WorldWideScience
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Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)in a semi-arid zone  

OpenAIRE

Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita), we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberia...

Galofre?, A.; Oromi?, N.; Sanuy, D.

2008-01-01

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Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge of the genetic structure is crucial. Based on nine polymorphic microsatellite loci, the genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow were investigated at 12 sites representing 5-10% of the natterjack toad localities presently known in Denmark. The expected heterozygosity (H E) within each locality was generally low (range: 0.18-0.43). Further analyses failed to significantly correlate genetic diversity with population size, degree of isolation and increasing northern latitude, indicating a more complex combination of factors in determining the present genetic profile. Genetic differentiation was high (overall ? = 0.29) and analyses based on a Bayesian clustering method revealed that the dataset constituted 11 geneticclusters, defining nearly all sampling sites as distinct populations. Contemporary gene flow among populations was undetectable in nearly all cases, and the failure to detect a pattern of isolation by distance within major regions supported this apparent lack of a gene flow continuum. Indications of a genetic bottleneck were found in three populations. The analyses suggest that the remaining Bufo calamita populations in Denmark are genetically isolated, and represent independent units in a highly fragmented gene pool. Future conservation management of this species is discussed in light of these results.

Allentoft, Morten E.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

2009-01-01

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Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

Sanuy, D.

2008-06-01

4

The absence of species and sex recognition during mate search by male common toads, Bufo bufo  

OpenAIRE

During mate search male Bufo bufo do not discriminate between green frogs and conspecifics, between sexes or between gravid females that differ in body size. We studied mate recognition and the mating behaviour of male European common toads, B. bufo using field-based choice experiments. When given a simultaneous choice between R. perezi and B. bufo both matched in size, male toads did not dis- criminate between species and amplected a frog or a toad with equal frequency. When a male...

Marco, Adolfo; Lizana, Miguel

2002-01-01

5

Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.)

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Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis)  

OpenAIRE

The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxida...

Uche Ochei; Lawrence Ezemonye; Isioma Tongo

2012-01-01

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SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ECOLOGY AND HABITAT SELECTION OF WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS) IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON  

OpenAIRE

Several species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the Western Toad (Bufo boreas) have declined in thewestern United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for populationdeclines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad survival,mortality, movements, habitat selection, and diet were investigated at five study areas in northeastern Oregon duringsummers of 2002-2005. Of ...

Bull, Evelyn L.

2006-01-01

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Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the supposedly psychedelic Bufo toad and the allegedly psychedelic drug bufotenine, which is contained in the skin and glands of this toad. The bufo toad has held a place in human mythologies and medicines worldwide since archaic times. Used by ancient peoples for a variety of purposes, its most spectacular effects, according to lore, involve magical and shamanic or occult uses for casting spells and for divination. In the Middle Ages, the Bufo toad was celebrated as a panacea and persecuted as a powerful poison. More recently, in the 1960s the Bufo toad was resurrected as a countercultural icon, with people purportedly licking or smoking the secretions to get high. Bufotenine has been at the center of a scientific debate since its discovery in 1893. This paper examines the extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine, and untangles many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting. Finally, to promote further investigation, a comprehensive bibliography is provided that charts the history of the Bufo toad and bufotenine. PMID:8895112

Lyttle, T; Goldstein, D; Gartz, J

1996-01-01

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Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

Uche Ochei

2012-12-01

10

Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

2002-01-01

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An Extraordinary New Toad (Bufo) ttom Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se describe una nueva especie de sapo, Bufo periglenes, del bosque montano bajo pluvial de la Cordillera de Tilarán en la divisoria entre las provincias de Puntarenas y Alajuela, Costa Rica. La nueva especie presenta una evidente combinación de colores brillantes y marcado dicromatismo sexual. Los m [...] achos son de un color anaranjado intenso uniforme, las hembras verdusco a negro con manchas rojo escarlata. Esta especie carece de tímpano, columela y voz. Se describen los renacuajos. Se discute el parentesco y el papel del dicromatismo sexual Abstract in english A new species of toad, Bufo periglenes, is described from the Lower Montane Rainforest zone of the Cordillera de Tilarán on the divide between Puntarenas and AlajueIa provinces, Costa Rica. The new form exhibits a combination of extremely bright coloration and marked sexual dichromism. Males are sol [...] id orange, females greenish to black with scarlet spots. The species lacks a tympanum and columella and is voiceless. Tadpoles are described. Relationships and the role of sexual dichromism are discussed

Jay M, Savage.

2002-06-01

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Shifts in life history as a response to predation in western toads (Bufo boreas)  

OpenAIRE

Larval western toads (Bufo boreas) are known to exhibit antipreda­ tor behavior in response to both chemical alarm cues released from injured conspecifics and chemical cues of predatory invertebrates. In this study, we tested whether long-term exposure to predator and alarm cues resulted in an adaptive shift in life history characteristics of the toads. We raised groups of tadpoles in the presence of: (1) predatory backswimmers (Notonecta spp.) that were fed toad tadpoles, (2) nonpredatory ...

Chivers, Douglas P.; Marco, Adolfo; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Wildy, Erika L.; Blaustein, Andrew R.

1999-01-01

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Evaluating factors affecting amphibian mortality on roads: the case of the Common Toad Bufo bufo, near a breeding place  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Common Toad Bufo bufo is the amphibian with the highest rates of road mortality in many European countries. This elevated incidence of road kills has frequently been associated with migration to breeding sites. In this study, we analysed the mortality of the Common Toad in the road network in Catalonia (NE Spain, and investigated the related causative factors on four roads near a breeding site in the Pyrenees. Results suggest that the high mortality rate is due to a combination of factors: toad abundance, traffic density and quality of water bodies for breeding. On the road with the highest incidence of road kills we investigated whether deaths occurred at specific spots or in a random manner. The road was divided into 500 m sections and each section was classified according to biotic (type of vegetation and abiotic (presence of streams, roadside topography variables. Multiple correspondence analysis showed that sections with streams crossing under the road had the highest mortality rate, suggesting that such water bodies flowing into the breeding pond are the toads’ main migratory pathways for hibernation and breeding. As toads use the same migratory routes each year, it is critical to identify areas with a high potential mortality so that efficient measures can be designed to increase wildlife permeability, and thereby reduce habitat fragmentation. This methodology could be applied in other areas with high amphibian mortality.

Santos, X.

2007-06-01

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SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ECOLOGY AND HABITAT SELECTION OF WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several species of toads (family Bufonidae, including the Western Toad (Bufo boreas have declined in thewestern United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for populationdeclines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad survival,mortality, movements, habitat selection, and diet were investigated at five study areas in northeastern Oregon duringsummers of 2002-2005. Of 100 radio-tagged toads monitored for one summer during these years, 32% survived untilSeptember, 29% were killed by predators, 10% died of other causes, and 29% were missing or had lost transmitters. Atfour study areas sampled in 2005, 24% of 37 males and 44% of 32 females sampled during the breeding season, and threedead male toads found after the breeding season tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Females traveledsignificantly farther than males, and the maximum distances traveled by female and male toads were 6230 m and 3870 m,respectively. Toads with transmitters selected habitats: (1 with little or no canopy; (2 on south-facing slopes; (3 nearwater; and (4 with high densities of potential refugia (e.g., burrows, rocks, logs. Males were more closely associated withwater than females. Twenty-six toads overwintered in rodent burrows (38%, under large rocks (27%, under logs or rootwads (19%, and under banks adjacent to streams or a lake (15%. Diet consisted of 82% ants (Formicidae, 13% beetles(Coleoptera, and <1% in 8 additional orders of insects with no differences detected between male and female toads.Disturbance events, such as wildfire, can influence refugia and prey of toads, and climatic conditions may influence a toad’ssusceptibility to B. dendrobatidis.

EVELYN L. BULL

2006-09-01

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Experimental repatriation of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) eggs, metamorphs, and adults in Rocky Mountain National Park  

Science.gov (United States)

The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) is an endangered species in Colorado and is considered a candidate species for federal listing by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Boreal toads are absent from many areas of suitable habitat in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado presumably due to a combination of causes. We moved boreal toads from existing populations and from captive rearing facilities to habitat which was historically, but is not currently, occupied by toads to experimentally examine methods of repatriation for this species. Repatriation is defined as the release of individuals into areas currently of historically occupied by that species (Dodd and Seigel, 1991). This effort was in response to one of the criteria for delisting the boreal toad in Colorado stated in the conservation plan and agreement for the management and recovery of the Southern Rocky Mountain population of the boreal toad (Loeffler, 1998:16); a??a?|there must be at least 2 viable breeding populations of boreal toads in each of at least 9 of 11 mountain ranges of its historic distribution.a?? Without moving eggs from established wild populations, or from captivity to historical localities, it is doubtful whether the recovery team will attain this ambitions goal.

Muths, E.; Johnson, T.L.; Corn, P.S.

2001-01-01

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The Effects of Snake Predation on Metamorphosis of Western Toads, Bufo boreas (Amphibia, Bufonidae)  

OpenAIRE

For some anuran species, synchronous metamorphosis may function as an antipredator adaptation by swamping predators during the period of transformation. We examined the levels of synchrony of emergence from the water of metamorphosing western toads (Bufo boreas) in the presence and absence of a live snake predator, the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) in a laboratory experiment. To compare between the treatments, we measured the time to emergence from the water, the number of metamor...

Devito, Jill; Chivers, Douglas P.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Marco, Adolfo; Wildy, Erica L.; Blaustein, Andrew R.

1998-01-01

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Effects of spirotetramat on the acute toxicity, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) tadpoles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential effects of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation parameters as indicators of exposure to spirotetramat and effects of acute toxicity in the Chinese toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. The results of an acute toxicity test showed that the 72 and 96 h median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of spirotetramat for tadpoles were 6.98 and 6.45 mg/L, respectively. It indicated that the spirotetramat was moderate toxicity to Chinese toad tadpoles. In a sub-lethal toxicity test, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were determined after exposure to 0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.65, and 3.23 mg/L for 4, 15, and 30 days. SOD activity significantly in all experimental groups except the highest concentration group increased on day 4 but decreased on days 15 compared with that of the acetone control (P amphibians. The information presented in this study will be helpful for understanding oxidative stress induced by spirotetramat in aquatic organisms. PMID:24835551

Yin, XiaoHui; Jiang, ShengJu; Yu, Jun; Zhu, GuoNian; Wu, HuiMing; Mao, ChenLei

2014-05-01

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Adaptation or exaptation? An experimental test of hypotheses on the origin of salinity tolerance in Bufo calamita.  

OpenAIRE

The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) shows variation in embryonic and larval salinity tolerance across populations in southern Spain. However, its aquatic/terrestrial biphasic life cycle, together with remarkable differences in salinity tolerance between Spanish and UK freshwater populations suggest an alternative hypothesis to local adaptation. Drought resistance during the terrestrial phase and salinity tolerance during the aquatic phase are both related to osmotic stress tolerance, and if t...

Go?mez-mestre, Iva?n; Tejedo, Miguel

2005-01-01

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Purification of toad (Bufo japonicus) gonadotropins and development of their homologous radioimmunoassays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We obtained three gonadotropin fractions with different electrophoretic mobilities named B1D, B3D and B5D from a glycoprotein fraction of toad (Bufo japonicus) pituitaries by cation exchange chromatography using the fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system, chromatofocusing and gel filtration using the FPLC system. Gonadotropin activity was monitored by two radioreceptor assay (RRA) systems, one using bullfrog testis and bullfrog LH as the source of receptor and radioligand respectively, and the other using toad testis and bullfrog FSH respectively. Although, LH/FSH specificity was not complete in these RRAs, the fraction BID showed a higher potency in LH-RRA than in FSH-RRA, while B3D and B5D showed lower potencies in LH-RRA activity than in FSH-RRA. Furthermore, B1D had an activity to release androgen from the toad testis, while B3D and B5D had slight activities. All these fractions stimulated accumulation of cAMP in testis slices of the toad in vitro. These results suggest that B1D contains LH, and B3D and B5D contain FSH-like gonadotropin. SDS PAGE analysis in combination with immunoblot revealed that B1D was almost pure LH, but B3D seemed to be not homogeneous. Anti-B1D-serum and anti-B3D-serum were raised in rabbits, and radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for B1D and B3D were established. The cross reactivity of B3D and B5D in B1D-RIA was about 30% of B1D, while that of B1D in B3D-RIA was only 3% of B3D and B5D. These RIAs were sensitive enough to measure gonadotropins in plasma samples of Bufo japonicus. (author).

Takada, Koji; Itoh, Masanori; Nishio, Hiroshi; Ishii, Susumu (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1989-10-01

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Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho  

Science.gov (United States)

We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

2004-01-01

21

Juvenile western toads, Bufo boreas, avoid chemical cues of snakes fed juvenile, but not larval, conspecifics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous investigations have demonstrated the importance of predator diet in chemically mediated antipredator behaviour. However, there are few data on responses to life-stage-specific predator diets, which could be important for animals like amphibians that undergo metamorphosis and must respond to different suites of predators at different life-history stages. In laboratory choice tests, we investigated the chemically mediated avoidance response of juvenile western toads, Bufo boreas, to four different chemical stimuli: (1) live conspecific juveniles; (2) live earthworms; (3) snakes fed juvenile conspecifics; and (4) snakes fed larval conspecifics (tadpoles). Juvenile toads avoided chemical cues from snakes that had eaten juvenile conspecifics, but did not respond to the other three stimuli, including chemical cues from snakes fed larval conspecifics. In addition, the response to cues from snakes fed juveniles differed significantly from that of snakes fed larvae. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the importance of diet in predator avoidance of juvenile anurans and the ability of juvenile toads to distinguish between chemical cues from predators that have consumed larval versus juvenile conspecifics. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792942

Belden; Wildy; Hatch; Blaustein

2000-04-01

22

Effects of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection on ion concentrations in the boreal toad Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis causes mortality in various amphibian species including the boreal toad Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological effects of this pathogen on experimentally infected boreal toads. Plasma osmolality, sodium, and potassium concentrations were analyzed to evaluate the differences between diseased and non-exposed animals. Infected animals with clinical signs of chytridiomycosis had significantly lower plasma osmolality, sodium, and potassium levels than non-infected animals (p < 0.06). On average, clinically infected animals housed in an aquatic environment had sodium and potassium levels of 60.1 (SE = 9.7) and 2.06 (SE = 0.32) mmol l(-1), respectively. These ion levels were significantly lower than the negative controls (sodium = 115.0 mmol l(-1), potassium = 3.7 mmol l(-1)) and consistent with the clinical signs observed in affected animals. We propose that infection with B. dendrobatidis results in an electrolyte disorder in boreal toads. PMID:20853738

Marcum, Ryan D; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Murphy, Peter J; Rodnick, Kenneth J

2010-07-26

23

Progesterone improves the number and quality of hormone induced Fowler toad (Bufo fowleri oocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Combinations of progesterone, lutenizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, and the dopamine-2 (DA2 receptor antagonist 1-[1-[4,4-bis(4-Fluorophenylbutyl]-4-piperidinyl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (Pimozide; Orap were tested for improvement of spawning rates, oocyte numbers, fertilization and neurulation rates of the Fowler toad (Bufo fowleri. Only treatments combined with progesterone produced large numbers of oocytes. The best treatment on oocyte numbers, neurulation rates, and the number of neurulas was with 5 mg progesterone, 20 mic.g LHRHa, and 0.25 mg Pimozide. Progesterone (5 mg with 60 mic.g LHRHa gave high spawning rates, oocyte numbers, and fertilization rates but neurulation rates were low. Progesterone alone in high repeated doses did not result in ovulation. High doses of LHRHa (60 mic.g with hCG, progesterone, and Pimozide gave the greatest number of toads spawning, however, they resulted in low oocyte numbers, fertilization and neurulation rates. A low dose of LHRHa (4 mic.g with hCG, or hCG alone as a second administration, and progesterone with Pimozide produced few good quality oocytes. Toads were given normal ovulatory doses of hormones 24 or 48 hrs after their initial dose, but these resulted in low oocyte numbers followed by poor fertilization. Overall, these results suggest that progesterone with a dose between 20 mic.g and 60 mic.g of LHRHa may be optimal for the induction of ovulation in these toads. Moreover, Pimozide can supplement low doses of LHRHa but not replace it.

Li Hong

2006-02-01

24

Progesterone improves the number and quality of hormone induced Fowler toad (Bufo fowleri) oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinations of progesterone, lutenizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and the dopamine-2 (DA2) receptor antagonist 1-[1-[4,4-bis(4-Fluorophenyl)butyl]-4-piperidinyl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (Pimozide; Orap) were tested for improvement of spawning rates, oocyte numbers, fertilization and neurulation rates of the Fowler toad (Bufo fowleri). Only treatments combined with progesterone produced large numbers of oocytes. The best treatment on oocyte numbers, neurulation rates, and the number of neurulas was with 5 mg progesterone, 20 mic.g LHRHa, and 0.25 mg Pimozide. Progesterone (5 mg) with 60 mic.g LHRHa gave high spawning rates, oocyte numbers, and fertilization rates but neurulation rates were low. Progesterone alone in high repeated doses did not result in ovulation. High doses of LHRHa (60 mic.g) with hCG, progesterone, and Pimozide gave the greatest number of toads spawning, however, they resulted in low oocyte numbers, fertilization and neurulation rates. A low dose of LHRHa (4 mic.g) with hCG, or hCG alone as a second administration, and progesterone with Pimozide produced few good quality oocytes. Toads were given normal ovulatory doses of hormones 24 or 48 hrs after their initial dose, but these resulted in low oocyte numbers followed by poor fertilization. Overall, these results suggest that progesterone with a dose between 20 mic.g and 60 mic.g of LHRHa may be optimal for the induction of ovulation in these toads. Moreover, Pimozide can supplement low doses of LHRHa but not replace it. PMID:16451718

Browne, Robert K; Li, Hong; Seratt, Jessica; Kouba, Andrew

2006-01-01

25

Body size, nuptial pad size and hormone levels: potential non-destructive biomarkers of reproductive health in wild toads (Bufo bufo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive biomarkers of internal reproductive physiology, by analysing correlations with commonly used destructive methods in adult male toads (Bufo bufo) from a low human impact and a high human impact site. Principal component analyses revealed that size was the most important variable for explaining inter-individual differences in other measured endpoints, both non-destructive and destructive, except for hormone levels and nuptial pad, which were independent of size. Toads from the LI and the HI site differed in almost all of the measured endpoints; this was largely driven by the significantly smaller size of toads from the HI site. Correlational analyses within sites revealed that size was correlated with several reproductive endpoints in toads from the HI site but not the LI site, indicating a possible limiting effect of size on reproductive physiology. Intersex was observed in 33% of toads from the HI site and incidence was not related to any other measured endpoint. In conclusion, we provide evidence that size is associated with reproductive physiology and that nuptial pad/hormone levels have potential as additional markers due to their independence from size. We also show that human activities can have a negative effect on reproductive physiology of the common toad. PMID:24935780

Orton, Frances; Baynes, Alice; Clare, Frances; Duffus, Amanda L J; Larroze, Severine; Scholze, Martin; Garner, Trenton W J

2014-09-01

26

Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two types of chloride current response to a step-wise hyperpolarization of the toad skin is demonstrated: (1) An "instantaneous" response observed immediately upon voltage change, and (2) a subsequent slow response, the time course of which is sigmoidal. The slow response is due to an increase of a transcellular conductance which is specific to chloride ions. The time constant of the conductance increase is dependent on the amplitude of the transepithelial voltage displacement, the smallest time constants are obtained for the highest amplitudes and are in the order of 30 s. The voltage dependences of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloridepathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies reversibly with the transepithelial potential difference. The variable which controls the chloride permeability may be a membrane potential or the concentration of an intracellular ion.

Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

1978-01-01

27

Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (P<0.05) in those that were hibernated than in those that were nonhibernated (54.0% and 33.3%, respectively), but most males in each group (93.3% and 75%, respectively) produced sperm in response to LHRHa treatment. Only one 2-yr-old and two 3-yr-old females produced eggs. At 4 yr of age, eight females produced eggs, but two died from egg retention. More nonhibernated than hibernated females developed eggs (7 of 10 vs. 1 of 10, P<0.05). Mean (+/-SD) weight of female toads producing eggs (58.9 +/- 11.9g) was greater (P<0.05) than that of nonproducing females (43.6 +/- 7.0g). Similarly, four of seven nonhibernated females (58.8+/-8.3g) produced eggs at 5 yr of age. All eggs were produced by females treated once with LHRHa. Number of eggs per female varied (141 to 3307), and development to tadpoles was low (0 to 36.5%), although tadpoles did become toadlets. In conclusion, male and female boreal toads matured at 2 and 4 yr of age, respectively, and heavier females were more likely to produce eggs. To enhance breeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment. PMID:20004010

Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

2010-03-01

28

Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential-activated Cl- conductance carries Cl- ions by way of passive transport. With NaCl Ringer bathing the outer surface of the skin the spontaneous potential was about -30 mV. At this potential the Cl- conductance of the skin was about half of its maximum value. The time course of Cl- current activation following a fast, stepwise change of V from 50 mV to a potential below O mV showed an initial delay of a few seconds, and proceeded with a halftime (T 1/2) which varied as a bell-shaped function of V. The maximum T 1/2 was about 100 s for V = -10 mV in skins exposed to KCl Ringer on the outside. Following adaptation of the toads to a 250 mM-NaCl solution, the fully activated Cl- conductance of the skin was greatly reduced, and the conductance-voltage curve was shifted to the left along the voltage-axis. With NaCl Ringer on the outside the spontaneous potential was about -20 mV, and Cl- conductance activation was possible only outside the physiological range of potentials. The time constant of Cl- conductance activation from closed to fully activated state was more than doubled following salt adaptation of the toads. The active inward Cl- flux disappeared in skins of toads adapted to a 250 mM-NaCl solution, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

1984-01-01

29

Differential effects of dietary protein on early life-history and morphological traits in natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita) tadpoles reared in captivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of high quality amphibian larvae through optimal diets is a critical component of amphibian conservation breeding programs. Larval period, survival, body weight and total length are frequently used as metrics of adequate nutrition. However, the effects of nutrition on tadpole and metamorph morphology are rarely tested in detail. In the present study, we analyzed the most common metrics and six other larval and post-metamorphic morphological traits in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita) fed with three different commercial fish diets, varying in protein content (32.0%, 38.3%, and 46.2%). Our results suggest that early life-history (tadpole growth, development, and survival) and morphological traits of E. calamita tadpoles are differentially affected by the percentage of dietary protein. As protein content increased, tadpoles exhibited larger bodies along with shorter tail fins; however, with no significant differences in total length. Larval period was similar across treatments but mortality was lower in high-protein diet. At high-protein diets the metamorphs revealed significantly longer bodies, and wider heads and hind legs, but there was no significant difference in the average weight across all dietary treatments. Based on our results, feed containing 46.2% protein promotes growth, development and survival of E. calamita tadpoles better than either of the other two feeds tested. The use of other body measures beyond weight, tadpole total length, and snout-vent length in studies of amphibian nutrition in captivity may assist the selection of appropriate diets to optimize tadpole survival and metamorph fitness. PMID:23508569

Martins, Filipa M S; Oom, Maria do Mar; Rebelo, Rui; Rosa, Gonçalo M

2013-01-01

30

The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

Toews Daniel P

2001-10-01

31

Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97?±?8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning. PMID:25418553

Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnod?bska-Ostr?ga, Beata

2015-01-01

32

Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In field-based choice experiments, we examined sex recognition and mate choice in male western toads, Bufo boreas. When given a simultaneous choice between a male and a female of equal size, males did not discriminate between the sexes and attempted to amplex a male or a female with equal frequency. When a test male clasped a stimulus male, the stimulus male uttered a release call that caused the test male to release the stimulus male. Male-male amplexus never lasted more than 3 s, but male-female amplexus was tenacious and prolonged. Furthermore, males discriminated between gravid females that differed in body size, choosing larger gravid females over smaller ones, but they did not discriminate between gravid females or non-gravid females of equal size. In choice tests that excluded chemical cues, males jumped more frequently towards large females than small ones. Given that females are significantly larger than males, selecting larger individuals as potential mates increases the probability that males amplex with a female. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9642006

Marco; Kiesecker; Chivers; Blaustein

1998-06-01

33

Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

2010-01-01

34

Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA  

OpenAIRE

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibit...

Park, Shawna T.; Collingwood, Amanda M.; Sophie St-Hilaire; Sheridan, Peter P.

2014-01-01

35

Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri).  

Science.gov (United States)

The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is the subject of an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program. Wyoming toads in captivity rarely ovulate spontaneously and hormonal induction is used to ovulate females or to stimulate spermiation in males. With hormonal induction, ovulation is unreliable and egg numbers are low. The sequential administration of anovulatory doses of hormones (priming) has increased egg numbers and quality in both anurans and fish. Consequently, we tested the efficacy of a combination of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue (LHRHa) administered as one dose, or two or three sequential doses to Bufo baxteri on egg numbers, fertilization and early embryo development. Spawning toads deposited eggs into Simplified Amphibian Ringers (SAR) solution to enable controlled in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm from hormonally induced male toads. Unprimed females receiving a single mixed normally ovulatory dose of 500 IU hCG plus 4 micrograms of LHRHa produced no eggs. Whereas females primed with this dose and an anovulatory dose (100 IU hCG and 0.8 micrograms of LHRHa) of the same hormones, or primed only with an anovulatory dose, spawned after then receiving an ovulatory dose. Higher total egg numbers were produced with two primings than with one priming. Moreover, two primings produced significantly more eggs from each individual female than one priming. The cleavage rate of eggs was not found to differ between one or two primings. Nevertheless, embryo development with eggs from two primings gave a significantly greater percentage neurulation and swim-up than those from one priming. Of the male toads receiving a single dose of 300 IU hCG, 80% produced spermic urine with the greatest sperm concentration 7 hours post-administration (PA). However, peak sperm motility (95%) was achieved at 5 hours PA and remained relatively constant until declining 20 hours PA. In conclusion, Bufo baxteri egg numbers and quality benefited from sequential priming with LHRHa and hCG whereas spermic urine for IVF was produced from males with a single dose of hCG. The power of assisted reproduction technology in the conservation of endangered amphibians is shown by the release of nearly 2000 tadpoles produced by IVF during this study. PMID:16790071

Browne, Robert K; Seratt, Jessica; Vance, Carrie; Kouba, Andrew

2006-01-01

36

Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri is the subject of an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program. Wyoming toads in captivity rarely ovulate spontaneously and hormonal induction is used to ovulate females or to stimulate spermiation in males. With hormonal induction, ovulation is unreliable and egg numbers are low. The sequential administration of anovulatory doses of hormones (priming has increased egg numbers and quality in both anurans and fish. Consequently, we tested the efficacy of a combination of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue (LHRHa administered as one dose, or two or three sequential doses to Bufo baxteri on egg numbers, fertilization and early embryo development. Spawning toads deposited eggs into Simplified Amphibian Ringers (SAR solution to enable controlled in-vitro fertilization (IVF with sperm from hormonally induced male toads. Unprimed females receiving a single mixed normally ovulatory dose of 500 IU hCG plus 4 micrograms of LHRHa produced no eggs. Whereas females primed with this dose and an anovulatory dose (100 IU hCG and 0.8 micrograms of LHRHa of the same hormones, or primed only with an anovulatory dose, spawned after then receiving an ovulatory dose. Higher total egg numbers were produced with two primings than with one priming. Moreover, two primings produced significantly more eggs from each individual female than one priming. The cleavage rate of eggs was not found to differ between one or two primings. Nevertheless, embryo development with eggs from two primings gave a significantly greater percentage neurulation and swim-up than those from one priming. Of the male toads receiving a single dose of 300 IU hCG, 80% produced spermic urine with the greatest sperm concentration 7 hours post-administration (PA. However, peak sperm motility (95% was achieved at 5 hours PA and remained relatively constant until declining 20 hours PA. In conclusion, Bufo baxteri egg numbers and quality benefited from sequential priming with LHRHa and hCG whereas spermic urine for IVF was produced from males with a single dose of hCG. The power of assisted reproduction technology in the conservation of endangered amphibians is shown by the release of nearly 2000 tadpoles produced by IVF during this study.

Seratt Jessica

2006-06-01

37

Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and accumulated growing degree days measured on the north shore of three classes of wetlands: unburned wetlands, burned wetlands that were colonized by breeding toads, and burned wetlands that were not colonized. We hypothesized that toads colonized burned wetlands because they were warmer than unburned wetlands and selected specific burned wetlands because they were warmer than neighboring burned sites. There was weak evidence that toads selected burned wetlands with higher temperature maxima; however, the differences were small (???1??C) and were not supported when accounting for geography and wetland features. We also found no evidence that burning the forest around wetlands increased water temperatures two and three years after the fire. Unburned wetlands had higher daily mean and maximum temperatures and accrued more growing degree days than either class of burned wetlands. Temperature differences among groups of wetlands seemed to be driven by subtle differences in geography. We suspect we did not find warmer temperatures in burned wetlands because all of the wetlands we monitored already had open canopies and the fire likely resulted in only small increases in incident radiation. Copyright ?? 2008. Blake R. Hossack. All rights reserved.

Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

2008-01-01

38

Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

2008-01-01

39

Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

2005-04-01

40

Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies. PMID:23035820

Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

2013-09-01

41

Anticancer Peptide fromChinese Toad (Bufo Bufo Gargarizans Skin Enhanced Sensitivity to 5-Fu in Hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the antiproliferative and apoptogenic activities of peptide extracted from the Chinese toad (Bufo bufogargarizans skin (TSP and its effects on hepatocarcinoma cell line.METHODS MTT assaywas used to detect the effects of TSP (50 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL on the proliferation and viability of Hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2 and liver cell line (L-02; Flow cytometry was used in DNA content analysis to determine the cell distribution in different phases of cell cycle; Annexin V-FITC/PI stained fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS and transmission electron microscope (TEM were used to detect the apoptosis of the treated cells.RESULTS TSP could not suppress the proliferation and viability of normal liver L-02 cells, but strongly inhibited the proliferation and viability of HepG2 cells; TSP (50 mg/mL primarily arrested the HepG2 cells at G1 phase of the cell cycle; TSP (50 mg/mL induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu.CONCLUSION TSP has potent antineoplastic activity against human hepatocarcinoma cells with little toxicity to normal liver cells and can enhance the effects of 5-Fu.

Chuang-xin LU

2011-09-01

42

Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Common Indus Valley Toad, Bufo stomaticus Using Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) Assay  

OpenAIRE

Chlorpyrifos is a commonly used pesticide of organophosphate group, which causes toxicological effects in non-target organisms especially fish and frogs. In the present study, the genotoxicity of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos was observed in the erythrocytes of common Indus valley toad, Bufo stomaticus, using the Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay. In the first step, acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos was evaluated by exposing the tadpoles to ...

Muhammad Ismail; Qaiser Mahmood Khan; Rahat Ali; Tayyaba Ali; Ameena Mobeen

2014-01-01

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Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

2014-01-01

44

Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

2005-12-01

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Antibacterial activity of the parotid glands secretions of sudanese indigenous african toad (Bufo spp.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study revealed a well-built first line innate immunity system in Bufo Spp., the skin extracts illustrated a very active antibiotic attitude which inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria species, Escherichia coli (ATCC 19615), staphylococcus aureus(ATCC29213) and streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC25922). Heat treatment of secretion supported the fact that the antibacterial components possess an enzymatic attitude. Gel filtration chromatography accompanied with sensitivity tests against S.aureus showed the existence of four groups responsible for antibacterial activity in the parotoid glands secretions.(Author)

46

Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis  

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Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

Coelho F. C.

2003-01-01

47

Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus  

OpenAIRE

Responses to flashes and steps of light were recorded intracellularly from rods and horizontal cells, and extracellularly from ganglion cells, in toad eyecups which were either dark adapted or exposed to various levels of background light. The average background intensities needed to depress the dark-adapted flash sensitivity by half in the three cell types, determined under identical conditions, were 0.9 Rh*s- 1 (rods), 0.8 Rh*s-1 (horizontal cells), and 0.17 Rh*s-1 (ganglion cells), where R...

1990-01-01

48

Immunochemical identification of thyrotropes and gonadotropes in the pars distalis and pars tuberalis of the toad (Bufo boreas) with reference to ontogenic changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphologically distinct secretory cells in the pituitary pars distalis and pars tuberalis of larval and adult toads (Bufo boreas) immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis. Thyrotropin immunoactivity appears in pars tuberalis and pars distalis before gonadotropin immunoreactivity during early development. Antisera which distinguish gonadotropes (stained with human and sea turtle LH beta) and thyrotropes (stained with human TSH beta) as separate cell types in the pars distalis of the adult toad immunoreact with the same single type of cell in the pars distalis of the tadpole up through metamorphosis, suggesting the existence of a single pluripotent, glycoprotein-producing precursor cell early in development. Gonadotropin antisera do not react with the pars tuberalis in tadpoles or adults. PMID:9653025

Pearson, A K; Hayes, T B; Licht, P

1998-07-01

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Andrew meets Rensch: sexual size dimorphism and the inverse of Rensch's rule in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).  

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Variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon and is commonly attributed to variation in sex-specific patterns of selection. According to Rensch's rule, SSD increases with increasing body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases when females are the larger sex. Using data from 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi), we tested whether the patterns of SSD conform to Rensch's rule. Using field experiments, we also evaluated the hypothesis that sexual selection favours large male body size and that fecundity selection favours large female body size. The results revealed that the degree of SSD increased with increasing mean size in females, consistent with the inverse of Rensch's rule. Although experiments revealed evidence for a large-male mating advantage, selection for large male size was weak at best, and hence unlikely to be an important source of variation in SSD. However, fecundity selection favouring large females was evident, and likely to explain the observed inverse of Rensch's rule. After correcting male and female body size for age differences, the patterns of SSD remained the same, suggesting that the intra- and interpopulational variation in SSD is not driven by sex differences in age structure. Hence, these findings suggest that the strong fecundity selection favouring large females drives the evolution of female-biased SSD in B. andrewsi, providing an explanation for the inverse of Rensch's rule. As such, the study provides an important addition to the small body of literature that uses an intraspecific approach to demonstrate the inverse of Rensch's rule. PMID:25407623

Liao, Wen Bo; Liu, Wen Chao; Merilä, Juha

2015-02-01

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Antioxidant responses to azinphos methyl and carbaryl during the embryonic development of the toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum Hensel.  

