm-up strategies can reduce lower extremity injury incidence in young, amateur, female athletes and male and female military recruits. This is typically a warm-up strategy that includes stretching, strengthening, balance exercises, sports-specific agility drills and landing techniques applied consistently for longer than three consecutive months. In order to optimize these strategies, the mechanisms for their effectiveness require further evaluation.

  9. Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Yudes, Carolina; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral findings with the AX-Continous Performance Task (AX-CPT; Morales et al., 2013) show that bilinguals only outperform monolinguals under conditions that require the highest adjustment between monitoring (proactive) and inhibitory (reactive) control, which supports the idea that bilingualism modulates the coordination of different control mechanisms. In an ERP experiment we aimed to further investigate the role that bilingualism plays in the dynamic combination of proactive and reactive control in the AX-CPT. Our results strongly indicate that bilingualism facilitates an effective adjustment between both components of cognitive control. First, we replicated previous behavioral results. Second, ERP components indicated that bilingualism influences the conflict monitoring, response inhibition and error monitoring components of control (as indexed by the N2 and P3a elicited by the probe and the error-related negativity following incorrect responses, respectively). Thus, bilinguals exerted higher reactive control than monolinguals but only when they needed to overcome the competing cue-information. These findings join others in suggesting that a better understanding of the cognitive benefits of bilingualism may require consideration of a multi-component perspective. PMID:25448864

  10. Estudio electromiográfico de fibra aislada en enfermedades neuromusculares Single fiber electromyographic study in neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Álvarez Fiallo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se implementó la electromiografía de fibra aislada en la práctica asistencial. Se realizó el estudio electromiográfico de fibra aislada de 191 pacientes con enfermedades neuromusculares. Se obtuvo una positividad de los estudios en el grupo de las radiculopatías de C6 del 15,2 %, para las lesiones del plexo braquial del 33, 3 %, para la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica del 44,1 %, para las miopatías del 21,9 % y se destaca la sensibilidad del mismo en el grupo de pacientes de miastenia gravis, que llegó al 70 %. Se concluye que se ratifica la alta sensibilidad del método de electromiografía de fibra aislada en el diagnóstico de la miastenia gravis y se señala su positividad moderada o baja en el resto de las enfermedades estudiadas.The single fiber electromyography was implemented in the health care practice. The single fiber electromyographic study of 191 patients with neuromuscular diseases was carried out. It was obtained a positivity of 15,2 % in the studies conducted in the group of C6 radiculopathies; 33,3 % in the brachial plexus injuries; 44,1 % in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; and 21,9 % in the myopathies. Its sensitivity was stressed in the group of patients with myasthenia gravis that reached 70 %. To conclude, it was ratified the high sensitivity of the method of single fibre electromyography in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, and it was underlined its moderate or low positivity in the rest of the studied diseases.

  11. Estudio electromiográfico de fibra aislada en enfermedades neuromusculares / Single fiber electromyographic study in neuromuscular diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roger, Álvarez Fiallo; Carlos, Santos Anzorandia; Esther, Medina Herrera; Rosa, Jiménez Paneque; Ángela, Gutiérrez Sánchez.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se implementó la electromiografía de fibra aislada en la práctica asistencial. Se realizó el estudio electromiográfico de fibra aislada de 191 pacientes con enfermedades neuromusculares. Se obtuvo una positividad de los estudios en el grupo de las radiculopatías de C6 del 15,2 %, para las lesiones d [...] el plexo braquial del 33, 3 %, para la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica del 44,1 %, para las miopatías del 21,9 % y se destaca la sensibilidad del mismo en el grupo de pacientes de miastenia gravis, que llegó al 70 %. Se concluye que se ratifica la alta sensibilidad del método de electromiografía de fibra aislada en el diagnóstico de la miastenia gravis y se señala su positividad moderada o baja en el resto de las enfermedades estudiadas. Abstract in english The single fiber electromyography was implemented in the health care practice. The single fiber electromyographic study of 191 patients with neuromuscular diseases was carried out. It was obtained a positivity of 15,2 % in the studies conducted in the group of C6 radiculopathies; 33,3 % in the brach [...] ial plexus injuries; 44,1 % in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; and 21,9 % in the myopathies. Its sensitivity was stressed in the group of patients with myasthenia gravis that reached 70 %. To conclude, it was ratified the high sensitivity of the method of single fibre electromyography in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, and it was underlined its moderate or low positivity in the rest of the studied diseases.

  12. Eletroestimulação neuromuscular, exercícios contrarresistência, força muscular, dor e função motora em pacientes com osteoartrite primária de joelho / Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, exercises against resistance, muscle strength, pain, and motor function in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais Varanda, Dadalto; Cintia Pereira de, Souza; Elirez Bezerra da, Silva.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A osteoartrite (OA) do joelho é um processo degenerativo e os sintomas são dor mecânica e períodos de dor inflamatória, rigidez articular e fraqueza muscular. Ela não tem cura. O objetivo do tratamento é aliviar os sinais e sintomas e, quando possível, retardar sua evolução. O fortalecim [...] ento muscular é indicado como tratamento da OA. OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia da eletroestimulação neuromuscular (EENM) e de exercícios contrarresistência (ECR) no ganho de força extensora de joelho, na diminuição da dor e na recuperação da função motora em pacientes com OA primária do joelho. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 23 pacientes com diagnóstico de OA primária do joelho, segundo os critérios clínicos e radiológicos do American College of Rheumatology. Eles foram alocados aleatoriamente para um grupo de ECR (n = 9), um grupo de EENM (n = 8) e um grupo controle (n = 6), e foram submetidos aos procedimentos característicos de seu grupo três vezes por semana até completar 24 sessões. Foram avaliadas de forma cega a força extensora de joelho, a dor e a função motora. Foi utilizado o teste MANOVA 3 x 2 com medidas repetidas para P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative and the symptoms are mechanical pain and periods of inflammatory pain, joint stiffness and muscle weakness. OA has no cure and treatment serves to relieve the signs and symptoms and, when they can, slow its progression. Muscle strengthening is [...] indicated as the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of NMES and resistance exercise in knee extensor strength gain, pain reduction and recovery of motor function in patients diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participated 23 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis, according to the clinical and radiological criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Patients were randomly assigned to a group of resistance exercise (ECR n = 9), a group of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES n = 8) and a control group (n = 6). They underwent characteristic procedures of their group three times per week until 24 sessions. The knee extensor strength pain and function were evaluated. Statistical analyses used was a 3 x 2 MANOVA with repeated measures, P

  13. ProBDNF and Mature BDNF as Punishment and Reward Signals for Synapse Elimination at Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Je, H. Shawn; Yang, Feng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Potluri, Srilatha; Fu, Xiu-Qing; Luo, Zhen-Ge; Nagappan, Guhan; Chan, Jia Pei; Hempstead, Barbara; Son, Young-Jin; Lu, Bai

    2013-01-01

    During development, mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) transit from multiple-innervation to single-innervation through axonal competition via unknown molecular mechanisms. Previously, using an in vitro model system, we demonstrated that the postsynaptic secretion of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) stabilizes or eliminates presynaptic axon terminals, depending on its proteolytic conversion at synapses. Here, using developing mouse NMJs, we obtained in vivo evidence that p...

  14. Androgen receptor expression and morphology of forebrain and neuromuscular systems in male green anoles displaying individual differences in sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Jennifer K.; WADE, JULI

    2007-01-01

    Investigating individual differences in sexual performance in unmanipulated males is important for understanding natural relationships between behavior and morphology, and the mechanisms regulating them. Among male green anole lizards, some court and copulate frequently (studs) and others do not (duds). To evaluate potential factors underlying differences in the level of these behaviors, morphology and androgen receptor expression in neuromuscular courtship and copulatory structures, as well ...

  15. Neuromuscular Disease in Childhood, a Clinicopathological Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of the neuromuscular diseases in Iranian children was conducted from 2000-2007 in Markaze Tebbi Koodakan, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Similar data are scanty outside Europe and North America. This study attempts to determine the type and relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases in Iran. One hundred and sixty five children ( < or = 16 years were assigned to an entity of neuromuscular disease following review of the clinical, biochemical and neurophysiological data and after review of most of available patients records. The common muscle diseases in Iran were muscular dystrophy (47.3%, peripheral neuropathy (17% and inflammatory myopathy (7.9%. Motor neuron disease was seen in 1.8% of cases. Of the muscular dystrophies, Duchene type (6.1% was more prevalent. History of consanguinity was present in 56%. Positive family history was seen in 15% of cases. However, 30 (18.2% cases showed no significant pathology. For this group of neuromuscular diseases further studies are needed. The study has revealed a great variety of pathology affecting children presenting with neuromuscular symptoms. The most prevalent of these were muscular dystrophies which is concordant with most other studies. The high frequency of consanguineous marriage in our cases needs further attention for social programming.

  16. Patient Machine Interface for the Control of Mechanical Ventilation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Grave de Peralta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs to translate brain activity into commands to control external devices during mechanical ventilation (MV remains largely unexplored. This is surprising since the amount of patients that might benefit from such assistance is considerably larger than the number of patients requiring BCI for motor control. Given the transient nature of MV (i.e., used mainly over night or during acute clinical conditions, precluding the use of invasive methods, and inspired by current research on BCIs, we argue that scalp recorded EEG (electroencephalography signals can provide a non-invasive direct communication pathway between the brain and the ventilator. In this paper we propose a Patient Ventilator Interface (PVI to control a ventilator during variable conscious states (i.e., wake, sleep, etc.. After a brief introduction on the neural control of breathing and the clinical conditions requiring the use of MV we discuss the conventional techniques used during MV. The schema of the PVI is presented followed by a description of the neural signals that can be used for the on-line control. To illustrate the full approach, we present data from a healthy subject, where the inspiration and expiration periods during voluntary breathing were discriminated with a 92% accuracy (10-fold cross-validation from the scalp EEG data. The paper ends with a discussion on the advantages and obstacles that can be forecasted in this novel application of the concept of BCI.

  17. Control of mechanical systems on Lie groups and ideal hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Deryabin, Mikhail V

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to the Euler-Poincar{\\'e} reduction of geodesic flows of left- or right-invariant metrics on Lie groups to the corresponding Lie algebra (or its dual), one can consider the reduction of the geodesic flows to the group itself. The reduced vector field has a remarkable hydrodynamic interpretation: it is a velocity field for a stationary flow of an ideal fluid. Right- or left-invariant symmetry fields of the reduced field define vortex manifolds for such flows. Consider now a mechanical system, whose configuration space is a Lie group and whose Lagrangian is invariant to left translations on that group, and assume that the mass geometry of the system may change under the action of internal control forces. Such system can also be reduced to the Lie group. With no controls, this mechanical system describes a geodesic flow of the left-invariant metric, given by the Lagrangian, and thus its reduced flow is a stationary ideal fluid flow on the Lie group. The standard control problem for such system is to ...

  18. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Dischiavi, Steven L; Hegedus, Eric J; Zuk, Emma F; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions. PMID:26346471

  19. Effects of neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in severe primary hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Nilsdotter, Anna; Kosek, Eva; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled before-and-after study were to compare baseline status to an age-matched population-based reference group and to examine the effects of neuromuscular training on patient-reported outcomes and physical funct...

  20. Neuromuscular junction channelopathies: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom-Davis, John

    2005-12-01

    The neuromuscular junction lacks the protection of the blood-nerve barrier and is vulnerable to antibody-mediated disorders. In myasthenia gravis (MG), 85% of patients have IgG antibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). About half the remaining patients have IgG antibodies to Muscle Specific Kinase (MuSK), an AChR-associated transmembrane post-synaptic protein concerned in AChR aggregation. Bulbar weakness is typically predominant in this form of MG, and females are more often affected. The Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) can occur in a paraneoplastic form (P-LEMS) usually with small cell lung cancer, or in a non-paraneoplastic form (NP-LEMS). In both, IgG antibodies to nerve terminal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), detectable in over 90% of patients, lead to VGCC loss and impaired quantal release of transmitter and may be implicated in the occasionally associated cerebellar ataxia. Neuromyotonia (NMT) and Cramp-Fasciculation syndrome (C-FS) are manifestations of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability and share some clinical and electromyographic features. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are present in about 40% of NMT patients, but less frequently in C-FS, and appear to cause loss of functional VGKCs. They may also be implicated in the Maladie de Morvan and limbic encephalitis that can associate with NMT: The antibodies described here provide valuable aids to diagnosis and management. The Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes are a group of genetically determined heterogeneous disorders, usually recessively inherited. The commonest mutation sites appear to be the acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit and rapsyn. PMID:16482866

  1. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome: hypothesis and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter C; Fontaine, Kevin R; Violand, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM) has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired-due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself-the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term "neuromuscular strain." In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain during the examination. In this paper we submit that neuromuscular strain is a previously unappreciated peripheral source of sensitizing input to the nervous system, and that it contributes to the pathogenesis of CFS symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23720638

  2. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hemiparesis-disability and muscle weakness of 1 side of the body-is a common consequence of stroke. High-intensity strength training may be beneficial to regain function, but strength coaches in the field of rehabilitation need evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular and functional adaptations in outpatients suffering from hemiparesis after stroke. A within-subject repeated-measures design with the paretic leg as the experimental leg and the nonparetic leg as the control leg was used. Eleven outpatients with hemiparesis after stroke participated in 12 weeks of intensive physical rehabilitation comprising unilateral high-intensity strength training with near-maximal loads (4-12 repetition maximum) and body weight supported treadmill training. At baseline and 12-week follow-up, the patients went through testing consisting of isokinetic muscle strength, neuromuscular activation measured with electromyography (EMG), electrically evoked muscle twitch contractile properties, and gait performance (10-m Walk Test and 6-min Walk Test). After the 12-week conditioning program, knee extensor and flexor strength increased during all contraction modes and velocities in the paretic leg. Significant increases were observed for agonist EMG amplitude at slow concentric and slow eccentric contraction. Twitch torque increased, whereas twitch time-to-peak tension remained unchanged. By contrast, no significant changes were observed in the nonparetic control leg. Gait performance increased 52-68%. In conclusion, intensive physical rehabilitation after stroke leads to clinically relevant neuromuscular improvements, leading to increased voluntary strength during a wide range of contraction modes and velocities, and improved gait velocity. Strength training coaches working in the field of rehabilitation can use this knowledge to safely and efficiently add high-intensity strength training to existing rehabilitation paradigms.

  3. Web-based neuromuscular simulator applied to the teaching of principles of neuroscience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Abdala, Elias; André Fabio, Kohn.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The learning of core concepts in neuroscience can be reinforced by a hands-on approach, either experimental or computer-based. In this work, we present a web-based multi-scale neuromuscular simulator that is being used as a teaching aid in a campus-wide course on the Principles of Neur [...] oscience. METHODS: The simulator has several built-in individual models based on cat and human biophysics, which are interconnected to represent part of the neuromuscular system that controls leg muscles. Examples of such elements are i) single neurons, representing either motor neurons or interneurons mediating reciprocal, recurrent and Ib inhibition; ii) afferent fibers that can be stimulated to generate spinal reflexes; iii) muscle unit models, generating force and electromyogram; and iv) stochastic inputs, representing the descending volitional motor drive. RESULTS: Several application examples are provided in the present report, ranging from studies of individual neuron responses to the collective action of many motor units controlling muscle force generation. A subset of them was included in an optional homework assignment for Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering graduate students enrolled in the course cited above at our University. Almost all students rated the simulator as a good or an excellent learning tool, and approximately 90% declared that they would use the simulator in future projects. CONCLUSION: The results allow us to conclude that multi-scale neuromuscular simulator is an effective teaching tool. Special features of this free teaching resource are its direct usability from any browser (http://remoto.leb.usp.br/), its user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) and the preset demonstrations.

  4. Bellows for control rod drive mechanism of 'MONJU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full mock-up operation test of Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) for ''MONJU'' have been carried on since 1972 in OEC of PNC. Welded type bellows were adopted for CRDM as the boundary between sodium and atmosphere. In design, two different locations were considered for bellows, one in sodium and the other in argon gas with sodium vapor and some experiences on the bellows have been obtained. Besides the prototype tests of CRDM, several R and D on CRDM bellows, such as environment effect test and endurance test are conducted. (author)

  5. Active control of mechanical structures in research and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorovi? Tamara N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several crucial phases of the overall approach to development and design of smart structures are outlined in this paper. They are focused on control of lightweight mechanical structures with respect to active vibration and noise attenuation using piezoelectric actuators and sensors. The research experience and growing interest in development of smart structures have motivated introduction of courses on smart structures at universities, which are being studied extensively and with great interest by young researchers and students. Some of the author’s experiences regarding education in this field will be addressed as well.

  6. Tuning the Kondo effect with a mechanically controllable break junction

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, J. J.; Champagne, A R; Hutchison, G. R.; Flores-Torres, S.; Abruna, H. D.; Ralph, D C

    2006-01-01

    We study electron transport through C60 molecules in the Kondo regime using a mechanically controllable break junction. By varying the electrode spacing, we are able to change both the width and height of the Kondo resonance, indicating modification of the Kondo temperature and the relative strength of coupling to the two electrodes. The linear conductance as a function of T/T_K agrees with the scaling function expected for the spin-1/2 Kondo problem. We are also able to tun...

  7. Electromagnetic control rod drive mechanism, with reduced heat losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic device can be used for the control rod drive mechanism of a pressurized coater reactor. It has a sealed casing extending from the reactor cover containing two mobile poles and a mobile plunger, a coil moving the first pole to grip or release the rod, a second coil moving the plunger against the second pole to grip the rod, a third coil moving the second pole, and a cut-out for a thermal coolant siphon associated with the first pole and coil

  8. Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Færgeman, Nils J; Graakjaer, Jesper; Jacobsen, Søren V; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2014-01-01

    Spectrins and plakins are important communicators linking cytoskeletal components to each other and to cellular junctions. Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) belongs to the spectraplakin family and is involved in control of microtubule dynamics. Complete knock out of MACF1 in mice is associated with developmental retardation and embryonic lethality. Here we present a family with a novel neuromuscular condition. Genetic analyses show a heterozygous duplication resulting in reduced M...

  9. Motor Imagery Boosts Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation in the Attainment and Retention of Range-of -Motion at the Hip Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Callaghan; Jenna L. Odley; Williams, John G

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) coupled with an internal mental imagery technique (PNFI) on both the attainment and retention of increased range-of-movement (ROM) at the hip joint. Twenty-four young adult subjects were randomly allocated to PNF, PNFI, and control treatments administered in fifteen sessions over a three-week period. ROM was assessed prior to training then at the completion of sessions 1 day, 3, 7, and 14 during training, then 2...

  10. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on stiffness and force-producing characteristics of the ankle in active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sven S; Murphy, Aron J; Watsford, Mark L; McLachlan, Ken A; Coutts, Aaron J

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on musculotendinous unit (MTU) stiffness of the ankle joint. Twenty active women were assessed for maximal ankle range of motion, maximal strength of planter flexors, rate of force development, and ankle MTU stiffness. Subjects were randomly allocated into an experimental (n = 10) group or control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed PNF stretching on the ankle joint 3 times per week for 4 weeks, with physiological testing performed before and after the training period. After training, the experimental group significantly increased ankle range of motion (7.8%), maximal isometric strength (26%), rate of force development (25%), and MTU stiffness (8.4%) (p < 0.001). Four weeks of PNF stretching contributed to an increase in MTU stiffness, which occurred concurrently with gains to ankle joint range of motion. The results confirm that MTU stiffness and joint range of motion measurements appear to be separate entities. The increased MTU stiffness after the training period is explained by adaptations to maximal isometric muscle contractions, which were a component of PNF stretching. Because a stiffer MTU system is linked with an improved the ability to store and release elastic energy, PNF stretching would benefit certain athletic performance due to a reduced contraction time or greater mechanical efficiency. The results of this study suggest PNF stretching is a useful modality at increasing a joint's range of motion and its strength. PMID:17530973

  11. Fak56 functions downstream of integrin alphaPS3betanu and suppresses MAPK activation in neuromuscular junction growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vactor David

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focal adhesion kinase (FAK functions in cell migration and signaling through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascade. Neuronal function of FAK has been suggested to control axonal branching; however, the underlying mechanism in this process is not clear. Results We have generated mutants for the Drosophila FAK gene, Fak56. Null Fak56 mutants display overgrowth of larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs. Localization of phospho-FAK and rescue experiments suggest that Fak56 is required in presynapses to restrict NMJ growth. Genetic analyses imply that FAK mediates the signaling pathway of the integrin ?PS3?? heterodimer and functions redundantly with Src. At NMJs, Fak56 downregulates ERK activity, as shown by diphospho-ERK accumulation in Fak56 mutants, and suppression of Fak56 mutant NMJ phenotypes by reducing ERK activity. Conclusion We conclude that Fak56 is required to restrict NMJ growth during NMJ development. Fak56 mediates an extracellular signal through the integrin receptor. Unlike its conventional role in activating MAPK/ERK, Fak56 suppresses ERK activation in this process. These results suggest that Fak56 mediates a specific neuronal signaling pathway distinct from that in other cellular processes.

  12. Tracking control mechanisms for positioning automatic CRD exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable completely automatic positioning for the automatic CRD (control rod drives) exchanger, as well as shorten the time for the exchanging operation and save the operator's labour. Constitution: Images of a target attached to the lower flange face of CRD are picked up by a fiber scope mounted to a mounting head. The images are converted through I.T.V. into electrical signals, passed through a cable and then sent to a pattern recognition mechanism. The position for the images of the target is calculated and the calculated position is sent to a drive control section, where the position for the images of the target is compared with a reference position for the images (exactly aligned position) and the moving amount of the mounting head is calculated to move the driving section and thereby complete the positioning. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Performance limitations from delay in human and mechanical motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Dan; Bhatti, Shabana; Wu, Jianhong; Jing, Zhujun

    2008-07-01

    We discuss natural limitations on motor performance caused by the time delay required for feedback signals to propagate within the human body or mechanical control systems. By considering a very simple delayed linear servomechanism model, we show there exists a best possible speed-accuracy trade-off similar to Fitts' law that cannot be exceeded when delay is present. This is strictly a delay effect and does not occur for the ideal case of instantaneous feedback. We then examine the performance of the vector integration to endpoint (VITE) circuit as a model of human movement and show that when this circuit is generalized to include delayed feedback the performance may not exceed that of the servomechanism with an equal delay. We suggest the existence of such a limitation may be a ubiquitous consequence of delay in motor control with the implication that the index of performance in Fitts' law cannot arbitrarily large. PMID:18481080

  14. Mechanical Control of Graphene on Engineered Pyramidal Strain Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen T; Hinnefeld, John H; Zhu, Shuze; Swanson, William J; Li, Teng; Mason, Nadya

    2015-06-23

    Strain can tune desirable electronic behavior in graphene, but there has been limited progress in controlling strain in graphene devices. In this paper, we study the mechanical response of graphene on substrates patterned with arrays of mesoscale pyramids. Using atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate that the morphology of graphene can be controlled from conformal to suspended depending on the arrangement of pyramids and the aspect ratio of the array. Nonuniform strains in graphene suspended across pyramids are revealed by Raman spectroscopy and supported by atomistic modeling, which also indicates strong pseudomagnetic fields in the graphene. Our results suggest that incorporating mesoscale pyramids in graphene devices is a viable route to achieving strain-engineering of graphene. PMID:25970764

  15. Uranium dioxide sintering Kinetics and mechanisms under controlled oxygen potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial, intermediate, and final sintering stages of uranium dioxide were investigated as a function of stoichiometry and temperature by following the kinetics of the sintering reaction. Stoichiometry was controlled by means of the oxygen potential of the sintering atmosphere, which was measured continuously by solid-state oxygen sensors. Included in the kinetic study were microspheres originated from UO2 gels and UO2 pellets produced by isostatic pressing ceramic grade powders. The microspheres sintering behavior was examined using hot-stage microscopy and a specially designed high-temperature, controlled atmosphere furnace. This same furnace was employed as part of an optical dilatometer, which was utilized in the UO2 pellet sintering investigations. For controlling the deviations from stoichiometry during heat treatment, the oxygen partial pressure in the sintering atmosphere was varied by passing the gas through a Cu-Ti-Cu oxygen trap. The trap temperature determined the oxygen partial pressure of the outflowing mixture. Dry hydrogen was also used in some of the UO sub(2+x) sintering experiments. The determination of diametrial shrinkages and sintering indices was made utilizing high-speed microcinematography and ultra-microbalance techniques. It was observed that the oxygen potential has a substantial influence on the kinetics of the three sintering stages. The control of the sintering atmosphere oxygen partial pressure led to very fast densification of UO sub(2+x). Values in the interval 95.0 to 99.5% of theoretical density were reached in less than one minute. Uranium volume diffusion is the dominant mechanism in the initial and intermediate sintering stages. For the final stage, uranium grain boundary diffusion was found to be the main sintering mechanism. (Author)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of myoedema in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 100 patients suffering from various generalized neuromuscular diseases. 30 (30%) showed higher signal intensities on T2-weighted images compared to T1-weighted images without contrast medium, indicating muscle edema. In inflammatory myopathies diffuse and severe muscle edema were found, whereas local and slight or moderate muscle edema were unspecific findings. In 10 patients also contrast enhanced T1-weighted images were done, showing no more sensitivity than T2-weighted images. In conclusion, we think that magnetic resonance imaging may contribute to differential diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. (orig.)

  17. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Bruno Victor Corrêa; Ide, Bernardo Neme; Moura Simim, Mário Antônio de; Marocolo, Moacir; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest). Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT) and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ) tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre) and after the last...

  18. Monitoring of intense neuromuscular blockade in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias V; Donatsky, Anders M; Jensen, Bente Rona; Rosenberg, Jacob; Hammelev, Karsten P; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2014-01-01

    Intense neuromuscular blockade (NMB) measured by post tetanic count (PTC) was monitored, reversed and verified in this pig model. In a cross-over assessor blinded design six pigs were randomized to either no NMB followed by intense NMB, or intense NMB followed by no NMB. Neuromuscular measurements were performed with acceleromyography [train-of-four (TOF) Watch SX]. In all pigs, the response to TOF nerve stimulation was stable and intense NMB (PTC 0-1) was established with rocuronium 3 mg/kg. Fo...

  19. Neuromuscular exercise as treatment of degenerative knee disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as first-line treatment of degenerative knee disease. Our hypothesis is that neuromuscular exercise is feasible and at least as effective as tradionally used strength or aerobic training, but aims to more closely target the sensorimotor deficiencies and functional instability associated with the degenerative knee disease than traditionally used training methods.SUMMARY FOR TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGECurrent data suggests that the effect from neuromuscular exercise on pain and function is comparable to the effects seen from other forms of exercise.

  20. Adaptive control of vibrissae-like mechanical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Carsten

    2011-05-01

    This paper is a contribution to the modeling and the adaptive control of bio-inspired sensors which have the animal vibrissae as a paradigm. Mice and rats employ a sophisticated tactile sensory system to explore their environment in addition to their visual and auditory sense. Vibrissae in the mystical pad (region around the mouth) are used both passively to sense environmental influences (wind, objects) and actively to detect surface and object structures. Inspired by this particular version of tactile sense we consider the following three stages of a sensory system: perception, transduction and processing of information. We model this system in combining two existing mechanical models and obtain an uncertain nonlinear control system. An applied adaptive controller implements the ability of the animals to employ their vibrissae actively as well as passively. Numerical simulations show that the developed nonlinear model compensates noise signals and reacts strongly to sudden perturbations while guaranteeing a pre-specified control objective (working in active or passive mode).

  1. A Cell-Level Mechanism of Contrast Gain Control

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, Linus J

    2013-01-01

    The gain of neurons' responses in the auditory cortex is sensitive to contrast changes in the stimulus within a spectrotemporal range similar to their receptive fields, which can be interpreted to represent the tuning of the input to a neuron. This indicates a local mechanism of contrast gain control, which we explore with a minimal mechanistic model here. Gain control through noisy input has been observed in vitro and in a range of computational models. We investigate the behaviour of the simplest of such models to showcase gain control, a stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire (sLIF) neuron, which exhibits gain control through divisive normalisation of the input both with and without accompanying subtractive shift of the input-response curve, depending on whether input noise is proportional to or independent of its mean. To get a more direct understanding of how the input statistics change the response, we construct an analytic approximation to the firing rate of a sLIF neuron constituted of the expression for...

  2. Development of embedded Control System for Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanisms (CSRDMs) of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a 500 MWe, Sodium cooled, fast breeder reactor is nearing completion at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. PFBR has two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems, one with nine Control and Safety Rods (CSRs) and another with three Diverse Safety Rods (DSRs), with independent driving mechanisms called CSRDMs and DSRDMs respectively. This paper deals with the development of Real Time Computer based Control system for controlling nine CSRDMs with model based software development environment - SCADE (Safety Critical Application Development Environment). (author)

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING FOR BASKET BALL PLAYERS ON PERFORMANCE OF STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Kumar Bhaskar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:To determine the effect of neuromuscular training program (NMTP focused oncore stability and lower extremity strength on performance of star excursion balance test (SEBT inbasketballplayers.Method:: Pre to post test experimental study design randomisedthirty Basketball players each 15 into NMTPand control group. Players trained together as a team in which NMTP group participated 4 weeks of NMTPtwice a week and Control group followed their regular protocol as guided by their coach.Results:When means of post intervention compared using Independent‘t’between NMTP and Control groupthere is no statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-Lateral directionreach distance of star Excursion test but there is a statistically significant difference in means of anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-Lateral direction reach distance when analyzed within in groups using Paired‘t’test andWilcoxon signed rank test.Conclusion:Neuromuscular Training program found to be effective for Basketball Players on Performance ofStar Excursion Balance Test and this improvement can significantly predict the prevention of injury.

  4. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford KR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kevin R Ford,1 Anh-Dung Nguyen,2 Steven L Dischiavi,1 Eric J Hegedus,1 Emma F Zuk,2 Jeffrey B Taylor11Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA; 2Department of Athletic Training, School of Health Sciences, High Point University, High Point, NC, USAAbstract: Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions.Keywords: dynamic lower extremity valgus, hip neuromuscular control, ACL injury rehabilitation, patellofemoral pain, hip muscular activation

  5. Mechanism of controlled release kinetics from medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biodegradable polymers for controlled drug delivery has gained immense attention in the pharmaceutical and medical device industry to administer various drugs, proteins and other bio-molecules both systematically and locally to cure several diseases. The efficacy and toxicity of this local therapeutics depends upon drug release kinetics, which will further decide drug deposition, distribution, and retention at the target site. Drug Eluting Stent (DES presently possesses clinical importance as an alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting due to the ease of the procedure and comparable safety and efficacy. Many models have been developed to describe the drug delivery from polymeric carriers based on the different mechanisms which control the release phenomenon from DES. Advanced characterization techniques facilitate an understanding of the complexities behind design and related drug release behavior of drug eluting stents, which aids in the development of improved future drug eluting systems. This review discusses different drug release mechanisms, engineering principles, mathematical models and current trends that are proposed for drug-polymer coated medical devices such as cardiovascular stents and different analytical methods currently utilized to probe diverse characteristics of drug eluting devices.

  6. Mechanism of controlled release kinetics from medical devices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Raval; J., Parikh; C., Engineer.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biodegradable polymers for controlled drug delivery has gained immense attention in the pharmaceutical and medical device industry to administer various drugs, proteins and other bio-molecules both systematically and locally to cure several diseases. The efficacy and toxicity of this [...] local therapeutics depends upon drug release kinetics, which will further decide drug deposition, distribution, and retention at the target site. Drug Eluting Stent (DES) presently possesses clinical importance as an alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting due to the ease of the procedure and comparable safety and efficacy. Many models have been developed to describe the drug delivery from polymeric carriers based on the different mechanisms which control the release phenomenon from DES. Advanced characterization techniques facilitate an understanding of the complexities behind design and related drug release behavior of drug eluting stents, which aids in the development of improved future drug eluting systems. This review discusses different drug release mechanisms, engineering principles, mathematical models and current trends that are proposed for drug-polymer coated medical devices such as cardiovascular stents and different analytical methods currently utilized to probe diverse characteristics of drug eluting devices.

  7. Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malinowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The scientific interest in meditation and mindfulness practice has recently seen an unprecedented surge. After an initial phase of presenting beneficial effects of mindfulness practice in various domains, research is now seeking to unravel the underlying psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms. Advances in understanding these processes are required for improving and fine-tuning mindfulness-based interventions that target specific conditions such as eating disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. This review presents a theoretical framework that emphasizes the central role of attentional control mechanisms in the development of mindfulness skills. It discusses the phenomenological level of experience during meditation, the different attentional functions that are involved, and relates these to the brain networks that subserve these functions. On the basis of currently available empirical evidence specific processes as to how attention exerts its positive influence are considered and it is concluded that meditation practice appears to positively impact attentional functions by improving resource allocation processes. As a result, attentional resources are allocated more fully during early processing phases which subsequently enhance further processing. Neural changes resulting from a pure form of mindfulness practice that is central to most mindfulness programs are considered from the perspective that they constitute a useful reference point for future research. Furthermore, possible interrelations between the improvement of attentional control and emotion regulation skills are discussed.

  8. Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.S., Moreira; A.C., Takakura; R.S., Damasceno; B., Falquetto; L.T., Totola; C.R., Sobrinho; D.T., Ragioto; F.P., Zolezi.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The arterial partial pressure (P CO2) of carbon dioxide is virtually constant because of the close match between the metabolic production of this gas and its excretion via breathing. Blood gas homeostasis does not rely solely on changes in lung ventilation, but also to a considerable extent on circu [...] latory adjustments that regulate the transport of CO2 from its sites of production to the lungs. The neural mechanisms that coordinate circulatory and ventilatory changes to achieve blood gas homeostasis are the subject of this review. Emphasis will be placed on the control of sympathetic outflow by central chemoreceptors. High levels of CO2 exert an excitatory effect on sympathetic outflow that is mediated by specialized chemoreceptors such as the neurons located in the retrotrapezoid region. In addition, high CO2 causes an aversive awareness in conscious animals, activating wake-promoting pathways such as the noradrenergic neurons. These neuronal groups, which may also be directly activated by brain acidification, have projections that contribute to the CO2-induced rise in breathing and sympathetic outflow. However, since the level of activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus is regulated by converging inputs from wake-promoting systems, behavior-specific inputs from higher centers and by chemical drive, the main focus of the present manuscript is to review the contribution of central chemoreceptors to the control of autonomic and respiratory mechanisms.

  9. Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The arterial partial pressure (P CO2 of carbon dioxide is virtually constant because of the close match between the metabolic production of this gas and its excretion via breathing. Blood gas homeostasis does not rely solely on changes in lung ventilation, but also to a considerable extent on circulatory adjustments that regulate the transport of CO2 from its sites of production to the lungs. The neural mechanisms that coordinate circulatory and ventilatory changes to achieve blood gas homeostasis are the subject of this review. Emphasis will be placed on the control of sympathetic outflow by central chemoreceptors. High levels of CO2 exert an excitatory effect on sympathetic outflow that is mediated by specialized chemoreceptors such as the neurons located in the retrotrapezoid region. In addition, high CO2 causes an aversive awareness in conscious animals, activating wake-promoting pathways such as the noradrenergic neurons. These neuronal groups, which may also be directly activated by brain acidification, have projections that contribute to the CO2-induced rise in breathing and sympathetic outflow. However, since the level of activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus is regulated by converging inputs from wake-promoting systems, behavior-specific inputs from higher centers and by chemical drive, the main focus of the present manuscript is to review the contribution of central chemoreceptors to the control of autonomic and respiratory mechanisms.