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Amphibian embryos are naturally exposed to prooxidant conditions throughout their development. Environmental exposure to contaminants may affect their capacity to respond to challenging conditions, to progress in a normal ontogenesis, and finally to survive and succeed in completing metamorphosis. We studied the effects of the exposure to two anticholinesterase agents, the carbamate carbaryl and the organophosphate azinphos methyl, on the antioxidant defenses of developing embryos of the toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were increased early by carbaryl, but were decreased by both pesticides at the end of embryonic development. The GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidases showed oscillating activity patterns that could be attributed to an induction of activity in response to oxidative stress and inactivation by excess of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione-S-transferases, which may participate in the conjugation of lipid peroxide products in addition to pesticide detoxification, showed an increase of activity at the beginning and at the end of development. Catalase also showed variations in the activity suggesting, successively, induction and inactivation in response to pesticide exposure-induced oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased by carbaryl and transiently decreased by azinphos methyl exposure. Judging from the depletion in GSH levels and glutathione reductase inhibition at the end of embryonic development, the oxidative stress caused by azinphos methyl seemed to be greater than that caused by carbaryl, which might be in turn related with a higher number of developmental alterations caused by the organophosphate. GSH content is a good biomarker of oxidative stress in the developing embryos exposed to pesticides. The antioxidant enzymes are in turn revealing the balance between their protective capacity and the oxidative damage to the enzyme molecules, decreasing their activity. PMID:19362380

Ferrari, Ana; Lascano, Cecilia I; Anguiano, Olga L; D'Angelo, Ana M Pechen de; Venturino, Andrés

2009-06-01

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Use of lidocaine, propranolol, amiodarone, and verapamil in toad envenoming (genus bufo in dogs  

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Full Text Available Toad envenoming in dogs can cause death by cardiac fibrilation (CVF. Traditional therapy consists mainly of atropine and propranolol, the last one used to prevent the CVF, that is preceded by negative ventricular deflections (NVDs in the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram. This study intended to verify, comparatively, the lidocaine, propranolol, amiodarone, and verapamil abilities to prevent CVF in experimentally envenomed dogs. Thirty-six dogs were divided into 6 groups (GL, GP, GA, GV, GST, and GSV with n=6; the dogs were submitted to volatile anaesthesia. The animals of the groups GL, GP, GA, and GV received 0.38g of toad venom through oro-gastric catheter and were treated with the following drugs respectively: lidocaine (4mg/Kg, propranolol (0.1mg/Kg, amiodarone (8mg/Kg, and verapamil (2mg/Kg. These drugs were repeated if NVDs reappeared with cardiac frequency >150, GST was not treated and GSV was just anaesthetized. The following results were obtained: GL, NVDs present in 4 animals, 100% recuperation with 3.66 doses/animal; GP, NVDs present in 2 animals, 100% recuperation with 1.66 dose/animal, with bradycardia at the anaesthetic return; GA, NVDs present in 3 animals, 33.33% recuperation with 1.5 dose/animal; GV, NVDs present in 4 animals, 100% recuperation with 2.16 doses/animal; GST, NVD present in 6 animals, 100% death and GSV, NVDs absent, 100% recuperation. As a conclusion, the anaesthetic proceedings used, did not cause NVDs, the envenoming that was not treated was lethal, and among the antiarrhythmics drugs used, verapamil was the most efficient, as it did not cause any serious bradycardia at the anaesthetic return and did not require repeated administrations. For lidocaine, it was efficient but required various administrations; amiodarone could not prevent the death of 4 animals; propranolol was efficient in relation to NVDs control, but caused serious bradycardia at the anaesthetic return.

M. SAKATE

2001-12-01

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A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria  

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Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

Petar Boyadzhiev

2009-07-01

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The role of hind limb flexor muscles during swimming in the toad, Bufo marinus.  

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Most work examining muscle function during anuran locomotion has focused largely on the roles of major hind limb extensors during jumping and swimming. Nevertheless, the recovery phase of anuran locomotion likely plays a critical role in locomotor performance, especially in the aquatic environment, where flexing limbs can increase drag on the swimming animal. In this study, I use kinematic and electromyographic analyses to explore the roles of four anatomical flexor muscles in the hind limb of Bufo marinus during swimming: m. iliacus externus, a hip flexor; mm. iliofibularis and semitendinosus, knee flexors; and m. tibialis anticus longus, an ankle flexor. Two general questions are addressed: (1) What role, if any, do these flexors play during limb extension? and (2) How do limb flexors control limb flexion? Musculus iliacus externus exhibits a large burst of EMG activity early in limb extension and shows low levels of activity during recovery. Both m. iliofibularis and m. semitendinosus are biphasically active, with relatively short but intense bursts during limb extension followed by longer and typically weaker secondary bursts during recovery. Musculus tibialis anticus longus becomes active mid way through recovery and remains active through the start of extension in the next stroke. In conclusion, flexors at all three joints exhibit some activity during limb extension, indicating that they play a role in mediating limb movements during propulsion. Further, recovery is controlled by a complex pattern of flexor activation timing, but muscle intensities are generally lower, suggesting relatively low force requirements during this phase of swimming. PMID:17182235

Gillis, Gary B

2007-01-01

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Isolation and sequencing of doublesex/male abnormal 3 (DM) related transcription factor (Dmrt) genes from the Asian toad Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The doublesex/male abnormal 3 (dsx/mab-3 or DM) domain gene family involved in sexual development encodes putative transcription factors including a DNA-binding homology motif, the DM domain. We used highly degenerate primers to clone and sequence seven distinct DM related transcription factor (Dmrt [...] ) genes from the Asian toad (Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842). A database search for the cloned sequences revealed the following percentage identity with the homologous Dmrt genes of the human: BgDmrt1 = 97%, BgDmrt2 = 97%, three isoforms of BgDmrt3 (BgDmrt3a = 93%, BgDmrt3b = 95%, BgDmrt3c = 100%) and two isoforms of BgDmrt5 (BgDmrt5 = 97%, BgDmrt5 = 91%). Based on DM domain amino acid sequence similarities we constructed a phylogenetic tree which grouped vertebrate and invertebrate Dmrt genes into seven distinct subfamilies. The DM domains of both human and the newly-discovered Bufo gargarizans genes contained two conserved zinc-chelating sites (CCHC and HCCC), except BgDmrt3b, which contained the CCRC and HCCC sites.

Wen, Chen; Liu-wang, Nie; Ping-ping, Zheng.

1189-11-01

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The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)  

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The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 {mu}g/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables. - Capsule: The effect of cadmium-contaminated soils on hibernating amphibians depends on cadmium concentration and soil composition and moisture.

James, Stacy M. [Division of Biological Sciences, 105 Tucker Hall, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211-7400 (United States)]. E-mail: smj21b@mizzou.edu; Little, Edward E. [U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65201-8709 (United States); Semlitsch, Raymond D. [Division of Biological Sciences, 105 Tucker Hall, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211-7400 (United States)

2004-12-01

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The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 ?g/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables. - Capsule: The effect of cadmium-contaminated soils The effect of cadmium-contaminated soils on hibernating amphibians depends on cadmium concentration and soil composition and moisture

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Exposure of toad embryos and larvae to pesticides. Use of nuclear technique to determine their effect on the reproduction, survival and potential risk to Bufo arenarum populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of pesticides is currently the most common method used to control agricultural pests. However, undesired effects on non-target organisms and pollution of the soil, air and water are frequent consequences. Amphibians are good bioindicators of the presence of contaminants in the environment, because they are semi-aquatic animals located at the top of the food chain. In many parts of the world, amphibian populations are declining, and many reasons have been suggested for these losses. Although a link between widespread decline and pesticide residues has yet to be established, it is suspected that contamination of their breeding sites with pesticide residues has had a deleterious effect on the reproduction and development of amphibians. Recent experiments with a widely distributed toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel, in South America, particularly in Argentina, indicate that a variety of insecticides affects the fertilization process through the activation of an enzyme that degrades the source of second messengers and is involved in transducing the sperm signal to the oocyte. This harmful effect is not restricted to the fertilization process, since embryonic and larval development are also affected, producing severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in embryos. Embryonic and larval development influence the timing of metamorphosis, the susceptibility to predation, survival in the terrestrial environment, and even the success of future reproduction, these beinsuccess of future reproduction, these being the most sensitive period of a toad's life. Evaluation of the pesticides in our region showed their presence in many of the potential breeding sites, confirming that they may influence the survival of toad populations. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

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Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis / Padrões respiratórios do anfíbio Bufo marinus revelados por análise de coerência  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dinâmica respiratória em anfíbios apresenta um padrão complexo e irregular de episódios respiratórios isolados ou em cadeia utilizados para inflar ou desinflar os pulmões. A dinâmica respiratória depende do controle fino e coordenado das duas saídas da cavidade bucal (glote e válvulas nasais). Nes [...] te estudo, utilizamos análise de coerência, uma técnica de análise spectral, para analisar o espectro de coerência entre três variáveis respiratórias: pressão bucal, fluxo de ar nasal e pressão pulmonar. Também quantificamos os efeitos do quimiorreceptor e do mecanorreceptor pulmonar no comportamento da glote e das válvulas nasais em sapos normóxicos, hipóxicos e hipercápnicos com os ramos pulmonares do nervo vago intactos e bilateralmente seccionados. Esta análise revela comportamentos respiratórios não aparentes pelo método tradicional de inspeção visual dos dados. Por exemplo, uma redução significativa da coerência nasal em sapos hipóxicos vagotomizados foi observada, sugerindo a existência de retroalimentação do mecanorreceptor pulmonar que modula a duração da abertura nasal. Uma coerência surpreendentemente alta entre P1 e Pb durante a hipercapnia indica uso mais intenso da bomba bucal. Concluímos que a utilização da função de coerência revela comportamentos não distinguíveis durante a inspeção visual das séries temporais ventilatórias. Abstract in english Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis) need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for th [...] e expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure). Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

F. C., Coelho; T. L., Baker; N. J., Smatresk.

2003-02-01

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Histological examination of the effects of corticosterone in larvae of the western toad, Bufo boreas (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis (Anura: Discoglossidae).  

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The effects of corticosterone (CORT)-treatment on various tissues were examined in two species of anuran larvae, the discoglossid Bombina orientalis, and the bufonid Bufo boreas. Corticosterone was administered directly into aquarium water for 15 days. After treatment, histological analyses were conducted on skin, gut, spleen, thymus, and neural and muscle tissue. Corticosterone treatment prevented sloughing of the skin, which resulted in a build-up of stratum corneum, and inhibited the development of gland nests and the subsequent formation of dermal granular and mucous glands in both species. Corticosterone treatment also decreased epithelial folding in the gut and caused vesiculation of the gut epithelial cells. The thymus of CORT-treated animals was significantly reduced in size (P < .05) and cell density (P < .05), and the spleen of CORT-treated animals was completely involuted. The brain and pituitary of CORT-treated animals had a decreased cell density (P < .05) and many pyknotic cells. An examination of muscle revealed that muscle fibers of CORT-treated animals had a decreased cross-sectional area (P < .05). The dose of CORT used (1.1 microM) was within the range used in other studies in the literature and resulted in tissue levels within the range experienced by larvae at metamorphic climax. Thus, this study is appropriate to address the histological effects of CORT in experimental manipulations and the role of increasing CORT at metamorphic climax. The data suggest that increasing endogenous CORT at metamorphosis may be involved in degeneration of larval tissue, prior to regeneration, which is stimulated by thyroid hormones. PMID:8531204

Hayes, T B

1995-12-01

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Interdependence of corticosterone and thyroid hormones in larval toads (Bufo boreas). I. Thyroid hormone-dependent and independent effects of corticosterone on growth and development.  

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In a previous study (Hayes et al. [1993] J. Exp. Zool., 266:206-215), we demonstrated that exogenous corticosterone (B) inhibited growth, and had varied effects on development and metamorphosis in the toad (Bufo boreas). The current study determined the relation between the actions of B and thyroid hormones on body growth (length and weight), tail growth and reduction (length and height), rear leg growth and differentiation, and foreleg emergence (FLE). Thiourea (Thio; a goitrogen) and metyrapone (MTP; a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor) were used to determine the role of endogenous hormones in growth and development. These inhibitors were also used in various combinations with the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), to determine the extent to which B's actions depend on the thyroid hormones. B was ineffective at inducing tail reduction (length and height) in the presence of Thio, but B enhanced the effects of both thyroid hormones, suggesting that the actions of B on the tail were dependent on thyroid hormones. B inhibited body growth even in the presence of Thio, but did not enhance thyroid hormone's inhibition of growth. B alone stimulated foreleg emergence (FLE) and enhanced thyroid hormone's activity on FLE when B and the thyroid hormones were given in combination, but did not induce FLE in the presence of Thio. B stimulated rear leg development, but not in the presence of Thio, suggesting that this effect was due to interactions with thyroid hormones. Furthermore, MTP antagonized the stimulatory effect of T4 on rear leg development, suggesting that endogenous B also interacted with exogenous thyroid hormones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7884391

Hayes, T B

1995-02-01

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Oxygen Transport in Amphibia: The Functional Properties of Hemoglobins from Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis  

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Full Text Available The oxygen binding properties of the hemoglobins from two toads, Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis, have been investigated as a function of protons, chloride ions, organic phosphates and temperature. Electrophoretic analysis of the hemolysates showed the presence of a main hemoglobin in each of the two species. We found that the hemoglobin from Bufo bufo shows at 20°C a slight Bohr effect which tends to increase in the presence of the different allosteric effectors (chloride ions and ATP. At 37°C, the effect of protons is completely abolished in all experimental conditions. The Bufo viridis Hb presents a Bohr effect slightly more pronounced (doubled with respect to B. bufo which increases only with the simultaneous presence of modulators, both at 20 and at 37°C. Moreover the overall heats of oxygenation (expressed by ?H values result in the two amphibian hemoglobins much less exothermic than that of the human hemoglobin and in the case of Bufo viridis completely independent by organic phosphate (DPG. These particular features are very interesting because the two hemoglobins seem well adapted to the different habitats and physiological needs characterizing the two toads.

Maria Elisabetta Clementi

2007-01-01

62

Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry Padrão de expressão de glicoconjugados nos folículos Bidderianos e ovarianos do sapo brasileiro Bufo ictericus, analisado por histoquímica de lectin  

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Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.O órgão do Bidder e o ovário do sapo Bufo ictericus foram analisados por meio de microscopia de luz, utilizando a coloração pela hematoxilina-eosina (HE e o método do ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS. A expressão e a distribuição de carboidratos foram verificadas por meio da histoquímica com lectinas, tendo sido utilizadas 8 lectinas com diferentes especificidades para carboidratos (Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA e Glycine maximum (SBA. Os resultados mostraram que a zona pelúcida Bidderiana apresenta resíduos de alfa-mannose, alfa-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetilDglicosamine e alfa/beta-N-acetil-galactosamina. As células foliculares Bidderianas mostraram a presença de beta-D-galactose e N-acetil-D-glicosamina. Na matriz de extracelular foram detectados resíduos de alfa-mannose e alfa/beta-N-acetil-galactosamina. Resíduos de alfa-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glicosamina e alfa/beta-N-acetil-galactosamina foram evidenciados na zona pelúcida ovariana, enquanto na célula folicular foi detectado o resíduo de alfa-mannose e de N-acetil-D-glicosamina. Assim, a zona pelúcida, em ambos os órgãos, contém resíduos de N-acetil-D-glicosamina e alfa/beta-N-acetil-galactosamina. O resíduo de alfa-L-fucose foi detectado na zona pelúcida de ambos os órgãos, mas utilizando-se diferentes lectinas. Considerando que o resíduo de alfa-D-galactose é ausente no ovário, mas presente no órgão de Bidder, a alfa-D-galactose pode ter um papel importante no controle do desenvolvimento folicular, bloqueando o desenvolvimento dos folículos Bidderianos e impedindo que o órgão de Bidder se transforme em um ovário funcional.

C. F. Farias

2006-02-01

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The genetics of amphibian declines: Population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite Toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data  

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We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

Bradley, Shaffer H.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Randal, Voss S.

2000-01-01

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Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae  

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Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

Lucio Bonato

2010-07-01

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Assessing atrazine-induced toxicities in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atrazine (AZ), a widely used herbicide has drawn attentions for its potential impacts on amphibians. This study aims to investigate the toxicity of AZ in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (B. bufo gargarizans), a species of toad commonly found in China and countries in East Asia. We treated tadpoles with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ?g/L AZ for 85 days and examined related parameters. The results showed that the mortality of the toads in the treatment group increased dramatically in a U-shaped dose-response relationship. The hindlimb extension and metamorphosis rate of the toads were significantly inhibited by AZ at 10 and 100 ?g/L. Under the same condition, there were significant progressive changes in the testicular structures. Moreover, we found that AZ has no significant effects on growth, sex ratios, gonadal morphology, forelimb emergence and histology in the ovaries. Our results support the idea that environmental contaminants including AZ may be relevant to global amphibian decline. PMID:25533566

Sai, Linlin; Wu, Qingbo; Qu, Binpeng; Bo, Cunxiang; Yu, Gongchang; Jia, Qiang; Xie, Lin; Li, Yuezhong; Guo, Qiming; Ng, Jack C; Peng, Cheng

2015-02-01

66

The Use of Swiss Albino Mice and Egyptian Toads (Bufo regularis as Reliable Biological Test Animals for Screening Chemicals and Drugs Which Induce Leukaemia in Man. I: The Effect of Nizoral (Ketoconazole on Leucocytes of Toads and Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nizoral (Ketoconazole is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of systemic mycosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Administration of Nizoral into toads and mice induced pronounced alterations in leucocytes. Electron microscopical examination revealed that these alterations are leukaemic alterations and they are more or less similar to the criteria reported in human Leukaemia. The changes were all comparable to those observed after the administration of the carcinogenic chemical 7,12 dimethylbenz (a anthracene.

M.M. El-Mofty

2000-01-01

67

Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents  

OpenAIRE

Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini) which was developed for treating hep...

Ji Qi; Tan, C. K.; Hashimi, Saeed M.; Abu Hasanat Md. Zulfiker; David Good; Wei, Ming Q.

2014-01-01

68

Changes in the antioxidant metabolism in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Bufo arenarum: differential responses to pesticide in early embryos and autonomous-feeding larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphibians may be critically challenged by aquatic contaminants during their embryonic development. Many classes of compounds, including organophosphorus pesticides, are able to cause oxidative stress that affects the delicate cellular redox balance regulating tissue modeling. We determined the progression of antioxidant defenses during the embryonic development of the South American common toad, Bufo arenarum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were high in the unfertilized eggs, and remained constant during the first stages of development. SOD showed a significant increase when the gills were completely active and opercular folds began to form. Reductase (GR) activity was low in the oocytes and increased significantly when gills and mouth were entirely developed and the embryos presented a higher exposure to pro-oxidant conditions suggesting an environmental control. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also initially low, and rose continuously pointing out an increasing participation of GSH-related enzymes in the control of oxidative stress. GSH peroxidases and GSH-S-transferases showed relatively high and constant activities, probably related to lipid peroxide control. B. arenarum embryos have plenty of yolk platelets containing lipids, which provide the energy and are actively transferred to the newly synthesized membranes during the early embryonic development. Exposure to the pro-oxidant pesticide malathion during 48 h did not significantly affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes in early embryos, but decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and the pool of GSH in larvae. Previous work indicated that lipid peroxide levels were kept low in malathion-exposed larvae, thus we conclude that oxidative stress is overcome by the antioxidant defenses. The increase in the antioxidant metabolism observed in the posthatching phase of development of B. arenarum embryo, thus constitutes a defense against natural and human-generated pro-oxidants present in the aquatic environment. PMID:18752312

Ferrari, Ana; Anguiano, Liliana; Lascano, Cecilia; Sotomayor, Verónica; Rosenbaum, Enrique; Venturino, Andrés

2008-01-01

69

Impact of Ammonium Nitrate on Growth and Survival of Six European Amphibians  

OpenAIRE

We conducted static experiments to assess the effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on embryos and larvae of six European amphibians: sharp-ribbed salamander (Pleurodeles waltl), Iberian painted frog (Discoglossus galganoi), western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes), common toad (Bufo bufo), natterjack toad (Bufo calamita), and common tree frog (Hyla arborea). Embryos were exposed to different and environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonium nitrate (0 to 200 mg NO3 –/L) for 15 d...

Orti?z, Manuel E.; Marco, Adolfo; Saiz, Nelia; Lizana, Miguel

2004-01-01

70

Elupaikade hävimise ja taastamise mõju kahepaiksetele  

OpenAIRE

Currently amphibians have the higher proportion of threatened species among higher taxa in the world. One of the main reasons for global amphibian decline is the loss and degradation of their habitats. However, their impacts on amphibians are known in surprisingly general terms only. This thesis focuses on two threatened amphibians – the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) and the crested newt (Triturus cristatus). Concerning the natterjack toad, the population-level effects of habitat loss on ...

Rannap, Riinu

2009-01-01

71

Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch) (Acari, Ixodidae) em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix) (Amphibia, Bufonidae): novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch) (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix) (Amphibia, Bufonidae): new host record  

OpenAIRE

Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125) foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation) and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

Germano Woehl Jr.

2002-01-01

72

Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

Germano Woehl Jr.

2002-06-01

73

Brown skin disease: A syndrome of dysecdysis in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur).  

Science.gov (United States)

The endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been held and bred in zoos for release into protected areas in Puerto Rico since 1982. In 2004, several cases of a novel syndrome of skin changes in toads were noticed at the Toronto Zoo. A total of 21 toads were found to have similar lesions and the condition has been seen in several other groups of toads in subsequent years. Affected toads show an uncharacteristic sheen of dark-brown leathery skin, followed by recurring dysecdysis, reduced appetite, weight loss, and death from secondary causes. Histologically the condition is characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, ulceration, and the presence of superficial mats of bacterial and fungal agents. No etiology has been identified and to date toads have not permanently responded to treatment with various pharmaceutical and nutritional therapies. PMID:25234808

Crawshaw, Graham; Pienkowski, Maria; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher; Delnatte, Pauline; Russell, Deanna; Berkvens, Charlene; Barker, Ian; Smith, Dale

2014-01-01

74

Pheromone-induced life-history shifts A novel approach to controlling invasive toads  

OpenAIRE

In a recent paper,1 we showed that recurrent exposure to alarm pheromones reduced development time and size at metamorphosis in larval cane toads (Bufo marinus). Subsequent measurements of post-metamorphic toads revealed larger parotoid glands relative to body size and increased amounts of bufalin (a toxic bufodienalide) in animals from the experimental treatment, suggesting increased investment in chemical defenses. These findings are of interest for evolutionary theory. But the study was al...

Hagman, Mattias

2010-01-01

75

Misuse and legend in the "toad licking" phenomenon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1988 and 1992 a new illicit drug experience arrived on the cultural scene in the United States, Canada, South and Central America, and Australia. The media created a frenzy of misinformation in reporting on the latest drug craze which was termed "toad licking". The uses of bufo toad secretions have occurred throughout history in a variety of cultural milieus. These are explored as a backdrop to contemporary drug use/misuse issues. At the interpersonal and social level, media exposure helped create and maintain the use/misuse phenomenon, turning a fairly obscure activity into a potential epidemic. PMID:8486435

Lyttle, T

1993-05-01

76

Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we noticed the appearance in exposed samples of the tubular vesicle cells (TVCs). Taken together, our results demonstrated that increased salinity of freshwater may give cause for concern and must be considered a stressor for amphibians as well as other pollutants.

Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

2013-05-15

77

Chloride channels in toad skin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl- ions through this pathway. Experimental analysis of the gating kinetics is rendered difficult owing to a contamination of the gated currents by cellular ion redistribution currents. To obtain insight into the effects of accumulation-depletion currents on voltage clamp currents of epithelial membranes, a mathematical model of the epithelium has been developed for computer analysis. By assuming that the apical membrane Cl- permeability is governed by a single gating variable (Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics), the model predicts fairly well steady-state current-voltage curves, the time course of current activations from a closed state, and the dependence of unidirectional fluxes on potential. Other predictions of the model do not agree with experimental findings, and it is suggested that the gating kinetics are governed by rate coefficients that also depend on the holding potential. Evidence is presented that Cl- transport through open channels does not obey the constant-field equation.

Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

1982-01-01

78

Population admixture and high larval viability among urban toads  

OpenAIRE

In terms of evolutionary biology, a population admixture of more than two distinct lineages may lead to strengthened genetic variation through hybridization. However, a population admixture arising from artificial secondary contact poses significant problems in conservation biology. In urban Tokyo, a population admixture has emerged from two lineages of Japanese common toad: native Bufo japonicus formosus and nonnative B. japonicus japonicus, of which the latter was introduced in the early 20...

Hase, Kazuko; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu

2013-01-01

79

THE HELMINTH PARASITOFAUNA OF BUFO REGULARIS (REUSS) IN AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

The term "toad" tends to refer to the "True Toads".... which are members of the family Bufonidae, containing more than300 species. One hundred specimens of Bufo regularis (67 males and 33 females) were collected between June 2006 andAugust 2006 in Awka metropolis of Anambra State of Nigeria and examined for helminth parasites or for non-protozoan gut andtissue parasites. Seventy one percent (71%) (48 males and 23 females) of the specimens were infected by five hundred andforty-three (543) par...

Nworah Dc, Olorunfemi Oj

2011-01-01

80

Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis) no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenal...

Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc; João Guilherme Werner Brum

1997-01-01

81

Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: Ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC50). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2 mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2 mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24 h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflecression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles

82

Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: Ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC{sub 50}). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2 mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2 mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24 h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles.

Bernabo, Ilaria [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Brunelli, Elvira [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)], E-mail: brunelli@unical.it; Berg, Cecilia [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

2008-02-18

83

ENVENENAMENTO DE CÃES POR BUFADIENOLÍDEOS (Substâncias encontradas na secreção das glândulas paratóides dos sapos do gênero Bufo POISONING OF DOGS BY BUFADIENOLIDES (SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE PARATOID GLAND SECRETION OF FROGS OF THE GENUS Bufo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Os autores estudaram o efeito da aplicação na mucosa bucal de cães, do produto secretado pelas glândulas paratóides de sapos do gênero Bufo. Os cães apresentaram sinais de graves intoxicações, imediatamente após a aplicação do referido produto.

In the present paper, the authors report the effects of toad’s poison in dogs. This is the first case describe in Goiás.

Lourival Pereira Nunes

2007-09-01

84

Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

D Cavallo

2010-01-01

85

Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

1997-06-01

86

Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

Coelho F. C.

2003-01-01

87

Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing 14C-labeled phospholipids and 3H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unferti present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth

88

Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882); and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834). These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live [...] in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively), while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively). The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277) was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177) and Ricefield frog (0.269). The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion) between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521), while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942). The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

Tonglei, Yu; Yanshu, Guo.

2012-02-01

89

Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

Tonglei Yu

2012-02-01

90

Intoxicação por veneno de sapo em um canino / Toad venom intoxication in a dog  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e Bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado a [...] o Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino. Abstract in english The toads of the genus Bufo produce, in their parotoid glands, a mucoid secretion containing toxins such as bufagins and Bufotoxins, which are cardiogenic steroids. The mucous membranes of dogs can absorb this venom when they attack the toads. A French bulldog with a history of probable toad venom i [...] ntoxication was referred to Veterinary Pathology Section of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) for necropsy. The necropsy revealed enlarged, reddish, edematous lungs, and kidneys displaying a dark red color. The microscopic alterations indicated the presence of congestion, hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Congestion was observed in the kidneys, spleen and lymph nodes. The routine toxicological analyses for venom detection were negative. Nevertheless, the toad venom test result was positive as assessed by thin layer and gas chromatography, indicating that toad venom intoxication was the cause of death.

Luciana, Sonne; Daniela Bernadete, Rozza; Adriana Nunes, Wolffenbüttel; Adriana Erica Wilkes Burton, Meirelles; Pedro Miguel Ocampos, Pedroso; Eduardo Conceição de, Oliveira; David, Driemeier.

1787-17-01

91

Intoxicação por veneno de sapo em um canino Toad venom intoxication in a dog  

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Full Text Available O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e Bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino.The toads of the genus Bufo produce, in their parotoid glands, a mucoid secretion containing toxins such as bufagins and Bufotoxins, which are cardiogenic steroids. The mucous membranes of dogs can absorb this venom when they attack the toads. A French bulldog with a history of probable toad venom intoxication was referred to Veterinary Pathology Section of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS for necropsy. The necropsy revealed enlarged, reddish, edematous lungs, and kidneys displaying a dark red color. The microscopic alterations indicated the presence of congestion, hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Congestion was observed in the kidneys, spleen and lymph nodes. The routine toxicological analyses for venom detection were negative. Nevertheless, the toad venom test result was positive as assessed by thin layer and gas chromatography, indicating that toad venom intoxication was the cause of death.

Luciana Sonne

2008-09-01

92

Changes to the generic names of extinct east European species described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993  

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Full Text Available The generic assignment of three fossil forms described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993 is discussed. The author justifies why their original generic names should not be changed to Pseudepidalea, as recently proposed, but should be maintained until more convincing evidence is discovered.Se discute la atribución genérica de tres formas fósiles descritas como Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993, y Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993. El autor justifica las razones por las cuales las adscripciones genéricas originales no deberían cambiarse a Pseudepidalea, como recientemente se ha propuesto, sino mantenerse hasta que se descubra nueva evidencia más convincente.

Ratnikov, V. Yu

2013-06-01

93

C23 steroids from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five new C23 steroids (1-5) together with five known bufadienolides (6-10) were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans (ChanSu in Chinese). The structures of the new steroids were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray diffraction analysis. Among these C23 steroids, only compound 3 showed cytotoxicities against HepG2 and A549 cancer cells, with respective IC50 values of 26.8 ± 8.3 and 45.6 ± 2.5 ?M. In contrast, the bufadienolides (7-10) displayed potent inhibitory activities against these cancer cells, with respective IC50 values in the ranges 0.5-5.5 and 0.6-6.5 ?M, but relatively less cytotoxicity on normal mouse spleen cells. In addition, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of 2, 5, and 7 revealed that the lactone moiety of a bufadienolide was important for the inhibitory activity. PMID:24050254

Tian, Hai-Yan; Luo, Shi-Lin; Liu, Jun-Shan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

2013-10-25

94

Composition of indolealkylamines of Bufo rubescens cutaneous secretions compared to six other Brazilian bufonids with phylogenetic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of indolealkylamines of Bufo rubescens cutaneous secretions was compared to those from six other Brazilian bufonids. Skin, parotoid and tibial gland secretions were obtained for analysis by thin-layer chromatography. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to confirm the indolealkylamines standards (serotonin, 5-HT; bufotenin, BTN; dehydrobufotenin, DHB and bufotenidin, BTD). We observed clear variation in the composition of indolealkylamines of the cutaneous secretions studied and also between those found in the skin and parotoid gland secretions of the same species. We discuss the utility of indolealkylamines to the phylogeny of this group of toads. PMID:12670790

Maciel, Natan M; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues Pires Júnior, Osmindo; Sebben, Antonio; Castro, Mariana S; Sousa, Marcelo V; Fontes, Wagner; Ferroni Schwartz, Elisabeth N

2003-04-01

95

Prey-Catching Behaviour in Mudskippers and Toads: A Comparative Analysis  

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Full Text Available The invasion of land by a diverse group of fishlike amphibians during the Middle-Late Devonian was a key event in the history of life. It is obvious that the evolutionary transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial habitat was associated with physiological adaptations such as novel feeding strategies that can not be elucidated with fossils alone. Here we show that two extant vertebrate species, an amphibious fish (the Atlantic mudskipper Periophthalmus barbarus L., and the common toad (Bufo bufo L., which both feed on earthworms, have evolved the same modes of prey recognition. In double-choice experiments, both the fish and the tetrapod tried to capture a moving black bar in worm configuration; a vertical (anti-worm stimulus did not elicit such a response. This finding sheds light on events that may have occurred in semi-aquatic habitats over 370 million years ago.

U. Kutschera

2008-01-01

96

Endothelial cells in the oral mucosa of Bufo marinus.  

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The oral mucosa of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) is lined by a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium containing an intraepithelial network of capillaries, which penetrates it to the bases of the distal layer of cells. The capillaries are lined by fenestrated endothelium lying on a complete basal lamina. A connective tissue sheath, approximately 1 micrometer thick, surrounds the capillaries and separates them from the surrounding epithelial cells. Endothelial cells resemble those in lymphatic capillaries in that they show microvillus-like processes or folds projecting into the lumen and also have extremely attenuated and fenestrated cytoplasm except in the nuclear region. Numerous pinocytotic vesicles, bundles of filaments and many electrondense granules occur in the cytoplasm. These granules are oval or round in shape and approximately 250-400 micrometer in diameter. Histochemical tests on the endothelial cells show that the granules do not contain pigment, as both the Schmorl and argentaffin reactions are negative. Both the Sudan black B and Luxol fast blue reactions are also negative showing the lack of stainable lipids. The formaldehyde-induced fluorescence, the argentaffin reactions and lead haematoxylin reactions are negative, indicating that they do not have the characteristics of endocrine cells. The acid phosphatase reaction gives a positive result, localized to the site of the granules by electron microscopy and suggesting that these granules in amphibian capillaries may have a lysosomal function. PMID:6773911

Loo, S K; Yeo, B C; Kovac, H

1980-05-01

97

Presynaptic neuromuscular action of a methanolic extract from the venom of Rhinella schneideri toad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background Rhinella schneideri, previously known as Bufo paracnemis, is a common toad in many regions of Brazil. Its venom exerts important cardiovascular effects on humans and other animals. Although this toad venom has been the subject of intense investigations, little is known about its neuromus [...] cular activity. Methods The neurotoxicity of a methanolic extract of R. schneideri venom was tested on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations mounted for conventional twitch tension recording – in response to indirect stimulation – and for electrophysiological measurements. Results Venom extract (50 ?g/mL) increased the muscle twitch tension in PND preparations but did not significantly alter the resting membrane potential values. Electrophysiological evaluations showed that the extract (50 ?g/mL) significantly augmented the frequency of miniature end-plate potential (from 38?±?3.5 to 88?±?15 after 60 minutes; n?=?5; p?

Sandro, Rostelato-Ferreira; Cháriston A Dal, Belo; Gildo B, Leite; Stephen, Hyslop; Léa, Rodrigues-Simioni.

2014-09-02

98

Pheromone-induced life-history shifts A novel approach to controlling invasive toads.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent paper,1 we showed that recurrent exposure to alarm pheromones reduced development time and size at metamorphosis in larval cane toads (Bufo marinus). Subsequent measurements of post-metamorphic toads revealed larger parotoid glands relative to body size and increased amounts of bufalin (a toxic bufodienalide) in animals from the experimental treatment, suggesting increased investment in chemical defenses. These findings are of interest for evolutionary theory. But the study was also part of a larger conservation-based research program of which this pheromone work was an important component in the development of a management strategy for reducing the ecological impact of invasive cane toads in Australia. For example, our study1 aimed to quantify biochemical and life-history effects as well as assess the likely longterm impact of pheromone exposure on toads. In this addendum, I discuss the conservation potential of our research, with emphasis on exploiting alarm pheromones to induce viability reducing life-history shifts. PMID:20714402

Hagman, Mattias

2010-05-01

99

Coupling of sodium transport to respiration in the toad bladder.  

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Energy expenditure and transepithelial sodium transport were measured continuously and simultaneously from isolated urinary bladders of the Dominican toad, Bufo marinus. Sodium transport was measured as the short-circuit current and CO2 produced by the bladder was measured conductometrically by the method of Maffly. The rates of sodium transport and CO2 productions were linearly related. The slope of the regression of sodium transport on CO2 production, dJNa/dJCO2, was found to be quite similar in paired half bladders but to differ significantly between bladders from different toads. Thus, in this preparation there appears to be no unique stoichiometric ratio characterizing sodium transport and metabolism and past efforts to arrive at such a value by averaging results obtained from different animals do not seem warranted. The CO2 production by the isolated bladder which is unrelated to sodium transport was determined by two means: 1) extrapolating the regression of JNa on JCO2 to JNa equals O, and 2) measuring CO2 production with sodium transport suppressed by removal of all sodium from the mucosal bathing medium. The two methods gave values which were in close agreement in each preparationmthis suggests that metabolism which supports nontransport activities in this tissue cannot be recruited to support the energy requirement of sodium transport and vice versa. PMID:805249

Al-Awqati, Q; Beauwens, R; Leaf, A

1975-06-01

100

The importance of glucose for the freezing tolerance/intolerance of the anuran amphibians Rana catesbeiana and Bufo paracnemis / A importância da glicose para a tolerância/intolerância ao congelamento dos anfíbios anuros Rana catesbeiana e Bufo paracnemis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diversas espécies de rãs terrestres, tartarugas e insetos desenvolveram mecanismos para resistência ao congelamento, como o aumento dos níveis de glicose, proteínas anticongelantes e enzimas antioxidantes. Neste estudo, verificou-se a importância da glicose para a crioresistência de dois anfíbios an [...] uros: a rã Rana catesbeiana e o sapo Bufo paracnemis. Os animais foram expostos a -2ºC para medidas de glicemia, conteúdo de glicogênio muscular e hepático, hematócrito e volume celular das hemácias. As rãs sobreviveram à exposição, enquanto os sapos não. A glicemia aumentou de 40,35 ± 7,25 para 131,87 ± 20,72 mg/dl (P Abstract in english Several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs, turtles and insects have developed mechanisms, such as increased plasma glucose, anti-freeze proteins and antioxidant enzymes that resist to freezing, for survival at subzero temperatures. In the present study, we assessed the importance of glucose [...] to cryoresistance of two anuran amphibians: the frog Rana catesbeiana and the toad Bufo paracnemis. Both animals were exposed to -2ºC for measurements of plasma glucose levels, liver and muscle glycogen content, haematocrit and red blood cell volume. Frogs survived cold exposure but toads did not. Blood glucose concentration increased from 40.35 ± 7.25 to 131.87 ± 20.72 mg/dl (P

A. A., STEINER; S. O., PETENUSCI; L. G., BRENTEGANI; L. G. S., BRANCO.

2000-05-01

101

Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium  

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Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (PBufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

Alex Ajeh Enuneku

2011-05-01

102

A Research of Peripheral Blood Cells Annually in Bufo Bufo gargarizans / Investigación de las Células Sanguíneas Periféricas en un Periodo Anual del Bufo Bufo gargarizans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizó el presente estudio histológico de las células sanguíneas de Bufo Bufo gargarizans en diferentes meses del año: enero, marzo, mayo, julio y octubre. Fueron utilizados métodos de rutina por frotis de sangre con tinción de Wright y observación in vivo. Encontramos dos tipos principales de c [...] élulas de glóbulos rojos al frotis como también en células in vivo: mitóticas y amitóticas. Por cuanto amitosis se produce durante todo el año, sobre todo en el mes de julio, la mitosis hasta el momento se había observado solamente en julio. Además, se encontró una gran cantidad de neutrófilos en los glóbulos de Bufo Bufo gargarizans. Los núcleos de estas células son polimórficos, especialmente en enero y marzo. La concentración de glóbulos rojos era más bajo en mayo y más alta en enero; la concentración de las células blancas de la sangre fue mayor en octubre y menor en marzo. En cuanto a los granulocitos, eosinófilos estos presentaron una mayor proporción en julio y octubre, mientras que los neutrófilos y basófilos registraran una mayor proporción en el mes de julio. Los agranulocitos y las células mononucleares alcanzaron el valor más alto en marzo, y el valor más bajo en enero. Los linfocitos y el valor máximo fue registrado en mayo, el valor más bajo fue registrado en julio. No fueron evidentes los cambios morfológicos de trombocitos, lo que podría tener relación con su estabilidad. Abstract in english The present paper deals with a histological study of the blood cells of Bufo Bufo gargarizans in different months: January, March, May, July and October. The methods used are by routine blood smear in Wright stain and observation in vivo. We found that in smears and in vivo two main types of cells o [...] f the red cells: mitotic as well as amitotic. While amitotic occurs all the year round, particularly in July, mitosis so far had been seen only in July. It is also found that there are plenty of neutrophils in the blood cells of Bufo Bufo gargarizans, furthermore, the nuclei of these cells are polymorphic, especially in January and March. Meanwhile, the concentration of red cells was lowest in May and highest in January; The concentration of white blood cells was highest in October and lowest in March; As to granulocytes, eosinophils in July and October had higher proportion, while neutrophils and basophils in July; in agranulocytes, mononuclear cells reached the highest value in March, lowest in January, lymphocytes and the maximum value appeared in May, the lowest value appeared in July. Morphological changes of thrombocytes were not obvious.

Chongbin, Liu; Chengqiang, Xia; Zhaohui, Xie; Yang, Jiao; Qiusheng, She.

1282-12-01

103

The importance of glucose for the freezing tolerance/intolerance of the anuran amphibians Rana catesbeiana and Bufo paracnemis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs, turtles and insects have developed mechanisms, such as increased plasma glucose, anti-freeze proteins and antioxidant enzymes that resist to freezing, for survival at subzero temperatures. In the present study, we assessed the importance of glucose to cryoresistance of two anuran amphibians: the frog Rana catesbeiana and the toad Bufo paracnemis. Both animals were exposed to -2 degrees C for measurements of plasma glucose levels, liver and muscle glycogen content, haematocrit and red blood cell volume. Frogs survived cold exposure but toads did not. Blood glucose concentration increased from 40.35 +/- 7.25 to 131.87 +/- 20.72 mg/dl (P < 0.01) when the frogs were transferred from 20 to -2 degrees C. Glucose accumulation in response to cold exposition in the frogs was accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05) in liver glycogen content from 3.94 +/- 0.42 to 1.33 +/- 0.36 mg/100 mg tissue, indicating that liver carbohydrate reserves were probably the primary carbon source of glucose synthesis whereas muscle carbohydrate seems unimportant. In the toads, the cold-induced hyperglycaemia was less (P < 0.05) pronounced (from 27.25 +/- 1.14 to 73.72 +/- 13.50 mg/dl) and no significant change could be measured in liver or muscle glycogen. Cold exposition had no effect on the haematocrit of the frogs but significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the haematocrit of toads from 20.0 +/- 2.1% to 5.8 +/- 1.7% due to a decreased red blood cell volume (from 1532 +/- 63 to 728 +/- 87 mm3). When toads were injected with glucose, blood glucose increased to levels similar to those of frogs and haematocrit did not change, but this failed to make them cryoresistent. In conclusion, the lack of cold-induced glucose catabolism may not be the only mechanism responsible for the freeze intolerance of Bufo paracnemis, a freeze-intolerant species. PMID:10959117

Steiner, A A; Petenusci, S O; Brentegani, L G; Branco, L G

2000-05-01

104

The importance of glucose for the freezing tolerance/intolerance of the anuran amphibians Rana catesbeiana and Bufo paracnemis  

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Full Text Available Several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs, turtles and insects have developed mechanisms, such as increased plasma glucose, anti-freeze proteins and antioxidant enzymes that resist to freezing, for survival at subzero temperatures. In the present study, we assessed the importance of glucose to cryoresistance of two anuran amphibians: the frog Rana catesbeiana and the toad Bufo paracnemis. Both animals were exposed to -2ºC for measurements of plasma glucose levels, liver and muscle glycogen content, haematocrit and red blood cell volume. Frogs survived cold exposure but toads did not. Blood glucose concentration increased from 40.35 ± 7.25 to 131.87 ± 20.72 mg/dl (P < 0.01 when the frogs were transferred from 20 to -2ºC. Glucose accumulation in response to cold exposition in the frogs was accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05 in liver glycogen content from 3.94 ± 0.42 to 1.33 ± 0.36 mg/100 mg tissue, indicating that liver carbohydrate reserves were probably the primary carbon source of glucose synthesis whereas muscle carbohydrate seems unimportant. In the toads, the cold-induced hyperglycaemia was less (P < 0.05 pronounced (from 27.25 ± 1.14 to 73.72 ± 13.50 mg/dl and no significant change could be measured in liver or muscle glycogen. Cold exposition had no effect on the haematocrit of the frogs but significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the haematocrit of toads from 20.0 ± 2.1% to 5.8 ± 1.7% due to a decreased red blood cell volume (from 1532 ± 63 to 728 ± 87 mm³. When toads were injected with glucose, blood glucose increased to levels similar to those of frogs and haematocrit did not change, but this failed to make them cryoresistent. In conclusion, the lack of cold-induced glucose catabolism may not be the only mechanism responsible for the freeze intolerance of Bufo paracnemis, a freeze-intolerant species.

STEINER A. A.

2000-01-01

105

THE HELMINTH PARASITOFAUNA OF BUFO REGULARIS (REUSS IN AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available The term "toad" tends to refer to the "True Toads".... which are members of the family Bufonidae, containing more than300 species. One hundred specimens of Bufo regularis (67 males and 33 females were collected between June 2006 andAugust 2006 in Awka metropolis of Anambra State of Nigeria and examined for helminth parasites or for non-protozoan gut andtissue parasites. Seventy one percent (71% (48 males and 23 females of the specimens were infected by five hundred andforty-three (543 parasitic helminthes made up of 475(89% nematodes, 6(2% pentastomids and 62(14% trematodes. Theseseven species collected include Nematoda: Ascaridoid larva (12%, Rhabdias bufonis(30%, Camallanus sp.(10%, Amplicaecumafricanum(31%, Ascaridoid(6%; Trematoda: Messocoelium monodi(14%; Pentastomida: Raillietiella sp.(6%.Amplicaecum africanum was most prevalent in males with 24% than in females 7%. Also Rhabdias bufonis was most prevalent inmales with 19% than in females 11% and the differences were statistically significant. Prevalence also varied with length andweight. Male toads in the length classes of 11.0-11.9cm and 12.0-12.9cm had the highest prevalence of 100% while those in 7.0-7.9cm length class had the least prevalence of 60%. Females in the 10.0-10.9cm length class had the highest prevalence of81.82% while those in 9.0-9.9cm length class had the least prevalence of 50% (P<0.05. Males in 101-120g weight class had thehighest prevalence of 100% while those in the 61-80g weight class had the least prevalence of 63.64%. Females in 141-160gweight class had the highest prevalence of 100%while those in the weight classes of 41-60g, 61-80g and 81-100g had the leastprevalence of 75% and the differences were statistically significant.(P<0.05. All the helminths exhibited site preferences exceptone nematode, Amplicaecum africanum, recovered from rectum, intestine and stomach of both male and female toads.Parasite abundance was variable from one toad size class to another. It appeared that there was a general tendency for theprevalences to increase with increase in size of the host.

NWORAH DC, OLORUNFEMI OJ

2011-12-01

106

Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis) no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas dua [...] s espécies de carrapatos. Abstract in english The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis) from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two sp [...] ecies.

Afonso Lodovico, Sinkoc; João Guilherme Werner, Brum.

1997-06-01

107

NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created and sequenced using PCR with primers generated from a clustal alignment of available NHE-1 sequences in the NR database. Having established the presence of the NHE-1 gene in python, cane toad and perch, expression was quantified by Western Blot and Immunoconfocal microscopy using fluorophore coupled NHE-1 antibodies. These studies showed that NHE-1 is expressed in RBCs from both toads and teleosts fish, but is not expressed in the RBCs of pythons. Thus, the lack of the RVI response in pythons is likely to reflect the lack of capacity to exchange Na+ and H+ for volume regulation.

Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias

108

[Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of TAGLN2 cDNA of Bufo japonicus formosus].  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the bioactive polypeptides included in Bufo skin and its secretions the plasmid skin cDNA library of adult Japanese toad Bufo japonicus formosus was prepared. The pSD64TR has been used as the vector and the cloning sites are Xho I and EcoR I. To screen cDNAs encoding bioactive components, the plasmid cDNA library was transformed into E. coli DH5 competent cells, and positive colonies were screened by colony PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The suspension of a single colony in LB medium was used as the template, SP6 (the upstream primer of the plasmid cDNA library) and a primer with Xho I site and polyT were used as the primers. As the result, 465 positive colonies out of 1 344 were obtained and their plasmid were collected and sequenced. By homologous analysis, it was found that one of the cDNAs encoding a peptide with high homolog with transgelin-2, which was registered in GenBank (accession number: JX197456), and it was indicated as a partial cDNA sequence with a deletion at the 5' end. The transcript is 997 bp consisting of 31 bp 5', 618 bp 3' untranslated region (UTR) and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding a polypeptide of 115 amino acids. In the putative protein product, there is a calponin homology domain, two cysteine residues for a disulfide bond and three a-helix domains, and five potential phosphorylation sites. The homologous analysis indicates 90% similarity with Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis and 89% with Xenopus laevis, and 71%-85% with other species. PMID:23672022

Zhuge, Hui; Yuan, Jin-Qiang; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

2013-02-01

109

Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My; however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp. and African green toads (B. boulengeri on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My to Pleistocene (0.16 My with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My. We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus. Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti, whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus occur in sympatry in northern Sicily. Conclusion Our findings on green toads give the first combined mitochondrial and nuclear sequence evidence for a phylogeographic connection across the Strait of Sicily in terrestrial vertebrates. These relationships may have implications for comparative phylogeographic research on other terrestrial animals co-occurring in North Africa and Sicily.

Lo Brutto Sabrina

2008-02-01

110

Mortality and toxin bioaccumulation in Bufo marinus following exposure to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii cell extracts and live cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium responsible for the production of the toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Tadpoles of the cane toad Bufo marinus were exposed to freeze-thawed whole cell extracts or live cultures of C. raciborskii containing maximum CYN concentrations of 400 ?g L-1 or 232 ?g L-1, respectively. Exposure to live culture treatment solutions resulted in up to 66% mortality of B. marinus, whereas tadpoles exposed to whole cell extracts containing similar toxin concentrations survived. Decreases in relative growth rates and time spent for swimming were recorded from tadpoles during both types of exposure regimes. Bioconcentration of CYN was not evident following exposure to whole cell extracts containing extracellular toxin. In contrast exposure to live cultures, which contained cell-bound toxin, resulted in maximum average tissue concentrations of 895 ?g free-CYN kg-1 fresh weight. This is the first investigation of C. raciborskii exposure effects and toxin bioaccumulation in the developmental stages of an amphibian. - Cane toad tadpoles experienced adverse effects and bioaccumulation of toxin following exposure to the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

111

Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro- DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug ?-methyl- DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.

Inoue, Eiji; Shimizu, Yasuharu; Masui, Ryo; Usui, Tomomi; Sudoh, Keiichi

2014-01-01

112

Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug ?-methyl-DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system.

Inoue Eiji

2014-03-01

113

Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 ?g Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 ?g/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 ?g/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. -- Highlights: ? Southern toad, Anaxyrus terrestris, embryos and larvae are highly sensitive to Cu. ? Significant variation in survivorship exists among clutches and populations. ? Clutches with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. ? Body burdens in larvae were up to 27.5 ?g Cu/g dry mass. -- Capsule: Southern toad aquatic survival is significantly reduced at 15 ?g Cu/L with variation in survivorship across clutches and populations

114

Participation of nitric oxide in the nucleus isthmi in CO2-drive to breathing in toads  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The nucleus isthmi (NI) is a mesencephalic structure of the amphibian brain. It has been reported that NI plays an important role in integration of CO2 chemoreceptor information and glutamate is probably involved in this function. However, very little is known about the mechanisms involved. Recently [...] , it has been shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is expressed in the brain of the frog. Thus the gas nitric oxide (NO) may be involved in different functions in the brain of amphibians and may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. We tested the hypothesis that NO plays a role in CO2-drive to breathing, specifically in the NI comparing pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency and tidal volume, after microinjecting 100 nmol/0.5 µl of L-NAME (a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor) into the NI of toads (Bufo paracnemis) exposed to normocapnia and hypercapnia. Control animals received microinjections of vehicle of the same volume. Under normocapnia no significant changes were observed between control and L-NAME-treated toads. Hypercapnia caused a significant (P

L.H., Gargaglioni; L.G.S., Branco.

1399-14-01

115

Structure of the kidney of Bufo arenarum: Intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule  

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Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the intermediate segment (IS, distal tubule and collecting tubule (CT of the south american toad Bufo arenarum, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IS is composed of cubical ciliated cells which propel the urine along the renal tubule. The distal tubule is divided into two portions: the early distal tubule (EDT and the late distal tubule (LDT. The EDT is characterized by only one type of cells with well developed basolateral interdigitations and numerous elongated mitochondria, which are oriented normal to the basal surface. The "macula densa - like" is a specialized zone of the EDT in contact with the vascular pole, where cells are more tightly packed than in the rest of the tubule. The LDT shows two types of cells called dark and light cells according to the appearance of their cytoplasm. Dark cells have microplicae and few but long microvilli at their luminal surface, and abundant mitochondria in their cytoplasm. Light cells show basal and lateral infoldings and few mitochondria. The CT, which is composed of dark and light cells, exhibits an enlarged lumen with an undulated surface and dilated spaces between neighbouring cells. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the kidney of B. arenarum; frequently used as an experimental model for physiological and biochemical studies.

Alejandro Farías

2003-04-01

116

Structure of the kidney of Bufo arenarum: Intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule  

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Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the intermediate segment (IS), distal tubule and collecting tubule (CT) of the south american toad Bufo arenarum, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IS is composed of cubical ciliated cells which propel the urine along the renal tubule. The distal tu [...] bule is divided into two portions: the early distal tubule (EDT) and the late distal tubule (LDT). The EDT is characterized by only one type of cells with well developed basolateral interdigitations and numerous elongated mitochondria, which are oriented normal to the basal surface. The "macula densa - like" is a specialized zone of the EDT in contact with the vascular pole, where cells are more tightly packed than in the rest of the tubule. The LDT shows two types of cells called dark and light cells according to the appearance of their cytoplasm. Dark cells have microplicae and few but long microvilli at their luminal surface, and abundant mitochondria in their cytoplasm. Light cells show basal and lateral infoldings and few mitochondria. The CT, which is composed of dark and light cells, exhibits an enlarged lumen with an undulated surface and dilated spaces between neighbouring cells. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the kidney of B. arenarum; frequently used as an experimental model for physiological and biochemical studies.

Alejandro, Farías; Gladys Noemí, Hermida; Luisa Eleonora, Fiorito.

2003-04-01

117

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood.

Phalen David N

2010-06-01

118

Participation of nitric oxide in the nucleus isthmi in CO2-drive to breathing in toads  

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Full Text Available The nucleus isthmi (NI is a mesencephalic structure of the amphibian brain. It has been reported that NI plays an important role in integration of CO2 chemoreceptor information and glutamate is probably involved in this function. However, very little is known about the mechanisms involved. Recently, it has been shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS is expressed in the brain of the frog. Thus the gas nitric oxide (NO may be involved in different functions in the brain of amphibians and may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. We tested the hypothesis that NO plays a role in CO2-drive to breathing, specifically in the NI comparing pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency and tidal volume, after microinjecting 100 nmol/0.5 µl of L-NAME (a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor into the NI of toads (Bufo paracnemis exposed to normocapnia and hypercapnia. Control animals received microinjections of vehicle of the same volume. Under normocapnia no significant changes were observed between control and L-NAME-treated toads. Hypercapnia caused a significant (P<0.01 increase in ventilation only after intracerebral microinjection of L-NAME. Exposure to hypercapnia caused a significant increase in breathing frequency both in control and L-NAME-treated toads (P<0.01 for the control group and P<0.001 for the L-NAME group. The tidal volume of the L-NAME group tended to be higher than in the control group under hypercapnia, but the increase was not statistically significant. The data indicate that NO in the NI has an inhibitory effect only when the respiratory drive is high (hypercapnia, probably acting on tidal volume. The observations reported in the present investigation, together with other studies on the presence of NOS in amphibians, indicate a considerable degree of phylogenetic conservation of the NO pathway amongst vertebrates.

L.H. Gargaglioni

1999-11-01

119

Study on Comparative Histology of Retinas in Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cynops orientalis, Bufo bufo gargarizans, Gekko japonicus, and Columba livia / Estudio Histológico Comparado de la Retina en Ctenopharyngodon Idella, Cynops Orientalis, Bufo Bufo Gargarizans, Gekko Japonicus, y Columba Livia  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la relación entre las estructuras de la retina y su adaptación al medioambiente en Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cynops orientalis, Bufo bufo gargarizans,Gekko japonicus y Columba livia . La medición del espesor de cada capa de la retina, la capa nuclear y su diám [...] etro en los cinco animales, mostró a través del análisis estadístico que las capas nucleares en todos ellos fueron 4, y sus estructuras se pueden dividir en 10 capas cuando se observan con el microscopio óptico. El espesor de la retina de Ctenopharyngodon idella fue 190,49 µm, de Cynops orientalis fue 173,07 µm, de Bufo bufo gargarizans fue 195,06 µm, de Gekko japonicus fue 224,32 µm y de Columba livia fue 174,10 µm. El número de capas nucleares internas de la retina de Bufo gargarizans, Gekko japonicus y Columba livia fue mayor que sus capas nucleares externas, mientras que las capas nucleares internas de Ctenopharyngodon idella y Cynops orientalis fueron menos que las capas nucleares externas. La capa de conos y bastones de la retina de Cynops orientalis fue más desarrollada, pero su capa de fibras nerviosas presentó una elevada degeneración, lo que muestra una gran fotosensibilidad, pero una sensibilidad visual baja. En Columba livia, la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina estuvo muy desarrollada, y de esta manera, su visión. El grado de desarrollo de las diferentes estructuras y funciones de la retina de Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cynops orientalis, Bufo bufo gargarizans, Gekko japonicus y Columba livia está relacionada con sus características de comportamiento y el cambio de las condiciones de las vidas acuática y anfibia en la tierra. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the retinal structure and its life adaptation to the environment of Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cynops orientalis, Bufo bufo gargarizans, Gekko japonicus and Columba livia . Measuring retinal thickness of each layer, the nuclei layer, [...] and the diameter of each nuclear layer of the five animals, the statistical data analysis shows that: the nuclei layers of five animals are all 4, and their structures can be divided to 10 layers when observing with optical microscope. The retinal thickness of Ctenopharyngodon idella was 190.49 mm, Cynops orientalis was 173.07 µm, and the Bufo bufo gargarizans was 195.06 µm, Gekko japonicus was 224.32 µm and Columba livia was 174.10 µm. The number of retinal inner nuclear layers of Bufo bufo gargarizans and Gekko japonicus and Columba livia are more than their outer nuclear layers, on the contrary, retinal inner nuclear layers of Ctenopharyngodon idella and Cynops orientalis are less than their outer nuclear layers. The rod and cone layer of retina of Cynops orientalis were more advanced, but their nerve fiber layer (NFL) degraded highly, revealing a strong photosensitivity but a low visual sensitivity; to Columba livia , their NFL of retina are highly developed, so as their vision. The different structures and functions of the retina of Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cynops orientalis, Bufo bufo gargarizans, Gekko japonicus and Columba livia correspond with their behavioral characteristics and the living environment's change from aquatic to amphibious to land.

Qiusheng, She; Zhenqiang, An; Chengqiang, Xia; Yunfei, Kong; Enxiang, Chen.

2014-09-01

120

Impact of ammonium nitrate on growth and survival of six European amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted static experiments to assess the effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on embryos and larvae of six European amphibians: sharp-ribbed salamander (Pleurodeles waltl), Iberian painted frog (Discoglossus galganoi), western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes), common toad (Bufo bufo), natterjack toad (Bufo calamita), and common tree frog (Hyla arborea). Embryos were exposed to different and environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonium nitrate (0 to 200 mg NO(3)(-)/L) for 15 days. Hatching took place during the experiments. H. arborea was extremely sensitive and had high mortality after 8 days of exposure even at the lower fertilizer levels. D. galganoi and B. bufo were also very sensitive and had significant mortality after 15 days of exposure. The rest of the species did not suffer lethal effects but suffered abnormalities or decreased growth at the highest fertilizer concentrations. Chemical fertilizers or manure could have contributed to the observed decrease of B. bufo and D. galganoi in agricultural areas of the Iberian Peninsula during recent years. H. arborea was the most sensitive species studied. The results of our study showed that environmentally relevant levels of ammonium nitrate can induce mortality and might affect population dynamics of this species in agricultural environments. PMID:15386149

Ortiz, Manuel E; Marco, Adolfo; Saiz, Nelia; Lizana, Miguel

2004-08-01

121

Utilization of O-phthalaldehyde-sulphuric acid as a spray reagent in thin-layer chromatographic detection of some indolealkylamines and application to cutaneous secretion extracts of toad species.  

Science.gov (United States)

An expansion of the utilisation of o-phthalaldehyde in sulphuric acid medium as spray reagent was carried out when tryptophan and some tryptophan-derived indole alkylamines such as tryptamine, serotonin, bufotenine, dehydrobufotenine and bufotenidine were examined by thin-layer chromatography. Rf-values and limits of detection ranging from 20 (serotonin) to 100 (dehydrobufotenine) ng per spot were found. Application of this reagent for the detection of some of these compounds was carried out, using either methanolic extracts or column chromatographic fractions of the skin secretion of the toads Bufo ictericus and Odontophrynus cultripes. PMID:18965302

De Lima, C G; Pastore, T C; Schwartz, C A; Cruz, J S; Sebben, A

1991-11-01

122

Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

2015-01-01

123

Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1) from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1) has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD). So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as m [...] ammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947) from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842) using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin ?-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82%) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81%) at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two ?-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

Ning, Wang; Rui, Jia; Jing J., Wang; Liu W., Nie.

2010-02-01

124

Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura  

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Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin ?-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two ?-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

Ning Wang

2010-02-01

125

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??  

OpenAIRE

•We examine cane toads from the southern invasion front for parasites and pathogens.•We compare the parasitism of native Australian frogs sympatric with cane toads.•Invading cane toads do alter the parasites or pathogens of native Australian frogs.

Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

126

Estereoultraestructura del pulmón de anuros bufónidos. Bufo arenarum  

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Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy was used to determined the inner morphology of the Bufo arenarum lung. The observations let conclude that the lung presents three types of folds which divide the organ into alveolar spaces. The inner surface of the lung, as well as the lateral wall of the folds are lined with respiratory epithelium, except in the apex of the primary folds (ciliated surface with goblet cells and in the secondary folds (ciliated surface.

Hermida, Gladys N.

1994-01-01

127

THE EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TYPE ON AVOIDANCE OF UREA IN JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS). (U915529)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

128

Hormonal regulation of skin gland development in the toad (Bufo boreas): the role of the thyroid hormones and corticosterone.  

Science.gov (United States)

At metamorphic climax, anurans develop skin glands that migrate from the epidermis into the dermis. Thyroxine (T4) stimulates skin gland differentiation and migration, and a previous study showed that corticosterone (Cort) treatment of larvae is inhibitory. The current study used histological analyses to address the mechanism of Cort's prevention of skin gland development. Two types of glands were observed in controls at metamorphic climax: The first type resembled granular glands found in adults and the second resembled mucous glands. Differential staining revealed that the two gland morphologies represented functionally distinct granular and mucous glands. Treatment of larvae from Gosner Stages 35-42 with Cort or the goitrogen, thiourea (Thio), caused a reduction in the number of mucous (P < 0.05) but not granular glands. The similarity in the effects of Cort and Thio suggested that Cort inhibited skin gland development indirectly by down-regulating the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis. T4 treatment of larvae reversed the effects of Thio (T4+ Thio-treated animals); however, animals treated with T4+ Cort had no skin glands of either type. Triiodothyronine (T3) treatment of larvae resulted in the complete absence of skin glands with a limited number of gland nests (epidermal precursors of dermal skin glands), but stimulated epidermal growth. T3+ Thio- or T3+ Cort-treated animals also completely lacked skin glands. These data suggest that T3 favors epidermal growth at the cost of skin gland differentiation. Furthermore, we suggest that Cort inhibits skin gland development indirectly through its enhancement of T4 to T3 conversions, and that inhibition of skin glands is caused by an increase in T3 resulting from Cort treatment. PMID:8536925

Hayes, T B; Gill, T N

1995-08-01

129

JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

130

Caller ID: The Frog - and Toad! - Mating Game  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a sensory experience that recreates the sounds of a pond at night. It can serve first as an introduction to frog and toad communication and second, as a demonstration of the calling system used by frogs and toads during breeding season. During the activity, learners investigate how frogs and toads find each other by using calls, and then try to mimic this idea by using their own unique "sound pattern" to find their partner. Learners also discover that scientists can identify frogs and toads by their calls.

Association of Zoos and Aquariums

2014-01-01

131

Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry  

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Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

Azevedo MFC

2003-01-01

132

Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura) and an intermediate form in sympatry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR). The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also a [...] nalyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

MFC, Azevedo; F., Foresti; PRR, Ramos; J, Jim.

133

Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this "aerobic scope model" applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Hematological and cardio-respiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, PO(2) and [HbO(2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardio-metabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature induced cardio-respiratory failure in Rhinella marina indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke

2012-01-01

134

Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate. PMID:22771750

Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

2012-10-15

135

Purification of bufadienolides from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with positively charged C18 column.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a kind of promising anticancer compounds, the preparation of bufadienolides is a hot study spot. However, due to the complexity of biological sample, the purification of bufadienolides from a crude sample (toad skin) is a tough work. In this paper, we reported a new way based on positively charged C18 material (XCharge C18) to quickly separate and purify bufadienolides from toad skin. By this method, the different ionic feature of the amino acid conjugated bufadienolides (AACBs) and the free form bufadienolides (AAUBs) was firstly utilized to obtain distinct separation selectivity on the XCharge C18 column. Additionally, the peak tailing problem of AACBs on conventional C18 was resolved and better resolutions were achieved on the XCharge C18, thus, two kinds of bufadienolides on one column were successfully purified respectively. Taking F13 as an example, the method was validated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and then 4 AACBs as well as 4 AAUBs were simultaneously purified by preparative XCharge C18. In addition, the application of this method in other fractions was also validated. The results suggested that the developed method is a practical and promising tool for efficient separation and purification of bufadienolides from toad skin. PMID:24503198

Li, Xiaolong; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Chaoran; Shen, Aijin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhao, Weijie; Liang, Xinmiao

2014-04-01

136

Concentration dependence of halide fluxes and selectivity of the anion pathway in toad skin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin was mounted under voltage-clamp conditions in a chamber shown to cause no significant edge damage. The serosal side of the skin was bathed with NaCl-Ringer's, and the passive voltage-sensitive anion conductance studied in its fully voltage activated state, V = -80 mV (apical bath negative). The active sodium currents were eliminated by replacing external Na+ with K+. With [Cl-]o varying between 1.45 mM and 110 mM (gluconate substitution) and [I-]o = 3 mM, the total clamping current (y) and the sum of halide currents (x), estimated from flux measurements, were related by y = 1.0x-3.7 microA cm-2 (r2 = 0.98, n = 50 preparations). The increase in [Cl-]o produced a sigmoidal increase in Cl- influx and clamping current, with the rate coefficient for the influx increasing with [Cl-]o for 1.45 less than [Cl-]o less than 60 mM, but decreasing slightly again as [Cl-]o was further raised to 110 mM. A similar relationship was obtained between the rate coefficient for the Br- influx and[Br-]o, and the I- influx and [Cl-]o, indicating that these three ions are transported by a pathway that is activated by Cl-o and Br-o. The rate coefficients for the influxes ranked as follows, I-:Cl-:Br- = 0.7:1:1.3. The I-/Cl- selectivity was shown to be independent of the degree of Cl-o activation of the anion pathway, and identical with the I-/Cl- selectivity of a furosemide-sensitive, conductive pathway. With [Cl-]o, [Br-]o, or [I-]o = 110 mM, the currents ranked as follows, Cl-:Br-:I- = 1:0.68:0.06, indicating that Cl-, to a lesser extent Br-, and I-, poorly activate the conductive anion pathway. External I- was a potent inhibitor of the Cl-o activation of the Cl- conductance. The unidirectional I- fluxes ([I-]o = [I-]i = 3 mM, [Cl-]o = [Cl-]i = 110 mM) revealed passive transport for V less than -50 mV, active transport for V = o mV, and exchange diffusion for V = 50 mV, confirming our previous finding that depending on the transepithelial potential, the toad skin exhibits three modes of anion transport. A model that shares some properties with that of the anion transport system of the red cell membrane accounts for our findings, and for an inwardly directed active Cl- flux in terms of Cl-/HCO3- exchange.

Harck, A F; Larsen, Erik Hviid

1986-01-01

137

Further Hopping with Toads and Frogs  

CERN Document Server

We show the value of positions of the combinatorial game ``Toads and Frogs''. We present new values of starting positions. Moreover, we discuss the values of all positions with exactly one $\\Box, \\regT^{a}\\Box\\Box \\regF^{a}, \\regT^{a} \\Box \\Box \\Box \\regF \\regF \\regF,\\regT^{a}\\Box\\Box \\regF^{b}$, $\\regT^{a}\\Box\\Box\\Box \\regF^{b}$. At the end, we post five new conjectures and discuss the possible future work.

Thanatipanonda, Thotsaporn ``Aek''

2008-01-01

138

Biogeographic patterns of Colombian frogs and toads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the data provided in Ruiz-Carranza et al. (1996) the distributions of the 540 species of frogs and toads are partitioned among ten ecogeographic units of Colombia defined on the basis of precipitation and elevation. Some lowlands areas (pacific lowlands, Amazonian) exhibit high diversity (85-94 species) but lowlands areas in general are impoverished (30-52 species), especially when contrasted with upland areas. The three Andean cordilleras harbor between 87 and 121 species of frogs and toads, demonstrating that the biodiversity of Colombia resides primarily in its montane components, not in its lowland rain forests. When biological endemicity is separated from political endemicity, five areas of high endemicity remain (the three Andean cordilleras, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and the pacific lowlands). We endeavor to explain this description by recourse to cladistic analyses of several groups of leptodactylid frogs where we find that the general pattern of diversification is by means of horizontal diversification (allopatric speciation) with a minor contribution from vertical diversification

139

Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we study propagation in a nonlocal reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia. The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space-diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed $c^*$ of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait va...

Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

2013-01-01

140

Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage  

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Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

Ewa Krzysztofowicz

2011-08-01

141

Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model / Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Existe evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibio [...] s son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO) en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb). Los anticuerpos naturales (heteroaglutininas naturales) fueron también cuantificados contra EO. Ambas evaluaciones fueron llevadas a cabo empleando un método de ELISA desarrollado a este fin, midiendo la absorbancia (A). Para los anticuerpos anti-EO naturales, tanto en sapos controles (C) como en sapos tratados con Pb (T), hubo una tendencia significativa a incrementar las absorbancias iniciales (C inicial: 0,69±0,39 A; T inicial: 0,54±0,30 A); la relación T/C tampoco mostró cambios. La única diferencia significativa se encontró entre las muestras inicial y final de los sapos tratados con plomo (p Abstract in english There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibo [...] dies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate). Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins) were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A). For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C) and Pb treated (T) toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A), relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A); the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (p

Carolina E., Rosenberg; Nilda E., Fink; Alfredo, Salibián.

2007-07-01

142

Morfologia da glândula intermaxilar do sapo (Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925  

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Full Text Available The intermaxillary gland of Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925 is located at the pre-nasal area being divided anteriorly by the ascendent processes of the intermaxillary bone. The secretory tubules converge to form very ramified ducts which drain into a common opening in a fosseta underlying the vomer bone. The cells of the intermaxillary gland were be classified in four distinct types: Light-granule secretory; Dark-granule secretory; ciliated and basal cells. The light-granule secretory cells, are the main type of the secretory tubules, which are also found, in smaller numbers, in the excretory ducts. The dark-granule secretory cells appear in a low number, both in the secretory tubules and in the excretory ducts. Degranulated cells are frequently found in the excretory ducts and represent the degranulated phase of dark-granule secretory cells. The ciliated cells occur only in the excretory ducts. The basal cells occur in small number in the excretory ducts and secretory tubules. In the excretory ducts these cells are regarded as being mioepithelial cells. Although usually described in the literature as mucous, the secretory cells of the intermaxillary gland have serous characteristics. The intermaxillary gland is the first salivary gland to appear in the vertebrate evolution. Its duct system is uniformly lined by ciliated cells and scattered secretory cells. This indicates that in the evolution, of salivary glands, there was a diversification of the duct system, together with progressxve concentration of secretory cells in special áreas of this system.