  10. Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The scientific interest in meditation and mindfulness practice has recently seen an unprecedented surge. After an initial phase of presenting beneficial effects of mindfulness practice in various domains, research is now seeking to unravel the underlying psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms. Advances in understanding these processes are required for improving and fine-tuning mindfulness-based interventions that target specific conditions such as eating disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. This review presents a theoretical framework that emphasizes the central role of attentional control mechanisms in the development of mindfulness skills. It discusses the phenomenological level of experience during meditation, the different attentional functions that are involved, and relates these to the brain networks that subserve these functions. On the basis of currently available empirical evidence specific processes as to how attention exerts its positive influence are considered and it is concluded that meditation practice appears to positively impact attentional functions by improving resource allocation processes. As a result, attentional resources are allocated more fully during early processing phases which subsequently enhance further processing. Neural changes resulting from a pure form of mindfulness practice that is central to most mindfulness programs are considered from the perspective that they constitute a useful reference point for future research. Furthermore, possible interrelations between the improvement of attentional control and emotion regulation skills are discussed. PMID:23382709

  11. Influence of diagnostic categories, age, and gender on antioxidative defense and lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle of patients with neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stuerenburg, Hans-Joerg; Stangneth, Birgit; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Finckh, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The influence of diagnostic categories, age, and gender on parameters of oxidative stress measured in 102 patients with neuromuscular diseases and 11 control subjects was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Antioxidative enzyme activities, lipophilic antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were analyzed in muscle biopsies.

  12. Dolor en niños y adolescentes con enfermedades neuromusculares / Pain in children and adolescents with neuromuscular diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., López; J., Miró.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la información disponible sobre la experiencia de dolor en niños y adolescentes con una enfermedad neuromuscular (ENM). Para ello, se examinaron las bases de datos SCOPUS y MEDLINE y se localizaron los artículos publicados sobre el tema hasta marzo de 2012. Tra [...] s un análisis exhaustivo, se identificaron 33 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Del análisis efectuado se desprende que el dolor es una experiencia muy habitual en estos jóvenes, que se trata de molestias, por lo general, de moderadas a severas, con una alta frecuencia de aparición y de larga duración. Habitualmente se trata de cuadros crónicos. Estos problemas afectan a la calidad de vida de los jóvenes, más allá de lo que puede explicar la propia ENM. Los estudios revisados muestran que no solo la calidad de vida de los jóvenes se ve afectada por la presencia del dolor, también la de sus cuidadores. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to review the available information on the experience of pain in children and adolescents with neuromuscular disease (NMD). In order to do this, we examined the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases and located published articles on the subject until March 2012. After a thorough anal [...] ysis, we identified 33 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The analysis conducted shows that pain is a very common experience for these young people, usually moderate to severe, with a high frequency of occurrence and long lasting. In general, these are chronic conditions. These chronic pain problems affect the quality of life of young people, beyond what could be explained by the NMD alone. The reviewed studies show that pain not only negatively impacts the quality of life of young people, also that of their caregivers is at jeopardy.

  13. Genetic and evolutionary analysis of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan

    Although evolution of brains and behaviors is of fundamental biological importance, we lack comprehensive understanding of the general principles governing these processes or the specific mechanisms and molecules through which the evolutionary changes are effected. Because synapses are the basic structural and functional units of nervous systems, one way to address these problems is to dissect the genetic and molecular pathways responsible for morphological evolution of a defined synapse. I have undertaken such an analysis by examining morphology of the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in wild caught D. melanogaster as well as in over 20 other species of Drosophila. Whereas variation in NMJ morphology within a species is limited, I discovered a surprisingly extensive variation among different species. Compared with evolution of other morphological traits, NMJ morphology appears to be evolving very rapidly. Moreover, my data indicate that natural selection rather than genetic drift is primarily responsible for evolution of NMJ morphology. To dissect underlying molecular mechanisms that may govern NMJ growth and evolutionary divergence, I focused on a naturally occurring variant in D. melanogaster that causes NMJ overgrowth. I discovered that the variant mapped to Mob2, a gene encoding a kinase adapter protein originally described in yeast as a member of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN). I have subsequently examined mutations in the Drosophila orthologs of all the core components of the yeast MEN and found that all of them function as part of a common pathway that acts presynaptically to negatively regulate NMJ growth. As in the regulation of yeast cytokinesis, these components of the MEN appear to act ultimately by regulating actin dynamics during the process of bouton growth and division. These studies have thus led to the discovery of an entirely new role for the MEN---regulation of synaptic growth---that is separate from its function in cell division. This work has identified a rich source of material for discovery of novel genes and mechanisms that regulate synaptic growth and development, and has also provided new insights into the mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution of nervous systems.

  14. Auction Mechanism to Allocate Air Traffic Control Slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffarin, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with an auction mechanism for airspace slots, as a means of solving the European airspace congestion problem. A disequilibrium, between Air Traffic Control (ATC) services supply and ATC services demand are at the origin of almost one fourth of delays in the air transport industry in Europe. In order to tackle this congestion problem, we suggest modifying both pricing and allocation of ATC services, by setting up an auction mechanism. Objects of the auction will be the right for airlines to cross a part of the airspace, and then to benefit from ATC services over a period corresponding to the necessary time for the crossing. Allocation and payment rules have to be defined according to the objectives of this auction. The auctioneer is the public authority in charge of ATC services, whose aim is to obtain an efficient allocation. Therefore, the social value will be maximized. Another objective is to internalize congestion costs. To that end, we apply the principle of Clarke-Groves mechanism auction: each winner has to pay the externalities imposed on other bidders. The complex context of ATC leads to a specific design for this auction.

  15. Repouso da junção neuromuscular no tratamento de crises miastênicas e colinérgicas Management of the myasthenic and cholinergic crisis by neuromuscular junction rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lamartine de Assis

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 18 crises miastênicas e colinérgicas desenvolvidas em 12 pacientes com forma generalizada e severa de miastenia grave, mediante o "repouso" da junção neuromuscular. Êste foi conseguido, em um grupo de 6 enfermos, pela suspensão das drogas anticolinesterásicas, emprego da respiração artificial e alimentação por sonda nasogástrica — "repouso relativo". Outro grupo de 6 pacientes foi submetido ao "repouso absoluto" da junção neuromuscular, mediante o uso da respiração artificial, alimentação por sonda nasogástrica e curarização prolongada pela galamina. Em mais de 50% das crises observaram-se melhoras imediatas e acentuadas com o método de tratamento pelo "repouso" da junção neuromuscular, ao lado de redução significativa da taxa de mortalidade nas crises. A evolução mostrou que os pacientes que responderam melhor durante e logo após o tratamento da crise, tiveram, também, melhor evolução ulterior. Dos 12 enfermos somente um era portador de timoma e, mesmo nesse paciente, a evolução foi satisfatória. A sensibilidade inicial ao curare foi muito grande em todos os doentes submetidos à curarização prolongada, mas, em prazo relativamente curto (alguns dias, esta hipersensibilidade diminuiu sensivelmente. Apesar de todos os cuidados, as infecções respiratórias foram a regra, exigindo tratamento enérgico e bem orientado.The neuromuscular junction rest method was employed in the treatment of 18 myasthenic and cholinergic crisis occurring in 12 patients with severe forms of myasthenia gravis. Six of these patients received a "relative rest" and other six patients received an "absolute rest" treatment. In the first group of patients the method consisted essentially in withdrawal of anticholinesterase therapy and mechanical respiratory support with early performance of traqueostomy and use of the intermitente positive pressure breathing (I.P.P.B. with cuffed traqueostomy tube. The patients of second group, in addition to this management, were submitted to prolonged curarization by galamine (Flaxedil by intramuscular injection; all of them presented an initial curare supersensitivity which always decreased shortly. In both methods the reinstitution of the drug therapy was progressive. The respirator weanned of progressively and the patients were kept under observation for adequate ventilation. The doses were variable but subsequent doses of antimyasthenic medications were determined by clinical findings and response to the tensilon or prostigmine tests. The doses were increased or decreased accordingly in each individual case, rapid changes of drug doses to perfect adjustment being undesirable in this transition period. Partial or temporary remission occurred in some patients. Others were able to sustain satisfactory ventilation for a long period or definitively. Most of the crisis improved and most of the patients benefited from the therapeutic method of the neuromuscular junction rest. There was a remarkable reduction in the mortality rate from the crisis. One patient had a thymoma which was malignant; in spite of this the evolution of this case has been good after the treatment. Those patients who had immediate good response to the treatment of the crisis had a favorable fellow up, even a complete remission. Respiratory infections were very common in spite of all cares. Culture of tracheal secretions and wound exsudates were made. Bactericidal and broad-spectrum antibiotics were used, depending of the laboratory report cf patient's sensitivity. Physiotherapy besides other prophylactic measures was used against bronchopneumonia. Atelectasis was a common complication in the crisis and all efforts to prevent it were made, including daily clinical examination of pulmonary conditions, Vt,, blood pressure and bed side chest films. The routine use of atropine sulfate promoved inspissation of bronchial secretions, plugging of the bronchi, and attendant atelectasis, infection and bronchopneumonia. Exceptionally, steroids or bronchoscopy had been used.

  16. Repouso da junção neuromuscular no tratamento de crises miastênicas e colinérgicas / Management of the myasthenic and cholinergic crisis by neuromuscular junction rest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Lamartine de, Assis; Paulo A. P., Saraiva.

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 18 crises miastênicas e colinérgicas desenvolvidas em 12 pacientes com forma generalizada e severa de miastenia grave, mediante o "repouso" da junção neuromuscular. Êste foi conseguido, em um grupo de 6 enfermos, pela suspensão das drogas anticolinesterásicas, emprego da respiraç [...] ão artificial e alimentação por sonda nasogástrica — "repouso relativo". Outro grupo de 6 pacientes foi submetido ao "repouso absoluto" da junção neuromuscular, mediante o uso da respiração artificial, alimentação por sonda nasogástrica e curarização prolongada pela galamina. Em mais de 50% das crises observaram-se melhoras imediatas e acentuadas com o método de tratamento pelo "repouso" da junção neuromuscular, ao lado de redução significativa da taxa de mortalidade nas crises. A evolução mostrou que os pacientes que responderam melhor durante e logo após o tratamento da crise, tiveram, também, melhor evolução ulterior. Dos 12 enfermos somente um era portador de timoma e, mesmo nesse paciente, a evolução foi satisfatória. A sensibilidade inicial ao curare foi muito grande em todos os doentes submetidos à curarização prolongada, mas, em prazo relativamente curto (alguns dias), esta hipersensibilidade diminuiu sensivelmente. Apesar de todos os cuidados, as infecções respiratórias foram a regra, exigindo tratamento enérgico e bem orientado. Abstract in english The neuromuscular junction rest method was employed in the treatment of 18 myasthenic and cholinergic crisis occurring in 12 patients with severe forms of myasthenia gravis. Six of these patients received a "relative rest" and other six patients received an "absolute rest" treatment. In the first gr [...] oup of patients the method consisted essentially in withdrawal of anticholinesterase therapy and mechanical respiratory support with early performance of traqueostomy and use of the intermitente positive pressure breathing (I.P.P.B.) with cuffed traqueostomy tube. The patients of second group, in addition to this management, were submitted to prolonged curarization by galamine (Flaxedil by intramuscular injection); all of them presented an initial curare supersensitivity which always decreased shortly. In both methods the reinstitution of the drug therapy was progressive. The respirator weanned of progressively and the patients were kept under observation for adequate ventilation. The doses were variable but subsequent doses of antimyasthenic medications were determined by clinical findings and response to the tensilon or prostigmine tests. The doses were increased or decreased accordingly in each individual case, rapid changes of drug doses to perfect adjustment being undesirable in this transition period. Partial or temporary remission occurred in some patients. Others were able to sustain satisfactory ventilation for a long period or definitively. Most of the crisis improved and most of the patients benefited from the therapeutic method of the neuromuscular junction rest. There was a remarkable reduction in the mortality rate from the crisis. One patient had a thymoma which was malignant; in spite of this the evolution of this case has been good after the treatment. Those patients who had immediate good response to the treatment of the crisis had a favorable fellow up, even a complete remission. Respiratory infections were very common in spite of all cares. Culture of tracheal secretions and wound exsudates were made. Bactericidal and broad-spectrum antibiotics were used, depending of the laboratory report cf patient's sensitivity. Physiotherapy besides other prophylactic measures was used against bronchopneumonia. Atelectasis was a common complication in the crisis and all efforts to prevent it were made, including daily clinical examination of pulmonary conditions, Vt,, blood pressure and bed side chest films. The routine use of atropine sulfate promoved inspissation of bronchial secretions, plugging of the bronchi, and attendant atelectasis, infection and bronchopneumonia. Exceptionally, steroids

  17. Role of exercise in maintaining the integrity of the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Stanford, John A; Mori, Yasuo

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing chronic disease in adults and the elderly. Exercise has beneficial effects on the nervous system, including at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Exercise causes hypertrophy of NMJs and improves recovery from peripheral nerve injuries, whereas decreased physical activity causes degenerative changes in NMJs. Recent studies have begun to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise. These mechanisms involve Bassoon, neuregulin-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1?, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 4, Homer, and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1. For example, NMJ denervation and active zone decreases have been observed in aged NMJs, but these age-dependent degenerative changes can be ameliorated by exercise. In this review we assess the effects of exercise on the maintenance and regeneration of NMJs and highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these exercise effects. PMID:24122772

  18. Assessment of ventilatory neuromuscular drive in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.A. Bittencourt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of abnormalities of the respiratory center in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients and their correlation with polysomnographic data are still a matter of controversy. Moderately obese, sleep-deprived OSA patients presenting daytime hypersomnolence, with normocapnia and no clinical or spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease, were selected. We assessed the ventilatory control and correlated it with polysomnographic data. Ventilatory neuromuscular drive was evaluated in these patients by measuring the ventilatory response (VE, the inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1 and the ventilatory pattern (VT/TI, TI/TTOT at rest and during submaximal exercise, breathing room air. These analyses were also performed after inhalation of a hypercapnic mixture of CO2 (DP.1/DPETCO2, DVE/DPETCO2. Average rest and exercise ventilatory response (VE: 12.2 and 32.6 l/min, respectively, inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1: 1.5 and 4.7 cmH2O, respectively, and ventilatory pattern (VT/TI: 0.42 and 1.09 l/s; TI/TTOT: 0.47 and 0.46 l/s, respectively were within the normal range. In response to hypercapnia, the values of ventilatory response (DVE/DPETCO2: 1.51 l min-1 mmHg-1 and inspiratory occlusion pressure (DP.1/DPETCO2: 0.22 cmH2O were normal or slightly reduced in the normocapnic OSA patients. No association or correlation between ventilatory neuromuscular drive and ventilatory pattern, hypersomnolence score and polysomnographic data was found; however a significant positive correlation was observed between P.1 and weight. Our results indicate the existence of a group of normocapnic OSA patients who have a normal awake neuromuscular ventilatory drive at rest or during exercise that is partially influenced by obesity

  19. Assessment of ventilatory neuromuscular drive in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.R.A., Bittencourt; S.M.T., Moura; M.C., Bagnato; L.C., Gregório; S., Tufik; L.E., Nery.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of abnormalities of the respiratory center in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and their correlation with polysomnographic data are still a matter of controversy. Moderately obese, sleep-deprived OSA patients presenting daytime hypersomnolence, with normocapnia and no clinical or [...] spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease, were selected. We assessed the ventilatory control and correlated it with polysomnographic data. Ventilatory neuromuscular drive was evaluated in these patients by measuring the ventilatory response (VE), the inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1) and the ventilatory pattern (VT/TI, TI/TTOT) at rest and during submaximal exercise, breathing room air. These analyses were also performed after inhalation of a hypercapnic mixture of CO2 (DP.1/DPETCO2, DVE/DPETCO2). Average rest and exercise ventilatory response (VE: 12.2 and 32.6 l/min, respectively), inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1: 1.5 and 4.7 cmH2O, respectively), and ventilatory pattern (VT/TI: 0.42 and 1.09 l/s; TI/TTOT: 0.47 and 0.46 l/s, respectively) were within the normal range. In response to hypercapnia, the values of ventilatory response (DVE/DPETCO2: 1.51 l min-1 mmHg-1) and inspiratory occlusion pressure (DP.1/DPETCO2: 0.22 cmH2O) were normal or slightly reduced in the normocapnic OSA patients. No association or correlation between ventilatory neuromuscular drive and ventilatory pattern, hypersomnolence score and polysomnographic data was found; however a significant positive correlation was observed between P.1 and weight. Our results indicate the existence of a group of normocapnic OSA patients who have a normal awake neuromuscular ventilatory drive at rest or during exercise that is partially influenced by obesity

  20. Estudio electrofisiológico de la funcion neuromuscular en una poblacion intoxicada con plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Genovese

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de 12 pacientes con cifras elevadas de plombemia y disminuidas de ALA D fueron estudiados electrofisiológicamente. Se efectuaron las siguientes determinaciones: amplitud de potencial evocado muscular; latencia distal motora; velocidad de conducción motora en los nervios mediano, ciático poplíteo externo y radial; velocidad de conducción sensitiva y amplitud del potencial evocado sensitivo de nervio en el mediano; exploración electromiográfica convencional; estudio de la transmisión neuromuscular, mediante estimulación repetitiva del nervio ciático popliteo externo a diversas frecuencias, con registro de la amplitud del potencial en músculo tibial anterior. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con controles. Se buscaron correlaciones entre las determinaciones bioquímicas y los diferentes hallazgos electrofisiológicos que a su vez se correlacionaron entre si y también con el tiempo de evolución de la intoxicación. Los hallazgos pusieron de manifiesto la presencia de neuropatía axonal junto a moderada desmielinización. La exploración de la transmisión neuromuscular mostró ocasional decremento o incremento de la amplitud del potencial muscular evocado, hechos que suponen cierta participación de la unión neuromuscular. Se halló correlación solamente entre disminución de ALA D y la disminución de las amplitudes del potencial sensitivo del mediano y el evocado muscular del mismo nervio y con la disminución de la VCM del nervio radial. Una débil relación se observó entre el tiempo de exposición y la disminución de la VCS del nervio mediano y VCM del radial. Las determinaciones bioquímicas y el tiempo de exposición transcurridos no probaron ser parámetros sensibles para determinar el grado de afectación del sistema nervioso periférico. El conjunto do hallazgos sugiere que el desarrollo de la neuropatía puede estar ligado a factores individuales de predisposición al daño nervioso.