Marlene Soares Dias Alves

1988-01-01

143

Morfologia da glândula intermaxilar do sapo (Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The intermaxillary gland of Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925 is located at the pre-nasal area being divided anteriorly by the ascendent processes of the intermaxillary bone. The secretory tubules converge to form very ramified ducts which drain into a common opening in a fosseta underlying the vomer bone. [...] The cells of the intermaxillary gland were be classified in four distinct types: Light-granule secretory; Dark-granule secretory; ciliated and basal cells. The light-granule secretory cells, are the main type of the secretory tubules, which are also found, in smaller numbers, in the excretory ducts. The dark-granule secretory cells appear in a low number, both in the secretory tubules and in the excretory ducts. Degranulated cells are frequently found in the excretory ducts and represent the degranulated phase of dark-granule secretory cells. The ciliated cells occur only in the excretory ducts. The basal cells occur in small number in the excretory ducts and secretory tubules. In the excretory ducts these cells are regarded as being mioepithelial cells. Although usually described in the literature as mucous, the secretory cells of the intermaxillary gland have serous characteristics. The intermaxillary gland is the first salivary gland to appear in the vertebrate evolution. Its duct system is uniformly lined by ciliated cells and scattered secretory cells. This indicates that in the evolution, of salivary glands, there was a diversification of the duct system, together with progressxve concentration of secretory cells in special áreas of this system.

Marlene Soares Dias, Alves.

144

TOAD: a numerical model for the 4MOST instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

TOAD, the "Top Of the Atmosphere to Detector" simulator, is a primary engineering tool that accompanies the development of the 4MOST instrument. The ultimate goal is to provide a detailed, end-to-end performance model of 4MOST by providing the detector image for an artificial target field with less then 5% error. TOAD will be able to create a realistic output for any reasonable input. The input can be anything, from point sources through extended sources, calibration lamps or stray-light, entering the system at virtually any point in a optical path. During the development of the 4MOST facility, the TOAD simulator will give invaluable insight into the interaction of various parts of the instrument and the impact of engineering design decisions on the system performance.

Winkler, Roland; Haynes, Dionne M.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Xu, Wenli; Haynes, Roger

2014-08-01

145

Clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation during experimental toad poisoning in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Accidents involving toad poisoning are frequent and dogs are the most common victims; they become poisoned by biting or ingesting a toad. When released in the organism, the venom is absorbed by both the oral mucosa and the digestive tract, initiating its toxic action. The aim of this work was to eva [...] luate the clinical and electrocardiographic aspects of dogs subjected to experimental toad poisoning, as well as their response to treatment with propranolol. Twenty dogs were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 5) and a poisoned group (n = 15). After general anesthesia, the control group received a placebo, while the poisoned group received a venom aliquot through an orogastric tube. Results were tested through multivariate analysis (p

AC, Camplesi; M, Sakate; NMB, Simão; R, Marucio; FCD, Mota; CF, Moya-Araujo.

146

In vivo and in vitro heterogeneity of segment length changes in the semimembranosus muscle of the toad.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies examine sarcomere dynamics in single fibres or length-tension dynamics in whole muscles in vivo or in vitro, but few studies link the various levels of organisation. To relate data addressing in vitro muscle segment behaviour with in vivo whole muscle behaviour during locomotion, we measured in vivo strain patterns of muscle segments using three sonomicrometry crystals implanted along a fascicle of the semimembranosus muscle in the American toad (Bufo americanus; n = 6) during hopping. The centre crystal emitted an ultrasonic signal, while the outer crystals received the signal allowing the instantaneous measurement of lengths from two adjacent muscle segments. On the first day, we recorded from the central and distal segments. On the second day of recordings, the most distal crystal was moved to a proximal position to record from a proximal segment and the same central segment. When the toads hopped a distance of two body lengths, the proximal and central segments strained -15.1 +/- 6.1 and -14.0 +/- 4.9 % (i.e. shortening), respectively. Strain of the distal segment, however, was significantly lower and more variable in pattern, often lengthening before shortening during a hop. From rest length, the distal segment initially lengthened by 2.6 +/- 2.0 % before shortening by 6.5 +/- 3.2 % at the same hop distance. Under in vitro conditions, the central segment always shortened more than the distal segment, except when passively cycled, during which the segments strained similarly. When the whole muscle was cycled sinusoidally and stimulated phasically in vitro, the two adjacent segments strained in opposite directions over much (up to 34 %) of the cycle. These differences in strain amplitude and direction imply that two adjacent segments can not only produce and/or absorb varying amounts of mechanical energy, but can also operate on different regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships when activated by the same neural signal. Understanding regional differences in contractile dynamics within muscles is therefore important to linking our understanding of sarcomere behaviour with whole muscle behaviour during locomotion. PMID:12717006

Ahn, A N; Monti, R J; Biewener, A A

2003-06-15

147

A network extension of species occupancy models in a patchy environment applied to the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus)  

Science.gov (United States)

A central challenge of conservation biology is using limited data to predict rare species occurrence and identify conservation areas that play a disproportionate role in regional persistence. Where species occupy discrete patches in a landscape, such predictions require data about environmental quality of individual patches and the connectivity among high quality patches. We present a novel extension to species occupancy modeling that blends traditionalpredictions of individual patch environmental quality with network analysis to estimate connectivity characteristics using limited survey data. We demonstrate this approach using environmental and geospatial attributes to predict observed occupancy patterns of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) across >2,500 meadows in Yosemite National Park (USA). A. canorus, a Federal Proposed Species, breeds in shallow water associated with meadows. Our generalized linear model (GLM) accurately predicted ~84% of true presence-absence data on a subset of data withheld for testing. The predicted environmental quality of each meadow was iteratively ‘boosted’ by the quality of neighbors within dispersal distance. We used this park-wide meadow connectivity network to estimate the relative influence of an individual Meadow’s ‘environmental quality’ versus its ‘network quality’ to predict: a) clusters of high quality breeding meadows potentially linked by dispersal, b) breeding meadows with high environmental quality that are isolated from other such meadows, c) breeding meadows with lower environmental quality where long-term persistence may critically depend on the network neighborhood, and d) breeding meadows with the biggest impact on park-wide breeding patterns. Combined with targeted data on dispersal, genetics, disease, and other potential stressors, these results can guide designation of core conservation areas for A. canorus in Yosemite National Park.

Berlow, Eric L.; Knapp, Roland A.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Williams, Richard J.; McKenny, Heather; Matchett, John R.; Guo, Qinghau; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick; Brooks, Matthew L.; Joppa, Lucas

2013-01-01

148

The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum  

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Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

Sánchez Mercedes

2003-02-01

149

Cosmocerca parva Travassos, 1925 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in Toads from Argentina  

OpenAIRE

Cosmocerca parva Travassos 1925 (Asca-ridida, Cosmocercoidea, Cosmocercidae) was originally described from Helosia nasus (Leptodactylidae) of Angra dos Reis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It has also been reported in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. elenae, Hyla fuscovaria and Bufo paracnemis from Paraguay (MR Baker & C Vaucher 1984 Rev Suisse Zool 91: 299-307). This note enlarges the known morphological variability of C. parva in a new host and makes amend for previous descriptions wit...

Cecilia Mordeglia; María Celina Digiani

1998-01-01

150

The supercritical CO? extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO?) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO? extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) ?g/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) ?g/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 ?g/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation. PMID:24647111

Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

2014-02-01

151

Clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation during experimental toad poisoning in dogs  

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Full Text Available Accidents involving toad poisoning are frequent and dogs are the most common victims; they become poisoned by biting or ingesting a toad. When released in the organism, the venom is absorbed by both the oral mucosa and the digestive tract, initiating its toxic action. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical and electrocardiographic aspects of dogs subjected to experimental toad poisoning, as well as their response to treatment with propranolol. Twenty dogs were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 5 and a poisoned group (n = 15. After general anesthesia, the control group received a placebo, while the poisoned group received a venom aliquot through an orogastric tube. Results were tested through multivariate analysis (p < 0.05. The animals in the poisoned group had gastrointestinal symptoms including emesis, intense salivation, hyperemic or congested oral mucosa and pasty diarrhea. Non-responsive mydriasis, nystagmus, depression, stupor, tachypnea, opisthotonus and ataxia were also manifested by 100% of the poisoned animals. Affected dogs had an increase in blood pressure, statistically significant throughout study. Five poisoned animals developed ventricular tachycardia and were treated with propranolol (0.5 mg/kg IV. All propranolol-treated animals returned to normal sinus rhythm, which evidences the efficacy of this drug to treat ventricular arrhythmias caused by toad venom.

AC Camplesi

2010-01-01

152

Bufoténine et bufoténidine : des alcaloïdes aux vertus hallucinogènes et aphrodisiaques extraits du venin de crapaud Bufotenine and bufotenidine : hallucinogenic and aphrodisiac alleged alcaloids extracted from toad venom  

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Full Text Available La bufoténine (5-hydroxy-N,N-diméthyltryptamine est un alcaloïde indolique de la famille des tryptamines comme la sérotonine, la N-méthylsérotonine, la 5-méthoxy-N-méthyltryptamine et la mélatonine retrouvées dans les graines de certaines légumineuses ainsi que dans les sécrétions de la peau de différents amphibiens. Chez l'homme, ces molécules possèdent de puissantes propriétés psychotropes et sont impliquées dans les désordres mentaux temporaires ou dans des maladies du cerveau comme la schizophrénie et autres symptômes psychotiques, probablement du fait de leur point commun tant sur le plan structural que physiologique avec le L.S.D, vis à vis du récepteur 5-HT2. Le présent travail se propose de faire le point sur la composition et les propriétés du venin de crapaud, ses prétendues vertus hallucinogènes et aphrodisiaques, ce que l'on sait actuellement de ses effets sur l'homme et des risques d'intoxication. Historiquement les crapauds Bufo ont été extrêmement importants pour différentes cultures à travers le monde, durant des millénaires. Ils semblent aujourd'hui susceptibles de nous aider à comprendre et peut-être même un jour à diagnostiquer la survenue de maladies aussi déroutantes que la schizophrénie ou l'autisme et même qui sait, à les guérir. Diverses publications font état de l'usage de ces sécrétions par ingestion ou par inhalation pour leurs effets psychoactifs aux Etats-Unis et en Australie. Cet usage ne semble pas encore répandu en France. On peut souhaiter que le venin de Bufo ne prenne jamais le relais des drogues existantes et qu'au contraire, on puisse y découvrir d'autres molécules d'intérêt thérapeutique. Bufotenin (5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is a tryptamine alkaloid, such as serotonin, N-methylserotonin, 5- methoxy-N-methylserotonin and melatonin, widely distributed in the leguminosae family and commonly found in a number of vertebrate as mammals and in many amphibian groups around the world. In human, these molecules show potent psychotropic properties an are usually associated to temporary mental disorders and brain deseases such as schizophrenia and other psychotic symptoms, probably due to their similar physiological and structural features to LSD in the 5HT2 receptor. The present study investigates the properties of toad venom, its hallucinogenic and aphrodisiac alleged properties, what we know about its psychedelic effects and the toxicological hazards for humans. Some papers report the use of toad venom by ingestion or by sniffing in the United States and in Australia. This practice is not yet expanded in France. It is wished that toad venom doesn t take the relay to existent drugs, but on the opposite, it could be useful to discover other therapeutical interests.

Anger Jean-Pierre

2008-02-01

153

An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2·5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

2014-11-14

154

Winter Hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 Association in Toad Oocyte Maturation Competence  

OpenAIRE

Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1) is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity...

Kuang, Zhichao; Yao, Yuwei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Zheng; Sun, Zhaogui; Tso, Jiake

2013-01-01

155

Effects of resibufogenin from toad venom on isolated Purkinje fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chan su (dried toad venom) is a traditional Chinese medicine obtained from the skin venom gland of the toad. Chan su has long been used as a therapeutic agent in China and other Asian countries. Recent reports indicate that Chan su toxicity carries a high mortality rate in the United States. This study focused upon the cardiac electrophysiological and electro-toxicity effects of resibufogenin (RBG), one of the major components in Chan su. Action potentials of isolated sheep and canine heart Purkinje fibers were studied using glass microelectrode recording techniques. The results indicate that RBG significantly affected all parameters of transmembrane action potential, induced delayed after depolarization, and triggered arrhythmias in sheep and canine Purkinje fibers. PMID:10999437

Xie, J T; Wang, H; Attele, A S; Yuan, C S

2000-01-01

156

Differential resource selection within shared habitat types across spatial scales in sympatric toads  

OpenAIRE

Differential habitat selection is a central component in the evolution of species, but it has been quantified rarely for sympatric species in relation to the multiple impacts of resources at the spatial scales at which animals operate. Our main goal was to quantify the selection of terrestrial summer habitats in a natural floodplain in Italy by two sympatric amphibians (Bufo bufo spinosus and B. viridis) as a function of habitat type, prey density, and temperature. We applied a Bayesian resou...

Indermaur, L.; Winzeler, T.; Schmidt, B. R.; Tockner, K.; Schaub, Michael

2009-01-01

157

Antibacterial activity of lactose-binding lectins from Bufo arenarum skin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Amphibians respond to microbial infection through cellular and humoral defense mechanisms such as antimicrobial protein secretion. Most humoral defense proteins are synthetized in the skin. In this study we isolated two b-galactoside-binding lectins with molecular weights of 50 and 56 KDa from the s [...] kin of Bufo arenarum. These lectins have significant hemagglutination activity against trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes, which was inhibited by galactose-containing saccharides. They are water-soluble and independent of the presence of calcium. The antimicrobial analysis for each lectin was performed. At mmolar concentration lectins show strong bacteriostatic activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli K12 4100 and wild strains of Escherichia coli and Proteus morganii) and Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis). The antibacterial activity of these lectins may provide an effective defense against invading microbes in the amphibian Bufo arenarum.

Alicia, Sánchez Riera; Adriana, Daud; Adriana, Gallo; Susana, Genta; Manuel, Aybar; Sara, Sánchez.

2003-04-01

158

Portrait of a small population of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas)  

Science.gov (United States)

Much attention has been given to the conservation of small populations, those that are small because of decline, and those that are naturally small. Small populations are of particular interest because ecological theory suggests that they are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity as well as natural and human-induced catastrophes. However, testing theory and developing applicable conservation measures for small populations is hampered by sparse data. This lack of information is frequently driven by computational issues with small data sets that can be confounded by the impacts of stressors. We present estimates of demographic parameters from a small population of Boreal Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) that has been surveyed since 2001 by using capture-recapture methods. Estimates of annual adult survival probability are high relative to other Boreal Toad populations, whereas estimates of recruitment rate are low. Despite using simple models, clear patterns emerged from the analyses, suggesting that population size is constrained by low recruitment of adults and is declining slowly. These patterns provide insights that are useful in developing management directions for this small population, and this study serves as an example of the potential for small populations to yield robust and useful information despite sample size constraints.

Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D.

2011-01-01

159

Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium  

OpenAIRE

Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O). There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC), hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentra...

Alex Ajeh Enuneku; Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

2011-01-01

160

Toad in the hole : Suncor finds amphibious life at tailings ponds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Suncor, a giant oilsands operator, has discovered Canadian toads in five of its nine tailings ponds surveyed in 2002. The numbers are greater than any recorded in the boreal forests. Most are living in a dike along the company's oldest tailings pond which include slurries of sand, water, clay, residual bitumen and chemicals left from oilsands production. Reclamation efforts have involved emptying the tailings and filling the area with sand to create a combination of wet and dry lands. The presence of Canadian toads is a good indicator of environmental health. In the late 1990s, the species was among those listed at risk of declining levels. It is believed that the sandy soil layers in the reclamation ponds are ideal for toad hibernation. Suncor and Golder and Associations are currently examining the feasibility of having the reclaimed areas become future restorations of toad habitat.

Jaremko, D.

2004-08-02

161

75 FR 37358 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad  

Science.gov (United States)

...Camp Morena. Unit 6: Upper Santa Clara River Basin; Subunit 6b In the October...toad, that occur along the Santa Clara River (River), Castaic Creek...Department of Fish and Game over the Santa Clara River corridor, San...

2010-06-29

162

76 FR 7245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad  

Science.gov (United States)

...life-history processes, are essential...activities; mining activities...and light and noise pollution from...arroyo toad. The process we used is described...201). Small businesses include manufacturing and mining concerns...

2011-02-09

163

CAS role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by Cypermethrin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english CAS might have a key role in the apoptosis induced by toxins, acting as anti-apoptotic factor, stimulating the cellular proliferation and the cell contact stabilization. To start to elucidate their role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by cypermethrin (CY), the expression patterns of [...] CAS and several cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) were established. Bufo arenarum tadpoles of the control and acute bioassay survival at different doses (39, 156, 625 and 2,500 µg CY/L) and times (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) of CY treatment were fixed in Carnoy, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. CAS and CAMs expression was determined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. When the bioassay starts, CAS increases suggesting a proliferative or regenerative effect, but decreases when the doses and/or the biocide exposure time increases, suggesting compromise of the cellular cycle control and trigger of an apoptotic wave. However, these neurotoxic mechanisms should not involve degradation of N-cadherin and ?-catenin, in contrast of ?-catenin and axonal N-CAM180, at least in the initial apoptotic phase. Additionally, an adhesion compensatory mechanism by N-CAM180 is observed in the neuron cell body. These results suggest a dual role of CAS in the cellular cycle control during the CY-induced apoptosis: induction of cell proliferation and stabilization of the cell-cell junctions by modulating CAMs expression.

M. F., Izaguirre; M. N., Vergara; V. H., Casco.

2006-08-01

164

CAS role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by Cypermethrin  

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Full Text Available CAS might have a key role in the apoptosis induced by toxins, acting as anti-apoptotic factor, stimulating the cellular proliferation and the cell contact stabilization. To start to elucidate their role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by cypermethrin (CY, the expression patterns of CAS and several cell adhesion molecules (CAMs were established. Bufo arenarum tadpoles of the control and acute bioassay survival at different doses (39, 156, 625 and 2,500 µg CY/L and times (24, 48, 72 and 96 h of CY treatment were fixed in Carnoy, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. CAS and CAMs expression was determined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. When the bioassay starts, CAS increases suggesting a proliferative or regenerative effect, but decreases when the doses and/or the biocide exposure time increases, suggesting compromise of the cellular cycle control and trigger of an apoptotic wave. However, these neurotoxic mechanisms should not involve degradation of N-cadherin and ?-catenin, in contrast of ?-catenin and axonal N-CAM180, at least in the initial apoptotic phase. Additionally, an adhesion compensatory mechanism by N-CAM180 is observed in the neuron cell body. These results suggest a dual role of CAS in the cellular cycle control during the CY-induced apoptosis: induction of cell proliferation and stabilization of the cell-cell junctions by modulating CAMs expression.

M. F. Izaguirre

2006-08-01

165

The All Optical New Universal Gate Using TOAD  

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Full Text Available Since the seventies of the past century the reversible logic has originated as an unconventional form of computing. It is new relatively in the area of extensive applications in quantum computing, low power CMOS, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, nanotechnology, communication, optical computing, computer graphics, bio information, etc .Here we present and configure a new TAND gate in all-optical domain and also in this paper we have explained their principle of operations and used a theoretical model to fulfil this task, finally supporting through numerical simulations. In the field of ultra-fast all-optical signal processing Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD, semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-based, has an important function. The different logical (composing of Boolean function operations can be executed by designed circuits with TAND gate in the domain of universal logic-based information processing.

Goutam Kumar Maity

2014-06-01

166

Contribution to the study of immune hemolysis by toad complement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available EA (eritrócitos de carneiro, sensibilizados com anticorpos de coelho) são lisados por complemento de sapo em condições ótimas, que consistem no uso de uma baixa concentração de células (1.54 x 10*8/ml), incubação a baixa temperatura (30°C) e as mesmas quantidades de Ca++ e de Mg++, requeridas para a [...] titulação da atividade hemolítica do complemento de cobaia. Estudos cinéticos do efeito dos cátions mencionados acima na imune-lise produzida pelo complemento de sapo revelam uma diferença fundamental com relação ao complemento de cobaía. Num sistema limitado pela quantidade de complemento, a lise pelo C de anfíbio é totalmente bloqueada por EDTA, mesmo quando a adição do agente quelante é feita após 15 minutos, ao passo que com EGTA o bloqueio é apenas parcial. Os achados experimentais sugerem que Mg++ seja requerido não apenas no estágio inicial, mas também em estágios tardios do processo lítico e permitem especular que a ativação do complemento de anfíbio se processa predominantemente pela via alternativa. Abstract in english EA (sheep erythrocytes carrying rabbit antibody) are lysed by toad complement under optimal conditions which include a low concentration of cells (1.54 x 10*8/ml), a low temperature of incubation (30°C) and the same amounts of Ca++ and Mg++ as required for the titration of guinea-pig complement. Kin [...] etic studies of the role of cations mentioned above in immune lysis by toad C have disclosed a fundamental difference as compared to guinea-pig C. In a limited complement system, the lysis by amphibian C is completely blocked by EDTA, even when the chelating agent is added as late as 15 minutes after zero-time. Inhibition by EGTA is only partial and the findings suggest that Mg++ is required not only at the beginning, but also at late stages of the lytic process. It has been speculated that the activation of amphibian complement proceeds mainly by the alternative pathway.

Marisa, Gennari; Moema H., Reis; Vera C. A., Ferreira; Maria, Siqueira; Otto G., Bier.

1982-09-01

167

Contribution to the study of immune hemolysis by toad complement  

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Full Text Available EA (sheep erythrocytes carrying rabbit antibody are lysed by toad complement under optimal conditions which include a low concentration of cells (1.54 x 10*8/ml, a low temperature of incubation (30°C and the same amounts of Ca++ and Mg++ as required for the titration of guinea-pig complement. Kinetic studies of the role of cations mentioned above in immune lysis by toad C have disclosed a fundamental difference as compared to guinea-pig C. In a limited complement system, the lysis by amphibian C is completely blocked by EDTA, even when the chelating agent is added as late as 15 minutes after zero-time. Inhibition by EGTA is only partial and the findings suggest that Mg++ is required not only at the beginning, but also at late stages of the lytic process. It has been speculated that the activation of amphibian complement proceeds mainly by the alternative pathway.EA (eritrócitos de carneiro, sensibilizados com anticorpos de coelho são lisados por complemento de sapo em condições ótimas, que consistem no uso de uma baixa concentração de células (1.54 x 10*8/ml, incubação a baixa temperatura (30°C e as mesmas quantidades de Ca++ e de Mg++, requeridas para a titulação da atividade hemolítica do complemento de cobaia. Estudos cinéticos do efeito dos cátions mencionados acima na imune-lise produzida pelo complemento de sapo revelam uma diferença fundamental com relação ao complemento de cobaía. Num sistema limitado pela quantidade de complemento, a lise pelo C de anfíbio é totalmente bloqueada por EDTA, mesmo quando a adição do agente quelante é feita após 15 minutos, ao passo que com EGTA o bloqueio é apenas parcial. Os achados experimentais sugerem que Mg++ seja requerido não apenas no estágio inicial, mas também em estágios tardios do processo lítico e permitem especular que a ativação do complemento de anfíbio se processa predominantemente pela via alternativa.

Marisa Gennari

1982-09-01

168

Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae) / Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Bufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S) a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA") en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La informa [...] ción morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tamaño corporal más pequeño y la mayor divergencia morfométrica. El AMOVA aplicado a los datos genéticos indicó que el 57.85 % de la varianza es explicada por diferencias entre regiones y que el 30.12 % de la varianza se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. Bajos niveles de diferenciación genética intraregional fueron observados en las poblaciones del norte de Chile, mientras que las poblaciones de Chile central mostraron niveles más altos de diferenciación genética. Las pruebas de Mantel revelaron una correlación significativa y positiva entre la variación genética y la distancia geográfica. Cuando excluimos la población de El Tatio, las pruebas de Mantel mostraron correlaciones positivas y significativas entre las distancias morfológicas, genéticas y geográficas. Se discute si la temperatura del agua podría explicar la divergencia morfológica observada en los individuos de El Tatio Abstract in english Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S) along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic informat [...] ion was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El Tatio

Marco A., Méndez; Eduardo R., Soto; Claudio, Correa; Alberto, Veloso; Eliseo, Vergara; Michel, Sallaberry; Patricia, Iturra.

2004-09-01

169

Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tamaño corporal más pequeño y la mayor divergencia morfométrica. El AMOVA aplicado a los datos genéticos indicó que el 57.85 % de la varianza es explicada por diferencias entre regiones y que el 30.12 % de la varianza se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. Bajos niveles de diferenciación genética intraregional fueron observados en las poblaciones del norte de Chile, mientras que las poblaciones de Chile central mostraron niveles más altos de diferenciación genética. Las pruebas de Mantel revelaron una correlación significativa y positiva entre la variación genética y la distancia geográfica. Cuando excluimos la población de El Tatio, las pruebas de Mantel mostraron correlaciones positivas y significativas entre las distancias morfológicas, genéticas y geográficas. Se discute si la temperatura del agua podría explicar la divergencia morfológica observada en los individuos de El Tatio

Marco A. Méndez

2004-09-01

170

The archipelago of Fernando de Noronha: an intriguing malformed toad hotspot in South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malformed anurans raise concern among scientists, because deformities may relate to the recent global crisis among amphibian populations, although declining populations also may be associated with other causes (e.g., diseases, over-exploitation, and land use/land cover change). We examined a sample of toads (Rhinella jimi, Bufonidae) from an introduced population in the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil where malformations of anurans were thought to be high. Our sample of 159 specimens from the site revealed that 44.6% of all specimens had one or more malformations. Incidence of malformed toads on the mainland sites was substantially lower: 10.5% at Itamaracá, and 3.7% at Propriá. We describe the malformations observed, including six undescribed types of malformation of anurans, and we pose possible hypotheses to explain this high incidence of malformed toads. In addition to existing hypotheses, we suggest for the first time the hypothesis that lack of predation pressures contributes to numbers of malformed toads. We indicate the need of specific studies to understand the causes of malformations in the R. jimi population of Fernando de Noronha, which is thought to be extreme foci of malformed amphibians in the world. Our results may improve local conservation action plans as this is an alien population that may be affecting endemic fauna, and may affect populations in other parts of the world, because toad species of the genus Rhinella are recognized as exceptional colonizers. More importantly, unknown variables in these toads' environment are evidently affecting toads during development, which should be a concern for all species that inhabit the area, perhaps even humans. PMID:20112047

Toledo, Luís Felipe; Ribeiro, Ricardo S

2009-09-01

171

Differences in susceptibility to Saprolegnia infections among embryonic stages of two anuran species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many amphibians are known to suffer embryonic die-offs as a consequence of Saprolegnia infections; however, little is known about the action mechanisms of Saprolegnia and the host-pathogen relationships. In this study, we have isolated and characterized the species of Saprolegnia responsible for infections of embryos of natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) and Western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) in mountainous areas of Central Spain. We also assessed the influence of the developmental stage within the embryonic period on the susceptibility to the Saprolegnia species identified. Only one strain of Saprolegnia was isolated from B. calamita and identified as S. diclina. For P. cultripes, both S. diclina and S. ferax were identified. Healthy embryos of both amphibian species suffered increased mortality rates when exposed to the Saprolegnia strains isolated from individuals of the same population. Embryonic developmental stage was crucial in determining the sensitivity of embryos to Saprolegnia infection. The mortalities of P. cultripes and B. calamita embryos exposed at Gosner stages 15 (rotation) and 19 (heart beating) were almost total 72 h after challenge with Saprolegnia, while those exposed at stage 12 (late gastrula) showed no significant effects at that time. This is the first study to demonstrate the role of embryonic development on the sensitivity of amphibians to Saprolegnia. PMID:21197546

Fernández-Benéitez, María José; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel Eloy; Lizana, Miguel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2011-03-01

172

Effect of Corn Oil on Liver Glycogen Content and Blood Glucose-6-phosphatase Dehydrogenase in Toads Treated with DMBA  

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Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of several types of cancer, this discovery has led to a great deal of interest in the role of diet in cancer etiology. Fed the Egyptian toad with 0.5 ml corn oil and 0.2 mg DMBA toad/3, 3 times/week increased the incidence of liver tumor (22 out of 50 cases in comparison with toads treated with DMBA alone (16 out of 50 cases. On the ultrastructural level, corn oil increased (a the depletion of glycogen, (b accumulation of fat and lysosomes in toad liver tumor. The biochemical data indicated that glucose-6 phosphatase dehydrogenase in the blood, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes activities were increased in serum of toads treated with DMBA and corn oil than animals treated with DMBA alone.

N.E. Abdelmeguid

2000-01-01

173

Effect of Corn Oil on Liver Glycogen Content and Blood Glucose-6-phosphatase Dehydrogenase in Toads Treated with DMBA  

OpenAIRE

Environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of several types of cancer, this discovery has led to a great deal of interest in the role of diet in cancer etiology. Fed the Egyptian toad with 0.5 ml corn oil and 0.2 mg DMBA toad/3, 3 times/week increased the incidence of liver tumor (22 out of 50 cases) in comparison with toads treated with DMBA alone (16 out of 50 cases). On the ultrastructural level, corn oil increased (a) the depletion of glycogen, (b) accumulation of fat an...

Abdelmeguid, N. E.; Sadek, I. A.; Sorour, J. M.; Attia, A. A.

2000-01-01

174

Developmental plasticity mirrors differences among taxa in spadefoot toads linking plasticity and diversity  

OpenAIRE

Developmental plasticity is found in most organisms, but its role in evolution remains controversial. Environmentally induced phenotypic differences may be translated into adaptive divergence among lineages experiencing different environmental conditions through genetic accommodation. To examine this evolutionary mechanism, we studied the relationship between plasticity in larval development, postmetamorphic morphology, and morphological diversity in spadefoot toads, a group of closely relate...

Gomez-mestre, Ivan; Buchholz, Daniel R.

2006-01-01

175

Developmental plasticity mirrors differences among taxa in spadefoot toads linking plasticity and diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental plasticity is found in most organisms, but its role in evolution remains controversial. Environmentally induced phenotypic differences may be translated into adaptive divergence among lineages experiencing different environmental conditions through genetic accommodation. To examine this evolutionary mechanism, we studied the relationship between plasticity in larval development, postmetamorphic morphology, and morphological diversity in spadefoot toads, a group of closely related species that are highly divergent in the larval period and body shape and are distributed throughout temperate areas of both the New and the Old World. Previous studies showed that accelerated metamorphosis is adaptive for desert-dwelling spadefoot toads. We show that even under common garden conditions, spadefoot toad species show divergent reaction norms for the larval period. In addition, experimentally induced changes in the larval period caused correlated morphological changes in postmetamorphic individuals such that long larval periods resulted in relatively longer hindlimbs and snouts. A comparative analysis of morphological variation across spadefoot toad species also revealed a positive correlation between the larval period and limb and snout lengths, mirroring the effects of within-species plasticity at a higher taxonomic level. Indeed, after approximately 110 Ma of independent evolution, differences in the larval period explain 57% of the variance in relative limb length and 33% of snout length across species. Thus, morphological diversity across these species appears to have evolved as a correlated response to selection for a reduced larval period in desert-dwelling species, possibly diverging from ancestral plasticity through genetic accommodation. PMID:17135355

Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Buchholz, Daniel R

2006-12-12

176

Effect of parathyroid hormone on transport by toad and turtle bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibited both vasopressin- and cyclic AMP-stimulated water transport in the toad bladder. This was associated with an increase in calcium uptake by isolated epithelial cells. They postulated that PTH exerts its action on H2O transport by directly stimulating calcium uptake. The current study was designed to compare the effects of PTH and the calcium ionophore, A23187, on H2O and Na transport and H? secretion in toad and turtle bladders. In toad bladder, PTH and A23187 decreased arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated H2O flow and short-circuit current (SCC) after 60 min serosal incubation. In turtle bladder A23187 decreased SCC to 79.3 +/- 3.6% of base line (P + secretion in turtle bladders. Both PTH and A23187 increased 45Ca uptake in toad bladder epithelial cells; only A23187 increased 45Ca uptake in the turtle bladder. The different action of PTH in these two membranes, compared with that of the calcium ionophore, illustrates the selectivity of PTH on membrane transport. PTH increases calcium uptake and decreases transport only in a hormone-sensitive epithelium, whereas the ionophore works in virtually all living membranes. The mode of action of these two agents to increase calcium uptake is, therefore likely differentt

177

Genetic comparison of water molds from embryos of amphibians Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas and Pseudacris regilla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water molds that cause the disease saprolegniasis have been implicated in widespread mortality of amphibian embryos. However, because of the limitations of traditional identification methods, water mold species involved in die-offs or utilized in ecological studies often remain unidentified or identified only as Saprolegnia ferax. Furthermore, water mold taxonomy requires revision, so very distinct organisms may all be called S. ferax. Recent DNA-based studies indicate that the diversity of water molds infecting amphibian embryos is significantly higher than what was previously known, but these studies rely on culture methods, which may be biased towards taxa that grow best under laboratory conditions. In this study, total embryo-associated DNA was extracted from 3 amphibian species in a pond in central Washington, USA. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of DNA was amplified with primers capable of amplifying a broad array of eukaryotic microorgansisms, and was used to construct clone libraries. Individual clones were sequenced and relationships among newly recovered sequences and previously studied taxa were analyzed using phylogenetics. These methods recovered several new taxa in association with amphibian embryos. Samples grouped into 11 distinct phylotypes with ITS sequence differences ranging from 4 to 28%. The water mold communities recovered differed among Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas, and Pseudacris regilla egg masses. Furthermore, the diversity of water molds increased as egg masses aged, and members comprising this diversity changed over time. PMID:22691981

Ault, Kori K; Johnson, James E; Pinkart, Holly C; Wagner, R Steven

2012-06-13

178

Quantifying Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park with landscape genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major objective of ecology is to understand how ecological processes limit population connectivity and species' distributions. By spatially quantifying ecological components driving functional connectivity, we can understand why some locally suitable habitats are unoccupied, resulting in observed discontinuities in distribution. However, estimating connectivity may be difficult due to population stochasticity and violations of assumptions of parametric statistics. To address these issues, we present a novel application of Random Forests to landscape genetic data. We address the effects of three key ecological components on Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park: ecological process, scale, and hierarchical organization. Habitat permeability, topographic morphology, and temperature-moisture regime are all significant ecological processes associated with B. boreas connectivity. Connectivity was influenced by growing-season precipitation, 1988 Yellowstone fires, cover, temperature, impervious surfaces (roads and development), and topographic complexity (56% variation explained). We found that habitat permeability generally operates on fine scales, while topographic morphology and temperature-moisture regime operate across multiple scales, thus demonstrating the importance of cross-scale analysis for ecological interpretation. In a hierarchical analysis, we were able to explain more variation within genetic clusters as identified using Structure (a Bayesian algorithm) (74%; dispersal cover, growing-season precipitation, impervious surfaces) as opposed to between genetic clusters (45%; ridgelines, hot, dry slopes, length of hot season, and annual precipitation). Finally, the analytical methods we developed are powerful and can be applied to any species or system with appropriate landscape and genetic data. PMID:20380214

Murphy, Melanie A; Evans, Jeffrey S; Storfer, Andrew

2010-01-01

179

The uptake of 14C-glycine to Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) larva at metamorphosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the eggs of Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) immediately after fertilization, the larvae in the 50 ml solution containing 1 ml of 14C-glycine were developed to the end of metamorphosis. Measurements were made on the length of body, tail, fore limb and hind leg through the stages of tail degeneration and vestige. The radioactivity of the cut off fore limbs, hind legs, tails and head trunks was measured with a scintillation counter, and the 10 ? sections of the samples were used for autoradiography. The larvae uptook orally 14C-glycine to the organs of cell tissues. On the basis of the reports of the autolysis of tails and the activation of lysosome enzyme in metamorphosis and on the uptake of 14C-leucine and 14C-proline to four legs by other workers, and on the present results, the free amino acids formed from the autolysis of tails were utilized for the recomposition of organ protein synthesis in the metamorphosis of the amphibians. (J.P.N.)