  1. Closed-loop timing controller design for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) control system in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method that the operating condition of Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) can be monitored without mounting sensors within CRDM housing was developed, and by using this developed method the closed-loop controller for the CRDM was designed which can optimize the performance and maximize the reliability of CRDM operation. Neural network is utilized as pattern recognition engine in detecting CRDM actuation. In this paper, most problems in previous open loop system are resolved. The control algorithms for closed-loop system were developed and implemented within the hardware of timing controller based on microprocessor. All functions in the timing controller were verified by means of real time CRDM simulator. The results show that the timing controller performs its intended functions properly. (author)

  2. The effect of a Lucia jig for 30 minutes on neuromuscular re-programming, in normal subjects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariangela Salles Pereira, Nassar; Marcelo, Palinkas; Simone Cecilio Hallak, Regalo; Luiz Gustavo de, Sousa; Selma, Siéssere; Marisa, Semprini; Cristiane, Bataglion; César, Bataglion.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lucia jig is a technique that promotes neuromuscular reprogramming of the masticatory system and allows the stabilization of the mandible without the interference of dental contacts, maintaining the mandible position in harmonic condition with the musculature in normal subjects or in patients wi [...] th temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). This study aimed to electromyographically analyze the activity (RMS) of the masseter and temporal muscles in normal subjects (control group) during the use of an anterior programming device, the Lucia jig, in place for 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes to demonstrate its effect on the stomatognathic system. Forty-two healthy dentate individuals (aged 21 to 40 years) with normal occlusion and without parafunctional habits or temporomandibular dysfunction (RDC/TMD) were evaluated on the basis of the electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporal muscles before placement of a neuromuscular re-programming device, the Lucia jig, on the upper central incisors. There were no statistically significant differences (p

  3. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and neurite measurements. Data indicates that chemo-mechanical signaling is highly combinatorial in directing differentiation of C17.2s along a neuronal lineage in vitro. Chapter 4 discusses the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel nanomaterial platform to investigate ligand-receptor binding. PEGylated nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and found to be relatively homogenous in size and morphology, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. However, successful binding of RGD peptide to the nanoparticle was not confirmed. Finally, a method for proteomic analysis of the C17.2 secretome is discussed in Chapter 5. Secreted proteins are of great importance as they can both influence cell behaviors as well as act as biomarkers of differentiation. Methods have been selected and optimized for protein extraction and two dimensional gel electrophoresis to be followed by mass spectrometry and protein identification. A temporal analysis of unique proteins expressed by C17.2s will result in a differentiation timeline. Deducing the dynamics of neuronal cell secretions will greatly contribute to the characterization of the C17.2 cell line and improve its relevance as a neural stem cell model. Overall, results illustrate the importance of chemical and mechanical cues in manipulating neural stem cell fate. These material platforms in combination with the further characterization of the C17.2 neural stem cells could have a great impact in the fields of neuronal biology, translational therapeutics, and pharmaceutical research.

  4. Biochemistry of Neuromuscular Diseases: A Course for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines an undergraduate course focusing on supramolecular membrane protein complexes involved in the molecular pathogenesis of neuromuscular disorders. The emphasis of this course is to introduce students to the key elements involved in the ion regulation and membrane stabilization during muscle contraction and the role of these…

  5. Mainstreaming Children with a Neuromuscular Disease: A Map of Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Kristine; Sandoval, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Four focus groups (n=21) were conducted to gather information about coping issues and teacher attitudes related to the education of children with a neuromuscular disease. Results indicate a need for better home/school communication, a need to establish children's sense of competence, and a need for improved peer relationships. (Author/CR)

  6. Diagnostic value of CT scanning in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of myopathies has become easier since the CT technique is available. In this article the possibilities of CT for diagnostic procedures of neuromuscular diseases are pointed out. Density measurements increase differentiation of atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles as well as other pathological changes. (orig.)

  7. Neuromuscular Bandage: Neurophysiological Effects and the Role of Fascias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena María Villota Chicaíza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, neuromuscular bandage, a therapeutic application created in 1979 by doctor Kenzo Kase has been introduced in the management of many disorders of the musculo-skeletal system and even more so in the treatment of neurological disorders; This therapeutic tool which consists of a self adhesive elastic bandage allows recovery of the injured party without diminishing its bodily function. According to the existing literature on the physiological effects of this therapeutic application in the body, you could say that there is consensus. However in this article the author wants to highlight the significant although little highlighted role played by the fas¬cias on the therapeutic effects of neuromuscular bandage, analyzing from a reflective perspective the analgesic, neuromechanical and circulatory effects, as fundamental effects of neuromuscular bandage and fascias in the same function, trying to bring a global understanding on the way they relate to all connective tissues, aspects that are of great importance for the proper evaluation of alterations and prescription of neuromuscular bandage

  8. Learning to Live with Neuromuscular Disease: A Message for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experiences who helped us feel we weren’t alone. Jack’s home care nurses, therapists and teachers all view him ... with neuromuscular disease. The importance of maintaining a home life that meets the needs ... time to be alone with each other — for companionship, a joint social ...

  9. Hypercapnic impairment of neuromuscular function is related to afferent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekley, Matthew D; Cullom, Damian L; Brechue, William F

    2004-01-01

    Acetazolamide (ACZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, results in altered neuromuscular function secondary to depressed afferent transmission in intact humans. One effect of ACZ is hypercapnia. Thus, to test if the neuromuscular depression observed following ACZ treatment is related to elevated CO(2), human subjects ( n=10) were exposed to 15 min of room air (0% CO(2)) or hypercapnia (7% inspired CO(2)), and neuromuscular function was evaluated. Isometric force (36.8 to 31.1 N) and peak-to-peak electromyographic amplitude (EMG, 1.5 to 1.0 mV) associated with an Achilles tendon tap, and soleus H(max):M(max) ratio (69.0 to 62.2%) were depressed, while EMG latency (34.8 to 39.8 ms) was increased by hypercapnia. Reflex recovery profiles (following a conditioning tap to the contralateral Achilles tendon), motor nerve conduction velocity, amplitude of the maximum M-wave, and peak twitch tension at M(max) were unaltered by hypercapnia. We conclude that elevated CO(2) impairs neuromuscular function through effects on afferent transmission or synaptic integrity between type Ia fibers of the muscle spindle and the alpha motor neuron, without affecting the muscle spindle, efferent conduction or skeletal muscle force-generating capacity. PMID:12955522

  10. The sagital balance in idiopatic and neuromuscular scoliosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Alvim, Borges; Guilherme Pereira, Ocampos; José Antonio, Mancuso Filho; Olavo Biraghi, Letaif; Raphael Martus, Marcon; Alexandre Fogaça, Cristante.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the distribution of spinopelvic parameters (SPP) in a Brazilian population with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS), and evaluate the association between pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL). METHOD: Medical records investig [...] ation was performed. Sagital balance angles were measured in patients with neuromuscular and idiopathic scoliosis. RESULTS: IS sample means (in degrees): PI 55.55; Sacral Slope (SS) 45.35; Pelvic Tilt (PT) 10.19; Lumbar Lordosis (LL) 43.48; and Thoracic Kyphosis (TK) 32.10. In NMS: PI 53.77; SS 42.31; PT 11.46; LL 49.46; and TK 45.69. No statistically significant differences in PEP distribution were found between the two types of scoliosis (p=0,057). The association between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis is low among idiopathic scoliosis (R=0,074) and neuromuscular scoliosis (R=0,274). CONCLUSION: PEP measurements in a Brazilian population of idiopathic scoliosis and neuromuscular scoliosis patients are similar to those in the international literature and do not differ statistically between them. The association between LL and PI could not be assessed in this study. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  11. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  12. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em cães com atrofia muscular induzida Neuromuscular electric stimulation in dogs with induced muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pelizzari

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Empregou-se a estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM de baixa freqüência no músculo quadríceps femoral de cães com atrofia induzida e avaliou-se a ocorrência de ganho de massa nessa musculatura. Foram utilizados oito cães com pesos entre 15 e 30kg, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos denominados de I ou controle e II ou tratado. A articulação femorotibiopatelar esquerda foi imobilizada por 30 dias pelo método de transfixação percutânea tipo II, com retirada de aparelho de imobilização após esse período. Decorridas 48 horas da remoção, foi realizada a EENM nos cães do grupo II, cinco vezes por semana, com intervalo de 24 horas cada sessão, pelo período de 60 dias. Foram avaliadas a circunferência da coxa, a goniometria do joelho, a análise clínica da marcha, as enzimas creatina-quinase (CK e aspartato-amino-transferase (AST e a morfometria das fibras musculares em cortes transversais do músculo vasto lateral colhido mediante biópsia muscular. A EENM foi empregada no músculo quadríceps femoral na freqüência de 50Hz, duração de pulso de 300 milisegundos e relação de tempo on/off de 1:2. Quanto à morfometria das fibras do músculo vasto lateral, no grupo tratado houve aumento significativo (PLow frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES was used on the femoral quadriceps of dogs with induced muscular atrophy and the occurrence of gain in mass in these muscles was evaluated. Eight dogs from 15 to 30kg were randomly distributed in two groups named I, or control; and II, or treated. For the induction of muscular atrophy, the left femoral-tibial-patellar joint was immobilized for 30 days by percutaneous transfixation type II. After 30 days, the immobilization device was removed. The NMES treatment began 48 hours after the removal of the immobilization device of the dogs of group II, and it was carried out five times per week with an interval of 24 hours between each session, for 60 days. The following parameters were measured: thigh circumference, goniometry of the knee, clinical gait analysis, creatine kinase (CK and aspartate aminotransferase (AST enzymes, and morphometry of the muscular fibers in transversal cuts of the vastus lateralis muscle collected through muscular biopsy. The NMES was applied on the femoral quadriceps at a frequency of 50 Hz, with pulse duration of 300 milliseconds, and the on/off time was at a proportion of 1:2. Regarding the morphometry of the vastus lateralis fibers, a significant increase (P<0.05 in the transversal area of the treated group at 90 days was observed when compared with that identified at the time of immobilization. Thus, it can be concluded that low frequency NMES brings about hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis muscle in dogs after temporary rigid immobilization of the knee joint.

  13. Bacterial cell curvature through mechanical control of cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabeen, M.; Charbon, Godefroid

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a key regulator of cell morphogenesis. Crescentin, a bacterial intermediate filament-like protein, is required for the curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus and localizes to the inner cell curvature. Here, we show that crescentin forms a single filamentous structure that collapses into a helix when detached from the cell membrane, suggesting that it is normally maintained in a stretched configuration. Crescentin causes an elongation rate gradient around the circumference of the sidewall, creating a longitudinal cell length differential and hence curvature. Such curvature can be produced by physical force alone when cells are grown in circular microchambers. Production of crescentin in Escherichia coli is sufficient to generate cell curvature. Our data argue for a model in which physical strain borne by the crescentin structure anisotropically alters the kinetics of cell wall insertion to produce curved growth. Our study suggests that bacteria may use the cytoskeleton for mechanical control of growth to alter morphology

  14. A Survey on Secure Source-Controlled Forwarding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Jagdale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the time we provide security to the our internet by application layer perspective so attacker trying to exploit at network layer by ip snooping and ip spoofing, Man-in-middle attack and ARP spoofing. Previous various researches provided solution for this but all that solution require more effort to implement in real world and all networking node should be designed with fully intelligent capability. In this paper we introducing the secure source routing mechanism in which end user gives control over routing and achieving the flexible communication. The main technique we introducing in this paper is simple crypto graphical constraints on routing entries. We show that it is possible to prevent major attacks on end-host and restrict all types of flooding attacks that are launched on network infrastructure nodes to small constant value.

  15. A bimodular mechanism of calcium control in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidow, Henning; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager

    2012-01-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) have an important role as secondary messengers in numerous signal transduction processes, and cells invest much energy in controlling and maintaining a steep gradient between intracellular (?0.1-micromolar) and extracellular (?2-millimolar) Ca(2+) concentrations. Calmodulin-stimulated calcium pumps, which include the plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCAs), are key regulators of intracellular Ca(2+) in eukaryotes. They contain a unique amino- or carboxy-terminal regulatory domain responsible for autoinhibition, and binding of calcium-loaded calmodulin to this domain releases autoinhibition and activates the pump. However, the structural basis for the activation mechanism is unknown and a key remaining question is how calmodulin-mediated PMCA regulation can cover both basal Ca(2+) levels in the nanomolar range as well as micromolar-range Ca(2+) transients generated by cell stimulation. Here we present an integrated study combining the determination of the high-resolution crystal structure of a PMCA regulatory-domain/calmodulin complex with in vivo characterization and biochemical, biophysical and bioinformatics data that provide mechanistic insights into a two-step PMCA activation mechanism mediated by calcium-loaded calmodulin. The structure shows the entire PMCA regulatory domain and reveals an unexpected 2:1 stoichiometry with two calcium-loaded calmodulin molecules binding to different sites on a long helix. A multifaceted characterization of the role of both sites leads to a general structural model for calmodulin-mediated regulation of PMCAs that allows stringent, highly responsive control of intracellular calcium in eukaryotes, making it possible to maintain a stable, basal level at a threshold Ca(2+) concentration, where steep activation occurs.

  16. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced by Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Tainger, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit cast features. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. Tensile mechanical properties and microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains with interior dendritic structures, described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  17. Mechanisms controlling the distribution of two invasive Bromus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bykova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict future range shifts for invasive species it is important to explore their ability to acclimate to the new environment and understand physiological and reproductive constraints controlling their distribution. My dissertation studied mechanisms by which temperature may affect the distribution of two aggressive plant invaders in North America, Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens. I first evaluated winter freezing tolerance of Bromus species and demonstrated that the mechanism explaining their distinct northern range limits is different acquisition time of freezing tolerance. While B. rubens has a slower rate of freezing acclimation that leads to intolerance of sudden, late-autumn drops in temperature below -12°C, B. tectorum rapidly hardens and so is not impacted by the sudden onset of severe late-autumn cold. In addition, the analysis of male reproductive development and seed production showed that neither species produces seed at or above 36°C, due to complete pollen sterility, which might trigger climate-mediated range contractions at B. tectorum and B. rubens southern margins. Finally, a detailed gas-exchange analysis combined with biochemical modelling demonstrated that both species acclimate to a broad range of temperatures and photosynthetic response to temperature does not explain their current range separation.

  18. Control of forced vibrations of mechanical structures by an electromagnetic controller with a permanent magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of an electromagnetic vibration controller is presented. The analyzed device consists of a pot-type iron core with a coil and a permanent magnet as a source of constant magnetic flux. The magnetic circuit is closed by a yoke, excited by an external harmonic mechanical force. The so generated magnetic flux variation induces alternating voltage in the electric circuit, which is dissipated in a shunt resistor. The induced current driven through the coil generates magnetic force, which damps the excitation force and changes the damped natural frequency of the oscillatory system. Due to the hysteretic effects in the magnetic material the internal losses influence the overall system’s performance. A mathematical model of the force balance in the oscillatory system is derived in a simplified, linearised form. The electric as well as mechanical system is modelled using lumped-parameter approach and the actuating principle for control of forced vibration is investigated.

  19. Morphometric and Morphological Analysis of Neuromuscular Junction Alterations in the Denervated Rat Diaphragm / Evaluación de las Alteraciones Morfológicas y Morfométricas de las Uniones Neuromusculares del Diafragma Denervado en Ratas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. M, Torrejais; J. C, Soares; S. M. M, Matheus; J. M, Mello; L. A. D, Francia-Farje; E. J. D, Vicente.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las alteraciones morfológicas y estructurales de las uniones neuromusculares en el diafragma denervado de ratas. Se utilizaron 15 ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), machos, adultos, con peso promedio de 200g y cerca de 60 días de edad. Los diafragmas crónicamente denerv [...] ados fueron obtenidos y los animales se sacrificaron después de 4, 8 y 12 semanas de denervación. El antímero izquierdo del diafragma fue denervado por sección del nervio frénico y el antímero derecho fue utilizado como control. Cada antímero fue dividido en 3 fragmentos: uno fue utilizado para el estudio histoquímico (esterasa inespecífica) y morfométrico. Los otros dos se destinaron al estudio de microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET) y microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB) de las uniones neuromusculares. El estudio histoquímico de las uniones neuromusculares posterior a la denervación, muestra que la morfología de esas uniones sufre pequeñas alteraciones. Con la evolución del tiempo de denervación esas uniones muestran tamaños menores, son alargadas y con contornos menos nítidos. La ultra-estructura de las uniones neuromusculares después de 12 semanas, demostró que la superficie de la fibra muscular exhibe pliegues de unión más o menos organizados. La región del citoplasma de unión exhibe alteraciones importantes, con degeneración mitocondrial y presencia de muchos filamentos. En MEB se observa que los botones sinápticos primarios son profundos, presentan escavaciones periféricas donde estaban alojados los botones de las terminaciones nerviosas y exhiben internamente, los espacios sinápticos secundarios presentes entre los pliegues de unión del sarcolema. Este estudio mostró que algunos patrones morfológicos demostrados en otros músculos estriados esqueléticos denervados no se repiten con la misma intensidad y curso temporal en el diafragma de ratas. Abstract in english The morphological and structural alterations that occur in the neuromuscular junctions of the denervated rat diaphragm were studied. Fifteen adult male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) aged about 60 days and with a mean weight of 200 g were used. Chronically denervated diaphragms were obtained and th [...] e animals were sacrificed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of denervation. The left antimere of the diaphragm was denervated by section of the phrenic nerve and the right antimere was used as control. Each antimere was divided into three fragments: one was used for histochemical (nonspecific esterase) and morphometric study of neuromuscular junctions, and the other two were used for transmission and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Histochemical analysis of the diaphragm neuromuscular junctions after denervation showed only small changes in junction morphology. However, these junctions became smaller and elongated and presented less visible contours with increasing time of denervation. Ultrastructural analysis of neuromuscular junctions after 12 weeks showed more or less organized junctional folds on the muscle fiber surface. The junctional cytoplasm exhibited important alterations such as mitochondrial degeneration and the presence of numerous filaments. SEM revealed the presence of deep primary synaptic grooves with peripheral excavations which housed the nerve terminal boutons and exhibited internally the secondary synaptic clefts present among the junctional folds of the sarcolemma. This study showed that some of the morphological changes demonstrated in other denervated striated skeletal muscles are not repeated at the same intensity or in the same temporal pattern in the rat diaphragm.