180

The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

O. Fridman

2006-03-01

181

The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

Herkovits, J; D'Eramo, J L; Fridman, O

2006-03-01

182

El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined 22, 23, 61 and 107 days later, finding plerocercoids in all them (mean temperature 24.9°C. On the 23th day, 49 plerocercoids were removed from 6 tadpoles and 28 of them were fed to a bitch. On the 107th day, 11 plerocercoids were recovered from a dead tadpole and 3 of them were fed to another bitch. In the faeces of the first bitch there were observed the eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei 22 days post infection (d.p.i. and part of the strobila 30 d.p.i.. In the faeces of the second bitch the eggs were found 30 d.p.i..

Lucila Venturini

1989-10-01

183

Pathways for chloride and sodium transport across toad skin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The voltage dependecies of Na and Cl fluxes were investigated in the isolated toad skin. With Cl-Ringer's on both sides Cl outflux varied very little with clamping voltage. The same was true for the influx of Cl at depolarizing voltages (psii -psio lessthan0 mV), wheras hyperpolarization led to a marked increase in this flux. A net chloride influx under short circuit conditions indicated active transport of chloride. The outflux of Cl was a saturable function of outside Cl concentration. The outflux of urea was hardly affected by raising outside Cl concentration, and the effect of varying outside nitrate concentration on Cl outflux was likewise small. Both influx and outflux could be inhibited partially bt acetazolamide. The outflux of Na varied with the clamping voltage as would be expected for an ion transported by electrodiffusion, and it was shown that amiloride had no effect on Na outflux, so it was concluded that the Na outflux route is particular. In the absence of Cl in the outside solution a small outflux of Cl persists. Also this flux varied with the clamping voltage according to laws for electrodiffusion. The variation of the ratio of sodium outflux to chloride outflux with clamping voltage indicated free passive diffusion of both these ions under the conditions mentioned. A comparison of the outfluxes of Na and Cl in skins bathed with gluconate Ringer's outside showed that the outflux route of these two ions was cation selective (PNa/PCl=1.88). When the paracellular leak pathway of the skins was opened by exposing the outside to hyperosmolar urea solutions, the ratio of the transport numbers was found to be TNa/TCl=1.71. The roles of the two ions in determining the steady state current-voltage relationships were compared. At hyperpolarizing voltages most or all of the clamping current was carried by an inward Cl flux. By depolarization sodium influx plays an increasing role with increasing depolarization. Under short circuit conditions active chloride transport was found to contribute to the short circuit current.

Bruus, K; Kristensen, P

1976-01-01

184

Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell volume decreased by about 14% in response to bilateral exposure to Cl-free (gluconate substitution) solutions, apical exposure to a sodium-free solution, or to amiloride. Serosal exposure to ouabain resulted in a large increase in volume, which could be prevented either by the simultaneous application of amiloride in the apical solution or by the exposure of the epithelium to bilateral Cl-free solutions. Unilateral exposure to a Cl-free solution did not prevent ouabain-induced cell swelling. It is concluded that m.r. cells have an amiloride-blockable Na conductance in the apical membrane, a ouabain-sensitive Na pump in the basolateral membrane, and a passive Cl permeability in both membranes. From the initial rate of ouabain-induced cell volume increase the active Na current carried by a single m.r. cell was estimated to be 9.9 +/- 1.3 pA. Voltage clamping of the preparation in the physiological range of potentials (0 to -100 mV, serosa grounded) resulted in a cell volume increase with a time course similar to that of the stimulation of the voltage-dependent Cl conductance. Volume increase and conductance activation were prevented by exposure of the tissue to a Cl-free apical solution. The steady-state volume of the m.r. cells increased with the clamping voltage, and at -100 mV the volume was about 1.15 times that under short-circuit conditions. The rate of volume increase during current passage was significantly decreased by lowering the serosal K concentration (Ki) to 0.5 mM, but was independent of whether Ki was 2.4, 5, or 10 mM. This indicates that the K conductance of the serosal membrane becomes rate limiting for the uptake of KCl when Ki is significantly lower than its physiological value. It is concluded that the voltage-activated Cl currents flow through the m.r. cells and that swelling is caused by an uptakeof Cl ions from the apical bath and K ions from the serosal bath. Bilateral exposure of the tissue to hypo- or hypertonic bathing solutions changed cell volume without detectable changes in the Cl conductance. The volume response to external osmotic perturbations followed that of an osmometer with an osmotically inactive volume of 21%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H

1987-01-01

185

A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions  

OpenAIRE

The common toad Rhinella arenarum arenarum is used in our laboratory for teaching and research, studying different aspects of the anuran development. Hormonally induced adults allow us to obtain embryos by in vitro fertilization throughout the year. However, adult toads hibernate during nonbreeding season (March-August) making it very hard to find them in nature (Gallardo, 1958). Consequently, we usually maintain captive breeding pairs after breeding season, inducing an “artificial wi...

Jungblut, Lucas David; Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela; Paz, Dante Agusti?n

2013-01-01

186

Effects of oligomycin on transient currents carried by Na+ translocation of Bufo Na+/K(+)-ATPase expressed in Xenopus oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) exports 3Na(+) and imports 2K(+) at the expense of the hydrolysis of 1ATP under physiological conditions. In the absence of K(+), it can mediate electroneutral Na(+)/Na(+) exchange. In the electroneutral Na(+)/Na(+) exchange mode, NKA produces a transient current containing fast, medium and slow components in response to a sudden voltage step. These three components of the transient current demonstrate the sequential release of Na(+) ions from three binding sites. Our data from oocytes provide further experimental support for the existence of these components. Oligomycin is an NKA inhibitor that favors the 2Na(+)-occluded state without affecting the conformational state of the NKA. We studied the effects of oligomycin on both K(+)-activated currents and transient currents in wild-type Bufo NKA and a mutant form of Bufo NKA, NKA: G813A. Oligomycin blocked almost all of the K(+)-activated current, although the three components of the transient current showed different sensitivities to oligomycin. The oligomycin-inhibited charge movement measured using a P/4 protocol had a rate coefficient similar to the medium transient component. The fast component of the transient current elicited by a short voltage step also showed sensitivity to oligomycin. However, the slow component was not totally inhibited by oligomycin. Our results indicate that the second and third sodium ions might be released to the extracellular medium by a mechanism that is not shared by the first sodium ion. PMID:21877177

Ding, Yanli; Hao, Jingping; Rakowski, Robert F

2011-10-01

187

Depth perception in frogs and toads a study in neural computing  

CERN Document Server

Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads provides a comprehensive exploration of the phenomenon of depth perception in frogs and toads, as seen from a neuro-computational point of view. Perhaps the most important feature of the book is the development and presentation of two neurally realizable depth perception algorithms that utilize both monocular and binocular depth cues in a cooperative fashion. One of these algorithms is specialized for computation of depth maps for navigation, and the other for the selection and localization of a single prey for prey catching. The book is also unique in that it thoroughly reviews the known neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral data, and then synthesizes, organizes and interprets that information to explain a complex sensory-motor task. The book will be of special interest to that segment of the neural computing community interested in understanding natural neurocomputational structures, particularly to those working in perception and sensory-motor coordination. ...

House, Donald

1989-01-01

188

Fast and slow voltage modulation of apical Cl- permeability in toad skin at high [K+  

OpenAIRE

The influence of voltage on the conductance of toad skin was studied to identify the time course of the activation/deactivation dynamics of voltage-dependent Cl- channels located in the apical membrane of mitochondrion-rich cells in this tissue. Positive apical voltage induced an important conductance inhibition which took a few seconds to fully develop and was instantaneously released by pulse inversion to negative voltage, indicating a short-duration memory of the inhibiting factors. Sinuso...

Procopio J.

1997-01-01

189

Effect of cycloheximide on urea facilitated transport through toad gallbladder epithelium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transepithelial urea outfluxes across toad gallbladder were determined before and after the addition of cycloheximide. The drug inhibits the movement of urea but has no effect on thiourea and antipyrine outfluxes. The inhibition of amide transport is time dependent as also shown in counterflow experiments. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cycloheximide inhibits the synthesis of membrane proteic sites involved in urea mediated transport. PMID:6770342

Casavola, V; Curci, S; Lippe, C

1980-03-01

190

Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas)  

Science.gov (United States)

High variability in abundance, cryptic coloration, and small body size of newly metamorphosed anurans have limited demographic studies of this life-history stage. We used line-transect distance sampling and Bayesian methods to estimate the abundance and spatial distribution of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) in terrestrial habitat surrounding a montane lake in central Washington, USA. We completed 154 line-transect surveys from the commencement of metamorphosis (15 September 2009) to the date of first snow accumulation in fall (1 October 2009), and located 543 newly metamorphosed toads. After accounting for variable detection probability associated with the extent of barren habitats, estimates of total surface abundance ranged from a posterior median of 3,880 (95% credible intervals from 2,235 to 12,600) in the first week of sampling to 12,150 (5,543 to 51,670) during the second week of sampling. Numbers of newly metamorphosed toads dropped quickly with increasing distance from the lakeshore in a pattern that differed over the three weeks of the study and contradicted our original hypotheses. Though we hypothesized that the spatial distribution of toads would initially be concentrated near the lake shore and then spread outward from the lake over time, we observed the opposite. Ninety-five percent of individuals occurred within 20, 16, and 15 m of shore during weeks one, two, and three respectively, probably reflecting continued emergence of newly metamorphosed toads from the lake and mortality or burrow use of dispersed individuals. Numbers of toads were highest near the inlet stream of the lake. Distance sampling may provide a useful method for estimating the surface abundance of newly metamorphosed toads and relating their space use to landscape variables despite uncertain and variable probability of detection. We discuss means of improving the precision of estimates of total abundance.

Chelgren, Nathan D.; Samora, Barbara; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

2011-01-01

191

The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

Shaffer, H.B.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Voss, S.R.

2000-01-01

192

Activity patterns and fine-scale resource partitioning in the gregarious Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in captivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the behavior of species threatened with extinction is important for conservation planning and for solving problems facing species in captivity and the wild. We examined diurnal activity budgets and habitat use of the extinct in the wild Kihansi spray toad to provide insights into ongoing conservation initiatives for this species. Observations on eight target behaviors were made each morning and evening for 14 days, in two subpopulations at Kihansi and University of Dar es Salaam captive breeding centers. There were significantly more bouts of resting than calling, amplexing, hunting, walking, climbing, or feeding. There was no difference in mean time spent in each activity between the two subpopulations. The use of habitat was variable between age classes, subpopulations and sampling time. Young toads spent significantly more time resting at the top of vegetation and on walls while adults rested more on logs. Further, adults foraged more on the walls and vegetation in the morning and on the ground in the evening. Contrastingly, young toads foraged more on the ground in the morning and switched to elevated patches during evening. The similarity of the toads' behavior suggests that important biological traits are still maintained in captivity and retained across toad generations. Furthermore, temporal and spatial variations in the use of habitat structures between age groups suggest fine-scale resource partitioning to reduce competition in this gregarious species. These results highlight the importance of maintaining diverse habitat structures in captivity and are useful for planning species reintroduction and future restocking programs. PMID:25182839

Rija, Alfan A; Goboro, Ezekiel M; Mwamende, Kuruthumu A; Said, Abubakari; Kohi, Edward M; Hassan, Shombe N

2014-01-01

193

Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: ? Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; ? Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; ? Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; ? Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; ? Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and ? Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

Yuracko, K L; Parang, M; Landguth, D C; Coleman, R

2004-09-13

194

Curcumin and its Effect on Cytochrome P450 and GST in Toad Liver Tumor Induced by DMBA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Curcumin has been used as a colouring agent and spice in many food. The present results clearly demonstrated that toads received 0.5 mg curcumin and 0.5 mg DMBA/toad, 3 times/week for 12 weeks, showed a significant decrease in tumor incidence (3 out of 50 cases in comparison with that treated with DMBA alone (12 out of 50 cases. At the same time, curcumin reduce the activity of liver microsomal cytochrome P450s and cytosolic GTSS enzymes in toads previously treated with DMBA. The present data suggest that curcumin decrease incidence of liver tumor in toads through inhibition of cytochrome P45O and GST activities. The present report was undertaken for two reasons. First to determine whether curcumin, which are widely used in food have anticarcinogenic effect on the liver of the Egyptian toad. Second, are curcumin effect on microsomal cytochrome P450 and GST activities to shed more light on the mechanisms (s of action.

H. Abdel-Latif

1999-01-01

195

Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

Miranda, Leandro Andrés

1996-01-01

196

Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species' small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found in higher concentrations at the breeding site that allowed direct vehicular access, but calculated risk quotients indicated low risk to toad reproduction associated with the current PAH analyte levels. PMID:23762634

Gjeltema, Jenessa; Stoskopf, Michael; Shea, Damian; De Voe, Ryan

2012-01-01

197

Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768 in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv  

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Full Text Available The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42, the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases, followed by killing by humans (usually children – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2% and domestic cats (2% has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant difference between the mortalities of the two sexes was detected.

Miglena V. Valkanova

2009-08-01

198

Covalent labeling of hydrosmotic toad bladder receptors with an antagonist of vasotocin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A photoreactive analogue of vasotocin, [1-desamino,4-lysine(azidobenzoyl),8-arginine]vasotocin (4-N3-AVT), has been examined in the isolated toad urinary bladder for biological activity and binding to hormonal receptors. Although 4-N3-AVT induced only a small increase in bladder permeability to water, it behaved as a potent inhibitor of hydrosmotic action of [8-arginine]vasotocin (AVT) and [8-arginine]vasopressin (AVP). The inhibitory action of 4-N3-AVT was readily reversed on removal of the analogue from the serosal bathing solution. On the other hand, when bladders were exposed to 4-N3-AVT in the presence of long wavelength UV light (365 nm), the inhibition by 4-N3-AVT was not reversed on washout of the analogue. The dose of vasopressin required for a half-maximal response (ED50 value) was increased from 5 X 10(-9) to 1.3 X 10(-7) M in bladders photolabeled with 4-N3-AVT and the maximal response capacity of the tissue (intrinsic activity) was reduced to 79% of nonphotolabeled controls. A crude membrane preparation derived from bladders photolabeled with 4-N3-AVT contained 72 fmol of specific binding sites for tritium-labeled vasopressin per milligram protein, whereas nonphotolabeled controls had 136 fmol of specific binding sites per milligram protein. These observations suggest that 4-N3-AVT forms a covalent bond with hydrosmotic receptors in the presence of UV light. This is the first antagonistic photoaffinity analogue observed in the toad bladder and it may servserved in the toad bladder and it may serve as a useful tool for analyzing the cellular mechanism of action of antidiuretic hormone

199

Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

2011-01-01

200

Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002) Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002) parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0?mg/kg, 6.0?mg/kg, 10.0?mg/kg, and 25.0?mg/kg. After 48?h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macr...

Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha; Joseney Maia de Lima; Jael Soares Batista; Marilia Martins Melo; Benito Soto-Blanco

2014-01-01

201

The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra  

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Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (Lutra lutra in espansione.
Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra Lutra lutra in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (Bufo bufo era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano Procambarus clarkii e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

Pablo García-Díaz

2011-02-01

202

Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets. The task was learned, and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes was reached in all individuals investigated. Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus. Snapping decreased only in some individuals, when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping. However, at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus, the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly. Snapping responses decreased more rapidly, when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms. These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning, because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission. Furthermore, at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli, omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6: 709–716, 2011].

Ursula DICKE, Antje HEIDORN, Gerhard ROTH

2011-12-01

203

Ba2+-inhibitable 86Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

86Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on 86Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry

204

Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002) Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)  

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This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002) parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0?mg/kg, 6.0?mg/kg, 10.0?mg/kg, and 25.0?mg/kg. After 48?h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel's diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel's diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species. PMID:25045748

Gadelha, Ivana Cristina Nunes; de Lima, Joseney Maia; Batista, Jael Soares; Melo, Marilia Martins

2014-01-01

205

Diffusion of 133Xe through frog skins, toad bladders, and water boundary layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have measured the total permeability coefficients P as a function of stirring frequency ? for 133Xe through frog skins and toad bladders. The permeability coefficients for the frog skins and toad bladders proper are, respectively, P/sub m/ = (3.9 +- 0.8) x 10-4 cm/s and (7.4 +- 4.2) x 10-4 cm/s. ''Unstirred'' water layer thickness delta is determined concurrently, from the frequency dependence of P(?); the result for frog skin is delta = (0.060 +- 0.016)/??(rad/s) cm. The stirring frequency range is from ? = 7.5 rad/s (72 rpm) to 55 rad/s (530 rpm). The results support the conclusions that the principal barrier to Xe diffusion in these epithelia is inter- and intracellular water, and that the diffusion is passive and rapid. The experimental method may be straightforwardly adapted to the measurement of diffusion or counterdiffusion of any gamma-radioactive soluble or partly soluble solute through any flat membrane or through a solvent. We estimate the amount of total body-absorbed radioactivity due to environmental 133Xe to be 50 fCi for an ambient concentration of 2.6 pCi/m3 of air

206

Toxicity effects of toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002) venom in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002) parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel's diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel's diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species. PMID:25045748

Gadelha, Ivana Cristina Nunes; de Lima, Joseney Maia; Batista, Jael Soares; Melo, Marilia Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

2014-01-01

207

Genetic attributes of midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) populations do not correlate with degree of species decline.  

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Genetic diversity is crucial for long-term population persistence. Population loss and subsequent reduction in migration rate among the most important processes that are expected to lead to a reduction in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation. While the theory behind this is well-developed, empirical evidence from wild populations is inconsistent. Using microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic structure of populations of an amphibian species, the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans), in four Swiss regions where the species has suffered variable levels of subpopulation extirpation. We also quantified the effects of several geographic factors on genetic structure and used a model selection approach to ascertain which of the variables were important for explaining genetic variation. Although subpopulation pairwise F ST-values were highly significant even over small geographic scales, neither any of the geographic variables nor loss of subpopulations were important factors for predicting spatial genetic structure. The absence of a signature of subpopulation loss on genetic differentiation may suggest that midwife toad subpopulations function as relatively independent units. PMID:24101974

Tobler, Ursina; Garner, Trenton W J; Schmidt, Benedikt R

2013-09-01

208

Temporal population genetic instability in range-edge western toads, Anaxyrus boreas.  

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In this article, we address the temporal stability of population genetic structure in a range-edge population that is undergoing continual, short-distance colonization events. We sampled western toad, Anaxyrus boreas, breeding populations over 2 seasons near their northern range limit in southeast Alaska. We sampled 20 ponds each during the summers of 2008 and 2009, with 14 ponds sampled in both summers. We found considerable turnover in the population genetic relationships among ponds in those 2 seasons, as well as biologically meaningful genetic differentiation between years within some ponds. We found relatively consistent relationships between major population centers, whereas the relationships between the central ponds and smaller, outlying populations differed year to year. This finding indicates that multiple years of genetic sampling may be important for understanding the genetic landscape of some populations. PMID:25433082

Holmes, Iris

2015-01-01

209

The Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria.  

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The bufonid genus Adenomus, an endemic of the montane and lowland rainforests of central and south-western Sri Lanka, has been considered to comprise of three species, viz. A. kelaartii, A. dasi and A. kandianus, the last of which has been recently highlighted as "the world's rarest toad". We conducted a survey across the known range of Adenomus and used multiple criteria to delineate species boundaries within the genus. These include: a molecular phylogeny based on a 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment; an examination of the external morphology of adults and larvae, and the skeletal morphology of adults; a bioacoustic analysis; and ecological niche modelling. We show that Adenomus is monophyletic and that it comprises only two species: A. kelaartii and A. kandianus, with A. dasi being a junior synonym of the latter. For the two valid species of Adenomus, we provide detailed osteological descriptions; clarify the distribution patterns; and provide genetic data to facilitate their scientific conservation management.  PMID:25661609

Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Senevirathne, Gayani; Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Jayawardena, Beneeta; Bandara, Champika; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Pethiyagoda, Rohan

2015-01-01

210

Isolation of a Bohle-like iridovirus from boreal toads housed within a cosmopolitan aquarium collection.  

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A captive 'survival assurance' population of 56 endangered boreal toads Anaxyrus boreas boreas, housed within a cosmopolitan collection of amphibians originating from Southeast Asia and other locations, experienced high mortality (91%) in April to July 2010. Histological examination demonstrated lesions consistent with ranaviral disease, including multicentric necrosis of skin, kidney, liver, spleen, and hematopoietic tissue, vasculitis, and myriad basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Initial confirmation of ranavirus infection was made by Taqman real-time PCR analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and detection of iridovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy. Preliminary DNA sequence analysis of the MCP, DNA polymerase, and neurofilament protein (NFP) genes demonstrated highest identity with Bohle iridovirus (BIV). A virus, tentatively designated zoo ranavirus (ZRV), was subsequently isolated, and viral protein profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and next generation DNA sequencing were performed. Comparison of a concatenated set of 4 ZRV genes, for which BIV sequence data are available, with sequence data from representative ranaviruses confirmed that ZRV was most similar to BIV. This is the first report of a BIV-like agent outside of Australia. However, it is not clear whether ZRV is a novel North American variant of BIV or whether it was acquired by exposure to amphibians co-inhabiting the same facility and originating from different geographic locations. Lastly, several surviving toads remained PCR-positive 10 wk after the conclusion of the outbreak. This finding has implications for the management of amphibians destined for use in reintroduction programs, as their release may inadvertently lead to viral dissemination. PMID:25266901

Cheng, Kwang; Jones, Megan E B; Jancovich, James K; Burchell, Jennifer; Schrenzel, Mark D; Reavill, Drury R; Imai, Denise M; Urban, Abby; Kirkendall, Maryanne; Woods, Leslie W; Chinchar, V Gregory; Pessier, Allan P

2014-09-30

211

Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. ? Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. ? Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

212

Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing  

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Research highlights: {yields} Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. {yields} Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. {yields} Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Guoyu [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan 650032 (China); Xiang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jianbo [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Jiang, Ping [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lee, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: zhangy@mail.kiz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)

2010-07-30

213

Ionic basis of short-circuit current in toad skin at high hydrostatic pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toad skin and urinary bladder are widely used for the study of water and Na+ transport under high pressure. These tissues can be mounted in Ussing type chambers and ion transport can be measured by evaluating electrical properties of the preparation, e.g., short-circuit current (Isc). The tacit assumption in these experiments is that the preparation behaves in the same manner at high pressure as at 1 ATA; namely, that net Na+ flux is equivalent to Isc. The purpose of the experiments described here was to test that assumption. Toad skins were mounted in an Ussing chamber and Isc was measured as an index of active net Na+ transport under hydrostatic pressures up to 100 ATA. The chamber was modified so that isotopic Na+ flux from the mucosal to serosal compartments could be measured in conjunction with Isc, without decompression. A linear regression of JNa+ms on Isc was computed and found to be described by the equation, JNa+ms = 3.83 + 0.83 Isc; n = 18; r = 0.92. The slope of the line was not significantly different from unity. No correlation was made for JNa+sm because of the difficulty in measuring JNa+sm and JNa+ms in the same skin simultaneously. Independent measurement of JNa+sm demonstrated that this flux accounted for less than 2% of JNa+net. In a second set of experiments, the influence of amiloride on Isc with and without pressure was tested. 10(-4) M amiloride abolished Isc under both circumstances. It is concluded that Isc can be wholly accounted for by net Na+ flux under pressures up to 100 ATA. PMID:3095974

Goldinger, J M; Duffey, M E; Morin, R A; Hong, S K

1986-09-01

214

Effects of trifluoperazine on function and structure of toad urinary bladder. Role of calmodulin vasopressin-stimulation of water permeability.  

OpenAIRE

Calcium ion plays a major regulatory role in many hormone-stimulated systems. To determine the site of calcium's action in the toad urinary bladder, we examined the effect of trifluoperazine, a compound that binds specifically to the calcium binding protein, calmodulin, and thereby prevents activation of enzymes by the calcium- calmodulin complex. 10 microM trifluoperazine inhibited vasopressin stimulation of water flow, but did not alter vasopressin's effects on urea permeability or short-ci...

Levine, S. D.; Kachadorian, W. A.; Levin, D. N.; Schlondorff, D.

1981-01-01

215

Introduction pathway and climate trump ecology and life history as predictors of establishment success in alien frogs and toads.  

OpenAIRE

A major goal for ecology and evolution is to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape patterns of biological diversity. Here, we show that variation in establishment success of nonnative frogs and toads is primarily explained by variation in introduction pathways and climatic similarity between the native range and introduction locality, with minor contributions from phylogeny, species ecology, and life history. This finding contrasts with recent evidence that particular species charac...

Rago, A.; While, Gm; Uller, T.

2012-01-01

216

Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur  

OpenAIRE

Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species' small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found ...

Jenessa Gjeltema; Michael Stoskopf; Damian Shea; Ryan De Voe

2012-01-01

217

Toddia sp., "corpúsculo paranuclear" no sangue de Leptodactylus e Bufo do Brasil: desenvolvimento e citoquímica Toddia sp. a paranuclear corpuscle in the blood of Leptodactylus and Bufo of Brazil  

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Full Text Available O gênero Toddia, criado por França 1911, para um organismo encontrado em eritrõcitos de um anfíbio anuro, tem estrutura particular e o problema de sua natureza (protozoário ou vírus é discutido. Nosso resultados mostram reações Feulgen e Verde Metila positivas, principalmente no início da infecção. Com o decorrer da infecção as partículas são, geralmente, maiores que aquelas observadas alguns dias após as inoculações, mas as reações citoquímicas citadas anteriormente são, em geral, negativas ou fracamente positivas. Os mesmos resultados foram obtidos quando empregamos Laranja de acridina para caracterização do DNA e esta técnica foi negativa para o RNA. Estudando o desenvolvimento deste organismo e seus efeitos infecciosos foram confirmados por inoculações experimentais. As alterações no sangue do hospedeiro foram observadas e notamos que o núclo dos eritrócitos é severamente alterado durante o desenvolvimento da infecção, que é geralmente, muito intensa, terminando com a morte do hospedeiro. As inoculações experimentais demonstraram a especificidade da infecção, e diante dos conhecimentos a respeito dos organismos deste gênero, discutimos o problema da criação de espécies.Toddia, a genus created by França 1911 for an organism found in the erythrocytes of an anuran amphibian, has a particular structure and the problem of its viral relationship of protozoa nature is an important point which has recently been discussed. Attempt to resolve this problem must be made using ultrastructure and cytochemical studies. Our results have shown a Feulgen positive reaction and a Methyl-Green positive reaction for this organism, chiefly in the beginning of the infection. At the end of the infection the particles are greater than that in the beginning but the reactions above cited are generaly wakly positive or negative. We have also employed the Acridine orange method in the characterization of DNA and the results are positive too. Further histochemical studies are necessary to determine the true nature of the material observed in this study. We have also studied the development of this organism and its pathogenic effects have been confirmed by experimental inoculation. The alterations in the blood of the host were observed and we noted that the nucleus of the red blood cells is severely disturbed during the development of the infection. The experimental inoculation (in Leptodactylus and Bufo have demonstred specific infectivety which is generaly hard, finishing with the death of the host. The taxonomic aspects related to this genus are discussed and the authors agree to the point of view of Mackerras 1961, and Marquardt 1967, about the identity of Pirhemocyton and Toddia. We need more research to stablish the viral nature of this organism.

Neize de Moura Pereira

1973-01-01

218

Toddia sp., "corpúsculo paranuclear" no sangue de Leptodactylus e Bufo do Brasil: desenvolvimento e citoquímica / Toddia sp. a paranuclear corpuscle in the blood of Leptodactylus and Bufo of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O gênero Toddia, criado por França 1911, para um organismo encontrado em eritrõcitos de um anfíbio anuro, tem estrutura particular e o problema de sua natureza (protozoário ou vírus) é discutido. Nosso resultados mostram reações Feulgen e Verde Metila positivas, principalmente no início da infecção. [...] Com o decorrer da infecção as partículas são, geralmente, maiores que aquelas observadas alguns dias após as inoculações, mas as reações citoquímicas citadas anteriormente são, em geral, negativas ou fracamente positivas. Os mesmos resultados foram obtidos quando empregamos Laranja de acridina para caracterização do DNA e esta técnica foi negativa para o RNA. Estudando o desenvolvimento deste organismo e seus efeitos infecciosos foram confirmados por inoculações experimentais. As alterações no sangue do hospedeiro foram observadas e notamos que o núclo dos eritrócitos é severamente alterado durante o desenvolvimento da infecção, que é geralmente, muito intensa, terminando com a morte do hospedeiro. As inoculações experimentais demonstraram a especificidade da infecção, e diante dos conhecimentos a respeito dos organismos deste gênero, discutimos o problema da criação de espécies. Abstract in english Toddia, a genus created by França 1911 for an organism found in the erythrocytes of an anuran amphibian, has a particular structure and the problem of its viral relationship of protozoa nature is an important point which has recently been discussed. Attempt to resolve this problem must be made using [...] ultrastructure and cytochemical studies. Our results have shown a Feulgen positive reaction and a Methyl-Green positive reaction for this organism, chiefly in the beginning of the infection. At the end of the infection the particles are greater than that in the beginning but the reactions above cited are generaly wakly positive or negative. We have also employed the Acridine orange method in the characterization of DNA and the results are positive too. Further histochemical studies are necessary to determine the true nature of the material observed in this study. We have also studied the development of this organism and its pathogenic effects have been confirmed by experimental inoculation. The alterations in the blood of the host were observed and we noted that the nucleus of the red blood cells is severely disturbed during the development of the infection. The experimental inoculation (in Leptodactylus and Bufo) have demonstred specific infectivety which is generaly hard, finishing with the death of the host. The taxonomic aspects related to this genus are discussed and the authors agree to the point of view of Mackerras 1961, and Marquardt 1967, about the identity of Pirhemocyton and Toddia. We need more research to stablish the viral nature of this organism.

Neize de Moura, Pereira; Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da, Costa; Maria Auxiliadora de, Sousa.

219

Phylogeography, geographic structure, genetic variation, and potential species boundaries in Philippine slender toads.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated phylogeography of Philippine slender toads (genus Ansonia) and used a temporal framework for diversification, statistical tests of alternate topologies, and Bayesian approaches to test previous hypotheses concerning dispersal to, and colonization routes within, the southern Philippine island of Mindanao. Two species of Ansonia previously have been documented, with ranges separated by an east-west split corresponding to the approximate boundaries of Mindanao's paleoisland precursors. We present new mtDNA sequence data (1946 bp from genes encoding ND1, 16S rRNA and tRNALeu) for 105 Ansonia specimens sampled from 20 localities on Mindanao Island. Our data suggest that Philippine Ansonia is composed of at least eight, well-supported population lineages, structured into a minimum of four highly divergent mtDNA clades. One clade corresponds to Ansonia mcgregori, a range-restricted species apparently limited to the distal portion of the Zamboanga Peninsula of western Mindanao. Two morphologically indistinguishable, but genetically divergent, lineages possibly are undescribed cryptic species from western Mindanao. We recognize the five remaining lineages as Ansonia muelleri pending data from morphology or bioacoustics that might diagnose separate species among these lineages. Regardless of their species status, the five allopatric lineages of A. muelleri should be viewed as important genetic units for future genetic conservation planning. PMID:21757017

Sanguila, Marites Bonachita; Siler, Cameron D; Diesmos, Arvin C; Nuñeza, Olga; Brown, Rafe M

2011-11-01

220

Toxicity of endosulfan on embryo-larval development of the South American toad Rhinella arenarum.  

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Endosulfan is a widely used pesticide despite its extreme toxicity to a variety of taxa and its worldwide ban. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of endosulfan on the embryonic-larval development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum. The results showed that lethal and sublethal effects increased with concentration and exposure time. The sensitivity to endosulfan increased during the larval period, the complete operculum stage (S.25) being the most sensitive (504-h median lethal concentration [LC50]?=?0.01 mg endosulfan/L; 10% lethal concentration [LC10]?=?0.004 mg endosulfan/L). Endosulfan exposure caused morphological abnormalities such as general underdevelopment, edema, gill malformations, and cellular dissociation as well as neurotoxicity. Our results also showed that larvae exposed to concentrations of 0.005 mg endosulfan/L and 0.01 mg endosulfan/L completed metamorphosis earlier than controls, but with underdevelopment. The 240-h teratogenic index was 6.13, implying a high risk for embryos to be malformed in the absence of significant embryonic lethality. Because the hazard quotients for chronic exposure were over 1, the level of concern value and toxicity endpoints obtained in the present study for R. arenarum occurred at concentrations lower than the levels of endosulfan reported in the environment, this pesticide should be considered a potential risk for this species. PMID:24375551

Svartz, Gabriela V; Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Coll, Cristina S Pérez

2014-04-01

221

Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cann [...] ot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P

J.E.S., Natali; B.T., Santos; V.H., Rodrigues; J.G., Chauí-Berlinck.

2015-01-01

222

Aldosterone increases the apical Na+ permeability of toad bladder by two different mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aldosterone-induced augmentation of Na+ transport in toad bladder was analyzed by comparing the hormonal actions on the transepithelial short-circuit current and on the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ uptake in isolated membrane vesicles. Incubating bladders with 0.5 ?M aldosterone for 3 hr evoked more than a 2-fold increase of the short-circuit current but had no effect on the amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport in apical vesicles derived from the treated tissue. A longer incubation produced an additional augmentation of the short-circuit current, which was accompanied by about a 3-fold increase of the channel activity in isolated membranes. The stimulatory effect of aldosterone sustained in vesicles was inhibited by the antagonist spironolactone and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. It is suggested that aldosterone elevates the apical Na+ permeability of target epithelia by two different mechanisms: a relatively fast effect which is insensitive to triiodothyronine or butyrate and is not sustained by the isolated membrane, and a slower or later response blocked by these reagents, which is preserved by the isolated membrane. The data also indicate that these processes are mediated by different nuclear receptors

223

New species of beaked toad, Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae), from the State of Bahia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A new species of beaked toad, Rhinella, is described from Itacaré (14°17'S, 38°60'W; 13 m altitude), State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Rhinella skuki sp. nov. is related to R. boulengeri and distinguished by the size small (SVL 26.2 mm in male); head longer than wide; snout, viewed from above, lo [...] ng, narrow, spatulate, with lateral borders parallel and rounded tip; in profile, long, strongly acute; parotoid glands large, rounded; tympanum concealed; dorsum rugose, with rounded tubercles uniformly distributed; vocal sac and vocal slits absent; fingers slender, not webbed nor ridged; first finger hypertrophied, with a rounded nuptial pad on the inner surface; toes slender, slightly fringed; webbing absent; ground color of dorsal surfaces dark brownish gray with an interorbital bar and dorsolateral blotches clear brownish gray, leaving an apparent pattern of arrows on dorsum; venter and ventral surfaces of arms and thighs cream with diffuse gray stains and dots; gular region and chest dark brownish gray.

Ulisses, Caramaschi.

2012-08-01

224

Fast and slow voltage modulation of apical Cl- permeability in toad skin at high [K+  

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Full Text Available The influence of voltage on the conductance of toad skin was studied to identify the time course of the activation/deactivation dynamics of voltage-dependent Cl- channels located in the apical membrane of mitochondrion-rich cells in this tissue. Positive apical voltage induced an important conductance inhibition which took a few seconds to fully develop and was instantaneously released by pulse inversion to negative voltage, indicating a short-duration memory of the inhibiting factors. Sinusoidal stimulation at 23.4 mM [Cl-] showed hysteresis in the current versus voltage curves, even at very low frequency, suggesting that the rate of voltage application was also relevant for the inhibition/releasing effect to develop. We conclude that the voltage modulation of apical Cl- permeability is essentially a fast process and the apparent slow components of activation/deactivation obtained in the whole skin are a consequence of a gradual voltage build-up across the apical membrane due to voltage sharing between apical and basolateral membranes

Procopio J.

1997-01-01

225

Fast and slow voltage modulation of apical Cl- permeability in toad skin at high [K+  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The influence of voltage on the conductance of toad skin was studied to identify the time course of the activation/deactivation dynamics of voltage-dependent Cl- channels located in the apical membrane of mitochondrion-rich cells in this tissue. Positive apical voltage induced an important conductan [...] ce inhibition which took a few seconds to fully develop and was instantaneously released by pulse inversion to negative voltage, indicating a short-duration memory of the inhibiting factors. Sinusoidal stimulation at 23.4 mM [Cl-] showed hysteresis in the current versus voltage curves, even at very low frequency, suggesting that the rate of voltage application was also relevant for the inhibition/releasing effect to develop. We conclude that the voltage modulation of apical Cl- permeability is essentially a fast process and the apparent slow components of activation/deactivation obtained in the whole skin are a consequence of a gradual voltage build-up across the apical membrane due to voltage sharing between apical and basolateral membranes

J., Procopio.

1033-10-01

226

Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. [14C]urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the xtensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane

227

Transfer of anti-alcoholic effect of Nux Vomica 200 cH through water from one group of toads to another under alcohol anesthesia  

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Full Text Available Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actually reach the child? To answer to that question, we developed plant models and demonstrated the transfer of HD effects between 2 groups of plants. Aims: To demonstrate the transfer of HD effects in an animal model in a much shorter time. Methods: Two batches of toads were respectively placed in two beakers, one containing Nux vomica 200 cH diluted with water 1:500 (direct treatment, and the other the same amount of distilled water were connected by cotton thread soaked in water and encased in a polyethylene tube (connected group; a third batch of toads (control were placed in a beaker with 90% ethanol diluted with distilled water 1:500; all the animals were left 30 minutes, and then transferred to 3 independent beakers containing 209 mM ethanol. Every 10 minutes, the motionless toads were removed from the beakers, and placed on supine position, failure to recover the upright position after 60 sec was considered as loss of the righting reflex (RR. The experiment was replicated using large adult toads. Results: The percentage of toads losing the RR increased with the time of exposure to 209 mM ethanol in the 3 groups of toads. Significant difference in the percentage distribution was found between the control and the direct treatment and connected groups on ?2 test (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively, whereby the latter required much longer time to lose the RR, and did not differed between them. In the experiment with large adult toads, the control group lost RR in 78 min, whereas the 2 treated groups did not lose RR even after 240 min. Conclusion: Nux-v 200 cH countered the hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads, and this effect was transferred through capillary water in the cotton thread, supporting the transfer of the effect of homeopathic medication from mother to child.

Rathin Chakravarty

2012-12-01

228

A Comparative Study of Morphology and Ecology of Bufo stomaticus (Lutken, 1864, (Anura: Bufonidae fromDistrictLarkana and Shikarpur, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available In present investigation, characteristics of Morphology and Ecology of Bufo stomaticus (Lutken, 1864, (Anura: Bufonidae populations in two adjacent DistrictsvizLarkana and Shikarpur of Pakistan have been studied comparativelyfrom March to September 2012 to record morphological and ecological difference between them and also to know which districtprovides better environmental conditions to support their survival. Literature related with Taxonomy and water quality helped in determination of present study.Physical appearanceof both populations observed to be significantly different from each other but morphometric was measured to be relatively same. Habitats of B. stomaticus were analyzed by Physico-chemical parameters viz: pH, conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium andIron. Most of the parameters were analyzed to be significantly differentbut within favorable level except Conductivity in both Districts.

Kalsoom Shaikh

2013-08-01

229

Relación entre la temperatura corporal de adultos de Bufo arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae y variables ambientales en un humedal de San Juan, Argentina  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue relacionar la temperatura corporal (TC de Bufo arenarum con variables ambientales en un humedal de San Juan. La TC usada fue un promedio de todos los datos térmicos por muestra (día registrados con un termómetro de lectura rápida desde diciembre de 2001 hasta noviembre de 2002 mediante 25 muestreos. La TC se relacionó con las variables meteorológicas: t° media, heliofanía y viento a 0,50 m del suelo tomadas el mismo día. Se realizaron análisis de regresión múltiple con todos los registros. La TC mostró una regresión significativa con las variables en conjunto lo que indica la influencia de éstas sobre la temperatura corporal de la especie.

Eduardo A. Sanabria

2003-01-01

230

A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 6, ?. 4 (2011), e18871. ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB600960701 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : EW-SOUTH-WALES * BUFO-MARINUS * BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS * INFECTIOUS-DISEASES * NORTH-AMERICA * TREE FROG * MYXOZOA * SEQUENCES * PHYLOGENY * ECOLOGY Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, B.; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

2011-01-01

231

Spatial and temporal ecology of eastern spadefoot toads on a Florida landscape.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effective amphibian conservation must consider population and landscape processes, but information at multiple scales is rare. We explore spatial and temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment by Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii), using 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhills. Breeding events (>25 adults at a pond within a month) occurred 23 times on nine occasions at seven of the eight study ponds, but substantial recruitment(>100 metamorphs) followed only five events. Recruitment ranged from 0-4,648 among ponds. Only four ponds functioned as population ''sources'', but only during some years. The other ponds, and even ''source'' ponds during some years, functioned either as ''sinks'', where breeding occurred with no resulting recruitment, or were not used at all for breeding. Most recruitment occurred during four years. Recruitment was correlated with adult breeding effort, but only during some years. Recaptures were rare, and inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (< 130 m; 1 was 416 m). Most (83.5%) individuals captured were metamorphs, and 15.9% were > 51 mm (est. > 4 years). We conservatively estimated a 7-year lifespan. Adult ''population'' trends clearly reflected breeding effort rather than numbers per se; capture rates fluctuated dramatically among years, but showed no overall trends during the 9-year study. Our paper provides empiracle information that can be used to generate realistic metapopulation models for S. holbrookii as a tool in conservation planning.

Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

2005-03-01

232

Complete Genome Sequence of a Common Midwife Toad Virus-Like Ranavirus Associated with Mass Mortalities in Wild Amphibians in the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain.

Beurden, Steven J.; Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L. M.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Gro?ne, Andrea; Verheije, M. Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

2014-01-01

233

Insulin-induced alterations in the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination of membrane proteins of the toad bladder epithelium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insulin-stimulated sodium transport in the toad urinary bladder consists of two components, a brief element of rapid onset that is independent of protein synthesis, and a sustained increase, slower in onset, that is dependent upon RNA and protein synthesis. The mucosal epithelium of the toad bladder was labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination (125I) following 15 min and 3 h exposure to insulin. The membrane of ''mitochondria-rich'' and ''granular'' mucosal cells from these tissues were analyzed by electrophoresis in SDS-urea. Compared to untreated tissues, membranes of ''granular'' mucosal cells from tissues exposed to insulin for 15 min contained a band (Mr . 15,000) with significantly increased labeling. Bladders exposed to insulin for 3 h showed no consistent increase in labeling. These data suggest that there are differences in the conformation of apical membrane proteins during the two phases of hormone-induced sodium transport. The technique may also offer an opportunity to identify ''effector'' proteins mediating this and other insulin responses

234

Spitzer Observations of Var Her 04: Possible Detection of Dust Formation in a Super-Outbursting TOAD  

CERN Document Server

We present four MIPS (24 \\micron) and two IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 \\micron) Spitzer observations of the newly discovered Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf nova (TOAD) Var Her 04 during decline from super-outburst. The four MIPS observations span 271 days and the two IRAC observations span 211 days. Along the line-of-sight to Var Her 04, there is a foreground M-star within 1\\arcsec of the variable; as a result, all of the Spitzer photometry presented in this paper is a blend of the foreground M-star and Var Her 04. We estimate the quiescent level of the TOAD to be $\\Delta V=4-5$ magnitudes below that of the M-star. Based upon the spectral energy distribution and the 2MASS colors, we find the M-star to be an M3.5V dwarf at a distance of 80-130 pc. Based upon its outburst amplitude and quiescent apparent magnitude, we estimate the distance to Var Her 04 to be 200-400 pc, suggesting that the line-of-sight foreground star is physically unrelated to the cataclysmic variable. All of the Spitzer photometry is c...

Ciardi, D R; Hoard, D W; Howell, S B; Van Belle, G T; Ciardi, David R.; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Belle, Gerard T. van

2006-01-01

235

The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. PMID:25183002

Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

2014-01-01

236

Comparative Analysis of the Bufonis Venenum by Using TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS for Different Extraction Methods  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Toad venom, called Chan-Su, is a traditional Oriental medicine secreted from the auricular and the skin glands of the Bufo bufo gargarizanz Cantor or B. melanosticus Schneider and has been widely used in China, Korea and other parts of Asia for the treatment of pain, heart conditions, and cancer. We examined the concentrations of the main chemical constituents within a commerciallyavailable toad venom product and compared the levels for different extraction methods. Methods: To...

Lee Hyo-Jae; Koung Fan-Pei; Kwon Ki-Rok; Kang Dae-In; Cohen Lorenzo; Yang Pei-Ying; Yoo Hwa-Seung

2012-01-01

237

Fertilization and development of eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, on sounding rockets in space  

Science.gov (United States)

Egg rotation and centrifugation experiments strongly suggest a role for gravity in the determination of the spatial structure of amphibian embryos. Decisive experiments can only be made in Space. Eggs of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, were the first vertebrate eggs which were successfully fertilized on Sounding Rockets in Space. Unfixed, newly fertilized eggs survived reentry, and a reasonable number showed a seemingly normal gastrulation but died between gastrulation and neurulation. Only a few reached the larval stage, but these developed abnormally. In the future, we inted to test whether this abnormal morphogenesis is due to reentry perturbations, or due to a real microgravity effect, through perturbation of the reinitiation of meiosis and other processes, or started by later sperm penetration.

Ubbels, Geertje A.; Berendsen, Willem; Kerkvliet, Sonja; Narraway, Jenny

238

The contribution of the electrogenic sodium-potassium pump to the electrical activity of toad rods.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The membrane potential of rods in the isolated toad retina was recorded while changing the ionic composition of the extracellular medium.2. Caesium (Cs(+)) at a concentration of 1 mM was sufficient to completely block the sag from the peak to the plateau in the bright-flash voltage response.3. In the presence of 10 mM-Cs(+) the bright-flash response increased in amplitude to about 90 mV, thus reaching an absolute membrane potential of between -110 and -135 mV. These responses consisted of an initial fast component of about 35 mV followed by a much slower component which could be as large as 50 mV.4. At the peak of the initial fast component the rod membrane conformed closely to the behaviour of a K(+) electrode with a P(Na)/P(K) ratio of 0.023. On average the amplitude of the slow component was about 35 mV in the presence of 2.6 mM-K(+) and was reduced to about 25 mV in a K(+)-free Ringer.5. Addition of 100 muM-strophanthidin to the perfusate induced several reversible changes in the electrical activity of rods. The dark resting membrane potential depolarized by about 5 mV and the kinetics of the voltage response to dim flashes of light slowed down. The voltage sensitivity initially increased by about 30%, but the peak of the response to a bright flash of light was reduced by about 13 mV.6. In rods treated with 10 mM-Cs(+) the slow component present in the bright flash response was abolished by strophanthidin with an apparent K(m) of 3 muM.7. The amplitude of the slow component decreased with a time lag of about 2 min when external Na(+) was reduced. A previous exposure of the retina to a Na(+)-free Ringer solution for at least 3 min modified the voltage photoresponse in a way similar to that observed in the presence of 100 muM-strophanthidin.8. When external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) was increased from 2 to 5 mM the slow component decreased by about 30%. When [Ca(2+)](o) was reduced the slow component increased. A twofold increase was observed when [Ca(2+)](o) was lower than 10(-4) M.9. It is suggested that the slow component of the voltage response in the presence of external Cs(+) is caused by an electrogenic current driven by the Na(+)-K(+) transport system, during a voltage-dependent block of external Cs(+) of some K(+) channels. PMID:7182468

Torre, V

1982-12-01

239

Locomotion and survival of two sympatric larval anurans, Bufo gargarizans (Anura: Bufonidae) and Rana zhenhaiensis (Anura: Ranidae), after partial tail loss  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Tadpoles of two sympatric anurans, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842 and Rana zhenhaiensis Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995, were used as model organisms to examine the effects of different levels of tail loss on swimming performance and survival. On average, B. gargarizans tadpoles were shorter and had smaller t [...] ails and body mass than R. zhenhaiensis. After 75% tail loss, the survival rate of experimental and control B. gargarizans tadpoles, and of experimental tadpoles of the two species, differed significantly; the number of tadpoles surviving a complete impairment of their swimming ability did not differ between B. gargarizans and R. zhenhaiensis. After 50% tail loss, the swimming performance (swimming speed, maximum distance and number of stops) of the two species was significantly affected. However, the adverse influence of tail loss on the swimming speed of B. gargarizans tadpoles was greater compared to R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles. Our data indicates that a 50% tail loss results in swimming costs for B. gargarizans and R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles, and that 75% tail loss decreases the survival rate of B. gargarizans tadpoles. Therefore, we conclude that tadpoles of different species and with the same degree of tail loss use distinctive strategies to improve individual fitness in the face of predator pressure.

Guo-Hua, Ding; Zhi-Hua, Lin; Li-Hua, Zhao.

2014-08-01

240

The smooth muscle pharmacology of maximakinin, a receptor-selective, bradykinin-related nonadecapeptide from the venom of the Chinese toad, Bombina maxima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural homologues of vertebrate regulatory peptides found in defensive skin secretions of anuran amphibians often display enhanced bioactivity and receptor binding when compared with endogenous mammalian peptide ligands. Maximakinin, a novel N-terminally extended bradykinin (DLPKINRKGPRPPGFSPFR) from the skin venom of a Chinese toad (Bombina maxima), displays such activity enhancement when compared with bradykinin but is additionally highly selective for mammalian arterial smooth muscle bradykinin receptors displaying a 50-fold increase in molar potency in this smooth muscle type. In contrast, a 100-fold decrease in molar potency was observed at bradykinin receptors in intestinal and uterine smooth muscle preparations. Maximakinin has thus evolved as a "smart" defensive weapon in the toad with receptor/tissue selective targeting. Natural selection of amphibian skin venom peptides for antipredator defence, through inter-species delivery by an exogenous secretory mode, produces subtle structural stabilisation modifications that can potentially provide new insights for the design of selectively targeted peptide therapeutics. PMID:15256275

O'Rourke, Martin; Chen, Tianbao; Hirst, David G; Rao, Pingfan; Shaw, Chris

2004-09-15

241

Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of new elements after accretion to the Eurasian mainland.

Bossuyt Franky

2009-06-01

242

Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

Rodrigo B. Ferreira

2009-12-01

243

Sulfate transport in toad skin : evidence for mitochondria-rich cell pathways in common with halide ions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short-circuited preparations resulted in a significant stimulation of the passive Cl- and SO2(-4) permeabilities. 6. It is suggested that SO2(-4) and Cl- ions are transported along the same pathway of the m.r. cells. Depending on the transport mode of the apical Cl- transport system, electro-diffusion, active transport (sulfate:bicarbonate exchange) and self-exchange diffusion take place. Irrespective of the mechanism of transport, sulfate is probably transported as a monovalent anion species.

Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

1988-01-01

244

Barriers, rather than refugia, underlie the origin of diversity in toads endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of geographic barriers and Pleistocene refuges in the diversification of the Rhinella crucifer species complex, a group of endemic toads with a widespread distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF). We used intensive sampling and multilocus DNA sequence data to compare nucleotide diversity between refuge and nonrefuge areas, investigate regional demographic patterns, estimate demographic parameters related to genetic breaks and test refuge versus barrier scenarios of diversification using approximate Bayesian computation. We did not find higher levels of genetic diversity in putative refuge areas, either at regional or biome scale. Rather, the demographic history of the species complex supports regional differences with moderate population growth in the north and central regions and stability in southern AF. Genetic breaks were dated to the Plio-Pleistocene; however, our analyses rejected the role of refuges in creating a northern and central divergence, supporting a recent colonization scenario at a smaller scale within the central AF. Overall, our data rule out massive climatically driven fragmentation and large-scale recolonization events for populations across the biome. We confirmed the importance of geographic barriers in creating main divergences and underscored the importance of searching for cryptic discontinuities in the landscape. Comparison of our results with those of other AF taxa indicates organismal specific responses to moderate shifts in habitat and that multiple refuges may constitute a more realistic model for diversification of Atlantic Forest biota. PMID:25363843

Thomé, Maria Tereza C; Zamudio, Kelly R; Haddad, Célio F B; Alexandrino, João

2014-12-01

245

Responses of toad tadpoles to ammonium nitrate fertilizer and predatory stress: differences between populations on a local scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture-related pollution is among the major causes of global amphibian population declines. The multiple stressors to which amphibians are exposed in the field, such as predation pressure, can make agrochemicals far more deadly than when they act in isolation. Even within a small area, diffuse agricultural pollution does not affect all aquatic environments equally, which could account for local differences in amphibian sensitivity to agrochemicals. We examined the combined effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0 to 45.2?mg N-NH?4(+)/L) and predator stress on larval Western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes), using adult caged male marbled newts (Triturus marmoratus) as predators. We compared the interaction between both stressors in tadpoles from two ponds separated by 3?km. No significant mortality was observed (survival >?80% in all cases). Local differences were detected when analyzing larval growth, with a significant interaction between factors for one of the two populations tested (Fornillos de Fermoselle). Although tadpoles exposed to 45.2?mg N-NH?4(+)/L were 7% smaller than controls, the presence of predators from a foreign community resulted in animals 15% larger than those raised without predators after 15 d of experiment. Interestingly, predators from the same community as the tadpoles did not affect larval growth. The length of the tadpoles from a nearby location (Mámoles) was unaffected after exposure to ammonium nitrate and predatory stress. PMID:21384420

Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Fernández-Benéitez, María José; Lizana, Miguel; Marco, Adolfo

2011-06-01

246

Life history variation among geographically close populations of the toad-headed lizard (Phrynocephalus przewalskii): Exploring environmental and physiological associations  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographic variation in life history traits has been extensively studied along latitudinal and altitudinal clines, but life history variation among geographically close populations has received much less attention. We collected gravid female toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus przewalskii) and environmental data from three localities (Alxa Zuoqi, Alxa Youqi, and Shandan) across the Gobi desert in China, to examine among-population differences in reproductive strategies. The precipitation was significantly lower in Alxa Youqi than Alxa Zouqi and Shandan. Food availability was highest in Shandan, lowest in Alxa Zuoqi, with Alxa Youqi in between. Females from Shandan population were larger and produced more and larger eggs than their counterparts from the other two populations. Incubation period also differed among the populations, with the lowest incubation period in Alxa Youqi population, and the longest incubation period in Alxa Zuoqi population. Our data on the physiological mechanisms of incubation period indicated that the shortened incubation period in Alxa Youqi population was due to advanced embryogenesis completed prior to oviposition rather than higher embryonic heart rates during incubation. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that geographically close populations can show different reproductive strategies if environmental factors vary among these populations.

Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Zhao, Jia-Ming; Sun, Bao-Jun

2013-08-01

247

Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, amiloride, vasopressin, and ouabain on active conductance and ENa in the toad bladder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of various agents on active sodium transport were studied in the toad bladder in terms of the equivalent circuit comprising an active conductance Ka, an electromotive force ENa, and a parallel passive conductance Kp. For agents which affect Ka, but not ENa or Kp, the inverse slope of the plot of total conductance K against short-circuit current IO evaluates ENa, and the intercept represents Kp. Studies employing 5 X 10(-7) M amiloride to depress Ka indicate a changing ENa, invalidating the use of the slope technique with this agent. An alternative suitable technique employs 10(-5) M amiloride, which reduces IO reversibly to near zero without effect on Kp. Despite curvilinearity of the K-IO plot under these conditions, Kp may therefore be estimated fairly precisely from the residual conductance. It then becomes possible to follow the dynamic behavior of Ka and ENa (in the absence of 10(-5) M amiloride) by frequent measurements of K and IO, utilizing the relationships Ka=K-Kp, and ENa=IO/(K-Kp). 2-deoxy-D-glucose (7.5 X 10(-3)M) depressed both Ka and ENa. All of the above effects were noted promptly; Kp was unaffected. The "electromotive force of Na transport" ENa appears not to be a pure energetic parameter, but to relfect kinetic factors as well, in accordance with thermodynamic considerations. PMID:823338

Hong, C D; Essig, A

1976-08-26

248

Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events. PMID:25114047

Reshetnikov, Andrey N; Chestnut, Tara; Brunner, Jesse L; Charles, Kaylene; Nebergall, Emily E; Olson, Deanna H

2014-08-11

249

Glycopattern analysis and structure of the egg extra-cellular matrix in the Apennine yellow-bellied toad, Bombina pachypus (Anura: Bombinatoridae)  

OpenAIRE

We studied the glycopatterns and ultrastructure of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of the egg of theApennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus, by light and electron microscopy in order to determine structure,chemical composition and function. Histochemical techniques in light microscopy included PAS and AlcianBlue pH 2.5 and 1.0, performed also after b-elimination. Lectin-binding was tested with nine lectins (AAA,ConA, DBA, HPA, LTA, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, WGA). An inner fertilization envelope ...

Giovanni Scillitani; Angela Maria Moramarco; Roberta Rossi; Maria Mastrodonato

2011-01-01

250

Joint estimation of habitat dynamics and species interactions: disturbance reduces co-occurrence of non-native predators with an endangered toad  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Ecologists have long been interested in the processes that determine patterns of species occurrence and co-occurrence. Potential short-comings of many existing empirical approaches that address these questions include a reliance on patterns of occurrence at a single time point, failure to account properly for imperfect detection and treating the environment as a static variable. 2. We fit detection and non-detection data collected from repeat visits using a dynamic site occupancy model that simultaneously accounts for the temporal dynamics of a focal prey species, its predators and its habitat. Our objective was to determine how disturbance and species interactions affect the co-occurrence probabilities of an endangered toad and recently introduced non-native predators in stream breeding habitats. For this, we determined statistical support for alternative processes that could affect co-occurrence frequency in the system. 3. We collected occurrence data at stream segments in two watersheds where streams were largely ephemeral and one watershed dominated by perennial streams. Co-occurrence probabilities of toads with non-native predators were related to disturbance frequency, with low co-occurrence in the ephemeral watershed and high co-occurrence in the perennial watershed. This occurred because once predators were established at a site, they were rarely lost from the site except in cases when the site dried out. Once dry sites became suitable again, toads colonized them much more rapidly than predators, creating a period of predator-free space. 4. We attribute the dynamics to a storage effect, where toads persisting outside the stream environment during periods of drought rapidly colonized sites when they become suitable again. Our results support that even in highly connected stream networks, temporal disturbance can structure frequencies with which breeding amphibians encounter non-native predators. 5. Dynamic multi-state occupancy models are a powerful tool for rigorously examining hypotheses about inter-species and species-habitat interactions. In contrast to previous methods that infer dynamic processes based on static patterns in occupancy, the approach we took allows the dynamic processes that determine species-species and species-habitat interactions to be directly estimated.

Miller, David A.W.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Fisher, Robert N.

2012-01-01

251

Oxytocin and cAMP stimulate monovalent cation movements through a Ca2+-sensitive, amiloride-insensitive channel in the apical membrane of toad urinary bladder.  

OpenAIRE

The effects of oxytocin and cAMP on ion transport were investigated in toad urinary bladders incubated with Ca2+-free solutions on the apical side. Under these conditions both oxytocin and cAMP markedly stimulated the movements of Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Li+, and NH4+ through a pathway that is insensitive to amiloride. The amiloride-insensitive currents were inhibited by the addition of Ca2+, Sr2+, or Mg2+ to the apical solution. The movement of the monovalent cations was associated with a spontan...

Driessche, W.; Aelvoet, I.; Erlij, D.

1987-01-01

252

Regulation of cyclic GMP metabolism in toad photoreceptors. Definition of the metabolic events subserving photoexcited and attenuated states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoreceptor metabolism of cGMP and its regulation were characterized in isolated toad retinas by determining the intensity and time dependence of light-induced changes in the following metabolic parameters: cGMP hydrolytic flux determined by the rate of 18O incorporation from 18O-water into retinal guanine nucleotide alpha-phosphoryls; changes in the total concentrations of the guanine nucleotide metabolic intermediates; and changes in the concentration of metabolic GDP calculated from the fraction of the alpha-GDP that undergoes labeling with 18O. With narrow band 500 nm light that preferentially stimulates red rod photoreceptors, a range of intensities covering approximately 5 log units produced increases of over 10-fold in cGMP metabolic flux. However, the characteristics of the cGMP metabolic response over the first 2.5 log units of intensity are readily distinguishable from those at higher intensities which exhibit progressive attenuation by an intensity- and time-dependent process. Over the range of low intensities the metabolic response is characterized by 1) increases in cGMP hydrolytic flux of up to 8-fold as a logarithmic function of intensity of photic stimulation that are sustained for at least 200 s; 2) small increases or no change in the concentration of total cGMP; 3) large increases of up to 10-fold in the concentration of metabolically active GDP as a linear function of intensity with no significant change in the tissue concentrations of total GDP on the tissue concentrations of total GDP or GTP; and 4) amplification of the photosignal by the metabolism of approximately 10,000 molecules of cGMP per photoisomerization with the major site of amplification at the level of the interaction of bleached rhodopsin with G-protein

253

Light regulation of cGMP metabolism in toad rod outer segments (ROS) deduced from intact photoreceptor and cellfree kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of cGMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterase (PDE) in intact ROS, monitored in dark-adapted isolated toad retina by the rate of 18O appearance in guanine nucleotide ?-phosphoryls, is 1/360th of that observed in disrupted ROS at a substrate concentration equivalent to the total [cGMP] in ROS. Low to moderate photic stimuli increase this cGMP hydrolytic rate up to 10-fold in intact ROS with little or no change in total [cGMP]. G-protein activation determined in intact ROS by the fraction of GDP labeled with 18O corresponds with light-related increases in cGMP flux. In contrast, relatively high intensities and extended illumination cause attenuation of maximal cGMP hydrolysis with proportionate reductions in total [cGMP]. From these observations combined with the effects of activated G-protein on kinetics and cGMP binding of ROS PDE the following model for light-regulation of cGMP metabolism was deduced: cGMP flux in intact ROS is severely restricted in the dark state because approximately 99% of the cGMP is bound to high affinity sites on the non-stimulated form of PDE. This constraint is relieved when activated G-protein converts the cGMP-binding form of PDE to a high K/sub m/ catalytic form. cGMP is then redistributed to a dynamic pool where it is available to PDE catalytic sites and lower affinity allosteric sites. The [cGMP] in the dynamic pool is maintained or further increased or decreased by modulating the activity of an apparently lighlating the activity of an apparently light-sensitive guanylyl cyclase

254

Genetic Variation among various populations of spadefoot toads (Pelobates syriacus, Boettger, 1869 at breeding sites in northern Israel  

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Full Text Available A genetic study was carried out on spadefoot toads (Pelobates syriacus from habitats of various locations and altitudes in northern Israel. Cytochrome b and 12S were amplified by PCR for the analysis of genetic variation based on five DNA polymorphisms and for RAPD PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA fragments were determined from a 460 bp clone of cytochrome b and a 380 bp clone of 12S (GenBank accession numbers, FJ595199-FJ59-5203. No genetic variation was found among the populations with regard to 12S. According to the analysis of five sequences using Arlequin software, there was a high gene identity among the populations (98.7%-99.6%. Both populations, Elrom Pond breeding site, at the highest altitude and Fara Pond, at the lowest, had the lowest identities as compared to other populations. The DNA variation among P. syri-acus populations from various breeding sites, according to band sharing (BS, when using the OP-4 primer, was 0.92-1.00. Similarity was low between the population of Elrom Pond and the populations of Kash Pond, Raihania Pond and Sasa Pond (0.92 BS, as well as between the population of Fara Pond at the lowest altitude, and the populations of Kash Pond, Raihania Pond and Sasa Pond (0.92 BS. Similar results were obtained when comparing the results obtained using primer OPA-3. The lowest similarity was found between populations of the highest altitude (Elrom Pond and lowest altitude (Fara Pond, relative to the other ponds (Kash Pond, Raihania Pond and Sasa Pond with a BS of 0.93.

Gad Degani

2013-10-01

255

Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations. PMID:25632678

Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

2014-12-01

256

Expression of cell adhesion molecules in the normal and T3 blocked development of the tadpole's kidney of Bufo arenarum (Amphibian, Anuran, Bufonidae) / Expressão das moléculas de adesão celular no desenvolvimento normal e com a inibição do hormônio tireoidea do rim nas larvas do Bufo arenarum (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Moléculas de adesão celular atuam como tradutores do ambiente extracelular para o citoesqueleto e o núcleo e, conseqüentemente, induzindo mudanças no padrão da expressão das proteínas estruturais. Neste estudo, observamos os efeitos da inibição do hormônio tireóidea (TH) e detenção da metamorfose na [...] expressão da E-caderina, ?- e ?- catenina no desenvolvimento do rim do Bufo arenarum. As moléculas de adesão celular durante o desenvolvimento têm uma expressão temporal e espacial seletiva, sugerindo um papel específico na nefrogênese. Com o propósito de estudar os mecanismos de controle da expressão das moléculas de adesão durante o desenvolvimento renal, bloqueou-se a metamorfose do B. arenarum com uma substancia goitrogênica que bloqueia a síntese de TH. A expressão da E-caderina nos tubos proximais é independente do controle da tireóide. Entretanto, o bloqueio da síntese de TH provoca uma sobre elevação da E-caderina nos dutos coletores, nos tubos distais e nos glomérulos. A expressão da ?- e ?-catenina nos dutos coletores, nos tubos distais, nos glomérulos e no mesênquima mesonéfrico é independente da TH. O bloqueio da TH causa uma sobre-regulação da ?- e ?-catenina nos tubos proximais. Em contraste com a E-caderina, a expressão da caderina desmossomal demogloína 1 (Dsg-1) é ausente no controle durante a metamorfose da fase larval dos rins e se expressa em algumas células intersticiais nas larvas tratadas com KClO4. De acordo com este trabalho, a expressão Dsg-1 é subregulada pela TH. Demonstramos que a expressão da E-caderina, Dsg-1, ?-catenina e ?-catenina são afetadas de forma diferencial pelos níveis de TH, sugerindo um dependência hormonal destas proteínas na metamorfose renal do B. arenarum. Abstract in english Cell adhesion molecules act as signal transducers from the extracellular environment to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus and consequently induce changes in the expression pattern of structural proteins. In this study, we showed the effect of thyroid hormone (TH) inhibition and arrest of metamorphosi [...] s on the expression of E-cadherin, ?-and ?-catenin in the developing kidney of Bufo arenarum. Cell adhesion molecules have selective temporal and spatial expression during development suggesting a specific role in nephrogenesis. In order to study mechanisms controlling the expression of adhesion molecules during renal development, we blocked the B. arenarum metamorphosis with a goitrogenic substance that blocks TH synthesis. E-cadherin expression in the proximal tubules is independent of thyroid control. However, the blockage of TH synthesis causes up-regulation of E-cadherin in the collecting ducts, the distal tubules and the glomeruli. The expression of ?-and ?-catenin in the collecting ducts, the distal tubules, the glomeruli and the mesonephric mesenchyme is independent of TH. TH blockage causes up-regulation of ?-and ?-catenin in the proximal tubules. In contrast to E-cadherin, the expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 1 (Dsg-1) is absent in the control of the larvae kidney during metamorphosis and is expressed in some interstitial cells in the KClO4 treated larvae. According to this work, the Dsg-1 expression is down-regulated by TH. We demonstrated that the expression of E-cadherin, Dsg-1, ?-catenin and ?-catenin are differentially affected by TH levels, suggesting a hormone-dependent role of these proteins in the B. arenarum renal metamorphosis.

MF., Izaguirre; MN., García-Sancho; LA., Miranda; J., Tomas; VH., Casco.