  20. Envelhecimento e treinamento de potência: aspectos neuromusculares e funcionais / Aging and power training: neuromuscular and functional aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Leandro, Tiggemann; Caroline Pieta, Dias; Matias, Noll; Maira Cristina Wolf, Schoenell; Luiz Fernando Martins, Kruel.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A proporção de idosos na população é cada vez maior nos diferentes países, tornado fundamental o seu estudo em diferentes perspectivas. Desta forma, o objetivo da presente revisão é compreender como o envelhecimento atua no sistema neuromuscular, em especial na força muscular, e como este declínio a [...] tua nos aspectos funcionais, ou seja, nas tarefas do dia a dia. Além disso, será abordado como o treinamento de força, em específico visando à melhora da potência muscular, pode ser uma estratégia segura e efetiva no combate aos efeitos adversos do envelhecimento no sistema neuromuscular. Abstract in english The proportion of elderly in the population is growing in different countries, which makes essential to examine this part of the population in different perspectives. In this way, the objective of this review is to understand how aging affects the neuromuscular system, especially muscle strength, an [...] d how this decline works on functional aspects, i.e. on everyday tasks. In addition, it is investigated how strength training, specifically aimed at improving muscle strength, can be a safe and effective strategy in combating the adverse effects of aging on neuromuscular system.

  1. Adverse interaction between acetazolamide and anticholinesterase drugs at the normal and myasthenic neuromuscular junction level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, M; Scoppetta, C; Ranelletti, F O; Tonali, P

    1984-03-01

    At skeletal neuromuscular junction level in vivo and in vitro experiments have revealed an adverse reversible interaction between acetazolamide and anticholinesterase drugs. Acetazolamide (500 mg, i.v.) prevented the increase in amplitude induced by edrophonium (5 mg, i.v.) on the action potentials derived by surface electrodes from the opponens pollicis muscle of patients affected by myasthenia gravis, when the median nerve was stimulated at the wrist by low frequency repetitive pulses (5/s). Similarly, acetazolamide significantly reduced the contractile force potentiation induced by neostigmine on the rat phrenic-diaphragm preparation, indirectly stimulated by means of low frequency repetitive pulses on the motor nerve. Under such experimental conditions acetazolamide did not show any significant action of its own, but it counteracted the effects of anticholinesterase drugs only when tested before them. It is hypothesized that the effect of acetazolamide on the skeletal neuromuscular junction may occur at presynaptic and/or postsynaptic sites by a mechanism only partly ascribable to the well-known carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity of this drug. PMID:6715082

  2. Control of forced vibrations of mechanical structures by an electromagnetic controller with a permanent magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of an electromagnetic vibration controller is presented. The analyzed device consists of a pot-type iron core with a coil and a permanent magnet as a source of constant magnetic flux. The magnetic circuit is closed by a yoke, excited by an external harmonic mechanical force. The so generated magnetic flux variation induces alternating voltage in the electric circuit, which is dissipated in a shunt resistor. The induced current driven through the coil generates magnetic for...

  3. Perturbations to SOC models as a mechanism for transport control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the concept of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) was advanced as a paradigm for turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The type of model has the advantage of predicting general features of the transport dynamics and profiles independent of the local instability driving the fluctuations. Such a model predicts profile resiliency, sub-marginal profiles maintaining active transport, intermittency in flux and transport events which have large correlation lengths while the underlying fluctuations have short correlation lengths. Given that many of these features have been observed in experiments, an investigation is made of the dynamics of a perturbed SOC system as a mechanism for the control of transport. One of the problems faced by magnetic confinement devices is the control of the heat and particle fluxes. If the fluxes are very open-quotes burstyclose quotes then even if the walls and divertor can safely absorb the average flux the instantaneous flux could damage or destroy these surfaces. Additionally, in enhanced confinement regimes (H-mode, VH-mode, Enhanced Reversed Shear modes and such) the limiting factor is often the buildup of a super-critical gradient which gives rise to a sudden large transport event. Computational experiments with a sandpile model of SOC dynamics suggests that some modification of the transport dynamics may be possible with periodic perturbations of the internal sources

  4. The effects of band exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscular strength in lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Su-Hyun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a six-week elastic band exercise program using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can increase isotonic strength of abductor muscles in the lower extremity. Twenty-eight healthy students from S university were divided into an experimental group and control group. Each group was participated in pre and post-measurement in isotonic strength using an isotonic analyzer, En-treeM. Experimental group performed elastic band exercise using PNF pattern for a six-weeks, in contrast, control group did not take any exercise. In the results of this study, isotonic strength measurements of abductor muscles in lower extremity in experimental group were significantly different after exercise, but control group did not show any significant changes. Therefore, we hope that resistive exercise would be very valuable for healthy people as well as the old people with weakened muscle strength. PMID:25830142

  5. The Control System Modeling and The Mechanical Structure Analysis For EMCVT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Cong, Xiaomei; Hujian Pan; Zuge CAI; Xiumin YANG

    2013-01-01

    The current automotive metallic belt continuously variable transmission (CVT) mostly use hydraulic system to push the cone disc and achieve the speed ratio control. A new Electrical Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission without hydraulic control (Electrical Mechanical CVT, EMCVT) studied in this paper, uses the rolling screw mechanism to press cone disc, achieves speed regulation through the electronic control mechanism, and abandons the energy-intensive hydraulic system. In this pape...

  6. Differential neuromuscular training effects onACL injury risk factors in"high-risk" versus "low-risk" athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Kevin R

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromuscular training may reduce risk factors that contribute to ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Multi-component, ACL injury prevention training programs can be time and labor intensive, which may ultimately limit training program utilization or compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of neuromuscular training on those classified as "high-risk" compared to those classified as "low-risk." The hypothesis was that high-risk athletes would decrease knee abduction moments while low-risk and control athletes would not show measurable changes. Methods Eighteen high school female athletes participated in neuromuscular training 3×/week over a 7-week period. Knee kinematics and kinetics were measured during a drop vertical jump (DVJ test at pre/post training. External knee abduction moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. Logistic regression indicated maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of ACL injury risk using external knee abduction (25.25 Nm cutoff during a DVJ. Based on these data, 12 study subjects (and 4 controls were grouped into the high-risk (knee abduction moment >25.25 Nm and 6 subjects (and 7 controls were grouped into the low-risk (knee abduction Results Athletes classified as high-risk decreased their knee abduction moments by 13% following training (Dominant pre: 39.9 ± 15.8 Nm to 34.6 ± 9.6 Nm; Non-dominant pre: 37.1 ± 9.2 to 32.4 ± 10.7 Nm; p = 0.033 training X risk factor interaction. Athletes grouped into the low-risk category did not change their abduction moments following training (p > 0.05. Control subjects classified as either high or low-risk also did not significantly change from pre to post-testing. Conclusion These results indicate that "high-risk" female athletes decreased the magnitude of the previously identified risk factor to ACL injury following neuromuscular training. However, the mean values for the high-risk subjects were not reduced to levels similar to low-risk group following training. Targeting female athletes who demonstrate high-risk knee abduction loads during dynamic tasks may improve efficacy of neuromuscular training. Yet, increased training volume or more specific techniques may be necessary for high-risk athletes to substantially decrease ACL injury risk.

  7. Antimicrobial agents used in the control of periodontal biofilms: effective adjuncts to mechanical plaque control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Palmier Teles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of periodontal disease prevention for decades. However, the widespread prevalence of gingivitis suggests the inefficiency of self-performed mechanical plaque control in preventing gingival inflammation. This is particularly relevant in light of recent evidence suggesting that long standing gingivitis increases the risk of loss of attachment and that prevention of gingival inflammation might reduce the prevalence of mild to moderate periodontitis. Several antimicrobials have been tested as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control in order to improve the results obtained with oral home care. Recent studies, including meta-analyses, have indicated that home care products containing chemical antimicrobials can provide gingivitis reduction beyond what can be accomplished with brushing and flossing. Particularly, formulations containing chlorhexidine, mouthrinses containing essential oils and triclosan/copolymer dentifrices have well documented clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects. In vivo microbiological tests have demonstrated the ability of these antimicrobial agents to penetrate the biofilm mass and to kill bacteria growing within biofilms. In addition, chemical antimicrobials can reach difficult-to-clean areas such as interproximal surfaces and can also impact the growth of biofilms on soft tissue. These agents have a positive track record of safety and their use does not seem to increase the levels of resistant species. Further, no study has been able to establish a correlation between mouthrinses containing alcohol and oral cancer. In summary, the adjunct use of chemical plaque control should be recommended to subjects with well documented difficulties in achieving proper biofilm control using only mechanical means.

  8. Antimicrobial agents used in the control of periodontal biofilms: effective adjuncts to mechanical plaque control?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Palmier, Teles; Flavia Rocha Fonseca, Teles.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of periodontal disease prevention for decades. However, the widespread prevalence of gingivitis suggests the inefficiency of self-performed mechanical plaque control in preventing gingival inflammation. This is particularly releva [...] nt in light of recent evidence suggesting that long standing gingivitis increases the risk of loss of attachment and that prevention of gingival inflammation might reduce the prevalence of mild to moderate periodontitis. Several antimicrobials have been tested as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control in order to improve the results obtained with oral home care. Recent studies, including meta-analyses, have indicated that home care products containing chemical antimicrobials can provide gingivitis reduction beyond what can be accomplished with brushing and flossing. Particularly, formulations containing chlorhexidine, mouthrinses containing essential oils and triclosan/copolymer dentifrices have well documented clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects. In vivo microbiological tests have demonstrated the ability of these antimicrobial agents to penetrate the biofilm mass and to kill bacteria growing within biofilms. In addition, chemical antimicrobials can reach difficult-to-clean areas such as interproximal surfaces and can also impact the growth of biofilms on soft tissue. These agents have a positive track record of safety and their use does not seem to increase the levels of resistant species. Further, no study has been able to establish a correlation between mouthrinses containing alcohol and oral cancer. In summary, the adjunct use of chemical plaque control should be recommended to subjects with well documented difficulties in achieving proper biofilm control using only mechanical means.

  9. Efeito de um programa de treinamento de facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva sobre a mobilidade torácica / Effect of a training program based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation onto thoracic mobility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlene Aparecida, Moreno; Ester da, Silva; Roberta Silva, Zuttin; Mauro, Gonçalves.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste estudo foi analisar o efeito de um programa de treinamento de membros superiores baseado nas técnicas de facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP) sobre a mobilidade torácica. Foram estudadas 24 voluntárias sedentárias, idade 22,9 ± 2,9 anos, divididas em grupo controle (GC), q [...] ue não participou do treinamento, e grupo treinado (GT). O protocolo de treinamento físico foi constituído por um programa de exercícios de FNP, realizado três vezes por semana, durante quatro semanas. Os dois grupos foram submetidos à avaliação da mobilidade torácica por meio de cirtometria, antes e após o período de treinamento. Os dados colhidos foram analisados estatisticamente, com nível de significância ? = 5%. Os valores da cirtometria axilar e xifoideana do GC antes e após o período de intervenção não apresentaram alterações significativas (p>0,05). No GT os valores das variáveis foram significantemente maiores após a intervenção (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of an upper limb training program based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on thoracic mobility. The study was carried out with 24 sedentary female volunteers, aged 22.9±2.9 years. Participants were divided into a control [...] group (CG), who did not perform any exercise, and a trained group (TG), submitted to training. The physical training protocol consisted of a PNF exercise program, three times a week for four weeks. The two groups were assessed as to thoracic mobility by means of cirtometry before and after the training period. Data were statistically analysed and significance level set at ?=5%. In CG, initial axillary and xiphoid cirtometry values showed no significant differences when compared to data obtained on the final evaluation (p>0.05). TG measures, in turn, were significantly higher after the training program (p

  10. Sleep polygraphic parameters in neuromuscular diseases / Parâmetros poligráficos do sono em doenças neuromusculares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia, Pradella.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudando 32 pacientes com doenças neuromusculares -22 com forma de distrofia muscular, 3 com forma de miopatia congênita, 4 com forma de atrofia muscular espinal, 1 com forma recorrente de polimiosite e 1 com síndrome de osteogenesis imperfecta - dos quais 21 estavam impossibilitados de deambulação [...] , distúrbios respiratórios relacionados ao sono foram observados sob forma dessaturação da oxi-hemogloblina, arritmia cardíaca, taquipnéia, taquicardia e roncos. Nove desses 32 pacientes apresentaram períodos de dessaturação de oxi-hemoglobina maiores que 4% em relação aos níveis obtidos em vigília e repouso. Esse grupo de pacientes era caracterizado por apresentar síndrome respiratória restritiva associada a deformidade torácica (principalmente escoliose). Alguns apresentaram taquipnéia e/ou saturação da oxi-hemoglobina abaixo de 90% durante o repouso e em vigília. Neste grupo, roncos foram observados principalmente nos pacientes com forma de distrofia muscular, enquanto a taquipnéia foi observada sobretudo nos pacientes com os maiores níveis de dessaturação. A quantificação do sono mostrou aumento na porcentagem do estado 1 do sono associada a diminuição ou mesmo ausência do estado do sono paradoxal. Isso nos leva a crer em um provável mecanismo de proteção consequente à potencialização da hipoventilação observada durante o estado de sono paradoxal, em que os maiores níveis de dessaturação são observados. Abstract in english In a polysomnography study of 32 neuromuscular patients - 22 with a form of muscular dystrophy, 3 with a form of congenital myopathy, 4 with a form of spinal muscular atrophy, 1 with a recurrent form of polymyositis and 1 with osteogenesis imperfecta syndrome - of which 21 were nonambulatory, we obs [...] erved sleep related respiratory disturbances represented by: drops in oxygen saturation (SaO2), cardiac arrythmia, sleep disruption, apneas, tachypnea, tachycardia and snoring. Nine out of the cohort of 32 patients presented with significant desaturations periods. These patients presented with an associated restrictive syndrome and thoracic deformities, some with tachypnea and/or SaO2 below 90% during wakefulness. In this group, snoring was observed in those patients with a form of muscular dystrophy while tachypnea was observed in patients who presented the highest desaturations levels. Sleep quantification revealed an increase of stage 1 sleep coupled with a decrease or even total absence of REM sleep. This is, we believe, a likely consequence of episodic desaturations that may accompany sleep hypoventilation which is potentialised during REM sleep stage.

  11. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia / Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Aris, Kouyoumdjian.

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso) deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não oc [...] orrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal. Abstract in english Cachexia, ageing and disuse and their effects on the human and animals neuromuscular system are reviewed. Disuse induces reduction of muscle fibers (mainly II) diameter with peripheral myofibrils lost; there is no core-targetoid or even reduction on myophosphorilase activity, both typical of denerva [...] tion; the acetylcholine spontaneous release and trophic factors on myoneural junction are maintained; muscle fibers could change to angular shape. Ageing affects nerve and muscle by a continuous and progressive process of denervation and reinner-vation; the number of motor units diminishes in sixties without any denervation electric activity; there is also reduction on the amount of ACh release on terminal neurons and mitochondrial oxidative capacity leading to compensatory type I muscle fiber number increase. Cachexia also induces reduction on muscle fibers diameter first on legs and then on arms and trunk; there is type II atrophy with occasional angular fibers, RNA/proteic synthesis reduction and normal DNA.

  12. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal.Cachexia, ageing and disuse and their effects on the human and animals neuromuscular system are reviewed. Disuse induces reduction of muscle fibers (mainly II diameter with peripheral myofibrils lost; there is no core-targetoid or even reduction on myophosphorilase activity, both typical of denervation; the acetylcholine spontaneous release and trophic factors on myoneural junction are maintained; muscle fibers could change to angular shape. Ageing affects nerve and muscle by a continuous and progressive process of denervation and reinner-vation; the number of motor units diminishes in sixties without any denervation electric activity; there is also reduction on the amount of ACh release on terminal neurons and mitochondrial oxidative capacity leading to compensatory type I muscle fiber number increase. Cachexia also induces reduction on muscle fibers diameter first on legs and then on arms and trunk; there is type II atrophy with occasional angular fibers, RNA/proteic synthesis reduction and normal DNA.