2008-08-01

257

Characteristics of transmural potential changes associated with the proton-peptide co-transport in toad small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Ionic dependence and kinetic properties of the peptide-evoked potentials across everted toad intestine were investigated with eighteen dipeptides and four tripeptides. All peptides evoked saturable increases in the mucosal negativity regardless of the presence of Na+. 2. The peptide-evoked potentials recorded in the absence of Na+ were sensitive to external pH (pHo); lowering pHo from 7.4 to 6.5 and 5.5 caused stepwise increases in their amplitude. 3. Loading epithelial cells with 9-aminoacridine or acetate caused a significant increase or decrease in amplitude of the Gly-Gly-evoked potential, suggesting intracellular alkalinization or acidification also has a great influence on the peptide-evoked potential. 4. Kinetically, Na+-independent peptide-evoked potentials conformed to simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and lowering pHo caused a decrease of the half-saturation concentration (Kt) for Gly-Gly without changing the maximum potential difference increase. Similar affinity-type kinetic effect was also seen for Gly-Gly influx. 5. Simultaneous measurements of Gly-Gly-induced increase in short-circuit current and Gly-Gly influx revealed that the coupling ratio of H+ and Gly-Gly flows was 1.78 +/- 0.12, suggesting the stoichiometry of the H+-peptide co-transport being 2:1. 6. Kinetic analyses of the peptide-evoked potentials indicated that all glycyl-dipeptides tested (Gly-Gly, Gly-Pro, Gly-Sar, Gly-Leu, Gly-Phe) and other dipeptides (Ala-Ala, Ala-Phe, Phe-Ala) shared a common carrier. Gly-Gly-Gly and Ala-Ala-Ala were also found to share the same carrier, while Phe-Phe, Leu-Leu and Phe-Leu appeared to be transported by a different carrier. 7. Kt values for di- and tripeptides, which apparently shared a common carrier, fell in a narrow range (0.5-2.2 mM). There was no clear correlation between 1/Kt value and molecular weight. PMID:3443974

Abe, M; Hoshi, T; Tajima, A

1987-12-01

258

Re-evaluation of the 'contralateral' effects of sodium and potassium on sodium transport through toad skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Changes in the concentration of Na in the outer bathing solution, [Na]o, or of K in the inner bathing solution, [K]i, alter the electrical responses of the isolated toad skin to changes in ionic concentrations in the contralateral solutions. The mechanism(s) of these apparently contralateral effects remain(s) unknown. 2. The phenomenon has been investigated here in the isolated abdominal skin of Xenopus laevis. Each skin was exposed to multiple levels of [Na]o and [K]i, of between 5 and 112 m-mole 1.(-1) The p.d. and short-circuit current (s.c.c.) responses were analysed both in terms of kinetics and in terms of changes in the equivalent electrical circuit of the Na transport mechanism. 3. Kinetic analysis revealed that the relationship between [Na]o and s.c.c., at any level of [K]i, followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Increasing levels of [K]i reduced the s.c.c. response to changes in [Na]o, conforming with the algebraic descriptions of 'slope-parabolic competitive inhibition'. High levels of [Na]o (of 60-112 m-mole 1.(-1)) occasionally reduced the s.c.c. in a manner reminiscent of 'substrate inhibition'; this effect was independent of the level of [K]i. At high [K]i and low [Na]o, s.c.c was again often less than that predicted by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. 4. In terms of the equivalent electrical circuit, increasing [Na]o produced a fall in Rseries; in the presence of 'substrate inhibition', however, Rseries rose on increasing [Na]o; in either case, ENa and Rsh remained unchanged. Increasing [K]i lowered both ENa and Rsh; Rseries fell with modest increments in [K]i, but increased at higher levels of [K]i. 5. These results can be interpreted without invoking unknown contralateral effects. Thus the changes in s.c.c., as induced by changes in [Na]o or [K]i, are consistent with homolaterally mediated effects on an enzymic mechanism of transepithelial Na transport; the changes in p.d., given the [K]i-dependent changes in Rsh, are similarly explicable. PMID:7441564

Isaacson, L C

1980-08-01

259

Anti-inflammatory Drug (Indomethacin and its Effect on Liver Tumor Induced by DMBA  

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Full Text Available Liver tumors were induced in the toads, Bufo regularis, , in 16 out of 50 cases by the administration of 0.2 mg DMBA/toad, 3 times / week for 12 weeks. Light and electron microscopic photographs demonstrate that these hepatocytes of DMBA - treated toads showed criteria of malignancy. In contrast, toads treated with DMBA at the same dose level and 0.005 per cent w/w indomethacin / toad, 3 times / week for 12 weeks showed a lower incidence of liver tumors, 8 out of 50 cases. The biochemical analysis showed that the activity of G6PD, LDH, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were decreased in animals treated with DMBA and indomethacin in comparison with toads treated with DMBA alone. It is concluded that indomethacin has an inhibitory effect on hepatocarcinogenesis in toads.

N.E. Abdelmeguid

1999-01-01

260

The complete mitochondrial genome of the subspecies, Phrynocephalus erythrurus parva (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), a toad-headed lizard dwell at highest elevations of any reptile in the world.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the toad-headed viviparous lizard subspecies, Phrynocephalus erythrurus parva, which occupies the highest regions of any reptile on the earth. The mitogenome sequence was 16,431?bp in size, with the overall base composition of H-strand is T: 26.06%, C: 25.14%, A: 36.45%, G: 12.35%. It consists of 13 protein coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and 3 control regions, and its gene order and gene content were identical with the published congeneric mitogenomes of other Phrynocephalus, except for the small protion between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. PMID:24810070

Zhu, Liufang; Liao, Pinghu; Tong, Haojie; Jin, Yuanting

2014-05-01

261

Impacts of UVB provision and dietary calcium content on serum vitamin D3 , growth rates, skeletal structure and coloration in captive oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Many amphibian species are dependent on ex situ conservation interventions for their long-term persistence. However, projects have been jeopardised by husbandry issues involving poor calcium metabolism and nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD). Healthy calcium metabolism requires appropriate dietary calcium content and access to vitamin D3 . In many animals, vitamin D3 can be photobiosynthesised in skin exposed to UVB radiation, as well as extracted from the diet, but the extent of vitamin D3 photobiosynthesis in amphibians is poorly known. Additionally, prey insects for captive amphibians are deficient in calcium and calcium content must be artificially increased, but the effects of different levels of augmentation and their interaction with UVB exposure are also little understood. We fed captive fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) with crickets augmented to contain 5% and 10% calcium and housed them with and without UVB exposure. Despite additional dietary vitamin D3 supplementation, we found that toads exposed to UVB radiation exhibited significantly higher serum vitamin D3 levels, indicating that this species may partly rely on photobiosynthesis sources of vitamin D3 . These data are the first to show a direct link between UVB exposure and serum vitamin D3 in an amphibian. We found significant positive effects of UVB exposure and 10% dietary calcium content on skeletal structure, as well as complex interactions between treatments. We also found UVB radiation exposure resulted in more rapid natural coloration acquisition. Together, this indicates that standard calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation methods may not fully substitute for UVB exposure and for increased feeder insect calcium content. This may have implications for the success of ex situ amphibian conservation, as well as for the welfare of captive amphibians in general. Our data lend support for the provision of UVB radiation for captive, basking amphibians. PMID:24810567

Michaels, C J; Antwis, R E; Preziosi, R F

2015-04-01

262

Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3) we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of dif...

Schneider Horacio; Sampaio Iracilda; Ar, Bernardi Jose?; Ferrand Nuno; Sodré Davidson; Sequeira Fernando; Vallinoto Marcelo

2011-01-01

263

Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages  

OpenAIRE

Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian g...

Maci?as, Guadalupe; Marco, Adolfo; Blaustein, Andrew R.

2007-01-01

264

Aislamiento, clonado y expresión de la proteína recombinante para el factor de crecimiento fibroblástico 8 (FgF-8) de Rhinella (= Bufo) arenarum / Isolation, cloning and expression of the recombinant protein for the fibroblast growth factor 8 (FgF-8) of Rhinella (=Bufo) arenarum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los estudios embriológicos han demostrado que el origen de los órganos de vertebrados involucra complejas interacciones celulares de diferentes tejidos. Las investigaciones bioquímicas y moleculares, sugieren que las señales endógenas en la cresta ectodérmica apical (AER) ejercidas por el Factor de [...] Crecimiento Fibroblástico 8 (FGF-8), son claves en los procesos de iniciación del desarrollo de los apéndices pares en vertebrados. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener una proteína recombinante para el FGF-8 empleando técnicas moleculares, a partir del aislamiento del gen de Rhinella arenarum y analizar la secuencia nucleotídica con herramientas bioinformáticas. Los resultados reflejaron una estrecha relación evolutiva con genes homólogos de otros anfíbios. La obtención de la proteína recombinante, nos brinda la posibilidad de llevar a cabo estudios estructurales y fisiológicos del FGF-8 durante el desarrollo de los miembros en nuestro modelo animal (R. arenarum). un objetivo secundario fue producir anticuerpos policlonales para buscar otras posibles localizaciones y roles de este factor durante el desarrollo. Abstract in english Embryological studies have demonstrated that the origin of organs in vertebrates involves complex cellular interactions in different tissues. Biochemical and molecular evidence suggests that endogenous signal in the apical ectodermical ridge (AER) are exerted by Fibroblastic Growth Factor 8 (FGF-8). [...] This Factor is essencial in the initiation of the limb development processes in vertebrates. The main objective of the present work was to use molecular techniques to obtain a recombinant protein to FGF-8, from the isolation of the Rhinella arenarum toad gene, and to analyze their nucleotidic sequence using bioinformatic tools. It was possible to express the recombinant FGF-8 in a soluble form and also to study the evolutionary relationship with different vertebrate species. The results reflect a near evolutionary relation with other homologous vertebrates genes, especially with the amphibians. The obtencion of the recombinant protein gave us the possibility of carrying out structural and physiologycal studies about the role of FGF-8 during the limb development in our experimental animal model (R. arenarum). A secondary objective was to produce specific polyclonal antibodies which allowed for the search of other possible locations and roles of this factor during vertebrate development.

Enrique V., Paravani; María G., Acosta; Javier E., Diaz Zamboni; Víctor H., Casco.

2009-12-01

265

Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3 we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB, while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ? 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene, while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ? 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene. This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (? 1.59 Myr, which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these two closely related toad species. Overall, our results suggest a phenomenon of extensive mtDNA unidirectional introgression from the previously occurring R. schneideri into the invading R. marina. We hypothesize that climatic-induced range shifts during the Pleistocene/Holocene may have played an important role in the observed patterns of introgression.

Schneider Horacio

2011-09-01

266

Chemical skin defence in the Eastern fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an ultrastructural approach to the mechanism of poison gland rehabilitation after discharge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Type I serous glands in the skin of the Eastern yellow-bellied toad Bombina orientalis released their product massively after 10-3 M nor-adrenalin (NA stimulation, mimicking orthosympathetic control on poison emission in chemical skin defence. Features of cutaneous glands involved in this bulk discharge were observed under light and electron microscopes. Furthermore, restoration of depleted glands was followed after 1, 2 and 3 weeks, and compared with serous biosynthesis during larval gland development. Bulk discharge was caused by contraction of myoepithelial cells (mecs encircling the secretory units. Mec compression dramatically affected the secretory unit, but parts of this syncytial cytoplasm were saved from degeneration and cooperated in gland renewal with stem cells from the gland neck. These adenoblasts underwent proliferation and secretory cytodifferentiation, until merging with the syncytium. Cytoplasm that had resumed secretory activity showed the features typical of larval gland development: the endoplasmic reticulum (rer cisterns were aligned in close parallel arrangement and Golgi stacks released minute type I granules. Secretory rehabilitation led to increasing amounts of granule content. In the meantime, rough cisterns decreased in number and assumed the less ordered pattern described in control specimens. Data collected in the present study revealed that chemical skin defence in anurans is a multi-factorial mechanism involving specific activities: mechanical from mecs, biosynthetic from secretory syncytium and proliferative from intercalated stem cells.

Giovanni Delfino

2008-12-01

267

Mode of action of furosemide on the chloride-dependent short-circuit current across the ciliary body epithelium of toad eyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of furosemide on the chloride-dependent short-circuit current across the toad ciliary epithelium were examined. Under control conditions, the short-circuit current obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics against medium chloride concentration, the Michaelis constant (Km) for chloride being 90 mM and the maximal short-circuit current (Vmax) 128 mu A/cm2. Furosemide added to the aqueous side of the epithelium rapidly reduced the short-circuit current; the effect was reversible. The effect of furosemide addition to the stromal side was much smaller and slower than that from the aqueous side. The dose-dependent range of furosemide action was from 0.1 micro M to 1 mM with 50% inhibition occurring at about 3 micro M. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the short-circuit current against the chloride concentration showed that furosemide decreased the value of Vmax and increased the Km; the inhibition being of mixed type. A Hill plot of the dose-response curve yielding a slope of unity suggested one furosemide molecule combines with one chloride transport site. Probenecid, a competitive inhibitor of organic acid transport reduced the effects of furosemide significantly when added simultaneously. The involvement of organic acid transport system in the mechanism of furosemide action on chloride transport was suggested. PMID:7381928

Saito, Y; Itoi, K; Horiuchi, K; Watanabe, T

1980-04-15

268

Synergy between glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides during acute exposures in tadpoles of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide cypermethrin are key pesticides of modern management in soy and corn cultures. Although these pesticides are likely to co-occur in ephemeral ponds or aquatic systems supporting amphibian wildlife, the toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of these two pesticides have been little studied. The current study evaluated the toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides to tadpoles of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Two different combinations of commercial products were tested: glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® and glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin®. When tested individually, the formulations presented the following 96 h-LC50s: Glifosato Atanor® 19.4 mg ae L(-1) and Glifoglex 72.8 mg ae L(-1), Xiper® 6.8 mg L(-1) and Glextrin® 30.2 mg L(-1). Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were significantly synergic in both combinations of commercial products tested. The magnitude of the synergy (factor by which toxicity differed from concentration addition) was constant at around twofold for all tested proportions of the glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin® mixture; whereas the magnitude of the synergy varied between 4 and 9 times in the glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® mixture. These results call for more research to be promptly undertaken in order to understand the mechanisms behind the synergy observed and to identify and quantify the extent of its environmental impacts. PMID:25048890

Brodeur, Julie Céline; Poliserpi, María Belén; D'Andrea, María Florencia; Sánchez, Marisol

2014-10-01

269

Assessment of interactive effects of elevated salinity and three pesticides on life history and behavior of southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) tadpoles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because habitats are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously, assessing the interactive effects of stressors is crucial for understanding how populations respond to human-altered habitats. Salinization of freshwater habitats is increasing and has the potential to interact with other stressors. Chemical pollutants also contribute to habitat degradation in freshwater environments, and both salinity and various pesticides can harm amphibians. The present study used a factorial experiment to investigate the effect of elevated salinity alone and in combination with each of 3 pesticides-atrazine, carbaryl, and glyphosate-on life history and behavior of southern toad larvae (Anaxyrus terrestris). Tadpoles were negatively affected by elevated salinity and by exposure to the insecticide carbaryl, with the most deleterious outcomes associated with both stressors combined. Carbaryl exposure led to reduced survival as well as sublethal effects on growth, activity and feeding behavior, escape response swimming, and time to metamorphosis. Tadpoles reared at elevated salinity were also smaller and less active, and ultimately metamorphosed later and at smaller size. Together, carbaryl and elevated salinity had a synergistic effect, resulting in particularly poor growth, depressed activity and feeding, and sluggish escape swimming among tadpoles exposed to both stressors simultaneously. These results suggest that both elevated salinity and carbaryl represent threats for amphibian populations and that pesticide exposure in salinized habitats may pose a particularly high risk. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:667-676. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25523942

Wood, Liza; Welch, Allison M

2015-03-01

270

Glycopattern analysis and structure of the egg extra-cellular matrix in the Apennine yellow-bellied toad, Bombina pachypus (Anura: Bombinatoridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the glycopatterns and ultrastructure of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM of the egg of the Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus, by light and electron microscopy in order to determine structure, chemical composition and function. Histochemical techniques in light microscopy included PAS and Alcian Blue pH 2.5 and 1.0, performed also after b-elimination. Lectin-binding was tested with nine lectins (AAA, ConA, DBA, HPA, LTA, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, WGA. An inner fertilization envelope (FE and five jelly layers (J1–J5 were observed, differing in histochemical staining, lectin binding and ultrastructure. Most glycans were O-linked, with many glucosamylated and fucosylated residues. The fertilization envelope presented a perivitelline space and a fertilization layer, with mostly neutral glycans. The jelly layers consisted of fibers and granules, whose number and orientation differed between layers. Fibers were densely packed in J1 and J4 layers, whereas a looser arrangement was observed in the other layers. Jelly-layer glycans were mostly acidic and particularly abundant in the J1 and J4 layers. In the J1, J2 and J5 layers, neutral, N-linked glycans were also observed. Mannosylated and/or glucosylated as well as galactosyl/galactosaminylated residues were more abundant in the outer layers. Many microorganisms were observed in the J5 layer. We believe that, apart from their functions in the fertilization process, acidic and fucosylated glycans could act as a barrier against pathogen penetration. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 306–316

Maria Mastrodonato

2011-07-01

271

Morphology, axonal projection pattern, and responses to optic nerve stimulation of thalamic neurons in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracellular recording and biocytin labeling were carried out in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to study the morphology and axonal projections of thalamic (TH) neurons and their responses to electrical optic nerve stimulation. Labeled neurons (n = 142) were divided into the following groups: TH1 neurons projecting to the dorsal striatum; TH2 neurons projecting to the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and septal nuclei; TH3 neurons projecting to the medial or dorsal pallium; TH4 neurons with projections ascending to the dorsal striatum or ventral striatum/amygdala and descending to the optic tectum, tegmentum, and rostral medulla oblongata; TH5 neurons with projections to the tegmentum, rostral medulla oblongata, prectectum, or tectum; and TH6 neurons projecting to the hypothalamus. TH1 neurons are found in the central, TH2 neurons in the anterior and central, TH3 neurons in the anterior dorsal nucleus, and TH4 and TH5 neurons in the posterior dorsal or ventral nucleus. Neurons with descending projections arborize in restricted parts of retinal afferents; neurons with ascending projections do not substantially arborize within retinal afferents. At electrical optic nerve stimulation, neurons in the ventral thalamus respond with excitation at latencies of 10.8 msec; one-third of them follow repetitive stimulation and possibly are monosynaptically driven. Neurons in the dorsal thalamus respond mostly with inhibition at latencies of 42.3 msec and are polysynaptically driven. This corroborates the view that neurons in the dorsal thalamus projecting to the telencephalon receive no substantial direct retinal input and that the thalamopallial pathway of amphibians is not homologous to the mammalian retinogeniculocortical pathway. PMID:12722107

Roth, Gerhard; Grunwald, Wolfgang; Dicke, Ursula

2003-06-16

272

Glycopattern analysis and structure of the egg extra-cellular matrix in the Apennine yellow-bellied toad, Bombina pachypus (Anura: Bombinatoridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the glycopatterns and ultrastructure of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM of the egg of theApennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus, by light and electron microscopy in order to determine structure,chemical composition and function. Histochemical techniques in light microscopy included PAS and AlcianBlue pH 2.5 and 1.0, performed also after b-elimination. Lectin-binding was tested with nine lectins (AAA,ConA, DBA, HPA, LTA, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, WGA. An inner fertilization envelope (FE and five jelly layers(J1–J5 were observed, differing in histochemical staining, lectin binding and ultrastructure. Most glycans wereO-linked, with many glucosamylated and fucosylated residues. The fertilization envelope presented a perivitellinespace and a fertilization layer, with mostly neutral glycans. The jelly layers consisted of fibers and granules,whose number and orientation differed between layers. Fibers were densely packed in J1 and J4 layers,whereas a looser arrangement was observed in the other layers. Jelly-layer glycans were mostly acidic and particularlyabundant in the J1 and J4 layers. In the J1, J2 and J5 layers, neutral, N-linked glycans were also observed.Mannosylated and/or glucosylated as well as galactosyl/galactosaminylated residues were more abundant in theouter layers. Many microorganisms were observed in the J5 layer. We believe that, apart from their functions inthe fertilization process, acidic and fucosylated glycans could act as a barrier against pathogen penetration.

Giovanni Scillitani

2011-07-01

273

Membrane potentials and intracellular Cl- activity of toad skin epithelium in relation to activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The potential dependence of unidirectional 36Cl fluxes through toad skin revealed activation of a conductive pathway in the physiological region of transepithelial potentials. Activation of the conductance was dependent on the presence of Cl or Br in the external bathing solution, but was independent of whether the external bath was NaCl-Ringer's, NaCl-Ringer's with amiloride, KCl-Ringer's or choline Cl-Ringer's. To partition the routes of the conductive Cl- ion flow, we measured in the isolated epithelium with double-barrelled microelectrodes apical membrane potential. Va, and intracellular Cl- activity, acCl, of the principal cells identified by differential interference contrast microscopy. Under short-circuit conditions, Isc = 27.0 +/- 2.0 microA/cm2, with NaCl-Ringer's bathing both surfaces, Va was -67.9 +/- 3.8 mV (mean +/- SE, n = 24, six preparations) and acCl was 18.0 +/- 0.9 mM in skins from animals adapted to distilled water. Both Va and acCl were found to be positively correlated with Isc (r = 0.66 and r = 0.70, respectively). In eight epithelia from animals adapted to dry milieu/tap water Va and acCl were measured with KCl Ringer's on the outside during activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance (GCl) by voltage clamping the transepithelial potential (V) at 40 mV (mucosa positive) and -100 mV. At V = 40 mV; i.e. when GCl was deactivated, Va was -70.1 +/- 5.0 mV (n = 15, eight preparations) and acCl was 40.0 +/- 3.8 mM. The fractional apical membrane resistance (fRa) was 0.69 +/- 0.03. Clamping to V = -100 mV led to an instantaneous change of Va to 31.3 +/- 5.6 mV (cell interior positive with respect to the mucosal bath), whereas neither acCl nor fRa changed significantly within a 2 to 5-min period during which GCl increased by 1.19 +/- 0.10 mS/cm2. When V was stepped back to 40 mV, Va instantaneously shifted to -67.8 +/- 3.9 mV while acCl and fRa remained constant during deactivation of GCl. Similar results were obtained in epithelia impaled from the serosal side. In 12 skins from animals adapted to either tap water or distilled water the density of mitochondria-rich (DMRC) cells was estimated and correlated with the Cl current (ICl through the fully activated (V = -100 mV) Cl conductance). A highly significant correlation ws revealed (r = -0.96) with a slope of -2.6 nA/m.r. (mitochondria-rich cell and an I-axis intercept not significantly different from zero.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Willumsen, N J; Larsen, Erik Hviid

1986-01-01

274

Membrane potentials and intracellular Cl- activity of toad skin epithelium in relation to activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential dependence of unidirectional 36Cl fluxes through toad skin revealed activation of a conductive pathway in the physiological region of transepithelial potentials. Activation of the conductance was dependent on the presence of Cl or Br in the external bathing solution, but was independent of whether the external bath was NaCl-Ringer's, NaCl-Ringer's with amiloride, KCl-Ringer's or choline Cl-Ringer's. To partition the routes of the conductive Cl- ion flow, we measured in the isolated epithelium with double-barrelled microelectrodes apical membrane potential. Va, and intracellular Cl- activity, acCl, of the principal cells identified by differential interference contrast microscopy. Under short-circuit conditions, Isc = 27.0 +/- 2.0 microA/cm2, with NaCl-Ringer's bathing both surfaces, Va was -67.9 +/- 3.8 mV (mean +/- SE, n = 24, six preparations) and acCl was 18.0 +/- 0.9 mM in skins from animals adapted to distilled water. Both Va and acCl were found to be positively correlated with Isc (r = 0.66 and r = 0.70, respectively). In eight epithelia from animals adapted to dry milieu/tap water Va and acCl were measured with KCl Ringer's on the outside during activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance (GCl) by voltage clamping the transepithelial potential (V) at 40 mV (mucosa positive) and -100 mV. At V = 40 mV; i.e. when GCl was deactivated, Va was -70.1 +/- 5.0 mV (n = 15, eight preparations) and acCl was 40.0 +/- 3.8 mM. The fractional apical membrane resistance (fRa) was 0.69 +/- 0.03. Clamping to V = -100 mV led to an instantaneous change of Va to 31.3 +/- 5.6 mV (cell interior positive with respect to the mucosal bath), whereas neither acCl nor fRa changed significantly within a 2 to 5-min period during which GCl increased by 1.19 +/- 0.10 mS/cm2. When V was stepped back to 40 mV, Va instantaneously shifted to -67.8 +/- 3.9 mV while acCl and fRa remained constant during deactivation of GCl. Similar results were obtained in epithelia impaled from the serosal side. In 12 skins from animals adapted to either tap water or distilled water the density of mitochondria-rich (DMRC) cells was estimated and correlated with the Cl current (ICl through the fully activated (V = -100 mV) Cl conductance). A highly significant correlation ws revealed (r = -0.96) with a slope of -2.6 nA/m.r. (mitochondria-rich cell and an I-axis intercept not significantly different from zero.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3104597

Willumsen, N J; Larsen, E H

1986-01-01

275

Feleucin-BO1: a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide amide from the skin secretion of the toad, Bombina orientalis, and design of a potent broad-spectrum synthetic analogue, feleucin-K3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 ?m) but was inactive (> 250 ?m) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 ?m (S. aureus), 14 ?m (E. coli) and 7 ?m (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. PMID:25056849

Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2015-03-01

276

Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA  

OpenAIRE

Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas) and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae). We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. ...

Brome McCreary; Wente, Wendy H.; Bruce Bury, R.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.

2009-01-01

277

Coincident mass extirpation of neotropical amphibians with the emergence of the infectious fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis  

OpenAIRE

Amphibians highlight the global biodiversity crisis because ?40% of all amphibian species are currently in decline. Species have disappeared even in protected habitats (e.g., the enigmatic extinction of the golden toad, Bufo periglenes, from Costa Rica). The emergence of a fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been implicated in a number of declines that have occurred in the last decade, but few studies have been able to test retroactively whether Bd emergence was linked...

Cheng, Tina L.; Rovito, Sean M.; Wake, David B.; Vredenburg, Vance T.

2011-01-01

278

Anti-inflammatory Steroid (Prednisolone) and its Effect on the Adrenal Gland  

OpenAIRE

Administration of an anti-inflammatory steroidal drug prednisolone- (0.85 mg/ kg body weight daily for 10 days) to adult toads Bufo tibamicus resulted in suppression of the function of the adrenal gland, as shown by a significant increase in the lipid droplets, autolysis of mitochondria and disorganization and degranulation of ER in the steriodogenic cells. Furthermore, chromaffin cells (catecholamines secreting cells), showed a marked decrease in the number of chronaffin granules and degener...

Essay, A. E.; Sakr, S. A.; Saleh, A. T.; El-salmy, F.

2000-01-01

279

Microbial Specificity of Metallic Surfaces Exposed to Ambient Seawater  

OpenAIRE

High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains...

Zaidi, B. R.; Bard, R. F.; Tosteson, T. R.

1984-01-01

280

Pesticides are involved with population declines of amphibians in the California Sierra Nevadas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several species of frogs and toads are in serious decline in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. These species include the threatened red-legged frog ( Rana aurora ), foothill yellow-legged frog ( R. boylii ), mountain yellow-legged frog ( R. muscosa ), Cascades frog ( Rana cascadae ), western toad ( Bufo boreas ) and Yosemite toad ( B. canorus ). For many of these species current distributions are down to 10% of historical ranges. Several factors including introduced predators, habitat loss, and ultraviolet radiation have been suggested as causes of these declines. Another probable cause is air-borne pesticides from the Central Valley of California. The Central Valley, especially the San Joaquin Valley, is a major agricultural region where millions of pounds of active ingredient pesticides are applied each year (http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/dprdatabase.htm). Prevailing westerly winds from the Pacific Coast transport these pesticides into the into the Sierras. PMID:12805670

Sparling, D W; Fellers, G; McConnell, L

2001-05-01

281

Comparative Analysis of the Bufonis Venenum by Using TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS for Different Extraction Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Toad venom, called Chan-Su, is a traditional Oriental medicine secreted from the auricular and the skin glands of the Bufo bufo gargarizanz Cantor or B. melanosticus Schneider and has been widely used in China, Korea and other parts of Asia for the treatment of pain, heart conditions, and cancer. We examined the concentrations of the main chemical constituents within a commerciallyavailable toad venom product and compared the levels for different extraction methods. Methods: Toad venom was extracted using either cold or hot water, ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, or ethyl acetate (EtOAc, was fractionated using precipitation or reflux, and was then analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography (HTLC, and liquid chroma-tography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Individual components were identified by comparisons of the retention times, the ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectras and differences in chemical constituents for different solvents and extraction methods are presented. Results:Components with authentic standards, including serotonin and bufodienolides (cinobufagen, bufalin, cinobufalin, and resibufogenin, were detected. The water extract of toad venom contained the greatest amount of serotonin (75.7 ± 0.1 mg/g, but very small amounts of bufodienolides (3.8 ± 0.0 mg/g. In contrast, the use of MeOH or EtOH extraction solutions resulted in 5-26 times higher concentrations of bufodienolides, with only trace amounts of serotonin. The relative and the absolute concentrations of the component also varied based on the extraction method; i.e., EtOH extracts yielded the greatest total amounts of bufodienolides, and EtOAc precipitation had the lowest amounts of bufodienolides. Conclusions: Toad venom consists of serotonin and several bufodienolides, and the choice of solvent to extract chemical the constituents is important as a way to enrich the purported active components for treating different conditions.

Lee Hyo-Jae

2012-12-01

282

Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC(50)) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. PMID:18684543

Collins, Sara J; Russell, Ronald W

2009-01-01

283

Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza virus and also susceptibility to the infection.

Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

2004-06-01

284

Influenza em animais heterotérmicos / Influenza in heterothermics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição [...] da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina) e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção. Abstract in english The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus) and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana) were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglu [...] tination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin) or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza virus and also susceptibility to the infection.

Dalva Assunção Portari, Mancini; Rita Maria Zucatelli, Mendonça; Aurora Marques, Cianciarullo; Leonardo Setsuo, Kobashi; Hermínio Gomes, Trindade; Wilson, Fernandes; José Ricardo, Pinto.

2004-06-01

285

Insulin-stimulated Na+ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (? 0.5-5.0 ?M) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na+ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10?M) of the epithelial Na+ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na+ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10?g/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by 35S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64?M) stimulate Na+ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF1 stimulate Na+ transport in this tissue support the latter contention

286

Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (approx. 0.5-5.0 ..mu..M) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na/sup +/ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10..mu..M) of the epithelial Na/sup +/ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10..mu..g/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64..mu..M) stimulate Na/sup +/ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF/sub 1/ stimulate Na/sup +/ transport in this tissue support the latter contention.

Blazer-Yost, B.L.; Cox, M.

1987-05-01

287

The activity of superoxide dismutase in animal liver and erythrocyte at Sea Area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many tests, the effect of ionizing radiation on SOD in vivo and vitro, had proved that the irradiation can cause the SOD activity to decrease with the increase of irradiation dose, change some physicochemical properties and structure. This artical was to study the activity of SOD in Fish (Thearpon jorbua) and Toad(Bufo melanostictus) liver erythrocyte at sea area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station (Nps). We found that the SOD activity in fish liver, after NPS revolved one year, was higher than that of before revoling (7.30 ± 1.35U/mg protein, 5.49 ±1.56 U/mg protein respectively). The SOD activity in the toad liver at NPS revolving one year after was decreased (4.54 ± 0.75 U/mg protein 5.68± 1.49U/mg protein P < 0.001) but in erythrocyte increased (2.32 ± 0.75 U/mg Hb, 0.70 ± 0.33 U/mg Hb P < 0.001). These results indicated that the SOD activity was changed in different with the animal variety. The effect of irradiation on fish at present was absent, on toad need to research in the future

288

Sodium channels in membrane vesicles from cultured toad bladder cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical potential-driven 22Na+ fluxes were measured in membrane vesicles prepared from TBM-18(cl23) cells (a clone of the established cell line TB-M). Fifty to seventy percent of the tracer uptake in vesicles derived from cells that were cultivated on a porous support were blocked by the diuretic amiloride. The amiloride inhibition constant was +-specific channels. Vesicles prepared from cells that were not grown on a porous support exhibited much smaller amiloride-sensitive fluxes. Two Ca2+-dependent processes that down-regulated the channel conductance and were previously identified in native epithelia were found in the cultured cells as well. Vesicles isolated from cells that were preincubated with 5 x 10-7 M aldosterone for 16-20 h exhibited higher amiloride-sensitive conductance than vesicles derived from control, steroid-depleted cells. Thus membrane derived from TBM-18(cl23) cells can be used to characterize the epithelial Na+ channel and its hormonal regulation

289

Evidence of decline for Bufo boreas and Rana luteiventris in and around the northern Great Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

Wente, W.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.

2005-01-01

290

Monitoring programs to assess reintroduction efforts: a critical component in recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reintroduction is a powerful tool in our conservation toolbox. However, the necessary follow-up, i.e. long-term monitoring, is not commonplace and if instituted may lack rigor. We contend that valid monitoring is possible, even with sparse data. We present a means to monitor based on demographic data and a projection model using the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri as an example. Using an iterative process, existing data is built upon gradually such that demographic estimates and subsequent inferences increase in reliability. Reintroduction and defensible monitoring may become increasingly relevant as the outlook for amphibians, especially in tropical regions, continues to deteriorate and emergency collection, captive breeding, and reintroduction become necessary. Rigorous use of appropriate modeling and an adaptive approach can validate the use of reintroduction and substantially increase its value to recovery programs.

Muths, E.

2008-06-01

291

Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals  

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Full Text Available Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O– in a matrix of O2–. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.

Rachel A. Grant

2011-06-01

292

Impact of two forest roads upon wildlife after a road pavement change in a coastal area in the center of Portugal  

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Full Text Available The impact of traffic on wild vertebrate populations in two forest roads was assessed. These two roads cross the Perímetro Florestal das Dunas e Pinhais de Mira, located in the littoral centre of Portugal. One of the roads was paved with asphalt. The other was already partially paved but later on it became completely paved with asphalt. These new pavements considerably contributed to the increase of traffic in these roads. Between September 1996 and August 1997 the one-way transepts (13 km of forest roads were reviewed 10 times a month using a vehicle at a 20-40 Km/hour speed. Vertebrate road casualties (n = 831 included 46 identified species and 7 nonidentified individuals. Amphibians presented the highest values for road casualties (81%, followed by birds (9%, reptiles (6% and mammals (4%. The highest mortality rates occurred between November and March and in the 2nd, 5th and 7th kilometres. Amphibians were the most affected group. The common toad Bufo bufo, presented the highest mortality values (49%, constituting nearly half the road casualties registered during the study period. In a short-term period, this mortality might produce negative effects upon longevity and reproduction of some vertebrate species.

Petronilho, J.M.S.

2005-12-01

293

Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. Teraction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution

294

Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution.

Macias, Guadalupe [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain); Marco, Adolfo [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain)], E-mail: amarco@ebd.csic.es; Blaustein, Andrew R. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 (United States)

2007-10-15

295

Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC{sub 50}) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. - Salt toxicity is presented as a mechanism affecting the distribution of amphibians and structure of amphibian communities in roadside wetlands.

Collins, Sara J. [Department of Biology, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Russell, Ronald W. [Department of Biology, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada)], E-mail: ron.russell@smu.ca

2009-01-15

296

Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC50) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. - Salt toxicity is presented as a mechanism affecting the distribution of amphibians and structure of amphibian communities in roadside wetlands

297

[The nature of urea transport across the skin of of Rana esculenta].  

Science.gov (United States)

In several epithelial tissues such as toad bladder, gallbladder and human red cells, it has been established that urea movement implies a phloretin sensitive mediated transport. In the skin of the toad Bufo viridis also it has been described an active transport of urea. Our data, obtained on the frog skin seem to demonstrate the existence of some specific mechanism for urea transport towards the inside solution. In fact, two molecules having the some molecular diameter, such as urea and thiourea, show a large difference in permeability at low concentration. In addition 0.1 mM urea influxes and outfluxes, measured on paired skin halves in the absence of concentration gradient, exhibit an evident asymmetry. Further approaches with phloretin experiments were made in order to characterize the urea transport system. Phloretin (5.10(-4)M) added to the external solution significantly inhibits the urea influx. Little can be said at this time about the composition or kinetics of the carrier involved in the transport. PMID:6980654

Svelto, M; Casavola, V; Valenti, G; Lippe, C

1982-06-30

298

Potential Component Allee Effects and Their Impact on Wetland Management in the Conservation of Endangered Anurans  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective management of wetland quantity and quality is crucial for effective conservation of declining amphibian populations. In particular, frogs and toads that employ aggregative breeding strategies may suffer negative population impacts in response to changes in availability of aquatic breeding habitat, including overabundance of suitable habitat, if density of conspecifics attending aggregations is positively correlated with reproductive success. Here we document such a positive relationship, potentially the first example of a component Allee effect in an anuran, in the critically endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis). We assessed the relationship between mean yearly chorus size and reproductive success of males at the pond level using an information theoretic model selection approach and a two-sample t-test. The chosen model contained the single variable of mean yearly chorus size to predict probability of reproduction, as selected using the Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small sample size and Akaike weight. Mean chorus sizes were significantly higher among ponds exhibiting evidence of reproduction than in those that showed no evidence of reproduction. Our results suggest that chorusing alone is a poor proxy for inference of population stability and highlight a need for reassessment of widely-used amphibian monitoring protocols. Further, amphibian conservation efforts should account for potential Allee effects in order to optimize benefits and avoid underestimating critical population thresholds, particularly in species exhibiting rapid population declines. PMID:20404930

Gaston, Michele A.; Fuji, Akiko; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Forstner, Michael R. J.