  13. Response to upper-limb robotics and functional neuromuscular stimulation following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Janis J; Hogan, Neville; Perepezko, Elizabeth M; Krebs, Hermano I; Rogers, Jean M; Goyal, Kanu S; Dohring, Mark E; Fredrickson, Eric; Nethery, Joan; Ruff, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    Twelve moderately to severely involved chronic stroke survivors (>12 mo) were randomized to one of two treatments: robotics and motor learning (ROB-ML) or functional neuromuscular stimulation and motor learning (FNS-ML). Treatment was 5 h/d, 5 d/wk for 12 wk. ROB-ML group had 1.5 h per session devoted to robotics shoulder and elbow (S/E) training. FNS-ML had 1.5 h per session devoted to functional neuromuscular stimulation (surface electrodes) for wrist and hand (W/H) flexors/extensors. The primary outcome measure was the functional measure Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT). Secondary measures were AMAT-S/E and AMAT-W/H, Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper-limb coordination, and the motor control measures of target accuracy (TA) and smoothness of movement (SM). ROB-ML produced significant gains in AMAT, AMAT-S/E, FM upper-limb coordination, TA, and SM. FNS-ML produced significant gains in AMAT-W/H and FM upper-limb coordination. PMID:16680610

  14. Detection of attempted movement from the EEG during neuromuscular block: proof of principle study in awake volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Yvonne; Spyrou, Loukianos; Lerou, Jos; Mourisse, Jo; Jan Scheffer, Gert; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to detect intraoperative awareness during general anaesthesia. Traditionally, BCI research is aimed at establishing or improving communication and control for patients with permanent paralysis. Patients experiencing intraoperative awareness also lack the means to communicate after administration of a neuromuscular blocker, but may attempt to move. This study evaluates the principle of detecting attempted movements from the electroencephalogram (EEG) during local temporary neuromuscular blockade. EEG was obtained from four healthy volunteers making 3-second hand movements, both before and after local administration of rocuronium in one isolated forearm. Using offline classification analysis we investigated whether the attempted movements the participants made during paralysis could be distinguished from the periods when they did not move or attempt to move. Attempted movement trials were correctly identified in 81 (68-94)% (mean (95% CI)) and 84 (74-93)% of the cases using 30 and 9 EEG channels, respectively. Similar accuracies were obtained when training the classifier on the participants' actual movements. These results provide proof of the principle that a BCI can detect movement attempts during neuromuscular blockade. Based on this, in the future a BCI may serve as a communication channel between a patient under general anaesthesia and the anaesthesiologist. PMID:26248679

  15. The effect of a Lucia jig for 30 minutes on neuromuscular re-programming, in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Salles Pereira Nassar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lucia jig is a technique that promotes neuromuscular reprogramming of the masticatory system and allows the stabilization of the mandible without the interference of dental contacts, maintaining the mandible position in harmonic condition with the musculature in normal subjects or in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD. This study aimed to electromyographically analyze the activity (RMS of the masseter and temporal muscles in normal subjects (control group during the use of an anterior programming device, the Lucia jig, in place for 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes to demonstrate its effect on the stomatognathic system. Forty-two healthy dentate individuals (aged 21 to 40 years with normal occlusion and without parafunctional habits or temporomandibular dysfunction (RDC/TMD were evaluated on the basis of the electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporal muscles before placement of a neuromuscular re-programming device, the Lucia jig, on the upper central incisors. There were no statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 in the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles in the different time periods. The Lucia jig changed the electromyographic activity by promoting a neuromuscular reprogramming. In most of the time periods, it decreased the activation of the masticatory muscles, showing that this device has wide applicability in dentistry. The use of a Lucia jig over 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes did not promote any statistically significant increase in muscle activity despite differences in the data, thus showing that this intra-oral device can be used in dentistry.

  16. Fracture mechanisms and fracture control in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wone-Chul

    Four basic failure modes--delamination, delamination buckling of composite sandwich panels, first-ply failure in cross-ply laminates, and compression failure--are analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and the J-integral method. Structural failures, including those at the micromechanical level, are investigated with the aid of the models developed, and the critical strains for crack propagation for each mode are obtained. In the structural fracture analyses area, the fracture control schemes for delamination in a composite rib stiffener and delamination buckling in composite sandwich panels subjected to in-plane compression are determined. The critical fracture strains were predicted with the aid of LEFM for delamination and the J-integral method for delamination buckling. The use of toughened matrix systems has been recommended for improved damage tolerant design for delamination crack propagation. An experimental study was conducted to determine the onset of delamination buckling in composite sandwich panel containing flaws. The critical fracture loads computed using the proposed theoretical model and a numerical computational scheme closely followed the experimental measurements made on sandwich panel specimens of graphite/epoxy faceskins and aluminum honeycomb core with varying faceskin thicknesses and core sizes. Micromechanical models of fracture in composites are explored to predict transverse cracking of cross-ply laminates and compression fracture of unidirectional composites. A modified shear lag model which takes into account the important role of interlaminar shear zones between the 0 degree and 90 degree piles in cross-ply laminate is proposed and criteria for transverse cracking have been developed. For compressive failure of unidirectional composites, pre-existing defects play an important role. Using anisotropic elasticity, the stress state around a defect under a remotely applied compressive load is obtained. The experimentally observed complex compressive failure modes, such as shear crippling and pure compressive fiber failure of fibers are explained by the predicted stress distributions calculated in this work. These fracture analyses can be damage tolerant design methodology for composite structures. The proposed fracture criteria and the corresponding critical fracture strains provide the designer with quantitative guidelines for safe-life design. These have been incorporated into a fracture control plan for composite structures, which is also described. Currently, fracture control plans do not exist for composite structures; the proposed plan is a first step towards establishing fracture control and damage tolerant design methodology for this important class of materials.

  17. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  18. Acute neuromuscular manifestations in a patient associated with ingesting octopus (Octopus sp. Manifestações neuromusculares agudas associadas à ingestão de polvo comum Octopus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors report neuromuscular manifestations in a 45-year-old woman after consuming octopus meat (Octopus sp.. The patient presented malaise, paresthesias in perioral and extremity areas, intense muscular weakness and arterial hypotension, followed by severe itch and disseminated cutaneous rash. Gastrointestinal manifestations and fever were not observed, reducing the probability of alimentary poisoning. The presence of muscular and neurological symptoms suggests neurotoxin action, which could have been ingested by the victim from the octopus salivary glands or from an accumulation of toxins in the meat, or by an unknown mechanism. There is little known about toxins of the Octopus genus and this communication is important alert to the possibility of poisoning in humans that eat octopus and its differentiation from alimentary poisonings arising from incorrect conservation of seafood.Os autores relatam um quadro manifestado por sintomas neurológicos e musculares em uma mulher de 45 anos, que surgiu após o consumo da carne de polvo comum (Octopus sp.. A paciente apresentou intenso mal estar, parestesias em extremidades e área perioral, fraqueza muscular intensa e hipotensão arterial, seguidos de prurido importante e uma erupção eritêmato-descamativa disseminada tardia. Não foram observadas manifestações gastrintestinais ou febre, o que reduziu a probabilidade de uma intoxicação alimentar por conservação inadequada do molusco. A presença de sintomas neuro-musculares é sugestiva de ação de neurotoxinas, comprovadamente existentes em muitos gêneros de polvos e que podem ter sido ingeridas através do consumo das glândulas salivares ou acúmulo das toxinas na carne, por algum mecanismo ainda desconhecido. As toxinas dos polvos do gênero Octopus são pouco estudadas e julgamos esta comunicação importante por alertar para a possibilidade do envenenamento nos seres humanos que consomem carne de polvos e ainda sua diferenciação das intoxicações alimentares que ocorrem por conservação inadequada do animal.

  19. Acute neuromuscular manifestations in a patient associated with ingesting octopus (Octopus sp.) / Manifestações neuromusculares agudas associadas à ingestão de polvo comum Octopus sp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vidal, Haddad Junior; Regina, Moura.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um quadro manifestado por sintomas neurológicos e musculares em uma mulher de 45 anos, que surgiu após o consumo da carne de polvo comum (Octopus sp.). A paciente apresentou intenso mal estar, parestesias em extremidades e área perioral, fraqueza muscular intensa e hipotensão arte [...] rial, seguidos de prurido importante e uma erupção eritêmato-descamativa disseminada tardia. Não foram observadas manifestações gastrintestinais ou febre, o que reduziu a probabilidade de uma intoxicação alimentar por conservação inadequada do molusco. A presença de sintomas neuro-musculares é sugestiva de ação de neurotoxinas, comprovadamente existentes em muitos gêneros de polvos e que podem ter sido ingeridas através do consumo das glândulas salivares ou acúmulo das toxinas na carne, por algum mecanismo ainda desconhecido. As toxinas dos polvos do gênero Octopus são pouco estudadas e julgamos esta comunicação importante por alertar para a possibilidade do envenenamento nos seres humanos que consomem carne de polvos e ainda sua diferenciação das intoxicações alimentares que ocorrem por conservação inadequada do animal. Abstract in english The authors report neuromuscular manifestations in a 45-year-old woman after consuming octopus meat (Octopus sp.). The patient presented malaise, paresthesias in perioral and extremity areas, intense muscular weakness and arterial hypotension, followed by severe itch and disseminated cutaneous rash. [...] Gastrointestinal manifestations and fever were not observed, reducing the probability of alimentary poisoning. The presence of muscular and neurological symptoms suggests neurotoxin action, which could have been ingested by the victim from the octopus salivary glands or from an accumulation of toxins in the meat, or by an unknown mechanism. There is little known about toxins of the Octopus genus and this communication is important alert to the possibility of poisoning in humans that eat octopus and its differentiation from alimentary poisonings arising from incorrect conservation of seafood.

  20. MECHANISMS EMPLOYED BY TRICHODERMA SPECIES IN THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is a review article that describes the mechanisms employed by biological control agents to suppress or prevent plant disease pathogens, and how theories regarding the importance of thse mechanisms in biological control have changed with time and further research. Mechanisms such as mycop...

  1. The Control System Modeling and The Mechanical Structure Analysis For EMCVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei ZHANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current automotive metallic belt continuously variable transmission (CVT mostly use hydraulic system to push the cone disc and achieve the speed ratio control. A new Electrical Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission without hydraulic control (Electrical Mechanical CVT, EMCVT studied in this paper, uses the rolling screw mechanism to press cone disc, achieves speed regulation through the electronic control mechanism, and abandons the energy-intensive hydraulic system. In this paper, based on the analysis of mechanical configuration, the EMCVT's transmission system and its speed regulation process, speed ratio control characteristic and the clamping force control feature are studied and modeled. Besides, the Control strategy of the transmission system driven by motor is built, so as to provide an important theoretical basis for the further building of EMVCT's control system and the selection and implementation of Control strategy.

  2. Influence of sevoflurane and propofol on the neuromuscular block effect of cisatracurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan MAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of propofol target controlled infusion anesthesia(TIVA and sevoflurane anesthesia on the neuromuscular block effect of cisatracurium.Methods Sixty ASA class ? or ? patients,scheduled for ENT(ears,nose,throat surgery were randomly divided into four groups of equal number to receive either 0.1mg/kg cisatracurium under sevoflurane(SA or propofol TIVA(PA,or 0.15mg/kg cisatracurium under sevoflurane(SB or propofol TIVA(PB.The bispectral index(BIS was between 40 and 50 during maintenance of anesthesia.Thumb adductorius contractile response was monitored with TOF stimulation.Neuromuscular blocking variables included onset time(T0,no-response time(TR0,the time to recovery of T1 to 5%,25%,75% and 95% of control(T5,T25,T75,T95,the TOF ratio to70%(TR70 and recovery index(RI were monitored.Results No difference was found in the onset time between groups PA and SA,and groups PB and SB(P > 0.05.The unresponsive time was prolonged by 62% in group SA compared with PA,and 26% in group SB compared with PB(P < 0.05.The time of T1 recovering 75% of the control(T75 was prolonged by 45% in group SA compared with PA,and 29% in group SB compared with PB(P < 0.05.The time of T1 recovering 95% of the control value(T95 was prolonged by 47% in group SA compared with PA,and 36% in group SB compared with PB(P < 0.05.The recovery index(RI was prolonged by 33% in group SA compared with PA,and 48% in group SB compared with PB(P < 0.05.Conclusion Compared with propofol TIVA,sevoflurane anesthesia may enhance the neuromuscular block effect of cisatracurium and significantly prolong the clinical recovery duration of cisatracurium.

  3. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  4. Geometrical and Mechanical Properties Control Actin Filament Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The different actin structures governing eukaryotic cell shape and movement are not only determined by the properties of the actin filaments and associated proteins, but also by geometrical constraints. We recently demonstrated that limiting nucleation to specific regions was sufficient to obtain actin networks with different organization. To further investigate how spatially constrained actin nucleation determines the emergent actin organization, we performed detailed simulations of the actin filament system using Cytosim. We first calibrated the steric interaction between filaments, by matching, in simulations and experiments, the bundled actin organization observed with a rectangular bar of nucleating factor. We then studied the overall organization of actin filaments generated by more complex pattern geometries used experimentally. We found that the fraction of parallel versus antiparallel bundles is determined by the mechanical properties of actin filament or bundles and the efficiency of nucleation. Thus nucleation geometry, actin filaments local interactions, bundle rigidity, and nucleation efficiency are the key parameters controlling the emergent actin architecture. We finally simulated more complex nucleation patterns and performed the corresponding experiments to confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. PMID:26016478

  5. Wetting mechanisms of gel-based controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, U; Reiss, M; Shaviv, A

    2003-02-14

    The release mechanism of gel-based controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) involves water penetration into dry mixtures of fertilizers and gel forming polymers. Water penetration provides an upper limit to the whole release process. Where wetting prediction is often based on models that describe the flow of the liquid phase, vapor motion may become significant when a sharp wetting front exists. In this study we examine the role of vapor and fluid flows in the wetting process of CRFs consisting of urea or KNO(3) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAM). Vapor adsorption isotherms were obtained for typical fertilizer-PAM mixtures. Wetting and release experiments were conducted by dividing the CRFs into regions alternately filled with a pure fertilizer and mixtures of PAM and fertilizer. The experiments were designed in such a way that when the wetting front reaches a mixtures interface, its motion depends on the gradient imposed by the difference in osmotic potential (OP). The coupled equations of vapor and liquid flow in initially dry conditions were solved numerically to demonstrate the conceptual understanding gained by the experiments. The results show that wetting front motion is affected by transport and adsorption of vapor. It was also shown that the release rate is different when wetting is governed by vapor flow or by liquid flow. The release pattern from a multi-regions device was consistent with the wetting pattern, demonstrating the possibility to tailor the release according to periods of peak demand. PMID:12586505

  6. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  7. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular na disfunção patelofemoral: revisão de literatura / Neuromuscular electric stimulation in patellofemoral dysfunction: riterature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Lucas dos, Santos; Márcia Leal São Pedro, Souza; Fernanda Andrade dos, Santos.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A disfunção femoropatelar é uma deficiência bastante comum entre indivíduos jovens que acomete, principalmente, o sexo feminino e pode ser caracterizada por dor, edema e creptação retropatelar. Sistematizar o conhecimento em relação ao aumento da força muscular do quadríceps e alívio de dor em pacie [...] ntes com disfunção femoropatelar, através da utilização da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular e exercícios resistidos. Trata se de um estudo de revisão narrativa da literatura no período de 2005 a 2011. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos de intervenção, dos últimos seis anos, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português, que utilizaram o fortalecimento muscular e a eletroestimulação neuromuscular para reabilitação obtidos através de buscas nos bancos de dados eletrônicos Medline, Lilacs e na biblioteca Bireme. A busca bibliográfica resultou em 28 referências, destes foram excluídos nove de acordo com os objetivos e critérios de inclusão e foram selecionados 16 artigos para leitura dos resumos e posterior análise. A Estimulação Elétrica Neuromuscular (EENM) de média frequência pode ser utilizada associada a exercícios resistidos como coadjuvante no tratamento da disfunção femoropatelar (DFP), tanto para se obter um reequilíbrio muscular quanto para o alívio da dor. Abstract in english Patellofemoral dysfunction is a fairly common deficiency among young individuals that primarily affects females and may be characterized by pain, swelling and retropatellar crepitation. The purpose of this review of literature from the period between 2005 and 2011 was to systematize knowledge in rel [...] ation to the increase in quadriceps muscle strength and pain relief in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction, using neuromuscular electrical stimulation and resistance exercises. The inclusion criteria were intervention articles from the past six years, in English, Spanish and Portuguese, which used muscle strengthening and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for rehabilitation obtained through searches in the electronic databases Medline and Lilacs and in the Bireme library. The bibliographic search yielded 28 references, of which nine were excluded in accordance with the aims and inclusion criteria while 16 articles were selected for reading of the abstracts and subsequent analysis. Mediumfrequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) can be used in association with resistance exercises as an adjuvant in the treatment of patellofemoral dysfunction (PFD), both to achieve muscle rebalance and for pain relief.

  8. [Indications and results of surgical treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, C; Rompe, J D; Heine, J

    1992-01-01

    The results of the operative treatment of 44 patients suffering from a neuromuscular scoliosis are presented. Only multisegmental procedures - also in combination with anterior methods - should be used to avoid a postoperative care with cast or brace. By means of the operation an average correction of the curves of 50.7% was achieved. The preoperative mean angle was 75.1 degrees, postoperatively a mean angle of 37.0 degrees (mean correction of 38.1 degrees) was determined. The preoperative angle, the duration of the operations, the blood loss and the quantity of the complications are higher than in idiopathic scolioses. As a result of the known tendency of deterioration in neuromuscular scolioses, the members of the Arbeitskreis Skoliose of the German Orthopaedic Society (DGOT) recommend an early operation (in progressing curves over 20 degrees) in patients suffering from a muscular dystrophy Duchenne. PMID:1598772

  9. Muscle edema in MR imaging of neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of muscle edema and the diagnostic usefulness of Gd-DTPA in neuromuscular diseases. 144 consecutive patients with various generalized neuromuscular diseases were examined by MR imaging. Areas of high signal intensity, relative to normal muscle, were seen in 36% of T2-weighted images, whereas the corresponding T1-weighted images showed normal or lower signal intensities. These edema-like abnormalities -enlargement of the extracellular fluid space-were found more often in inflammatory and metabolic myopathies, but were also seen in degenerative myopathies. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in 25 patients were not more sensitive than plain T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  10. Contralateral effects of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, M

    1981-08-01

    Electromyography was used to determine the presence of electrical activity in the nonexercised latissimus dorsi, infraspinatus, and pectoralis major muscles while the contralateral limb underwent the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation pattern of flexion, abduction, external rotation with elbow straight and extension, adduction, internal rotation with elbow straight. Activity was present in all of these muscles during both components of the pattern. There was no significant difference in activity for the pectoralis major muscle during the flexor as compared to extensor component. The infraspinatus was more active during the flexor component, while the latissimus dorsi was more active during the extensor component. These results could be used in planning a treatment program for patients who are unable to exercise one of their upper extremities and who could benefit from the contralateral effects of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns. PMID:7267706

  11. Cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocross race

    OpenAIRE

    Konttinen, Tomi

    2005-01-01

    Tomi Konttinen. 2005. Cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocrossrace. Department of Biology of Physical Activity. University of Jyväskylä. 37p.Objectives - The primary aim of the present study was to examine physiological andneuromuscular responses during motocross racing. Furthermore, maximal isometricforce levels of the upper and lower body were studied.Methods - Seven Finnish A-level (group A) and five hobby-class (group H)motocross-riders performed a 30 minute riding test...

  12. Congenital myasthenic syndromes and the formation of the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, David; Webster, Richard; Cossins, Judith; Lashley, Daniel; Spearman, Hayley; Maxwell, Susan; Slater, Clarke R.; Newsom-Davis, John; Palace, Jacqueline; Vincent, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting neuromuscular transmission. Underlying mutations have been identified in at least 11 different genes. The majority of the CMS patients have disorders due to mutations in postsynaptic proteins. Initial studies focused on dysfunction of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) itself as the major cause of CMS. However, it is becoming apparent that mutations of proteins involved in clustering the AChR and maintai...

  13. Critical illness neuromuscular disease: clinical, electrophysiological, and prognostic aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabarki, B; Coffiniéres, A; van den Bergh, Peter; Huault, G.; Landrieu, P; Sébire, G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical illness neuromuscular disease, which has been recognised as a distinct clinical entity in adults, remains poorly described in children. AIMS: To assess retrospectively the clinical, electrophysiological, and prognostic features of the disease. METHODS: Retrospective study in a children's university hospital. RESULTS: Five critically ill patients presented with generalised paralysis, associated with long lasting failure to breathe in three. The cause of the generalised par...

  14. Rule Based Expert System for Diagnosis of Neuromuscular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Borgohain, Rajdeep; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implementation of a rule based expert system for diagnosing neuromuscular diseases. The proposed system is implemented as a rule based expert system in JESS for the diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscular Dystrophy and Parkinson's disease. In the system, the user is presented with a list of questionnaires about the symptoms of the patients based on which the disease of the patient is diagnosed and possible treatment is suggeste...

  15. Roles of neuro-exocytotic proteins at the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Sons-Michel, Michèle S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in the thesis was to elucidate the roles of several neuro-exocytotic proteins at the motor nerve terminal in neuromuscular synaptic transmission, making use of genetic knockout (KO) mice, each missing one (or more) neuro-exocytotic proteins. In addition, it was investigated in a pharmacological mouse model for myasthenia gravis whether some of these proteins play a role in the phenomenon of compensatory upregulation of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscula...

  16. Guidelines for treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Skeie, GO; Apostolski, S; Evoli, A.; Gilhus, NE; Illa, I.; Harms, L; Hilton-Jones, D; Melms, A; Verschuuren, J; Horge, HW

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Important progress has been made in our understanding of the autoimmune neuromuscular transmission (NMT) disorders; myasthenia gravis (MG), Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). METHODS: To prepare consensus guidelines for the treatment of the autoimmune NMT disorders, references retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were considered and statements prepared and agreed on by disease experts. CONCLUSIONS: Anticholinesterase d...

  17. Guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Skeie, GO; Apostolski, S; Evoli, A.; Gilhus, NE; Hart, IK; Harms, L; Hilton-Jones, D; Melms, A; Verschuuren, J; Horge, HW

    2006-01-01

    Important progress has been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the autoimmune neuromuscular transmission (NMT) disorders; myasthenia gravis (MG), Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and neuromyotonia (peripheral nerve hyperexcitability; Isaacs syndrome). To prepare consensus guidelines for the treatment of the autoimmune NMT disorders. References retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were considered and statements prepared and a...

  18. Paraneoplastic Neuromuscular Disorders : Evidence - Based Screening Approach For Systemic Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Mathuranath P.S; Sarada C; Radhakrishnan K

    1998-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neuromuscular disorders though rare are an important group of conditions. Prompt recognition of these syndromes should lead to a careful search for an otherwise occult and often treatable cancer. However, in practice , such a search is not only expensive but its yield is often low. the current understanding of these syndromes doest not yet permit formulation of practice parameters for a cost-effective search for systemic cancers in such a setting. This article, based on the...

  19. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction...

  20. Neuromuscular blockade for improvement of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Scheppan, Susanne; Kissmeyer, Peter; Mørk, Emilie; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) of 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesised that deep NMB (PTC 0-1) would improve surgical conditions durin...

  1. Neuromuscular Junction Integrity after Chronic Nerve Compression Injury

    OpenAIRE

    MOZAFFAR, TAHSEEN; Strandberg, Erika; Abe, Kazuko; Hilgenberg, Lutz G.; Smith, Martin A.; Gupta, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Chronic nerve compression injuries (CNC) are progressive demyelinating disorders characterized by a gradual decline of the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in the affected nerve region. CNC injury induces a robust Schwann cell response with axonal sprouting, but without morphologic evidence of axonal injury. We hypothesize that early CNC injury occurs without damage to neuromuscular junction of motor axons. A well-established animal model was used to assess for damage to motor axons. As sprout...

  2. Hemodynamic and Lactic Acid Responses to Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal Gültekin; Ayse Kin-Isler; Özgür Sürenkök

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic and metabolic responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) exercise were examined in 32 male university students (aged 19-28 years). Ten repetitions of PNF exercises were applied to the subjects’ dominant upper extremities in the following order: as an agonist pattern flexion, adduction and external rotation; and as an antagonist pattern extension, abduction and internal rotation. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), d...

  3. Effects of whole-body vibration on thigh neuromuscular activity

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo, Armando; Malta, João; Batalha, Nuno; Fernandes, Orlando; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) appears to influence in a positive way the performance of athletes in certain characteristics such as muscular strength, power and body balance. The aim of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular activity caused by different vibration frequencies (15Hz and 25Hz), and different knee flexion angles (120° and 150°). Methods A total of 19 male university students underwent 4 sessions of WBV. The subjects were exposed randomly t...

  4. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Chi-Ren; Lu Cheng-Hsien; Chang Chung-Chih; Tsai Nai-Wen; Chen Shu-Fang; Chuang Yao-Chung; Chang Wen-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS) dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two f...

  5. Spinal fusion and instrumentation for paediatric neuromuscular scoliosis: retrospective review.

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker M; Hui JH; Wong HK; Chatterjee A.; Lee EH

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: A retrospective study was conducted to review the surgical results among 24 patients with neuromuscular scoliosis, who were treated with spinal instrumentation and fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University Hospital, Singapore between March 1993 and December 1998. METHODS: We examined complete hospital records of patients who had scoliosis due to aetiologies such as spinal muscular atrophy, cerebral palsy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and congenital myopathi...

  6. Report on Adaptive Force, a specific neuromuscular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In real life motions, as well as in sports, the adaptation of the neuromuscular systems to externally applied forces plays an important role. The term Adaptive Force (AF shall characterize the ability of the nerve-muscle-system to adapt to impacting external forces during isometric and eccentric muscle action. The focus in this paper is on the concept of this neuromuscular action, which is not yet described in this way. A measuring system was constructed and evaluated for this specific neuromuscular function, but only the main information of the evaluation of the measuring system and the preliminary reference values are mentioned here, while an article with detailed description will be published separately. This paper concentrates on the three following points: 1 What is the peculiarity of this neuromuscular function, introduced as AF? 2 Is the measuring system able to capture its specific characteristics and which phases of measurement occur? 3 It seems reasonable to discuss if AF can be distinguished and classified among the known force concepts. The article describes the measuring system and how it is able to capture special features of real life motions like submaximal intensities and the subjects’ option to react adequately on external varying forces. Furthermore, within one measurement the system records three different force qualities: the isometric submaximal Adaptive Force (AFiso, the maximal isometric Adaptive Force (AFisomax and the maximal eccentric Adaptive Force (AFeccmax. Each of these phases provide different and unique information on the nerve-muscle-system that are discussed in detail. Important, in terms of the Adaptive Force, seems to be the combination of conditional and coordinative abilities.

  7. Exercise Stress Testing in Children with Metabolic or Neuromuscular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Takken; Groen, Wim G; Erik H. Hulzebos; Cornelia G. Ernsting; Peter M. van Hasselt; Berthil H. Prinsen; Helders, Paul J.; Gepke Visser

    2010-01-01

    The role of exercise as a diagnostic or therapeutic tool in patients with a metabolic disease (MD) or neuromuscular disorder (NMD) is relatively underresearched. In this paper we describe the metabolic profiles during exercise in 13 children (9 boys, 4 girls, age 5–15 yrs) with a diagnosed MD or NMD. Graded cardiopulmonary exercise tests and/or a 90-min prolonged submaximal exercise test were performed. During exercise, respiratory gas-exchange and heart rate were monitored; blood and u...

  8. Neuromuscular and vascular hamartoma of the small intestine: is it Crohn's disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, N A; Jass, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Neuromuscular and vascular hamartoma has been described as a specific, if rare, stricturing condition of the small intestine. In this paper four cases with very similar macroscopic and histological features to those described as 'neuromuscular and vascular hamartoma' are presented. In three of the patients there was an earlier histologically proven diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small intestine. We believe that 'neuromuscular and vascular hamartoma' is not a hamartomatous condition but m...

  9. Fatigue in neuromuscular disorders: focus on Guillain–Barré syndrome and Pompe disease

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, J. M.; Hagemans, M. L. C.; Bussmann, J.B.J.; van der Ploeg, A. T.; Doorn, P.A., van

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue accounts for an important part of the burden experienced by patients with neuromuscular disorders. Substantial high prevalence rates of fatigue are reported in a wide range of neuromuscular disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and Pompe disease. Fatigue can be subdivided into experienced fatigue and physiological fatigue. Physiological fatigue in turn can be of central or peripheral origin. Peripheral fatigue is an important contributor to fatigue in neuromuscular disorders, but...

  10. Upregulation of PKD1L2 provokes a complex neuromuscular disease in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Romero, Rosario; Williams, Debbie; Gillingwater, Thomas; Hilton, Helen; Dick, Jim; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Wong , Frances; Ireson, Lisa; Powles-Glover, Nicola; Riley, Genna; Underhill, Peter; Hough, Tertius; Arkell, Ruth; Greensmith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Following a screen for neuromuscular mouse mutants, we identified ostes, a novel N-ethyl N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutant with muscle atrophy. Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that upregulation of the novel, uncharacterized transient receptor potential polycystic (TRPP) channel PKD1L2 (polycystic kidney disease gene 1-like 2) underlies this disease. Ostes mice suffer from chronic neuromuscular impairments including neuromuscular junction degeneration, polyneuronal innervation and myop...

  11. Influência do sevoflurano e do isoflurano na recuperação do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Angélica de Fátima de Assunção; Braga Franklin Sarmento da Silva; Potério Glória Maria Braga; Cremonesi Eugesse; Mauro Gislaine

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos dos agentes bloqueadores neuromusculares sobre a junção neuromuscular são aumentados pelos anestésicos voláteis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do sevoflurano e do isoflurano na recuperação do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 90 pacientes, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos à cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo I (sevoflurano), Grupo II (isoflurano) e Gru...

  12. Modeling and Control of a Piezo-Actuated High-Dynamic Compensation Mechanism for Industrial Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Björn; Sörnmo, Olof; Schneider, Ulrich; Robertsson, Anders; Puzik, Arnold; Johansson, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling and control of a piezo-actuated high-dynamic compensation mechanism for usage together with an industrial robot during a machining operation, such as milling in aluminium. The machining spindle was attached to the compensation mechanism and the robot held the workpiece. Due to the inherent resonant character of mechanical constructions of this type, and the nonlinear phenomena appearing in piezo actuators, control of the compensation mechanism is a ch...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years imaging procedures became also important in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. We examined more than 150 patients with different neuromuscular diseases with MRI. Conventional diagnostic procedures like EMG, muscle biopsy can not be replaced by imaging procedures. MRI gives the chance to get additional diagnostic informations. It is possible to determine exact distribution and intensity of pathological changes in the muscle. Inflammatory muscle diseases can be differrentiated by T1/T2 values from atrophic/dystrophic diseases. The resolving power is very high and allows the exact detection of affected areas even in a single muscle. This can help to reduce false negative muscle biopsies. This is very useful in children and young adults. MRI can be used for the early detection of genetic myopathies and neuropathies. MRI allows to examine all muscles, including the heart, bone artefacts are absent. Heart muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases can directly be shown by this method without any risk for the patient. In addition P-spectroscopy can be done for better understanding of pathogenesis, especially if the exact distribution of pathological changes is known. (author)

  14. Fatty replacement of lower paraspinal muscles: normal and neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiologic replacement of the lower paraspinal muscles by fat was evaluated in 157 patients undergoing computed tomography for reasons unrelated to abnormalities of the locomotor system. Five patients with neuromuscular disorders were similarly evaluated. The changes were graded according to severity at three spinal levels: lower thoracic-upper lumbar, midlumbar, and lumbosacral. The results were analyzed in relation to age and gender. It was found that fatty replacement of paraspinal muscles is a normal age-progressive phenomenon most prominent in females. It progresses down the spine, being most advanced in the lumbosacral region. The severest changes in the five patients with neuromuscular disorders (three with poliomyelitis and two with progressive muscular dystrophy) consisted of complete muscle group replacement by fat. In postpoliomyelitis atrophy, the distribution was typically asymmetric and sometimes lacked clinical correlation. In muscular dystrophy, fatty replacement was symmetric, showing relative sparing of the psoas and multifidus muscles. In patients with neuromuscular diseases, computed tomography of muscles may be helpful in planning a better rehabilitation regimen

  15. CT in neuromuscular disorders: A comparison of CT and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of CT-examination of the muscles compared to histology was studied in a retrospective analysis of 30 patients with clinical suspicion of neuromuscular disorder. In the evaluation of the CT-results descriptive criteria were used. The histologic diagnosis came from needle-biopsies taken from the quadriceps muscle. Considering the whole group of neuromuscular disorders, CT has an overall accuracy of 84.8%, a positive predictive value of 95.5% and a negative predictive value of 63.6%. This makes the use of CT as a diagnostic tool in neuromuscular disorders a reliable examination technique. In patients with a polymyositis there is even a 100% correlation between CT findings and biopsy results. Discrepancy between the biopsy results is remarkable of the quadriceps muscle and the CT findings: The number of abnormal histological findings is twice the number of abnormal CT findings. Using the more proximal gluteal region as a biopsy site would have decreased this discrepancy and would therefore have given a better correlation between CT and histology. The choice of protocol in determining the levels to be scanned is of great importance in achieving good reproducability in follow-up CT examinations. (orig.)

  16. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  17. Anestesia peribulbar com ropivacaína como alternativa ao bloqueio neuromuscular para facectomia em cães Peribulbar anesthesia with ropivacaine as an alternative to neuromuscular blocking agents for cataract surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N.L.S. Oliva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se uma técnica de bloqueio peribulbar comparando-a à técnica de anestesia oftálmica com bloqueio neuromuscular parcial em cães submetidos à facectomia extracapsular. Doze cães, de diferentes raças, foram alocados em dois grupos (G1 e G2 e anestesiados com acepromazina (0,05mg/kg, IV e propofol (5mg/kg, IV e mantidos com isofluorano sob ventilação espontânea. Os cães do G1 receberam o bloqueio peribulbar com ropivacaína 0,75%, e os do G2 o bloqueio neuromuscular parcial com brometo de pancurônio (0,01mg/kg, IV. Utilizaram-se, como parâmetros comparativos, escores de posicionamento do globo ocular, controle do reflexo oculocardíaco e pressão intraocular (mmHg. Foi possível propor uma técnica eficaz para cães baseando-se na técnica de bloqueio peribulbar posterior realizada no homem. Em ambos os grupos, o globo ocular permaneceu centralizado. Não ocorreram alterações eletrocardiográficas atribuídas ao reflexo oculocardíaco. Houve redução significativa da pressão intraocular em G1 após o bloqueio (10,7±0,6 e 14,7±0,6. Conclui-se que o bloqueio peribulbar proporcionou condições cirúrgicas apropriadas para a realização da facectomia, com a vantagem de promover bloqueio sensitivo do olho.A peribulbar block technique was developed and its clinical efficacy was compared with neuromuscular blockade in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Twelve dogs of different breeds were randomly and equally allocated in two groups. After given acepromazine (0.05mg/kg, IV, anesthesia was induced with propofol (5mg/kg, IV and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen during spontaneous breathing. A peribulbar block with 0.75% ropivacaine was performed in G1 dogs while partial neuromuscular blockade with pancuronium (0.01mg/kg IV was provided in G2 dogs. Globe position scores, oculocardiac reflex, and intra-ocular pressure (mmHg were evaluated at pre-defined intervals during surgery. Peribulbar blocks were successful performed according to posterior peribulbar block described in humans. In both groups, the globe was centralized and globe position scores did not differ between groups. The intra-ocular pressure was significantly lower in G1 after the block (10.7±0.6 vs 14.7±0.6. There were no electrocardiographycal changes attributed to the oculocardiac reflex. In conclusion, satisfactory surgical conditions were provided by the peribulbar block. This technique can be used as an alternative to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in dogs undergoing cataract surgery, with the advantage of providing analgesia of the eye.

  18. Anestesia peribulbar com ropivacaína como alternativa ao bloqueio neuromuscular para facectomia em cães / Peribulbar anesthesia with ropivacaine as an alternative to neuromuscular blocking agents for cataract surgery in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.N.L.S., Oliva; A.L., Andrade; L., Bevilacqua; L.M., Matsubara; S.H.V., Perri.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se uma técnica de bloqueio peribulbar comparando-a à técnica de anestesia oftálmica com bloqueio neuromuscular parcial em cães submetidos à facectomia extracapsular. Doze cães, de diferentes raças, foram alocados em dois grupos (G1 e G2) e anestesiados com acepromazina (0,05mg/kg, IV) e [...] propofol (5mg/kg, IV) e mantidos com isofluorano sob ventilação espontânea. Os cães do G1 receberam o bloqueio peribulbar com ropivacaína 0,75%, e os do G2 o bloqueio neuromuscular parcial com brometo de pancurônio (0,01mg/kg, IV). Utilizaram-se, como parâmetros comparativos, escores de posicionamento do globo ocular, controle do reflexo oculocardíaco e pressão intraocular (mmHg). Foi possível propor uma técnica eficaz para cães baseando-se na técnica de bloqueio peribulbar posterior realizada no homem. Em ambos os grupos, o globo ocular permaneceu centralizado. Não ocorreram alterações eletrocardiográficas atribuídas ao reflexo oculocardíaco. Houve redução significativa da pressão intraocular em G1 após o bloqueio (10,7±0,6 e 14,7±0,6). Conclui-se que o bloqueio peribulbar proporcionou condições cirúrgicas apropriadas para a realização da facectomia, com a vantagem de promover bloqueio sensitivo do olho. Abstract in english A peribulbar block technique was developed and its clinical efficacy was compared with neuromuscular blockade in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Twelve dogs of different breeds were randomly and equally allocated in two groups. After given acepromazine (0.05mg/kg, IV), anesthesia was induced with [...] propofol (5mg/kg, IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen during spontaneous breathing. A peribulbar block with 0.75% ropivacaine was performed in G1 dogs while partial neuromuscular blockade with pancuronium (0.01mg/kg IV) was provided in G2 dogs. Globe position scores, oculocardiac reflex, and intra-ocular pressure (mmHg) were evaluated at pre-defined intervals during surgery. Peribulbar blocks were successful performed according to posterior peribulbar block described in humans. In both groups, the globe was centralized and globe position scores did not differ between groups. The intra-ocular pressure was significantly lower in G1 after the block (10.7±0.6 vs 14.7±0.6). There were no electrocardiographycal changes attributed to the oculocardiac reflex. In conclusion, satisfactory surgical conditions were provided by the peribulbar block. This technique can be used as an alternative to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in dogs undergoing cataract surgery, with the advantage of providing analgesia of the eye.

  19. A Parameter Varying PD Control for Fuzzy Servo Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Jamali Soufi; Mohsen Kabiri Moghaddam; Saeed Sfandiarpour Boroujeni; Alireza Vahidifar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation of novel implementation method based on parameter varying PD controller for fuzzy servo controllers. This formulation uses the approximation of fuzzy nonlinear function including error and error derivation in operation point. Obtained fuzzy control law has been employed to control angular position of servo using digital control technique applied to a typical microcontroller like AVR. The performance and robustness of modified fuzzy...

  20. Use of neuromuscular monitoring to detect prolonged effect of succinylcholine or mivacurium : three case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassel, J; Staehr-Rye, A K

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene can lead to a prolonged effect of the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium. If the anaesthesiologist is not aware of this condition, it may result in insufficient respiration after tracheal extubation. However, this can be avoided with the use of objective neuromuscular monitoring if used adequately. Three case reports of prolonged effect of succinylcholine or mivacurium were presented to illustrate the importance of neuromuscular monitoring during anaesthesia. In the first case, continuous intraoperative neuromuscular monitoring allowed a prolonged neuromuscular blockade to be discovered prior to tracheal extubation of the patient. The patient was extubated after successful reversal of the neuromuscular blockade. On the contrary, neuromuscular monitoring was not used during anaesthesia in the second patient; hence, the prolonged effect of the neuromuscular blocking agent was not discovered until after extubation. In the third patient, the lack of response to nerve stimulation was interpreted as a technical failure and the prolonged effect of succinylcholine was discovered when general anaesthesia was terminated. Both patients had insufficient respiration. They were therefore re-sedated, transferred to the intensive care unit and the tracheas were extubated after full recovery from neuromuscular blockade. We recommend the use of monitoring every time these agents are used, even with short-acting drugs like succinylcholine and mivacurium.

  1. A Methodologic Approach for the Comparison Between Dynamic Contractions: Influences on the Neuromuscular System

    OpenAIRE

    Remaud, Anthony; Cornu, Christophe; Guével, Arnaud

    2005-01-01

    Context: Although isotonic and isokinetic exercises are commonly used in sports medicine and rehabilitation, studies comparing their effects on the neuromuscular system have provided conflicting results.

  2. The logic control system of the control rods by hydraulic drive mechanism in the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describes the function and features of the logic control system to be applied to the control rods by hydraulic drive mechanism in the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor and the technical measures to enhance the availability and reliability of the system. The system coupling with hydraulic control rod drive mechanism consists of a whole control system in order to complete reactivity control of the nuclear reactor, the features of the system are stability, reliability and the high ability of anti-interference. It is successfully used in 5 MW nuclear heating reactor and meets the operational requirements of the reactor

  3. Cytokinetic Control Mechanisms in Ehrlich Ascites Tumour Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich ascites tumour in mice was studied as a model system to elucidate the cytokinetic mechanisms controlling growth of cell populations. The basis for a retardation in growth rate during tumour development was determined with the aid of 3H-thymidine labelling and autoradiography. Three possible cytokinetic variables in growth regulation, namely, duration of the mitotic cell cycle, fraction of the cycling cells in the population (growth fraction) and rate of cell loss, were measured at different stages of growth. It was concluded that a deceleration in growth was a result of (1) a gradual prolongation of the cell cycle and its components and (2) a progressive decline in the growth fraction. Rate of cell loss did not appreciably change during most of the growth. It was also found that the total cell mass rather than the tumour age dictated the growth rate at any instant over a considerable range of growth. Non-cycling cells were found to resume cycle when a fraction of an old tumour was transplanted in new hosts, 3H-thymidine labelling combined with microspectrophotometric estimates of cellular DNA was utilized to locate the stages at which a cell cycle could be suspended or resumed. It was found that decycling or recycling could occur only after mitosis and before DNA synthesis; non-cycling (G0) state resembled G1, which was absent in the proliferating tumour cells. These findings are relevant to a further understanding of the molecular events leading to the initiation or suspension of a cell cycle. They are also pertinent to formulating a rationale for tumour therapy — for example with radiation — when coupled with the existing knowledge of the relative sensitivity of cells at different stages of cycle. (author)

  4. NDE Assessment of PWSCC in Control Rod Drive Mechanism Housings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies being conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington are focused on assessing the effectiveness of Nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. In describing two CRDM assemblies removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE measurements, this paper will address the following questions: (1) What did each technique detect?, (2) What did each technique miss?, (3) How accurately did each technique characterize the detected flaws? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. One contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data and through-wall leakage; the other contained evidence suggesting through-wall leakage, but this was unconfirmed. The selected NDE measurements follow standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. In addition, laboratory based NDE methods were employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assemblies, with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. This paper will also describe the NDE methods used and discuss the NDE results. Future work will involve using the results from these NDE studies to guide the development of a destructive characterization plan to reveal the crack morphology and a comparison of the degradation found by the destructive evaluation with the recorded NDE responses.

  5. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Hypothesis and conceptual model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PeterC.Rowe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired—due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself—the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term “neuromuscular strain.” In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain during the examin

  6. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation leads to physiological gains enhancing postural balance in the pre-frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Deschamps, Thibault; Le Goff, Camille G; Roumier, François-Xavier; Duclay, Julien; Martin, Alain; Sixt, Marc; Pousson, Michel; Cornu, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Physiological aging leads to a progressive weakening of muscles and tendons, thereby disturbing the ability to control postural balance and consequently increasing exposure to the risks of falls. Here, we introduce a simple and easy-to-use neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training paradigm designed to alleviate the postural control deficit in the elderly, the first hallmarks of which present as functional impairment. Nine pre-frail older women living in a long-term care facility performed 4 weeks of NMES training on their plantarflexor muscles, and seven nontrained, non-frail older women living at home participated in this study as controls. Participants were asked to perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during isometric plantarflexion in a lying position. Musculo-tendinous (MT) stiffness was assessed before and after the NMES training by measuring the displacement of the MT junction and related tendon force during MVC. In a standing position, the limit of stability (LoS) performance was determined through the maximal forward displacement of the center of foot pressure, and related postural sway parameters were computed around the LoS time gap, a high force requiring task. The NMES training induced an increase in MVC, MT stiffness, and LoS. It significantly changed the dynamics of postural balance as a function of the tendon property changes. The study outcomes, together with a multivariate analysis of investigated variables, highlighted the benefits of NMES as a potential tool in combating neuromuscular weakening in the elderly. The presented training-based strategy is valuable in alleviating some of the adverse functional consequences of aging by directly acting on intrinsic biomechanical and muscular properties whose improvements are immediately transferable into a functional context. PMID:26229006

  7. Mechanical control of morphogenesis at the shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah; Burian, Agata; Couturier, Etienne; Landrein, Benoit; Louveaux, Marion; Neumann, Enrique D; Peaucelle, Alexis; Weber, Alain; Nakayama, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    Morphogenesis does not just require the correct expression of patterning genes; these genes must induce the precise mechanical changes necessary to produce a new form. Mechanical characterization of plant growth is not new; however, in recent years, new technologies and interdisciplinary collaborations have made it feasible in young tissues such as the shoot apex. Analysis of tissues where active growth and developmental patterning are taking place has revealed biologically significant variability in mechanical properties and has even suggested that mechanical changes in the tissue can feed back to direct morphogenesis. Here, an overview is given of the current understanding of the mechanical dynamics and its influence on cellular and developmental processes in the shoot apex. We are only starting to uncover the mechanical basis of morphogenesis, and many exciting questions remain to be answered. PMID:23926314

  8. The effect of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse on neuromuscular fatigue following cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Robert; Shave, Robert; Ross, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J; Goodall, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth-rinsing, rather than ingestion, is known to improve performance of high-intensity (>75% maximal oxygen uptake) short-duration (?1 h) cycling exercise. Mechanisms responsible for this improvement, however, are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a CHO mouth-rinse on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and mechanisms of fatigue. On 2 separate occasions, 9 male cyclists (mean ± SD; maximal oxygen uptake, 61 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed 45 min at 70% maximum power output (preload) followed by a 15-min TT. At 7.5-min intervals during the preload and TT, participants were given either a tasteless 6.4% maltodextrin mouth-rinse (CHO) or water (placebo (PLA)) in a double-blind, counterbalanced fashion. Isometric knee-extension force and electromyographic responses to percutaneous electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were measured before, after the preload, and after the TT. There were greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction after the TT in PLA (20% ± 10%) compared with the CHO (12% ± 8%; P = 0.019). Voluntary activation was reduced following exercise in both trials, but did not differ between conditions (PLA -10% ± 8% vs. CHO -5% ± 4%; P = 0.150). The attenuation in the manifestation of global fatigue did not translate into a TT improvement (248 ± 23 vs. 248 ± 39 W for CHO and PLA, respectively). Furthermore, no differences in heart rate or ratings of perceived exertion were found between the 2 conditions. These data suggest that CHO mouth-rinsing attenuates neuromuscular fatigue following endurance cycling. Although these changes did not translate into a performance improvement, further investigation is required into the role of CHO mouth-rinse in alleviating neuromuscular fatigue. PMID:25923580

  9. EFFECTS OF NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSES DURING WHOLE BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE WITH DIFFERENT KNEE ANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gusi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of whole body vibration (WBV exercise using different knee angles on three-dimensional acceleration received in the lumbar region and neuromuscular activation of 8 muscles that were selected in order to determine their implications for rehabilitation. Thirty physically active women (mean ± SD; 21.7 ± 1.67 years were randomized in three groups. The first group performed on the platform with 15, 45 and 90º knee flexions, the second group with 45, 90, 15º, and the third group with 90, 15, 45º. The WBV frequency was 12.6 Hz. The acceleration was recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer (Biopac attached on the skin at L3 level and the electromyography (EMG was recorded by surface active electrodes (Biopac on the extensors and flexors of the knee and lower trunk. The lateral acceleration was 3 times greater (p< 0.05 at the vertical line in 3 angles of flexion, and the vertical line was 2 times greater (p< 0.05. Maximum accelerations: lateral (11-13 g and vertical line (6-7 g had increased when reducing the knee-flexion angles. In conclusion, WBV using the Galileo platform transmits more lateral neuromuscular and mechanical stimuli than vertical stimuli. A smaller degree of knee flexion transmits a greater mechanical stimulus, and a higher flexion of the knees implies an increase of muscular activity in the vastus internus muscle. These findings open the possibility of different applications.

  10. An acoustic startle alters knee joint stiffness and neuromuscular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, A I; Needle, A R; Kaminski, T W; Royer, T R; Knight, C A; Swanik, C B

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the nervous system contributes to non-contact knee ligament injury, but limited evidence has measured the effect of extrinsic events on joint stability. Following unanticipated events, the startle reflex leads to universal stiffening of the limbs, but no studies have investigated how an acoustic startle influences knee stiffness and muscle activation during a dynamic knee perturbation. Thirty-six individuals were tested for knee stiffness and muscle activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings. Subjects were seated and instructed to resist a 40-degree knee flexion perturbation from a relaxed state. During some trials, an acoustic startle (50?ms, 1000?Hz, 100?dB) was applied 100?ms prior to the perturbation. Knee stiffness, muscle amplitude, and timing were quantified across time, muscle, and startle conditions. The acoustic startle increased short-range (no startle: 0.044?±?0.011?N·m/deg/kg; average startle: 0.047?±?0.01?N·m/deg/kg) and total knee stiffness (no startle: 0.036?±?0.01?N·m/deg/kg; first startle 0.027?±?0.02?N·m/deg/kg). Additionally, the startle contributed to decreased [vastus medialis (VM): 13.76?±?33.6%; vastus lateralis (VL): 6.72?±?37.4%] but earlier (VM: 0.133?±?0.17?s; VL: 0.124?±?0.17?s) activation of the quadriceps muscles. The results of this study indicate that the startle response can significantly disrupt knee stiffness regulation required to maintain joint stability. Further studies should explore the role of unanticipated events on unintentional injury. PMID:25212407

  11. Electromagnetic energy coupling mechanism with matrix architecture control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Gareth (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to reconfigurable, solid-state matrix arrays comprising multiple rows and columns of reconfigurable secondary mechanisms that are independently tuned. Specifically, the invention relates to reconfigurable devices comprising multiple, solid-state mechanisms characterized by at least one voltage-varied parameter disposed within a flexible, multi-laminate film, which are suitable for use as magnetic conductors, ground surfaces, antennas, varactors, ferrotunable substrates, or other active or passive electronic mechanisms.

  12. Perisynaptic Schwann Cells at the Neuromuscular Synapse: Adaptable, Multitasking Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chien-Ping; Robitaille, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is engineered to be a highly reliable synapse to carry the control of the motor commands of the nervous system over the muscles. Its development, organization, and synaptic properties are highly structured and regulated to support such reliability and efficacy. Yet, the NMJ is also highly plastic, able to react to injury and adapt to changes. This balance between structural stability and synaptic efficacy on one hand and structural plasticity and repair on another hand is made possible by the intricate regulation of perisynaptic Schwann cells, glial cells at this synapse. They regulate both the efficacy and structural plasticity of the NMJ in a dynamic, bidirectional manner owing to their ability to decode synaptic transmission and by their interactions via trophic-related factors. PMID:26430218

  13. Moderate resistance exercise program: its effect in slowly progressive neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkens, S G; McCrory, M A; Kilmer, D D; Bernauer, E M

    1993-07-01

    A 12-week moderate resistance exercise program was performed by 27 patients with slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) and 14 control subjects (CTL) in order to determine safety and efficacy of a strengthening program. A 3-day per week submaximal regimen of home exercise using ankle and wrist weights and hand grip exerciser was prescribed. One side of the body was randomly chosen for exercise. Subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic and isometric strength at baseline and after weeks 4 and 12 of the training protocol, and the prescribed amount of work was gradually increased throughout the program. Both the NMD and CTL groups demonstrated significant (p exercise program, and strength gains did not significantly differ between the exercised and nonexercised limbs in either group. This study provides evidence that a 12-week submaximal strength training program is practical and safe in slowly progressive NMD and produces moderate improvement in measured strength. PMID:8328892

  14. Dinámica de transmisión del Dengue clásico con control mecánico y profilaxis Classical dengue transmission dynamics involving mechanical control and prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán D Toro-Zapata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se modela la dinámica de transmisión del dengue clásico en una región endémica considerando el uso de medidas preventivas y de control mecánico en la reducción de la transmisión de la enfermedad. Se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias que describe la dinámica y mediante simulación numérica se determina su evolución en el tiempo. Se comparan diferentes estrategias de control mecánico y profilaxis con la situación sin control. Se determina el número básico de reproducción R0, mostrando que si R0 > 1 hay un alto riesgo de epidemia y que en caso contrario la enfermedad se mantiene en niveles de bajo impacto; estos resultados se contratan con los obt