2010-01-01

299

The relationship between total sialic acid levels and antioxidant status in the tadpoles of Bufo viridis and Rana ridibunda ridibunda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total sialic acid levels (TSA), antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were investigated during the developmental period in tadpoles of the predominantly terrestrial amphibian B. viridis and the predominantly aquatic amphibian R. r. ridibunda. Maximum TSA levels were observed in B. viridis and R. r. ridibunda at the fifth and third week of their development, respectively. SOD and CAT activity variations during development in B. viridis were higher than in R. r. ridibunda. Although SOD activity in B. viridis was higher than R. r. ridibunda at the eighth week, SOD activity increased 19.2-fold in R. r. ridibunda and 10.4-fold in B. viridis between the first and eighth week. CAT activity in R. r. ridibunda did not significantly change (p>0.001) until the fifth week then increased, whereas in B. viridis CAT increased after the third week. In contrast to the rise in the antioxidant enzyme activities, LPO levels tended to decrease during the developmental period. Levels of LPO showed a similar trend until the third week for both species. The minimum LPO levels in B. viridis and R. r. ridibunda were 23+/-1.2 and 146+/-7.3 nmol MDA g(-1) tissue, at the eighth week, respectively. While decreasing LPO levels correlated with increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, TSA tended to decrease after reaching a maximum point. PMID:12910479

Cava?, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

2003-09-01

300

Enthalpic consequences of reduced chloride binding in Andean frog (Telmatobius peruvianus) hemoglobin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the exothermic nature of heme oxygenation, the O2 affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) decreases with increasing temperature, which may be physiologically advantageous in augmenting O2 unloading from blood in warm tissues with elevated metabolic rates. This negative oxygenation enthalpy (?H (O)) may, however, become maladaptive, as in cold-tolerant ungulates where it may hamper O2 unloading in cold extremities and commonly is mitigated by an 'additional' chloride-binding site that decreases the temperature effect by increasing the endothermic release of Cl(-) ions upon O2 binding. Since no previous studies have focused on the consequences of reduced Cl(-) binding, I report and compare the enthalpic effects of chloride ions and the allosteric effector, ATP, on Hbs of the high-altitude aquatic Andean frog Telmatobius peruvianus that lacks the ?-chain chloride-binding site, and the lowland (sub-)tropical frog Xenopus laevis that has retained this site and exhibits high chloride sensitivity. In contrast to Xenopus, Telmatobius Hb exhibits high temperature sensitivity (high negative ?H') in the presence of Cl(-) ions, supporting the inverse relationship between the number of Cl(-)-binding sites and temperature sensitivity, and extending it to ectothermic vertebrates. The radically reduced chloride binding in Telmatobius Hb permits assessment of the enthalpy of ATP binding [(?H' ? -62 kJ (mol ATP)(-1) at pH 7.0]-which contrasts sharply with previously reported increases in temperature sensitivity by ATP in toad (Bufo bufo) Hb. The high temperature sensitivity associated with decreased chloride binding and low phosphate sensitivity of Telmatobius Hb likely promotes cutaneous O2 uptake in cold, high-altitude ponds and streams.

Weber, Roy E.

2014-01-01

301

Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species  

Science.gov (United States)

Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of certain species may be an essential factor regulating the ecological impacts of biological invasions.

Smith, K.G.

2006-01-01

302

Enthalpic consequences of reduced chloride binding in Andean frog (Telmatobius peruvianus) hemoglobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the exothermic nature of heme oxygenation, the O2 affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) decreases with increasing temperature, which may be physiologically advantageous in augmenting O2 unloading from blood in warm tissues with elevated metabolic rates. This negative oxygenation enthalpy (?H (O)) may, however, become maladaptive, as in cold-tolerant ungulates where it may hamper O2 unloading in cold extremities and commonly is mitigated by an 'additional' chloride-binding site that decreases the temperature effect by increasing the endothermic release of Cl(-) ions upon O2 binding. Since no previous studies have focused on the consequences of reduced Cl(-) binding, I report and compare the enthalpic effects of chloride ions and the allosteric effector, ATP, on Hbs of the high-altitude aquatic Andean frog Telmatobius peruvianus that lacks the ?-chain chloride-binding site, and the lowland (sub-)tropical frog Xenopus laevis that has retained this site and exhibits high chloride sensitivity. In contrast to Xenopus, Telmatobius Hb exhibits high temperature sensitivity (high negative ?H') in the presence of Cl(-) ions, supporting the inverse relationship between the number of Cl(-)-binding sites and temperature sensitivity, and extending it to ectothermic vertebrates. The radically reduced chloride binding in Telmatobius Hb permits assessment of the enthalpy of ATP binding [(?H' ? -62 kJ (mol ATP)(-1) at pH 7.0]-which contrasts sharply with previously reported increases in temperature sensitivity by ATP in toad (Bufo bufo) Hb. The high temperature sensitivity associated with decreased chloride binding and low phosphate sensitivity of Telmatobius Hb likely promotes cutaneous O2 uptake in cold, high-altitude ponds and streams. PMID:24677177

Weber, Roy E

2014-07-01

303

LACK OF TERATOGENICITY OF MICROCYSTIN-LR IN THE MOUSE AND TOAD  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin generated by the organism, Microcystis aeruginosa. Although the hepatotoxicity of this chemical has been characterized, the potential developmental toxicity in vertebrates has not been well studied. The purpose of this...

304

Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability. PMID:19529431

Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R

2006-10-30

305

A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente nota es documentar un comportamiento curioso ocurrido con un grupo de animales adultos de Rhinella arenarum que fueron mantenidos en condiciones de hibernación artificial en el laboratorio durante abril-julio del 2012.

Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela

2012-12-01

306

An Examination of Morphometric Variations in a Neotropical Toad Population (Proceratophrys cristiceps, Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae)  

OpenAIRE

The species Proceratophrys cristiceps belongs to the genus Proceratophrys within the family Cycloramphidae. These amphibians are found exclusively in South America in the morphoclimatic domain of the semi-arid depression zones in northeastern Brazil known as the Caatinga. We examined intrapopulational variation using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional and geometric morphometrics, which supported the existence of two morphotypes of this species. Our results indicated signi...

Vieira, Kleber S.; Arzabe, Cristina; Herna?ndez, Malva I. M.; Vieira, Washington L. S.

2008-01-01

307

Transformations of Aortic Arches During Metamorphosis of the Spade-Foot Toad, Pelobates fuscus.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 260, ?. 3 (2004), s. 309. ISSN 0362-2525. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /7./. 27.07.2004-01.08.2004, Boca Raton] Keywords : Anura * Circulatory System * Metamorphosis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

Majorová, H.; Ro?ek, Zbyn?k

2004-01-01

308

REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF WETLAND-BREEDING FROGS AND TOADS: TURNOVER AND SYNCHRONY  

Science.gov (United States)

We used data from a statewide frog monitoring network to investigate population turnover and synchrony in eight wetland-breeding species. We found that subpopulations at many sites turn over frequently, with breeding choruses absent or undetectable in most years. Frequencies of d...

309

Within- and Among-Population Variation in Chytridiomycosis-Induced Mortality in the Toad Alytes obstetricans  

OpenAIRE

Background Chytridiomycosis is a fungal disease linked to local and global extinctions of amphibians. Susceptibility to chytridiomycosis varies greatly between amphibian species, but little is known about between- and within-population variability. However, this kind of variability is the basis for the evolution of tolerance and resistance evolution to disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In a common garden experiment, we measured mortality after metamorphosis of Alytes obstetri...

Tobler, U.; Schmidt, B. R.

2010-01-01

310

Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads). The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%)were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common. PMID:19488624

Leal, Denise D M; O'dwyer, Lucia H; Ribeiro, Vitor C; Silva, Reinaldo J; Ferreira, Vanda L; Rodrigues, Rozangela B

2009-06-01

311

Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. PMID:21898550

Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

2011-11-01

312

Notes on the Vertebrates of northern Pará, Brazil: a forgotten part of the Guianan Region, I. Herpetofauna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We discuss the herpetological results of seven expeditions to the Guianan part of Pará, which resulted in a total of 80 species of amphibians (77 frogs and three caecilians and 95 species of reptiles (36 species of lizards, three species of amphisbaenians, 49 species of snakes, five species of chelonians and two species of caiman. We report six species new to science (three frogs, one caecilian, one lizard, one amphisbaenian, six new records for Brazil (five frogs, one caecilian and 23 new records for Pará (13 frogs, four lizards, six snakes. For each of the new records we provide comments. Special comment is made about a large population of the toad Atelopus hoogmoedi that seems to be doing well and does not show any signs of population decline as many species of Atelopus at higher elevations do. We provide a complete list of species collected per locality containing data on endemicity, habitat, reproduction and food. For each of the seven collecting sites we provide data on richness and abundance of species. The sites are compared regarding their speciescomposition, even though we can not say how much of the differences are due to specific habitats or geographic variation, seasonal variation or sampling deficiency. We synonymised the Bufonid Rhinella martyi with Bufo margaritifer and selected a lectotype for Rana margaritifera in order to resolve the problems about this name.

Teresa Cristina Sauer Avila-Pires

2010-04-01

313

A Survey on the Faunal Diversity of Savar Upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted during January to December 2006 to assess the status of faunal diversity of Savar Upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 30 species of birds, 24 species of winter birds, 7 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 15 species of mammalians and 32 species of fishes were recorded. Relative abundance of those species were determined. Of the birds, House Sparrow (Passer domesticus was abundant while Blyth's Kingfisher (Alcedo hercules, Rock Eagle Owl (Bubo bengalensis, Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida, Black-headed Oriole (Oriolus xanthornus, White-winged Duck (Cairina seululala and Duck (Anser indicus were rare. The relative abundance of winter bird could not be assessed because of their migratory habit. Striped keelback (Amphiesma stolata and Common Smooth Water Snake (Enhydris enhydris were very common while Black pond turtle (Geoclyms hamiltonii and Pond tortoise (Melanochelys trijuga were recorded as endangered. Common Toad (Bufo melanostictus were abundant but Bull Frog (Rana tigrina was rare. Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus and House Mouse (Mus musculus were abundant while Common Otter, Large Indian Civet, Irrawaddy River Dolphin, Indian Hare were rare. Carpu, Silver carp, Tilapia, Nilotica were abundant while, Freshwater Garfish, One stripe spinyeel and Grey Featherback were rare. Landfilling, deforestation, poaching, industrial effluents and current jal were identified as major threats to the faunal diversity of Savar area.

Md. Eftekhar Hossain

2008-01-01

314

A survey on the faunal diversity of Savar Upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted during January to December 2006 to assess the status of faunal diversity of Savar Upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 30 species of birds, 24 species of winter birds, 7 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 15 species of mammalians and 32 species of fishes were recorded. Relative abundance of those species were determined. Of the birds, House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) was abundant while Blyth's Kingfisher (Alcedo hercules), Rock Eagle Owl (Bubo bengalensis), Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida), Black-headed Oriole (Oriolus xanthornus), White-winged Duck (Cairina seululala) and Duck (Anser indicus) were rare. The relative abundance of winter bird could not be assessed because of their migratory habit. Striped keelback (Amphiesma stolata) and Common Smooth Water Snake (Enhydris enhydris) were very common while Black pond turtle (Geoclyms hamiltonii) and Pond tortoise (Melanochelys trijuga) were recorded as endangered. Common Toad (Bufo melanostictus) were abundant but Bull Frog (Rana tigrina) was rare. Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) and House Mouse (Mus musculus) were abundant while Common Otter, Large Indian Civet, Irrawaddy River Dolphin, Indian Hare were rare. Carpu, Silver carp, Tilapia, Nilotica were abundant while, Freshwater Garfish, One stripe spinyeel and Grey Featherback were rare. Landfilling, deforestation, poaching, industrial effluents and current jal were identified as major threats to the faunal diversity of Savar area. PMID:18817158

Hossain, Eftekhar; Chowdhury, Mohammad Mamun; Iqubal, Kazi Farhed

2008-02-01

315

Wildlife investigations at a coal refuse reclamation site in Southern Illinois  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wildlife studies of a reclaimed coal refuse pile were conducted during the summer months of 1977 and 1978. During the period of May--September 1977 and May--July 1978 live-trap censuses were made. Small mammal species observed in 1977 included the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (Mus musculas) and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus). In 1978 the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) was also a common resident of the site. Population density estimates for Mus musculus and M. ochrogaster were 20 (+-19.4) and 37.5 (+-20) respectively in June 1978. Evidence of habitat segregation was observed between M. pennsylvanicus and M. ochrogaster with the former species occupying densely vegetated areas of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaces), birdsfoot trefoil (Phalaris arundinacea) and cereal rye (Secale cereale) while M. ochrogaster was more abundant in open areas with similar vegetation. Both the mammalian and avian species observed on site were those typical of early old-field communities in southern Illinois. Four passerine species (kill-deer, song sparrow, red-winged blackbird, common grackle) nested on site during the second year following seeding. No onsite nesting activity occurred during 1977. Common amphibians observed around the pond included the southern leopard frog (Rana pipiens sphenocephala), Blanchards' cricket frog (Acris crepitans blanchardi) and american toad (Bufo a. americanus). Utilization of the pond by these species occurred the first summer after reclamation was completed.

Pentecost, E. D.; Stupka, R. C.

1978-01-01

316

Establishment, characterization and immortalization of a fibroblast cell line from the Chinese red belly toad Bombina maxima skin  

OpenAIRE

The skin of the amphibian Bombina maxima is rich in biologically active proteins and peptides, most of which have mammalian analogues. The physiological functions of most of the mammalian analogues are still unknown. Thus, Bombina maxima skin may be a promising model to reveal the physiological role of these proteins and peptides because of their large capacity for secretion. To investigate the physiological role of these proteins and peptides in vitro, a fibroblast cell line was successfully...

Xiang, Yang; Gao, Qian; Su, Weiting; Zeng, Lin; Wang, Jinhuan; Hu, Yi; Nie, Wenhui; Ma, Xutong; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

2011-01-01

317

Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 20, ?. 16 (2011), s. 3381-3398. ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bombina * isolation with migration * nuclear and mitochondrial markers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2011

Fijarczyk, A.; Nadachowska, K.; Hofman, S.; Litvinchuk, S.N.; Babik, W.; Stuglik, M.; Gollmann, G.; Choleva, Lukáš; Cogalniceanu, D.; Vukov, T.; Dzukic, G.; Szymura, J. M.

2011-01-01

318

Distribution and characteristics of aquatic habitats of newts and yellow-bellied toads in the district of Ioannina (Epirus, Greece)  

OpenAIRE

The study describes the aquatic habitats and distribution of Triturus alpestris veluchiensis Wolterstorff 1935, T. carnifex macedonicus (Karaman, 1922), T. vulgaris graecus (Wolterstorff, 1905) and Bombina variegata scabra (Küster, 1843) in the district (“nomos”) of Ioannina, Northern Greece. Bombina variegata was found to be the most common species, followed by T. alpestris and T. carnifex while T. vulgaris seemed to be rare. The four taxa differed in habitat use and geographic distribu...

Denoe?l, Mathieu

2004-01-01

319

Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China  

OpenAIRE

Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we di...

Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

2014-01-01

320

Tribulations of a prostate cancer trial - lessons learned from TOAD, a cancer council Victoria and Transtasman Radiation Oncology Group Trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: From 2004-2009 a total of 226 out of a target of 750 prostate cancer patients have been randomised into the Timing of Androgen Deprivation trial between immediate and delayed androgen deprivation. A screening log was kept by participating centres for the first 928 patients, which documented the reasons for non-entry into the trial; 42.7% of screened patients were ineligible and a further 33.0% were not entered for other reasons. Fewer than 10% of patients cited not wanting to be part of a clinical trial as a reason for non-entry. Strategies to improve recruitment included broadening the eligibility criteria, encouraging international collaboration, the use and support of research nurses in the private health care environment, and the use of phone follow-up. Recruitment will be completed at the number originally intended to inform the interim analysis designed to test the validity of the statistical assumptions, and a combined survival analysis with the Canadian study is planned.

321

Distribution of Boreal Toad Populations in Relation to Estimated UV-B Dose in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

This work provides information on amphibian distributions as well as the range of UV-B exposure in mountain habitats, and will be of use to scientists interested in tracking changes in amphibian distributions and abundance, and spatial and temporal patterns of UV-B exposure...

322

Quantitative study of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Mobilia infrapopulations infesting tadpoles of a Brazilian endemic toad Rhinella pombali (Anura: Bufonidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work we investigated the quantitative aspects of the relationship between Rhinella pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004 tadpoles and their trichodinid ectoparasites. Specimens were collected from a small stream located at an agricultural area between rainforest fragments in southeastern Brazil. A total of 80 tadpoles were investigated. Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 was the only trichodinid ciliate species recovered. All tadpoles were naturally infested by T. heterodentata with a mean intensity of 695.14 ± 33.33 trichodinid ciliates per tadpole. A positive correlation was observed between the intensity of the infestation and tadpole weight. Intensity of infestation did not significantly influence mean trichodinid diameter in the populations studied. This is the first study investigating density-dependent effects in interspecific interactions between trichodinids and anurans.

Noemi M. Fernandes

2011-12-01

323

Mechanisms of adreno- and cholinoreceptors in isolated pulmonary and systemic vasculature of the cane toad (Rhinella marina)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the overall autonomic regulation of the heart and vasculature of anurans has been studied in some detail, little is known about the role of the adreno- and cholinoreceptors in smooth muscle when looking at resistance in the pulmonary and systemic vessels. Vascular smooth muscle is the primary site of regulation of resistance and therefore holds the capacity to control blood flow and pressure. This vascular control allows amphibians to regulate their shunt, i.e. partially bypassing either the pulmonary or systemic circuit. Shunting in amphibians has been studied due to their multiple respiratory modalities and their ontogeny including fundamental morphological changes during metamorphosis. Here we use wire myography to evaluate how the vascular tone of isolated blood vessels from the pulmocutaneous, pulmonary, cutaneous and systemic segments respond to sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation. Hence, myography on vessels ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 mm allow for the investigation of isometric response to agonists and antagonists of smooth muscle with no autonomic tone. This provides the possibility of mapping the function of adreno- and cholinoreceptor in vascular regulation in anurans.

Pedersen, Pil Birkefeldt MØller; Wang, Tobias

324

Quantitative study of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Mobilia) infrapopulations infesting tadpoles of a Brazilian endemic toad Rhinella pombali (Anura: Bufonidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this work we investigated the quantitative aspects of the relationship between Rhinella pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004) tadpoles and their trichodinid ectoparasites. Specimens were collected from a small stream located at an agricultural area between rainforest fragments in southe [...] astern Brazil. A total of 80 tadpoles were investigated. Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 was the only trichodinid ciliate species recovered. All tadpoles were naturally infested by T. heterodentata with a mean intensity of 695.14 ± 33.33 trichodinid ciliates per tadpole. A positive correlation was observed between the intensity of the infestation and tadpole weight. Intensity of infestation did not significantly influence mean trichodinid diameter in the populations studied. This is the first study investigating density-dependent effects in interspecific interactions between trichodinids and anurans.

Noemi M., Fernandes; Bianca, Sartini; Roberto J. P., Dias; Marta, D' Agosto.

2011-12-01

325

Quantitative study of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Mobilia) infrapopulations infesting tadpoles of a Brazilian endemic toad Rhinella pombali (Anura: Bufonidae)  

OpenAIRE

In this work we investigated the quantitative aspects of the relationship between Rhinella pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004) tadpoles and their trichodinid ectoparasites. Specimens were collected from a small stream located at an agricultural area between rainforest fragments in southeastern Brazil. A total of 80 tadpoles were investigated. Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 was the only trichodinid ciliate species recovered. All tadpoles were naturally infested by T. heterod...

Fernandes, Noemi M.; Bianca Sartini; Dias, Roberto J. P.; Agosto, Marta D.

2011-01-01

326

A curious case of hervibory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions  

OpenAIRE

El objetivo de la presente nota es documentar un comportamiento curioso ocurrido con un grupo de animales adultos de Rhinella arenarum que fueron mantenidos en condiciones de hibernación artificial en el laboratorio durante abril-julio del 2012.

Jungblut, Lucas David; Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela; Paz, Dante Agusti?n

2013-01-01

327

A coalescent framework for comparing alternative models of population structure with genetic data: evolution of Celebes toads  

OpenAIRE

Isolation of populations eventually leads to divergence by genetic drift, but if connectivity varies over time, its impact on diversification may be difficult to discern. Even when the habitat patches of multiple species overlap, differences in their demographic parameters, molecular evolution and stochastic events contribute to differences in the magnitude and distribution of their genetic variation. The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, for example, harbours a suite of endemic species whose in...

Evans, Ben J.; Mcguire, Jimmy A.; Brown, Rafe M.; Andayani, Noviar; Supriatna, Jatna

2008-01-01

328

Contributions to knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of the herpetofauna of Dobrudja, Romania  

OpenAIRE

In Dobrudja we encountered 10 species of amphibians (Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae), 16 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Testudo graeca, Ablepharus kitaibelli, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Eremias arguta, Coronella austriaca, Zamensis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Dolichophis caspius, Natrix n...

Bogdan, Horia V.; Strugariu, Alexandru; Sas, Istvan; Cicort-lucaciu, Alfred-s?tefan; Ghira, Ioan; Covaciu-marcov, Severus-daniel

2006-01-01

329

Contribution to knowledge of the distribution of herpetofauna in Tarc?u Mountains (Romania)  

OpenAIRE

In the researched area we identified 12 amphibian species: Salamandra salamndra, Lissotritonvulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo,Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria and 9 reptilespecies: Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix,Zamenis longissimus, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. Within the region we identified s...

Daniel Ghiurc?; Iulian Gherghel; George Ro?u

2009-01-01

330

Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads. The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20% were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common.Os animais silvestres estão expostos a inúmeros patógenos,dentre eles estão os hemoparasitas. Podem-se destacar espécies do gênero Trypanosoma e do grupo das hemogregarinas,que ocorrem com freqüência parasitando anuros (rãs, pererecas e sapos. Normalmente, a descrição destes hemoparasitas é feita através da morfologia dos estágios observados nosangue periférico do hospedeiro e as pesquisas sobre o ciclobiológico desses hemoparasitas são escassas. Os objetivos dopresente estudo foram avaliar a presença de hemogregarinas eTrypanosoma spp. em anuros capturados nos Estados de São Paulo e Mato Grosso do Sul e fazer a caracterização morfológica e morfométrica dos seus hemoparasitas. As espécies deanuros examinadas foram: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusahypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius e Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Dos 40 animais estudados, foramencontrados quatro (10% positivos para hemogregarinas e oito(20% positivos para Trypanosoma spp. Foram observadosgamontes de hemogregarinas com morfologia variável e, alémdas formas intraeritrocíticas, também foram observados gamontes fora das hemácias. As formas de Trypanosoma encontradas eram muito polimórficas, conforme é descrito na literatura, sendo na sua maioria, larga e oval.

Denise D.M. Leal

2009-06-01

331

Study on the radiation dose assessment of non-human species near a site in the south of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the external environment of a site located in the South China, the Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans), dry duck and teal, and pine tree (Pinus massoniana Lamb) are studied as reference organisms. Through investigation, the parameters of biological characteristics of the species are provided. The radionuclide concentration ratio CR (defined as the ratio of activity concentration in biota whole body (Bq · kg-1 fresh weight) and activity concentration of soil (Bq · kg-1 dry weight) or activity concentration of filtered water(Bq · L-1)) are provided by collecting biological and environmental media samples and 90Sr and 137Cs activity analysis. By the ERICA tool of EC, the dose rates of the species for 90Sr and 137Cs are estimated. The results show that the dose rates of 90Sr and 137Cs for Chinese toad are 1.69 E 03 ?Gy · h-1 and 6.96 E-03 ?Gy · h-1 respectively, the total dose rate is 8.65 E-03 ?Gy · h-1. The dose rates of 90Sr and 137Cs for teal are 1.56 E-04 ?Gy · h-1 and 2.68 E-04E?Gy · h-1, the total dose rate is 4.24E-04 ?Gy · h-1. The dose rates of 90Sr and 137Cs for dry duck are 2.04E-04 ?Gy · h-1 and 2.29 E-04E?Gy · h-1, the total dose rate is 4.33E-04 ?Gy · h-1. The total dose rates of the reference animals are well below the IAEA recommended dose limit for terrestrial animals (40 ?Gy · h-1). The order of dose rates of 90Sr and 137Cs for pine, from high to low are: pine needles > pine branches > pine trunk. The total dose rate of pine needles is 1.38E-03 ?Gy · h-1, which is well below the IAEA recommended dose limit for terrestrial plants (400 ?Gy · h-1). (authors)

332

Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae. We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. When we analyzed the data using occupancy models that accounted for detection probability, we estimated the current use of historically occupied sites in our study area was 84.9% (SE = 4.9 for B. boreas and 72.4% (SE = 6.6 for R. cascadae. Our ability to detect B. boreas at sites where they were present was lower in the first year of surveys (a low snowpack year and higher at sites with introduced fish. Our ability to detect R. cascadae was lower at sites with fish. The probability that B. boreas still uses a historical site for breeding was related to the easting of the site (+ and the age of record (-. None of the variables we analyzed was strongly related to R. cascadae occupancy. Both species had increased odds of occupancy with higher latitude, but model support for this variable was modest. Our analysis suggests that while local losses are possible, these two amphibians have not experienced recent, broad population losses in the Oregon Cascades. Historical site revisitation studies such as ours cannot distinguish between population losses and site switching, and do not account for colonization of new habitats, so our analysis may overestimate declines in occupancy within our study area.

Brome McCreary

2009-12-01

333

What we know and don't know about amphibian declines in the West  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of declining amphibian species is thought to be particularly acute in western North America, but there are many gaps in our knowledge. Although several declines have been well-documented, other declines are anecdotal or hypothesized. Most documented declines are of ranid frogs or toads (Bufo). Species from montane habitats and those occurring in California have been best studied. Status of many desert species is unknown. Habitat destruction and introduced predators are the most common threats to amphibian populations. Some declines may represent natural variation in population size. Causes have not been determined for several cases where common species have declined over large areas. There are important considerations for ecosystem management, whether changes in amphibian populations are natural or caused by human activities. Causes for declines must be known so that management can be prescribed (or proscribed) to eliminate or minimize these causes. The natural variability of amphibian population numbers and the complexity of metapopulation structure emphasize the necessity of considering multiple temporal and spatial scales in ecosystem management. The decline of amphibian species throughout the world has received considerable recent attention (e.g., Blaustein and Wake 1990, Griffiths and Beebee 1992, Yoffe 1992). Much of this attention derives from a workshop held in February, 1990 on declining amphibians sponsored by the National Research Council Board (NRC) on Biology in Irvine, California (Barinaga 1990, Borchelt 1990). Because of media attention in the aftermath of this conference, it is a popular perception that amphibian declines are a new phenomenon that herpetologists have been slow to recognize (Griffiths and Beebee 1992, Quammen 1993). However, concern about amphibian populations in the United States dates back over 20 years. Beginning in the 1960s, a large, well-documented decline of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) occurred in the upper Midwest (Gibbs et al. 1971, Hine, 1981, Rittshof 1975).

Corn, Paul Stephen

1994-01-01

334

Release calls of female Bombina bombina (Anura: Bombinatoridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Release calls of a female fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina, were recorded in the field while handling the toad. Duration and structure of these calls are similar to release calls of male B. bombina.

Günter Gollmann

2009-07-01

335

Release calls of female Bombina bombina (Anura: Bombinatoridae)  

OpenAIRE

Release calls of a female fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina, were recorded in the field while handling the toad. Duration and structure of these calls are similar to release calls of male B. bombina.

Günter Gollmann; Andreas Benkö; Walter Hödl

2009-01-01

336

The herpethofauna from the Teuz River hydrographic basin (Arad County, Romania)  

OpenAIRE

In the Teuz River hydrographic basin from the western part of Romania we encountered 15 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus, Triturus alpestris, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria), 8 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, C...

Bogdan, H.; Kiss, A.; Sas, I.; Covaciu-marcov, S. D.; St Cicort-lucaciu, A.

2006-01-01

337

Preliminary data concerning the distribution of amphibian fauna in Suceava county (Romania)  

OpenAIRE

The present study focused upon an area in which the herpetofauna had previously been very poorly studied and aimed to identify the species of amphibians from the research area and to establish distribution areas. In the 54 investigated localities 16 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Pelobates fuscus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana tempora...

Strugariu, Alexandru; Gherghel, Iulian; Hutuleac-volosciuc, Mihail Victor; Sahlean, Tiberiu Constantin; Sas, Istvan; Puscasu, Cristina Maria

2006-01-01

338

The herpetofauna of the north-western region of Bihor County, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the researched area, we identified a total of 16 species for the herpetofauna. Among these, 11 belong to the amphibians (Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae, Rana dalmatina and 5 to the reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis taurica, Natrix natrix. Aside these 16 species, we also identified populations of Rana kl. esculenta, a hybrid form between Rana ridibunda and Rana lessonae.

Severus-Daniel COVACIU-MARCOV

2008-01-01

339

Transfer of anti-alcoholic effect of Nux Vomica 200 cH through water from one group of toads to another under alcohol anesthesia  

OpenAIRE

Background: A common practice is to give homeopathic medication to nursing mothers to treat their children, assuming that the drug will be conveyed by the milk. In the case of conventional treatment, the drug molecules are indeed passed on from the mother to her breastfed infant. However, high dilutions (HD) above 12 cH, i.e., over Avogadro’s number, are traditionally held to lack any molecule from the starting material. If that is the case, then, does medication taken by the mother actuall...

Rathin Chakravarty; Anirban Sukul; Nirmal Chandra Sukul; Indrani Chakraborty

2012-01-01

340

Species history and divergence times of viviparous and oviparous Chinese toad-headed sand lizards (Phrynocephalus) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is an important biogeographical area and has recently become a focus for biodiversity studies. Phyrnocephalus lizards form a widespread Eurasian group with oviparous and viviparous reproductive modes, but two previous mtDNA studies of species from around the QTP have provided different phylogenetic hypotheses. We analysed three loci (mtDNA, RAG-1, AME) from all recognised Chinese Phrynocephalus species to reconstruct the speciation history of the group and to estimate species divergence times. The effects of mtDNA partitioning strategy on phylogenetic inference were examined. Bayes factor comparisons of marginal likelihoods (mLs) estimated using stepping-stone sampling revealed that partitioning strategy had a major impact on mL. Nevertheless, it had a negligible effect on the inferred tree topology. The impact of hard-bound uniform or equivalent soft-bound gamma speciation time calibration priors as well as the use of a fixed topology (as opposed to integration over all possible species histories) on divergence time estimation were also assessed, and found to have little impact on posterior estimates. All three gene trees and the species tree supported the hypothesis that the Chinese species form oviparous and viviparous sister clades. This was in agreement with an early mtDNA study but differed from a subsequent reanalysis of the mtDNA data. Inclusion of mtDNA from more widely distributed Phrynocephalus (from previous studies) indicates that the oviparous P. interscapularis from Central Asia lies outside the clade of Chinese viviparous and oviparous species, but that other Asian oviparous species lie within the Chinese oviparous clade. The median of the posterior on the divergence time of Chinese oviparous and viviparous species was 9.7 Ma ago (95% interval: 7.2-13.0 Ma ago), which coincides with major uplifting of the QTP and indicates that viviparity evolved when this clade became restricted to regions of high elevation. We also found that cladogenesis within the viviparous clade began around 5 Ma ago whereas those in the oviparous clade began around 8.6 Ma ago. We establish more robust estimates of divergence times and relationships within this important group and so provide improved insights into the origins of Phrynocephalus diversity across the QTP. PMID:23567019

Jin, Y-T; Brown, R P

2013-08-01

341

Fab antibody fragments: some applications in clinical toxicology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review provides current information on the use of antigen-binding fragments (Fab) from cleaved antibodies to treat poisoning with digoxin and other potent, low formula mass poisons, such as colchicine and tricyclic antidepressants. Anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been used successfully for many years in the management of severe poisoning with digoxin, digitoxin, and a range of other structurally related compounds, including cardiotoxins from Nerium and Thevetia sp. (oleander) and Bufo sp. (toads). However, their main use remains treating digoxin poisoning. Equimolar doses of anti-digoxin Fab fragments completely bind digoxin in vivo. The approximate dose of Fab fragments (mg) is 80 times the digoxin body burden (mg). If neither the dose ingested nor the plasma digoxin/digitoxin concentration is known, in an adult 380 mg of anti-digoxin Fab fragments should be given. The dose for elderly patients or those with renal impairment should be similar to that for those with normal renal function. Fab fragments have a plasma half-life of 12-20 hours, but this can be prolonged in patients with renal impairment. Analysis of serum ultrafiltrate using an immunoassay shown not to have matrix bias remains the most accurate approach to measuring free digoxin in the presence of anti-digoxin Fab fragments. The antibody fragments are given intravenously over 15-30 minutes after dilution to at least 250 mL with plasma protein solution, 0.9% (w/v) sodium chloride, or deionised water, except in infants where the volume infused can be reduced. Factors limiting the efficacy of Fab fragments are the dose, the duration of the infusion and any delay in administration. Guidelines for Fab fragment administration in children include (i) dilution to a final Fab concentration of 10 g/L in either 5% (w/v) dextrose or 0.9% (w/v) sodium chloride; (ii) infusion through a 0.22 microm filter; (iii) administration of the total dose over a minimum of 30 minutes; and (iv) avoiding coadministration of other drugs and/or electrolyte solutions. Fab fragments are generally well tolerated. Adverse effects attributable to Fab treatment include hypokalaemia and exacerbation of congestive cardiac failure; renal function could be impaired in some patients. Fab fragment preparations for treating acute colchicine and tricyclic antidepressant poisoning have been developed, but are not available commercially. Colchicine poisoning is rare in Western countries, and pharmacological management together with supportive care is usually effective even in severe tricyclic antidepressant overdosage. Attempts have been made to produce anti-paraquat antibodies capable of enhancing paraquat elimination from the lung, but thus far all such attempts have proved unsuccessful. PMID:15554746

Flanagan, Robert J; Jones, Alison L

2004-01-01

342

New effects of Roundup on amphibians: predators reduce herbicide mortality; herbicides induce antipredator morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is important for growing crops and protecting human health by reducing the prevalence of targeted pest species. However, less attention is given to the potential unintended effects on nontarget species, including taxonomic groups that are of current conservation concern. One issue raised in recent years is the potential for pesticides to become more lethal in the presence of predatory cues, a phenomenon observed thus far only in the laboratory. A second issue is whether pesticides can induce unintended trait changes in nontarget species, particularly trait changes that might mimic adaptive responses to natural environmental stressors. Using outdoor mesocosms, I created simple wetland communities containing leaf litter, algae, zooplankton, and three species of tadpoles (wood frogs [Rana sylvatica or Lithobates sylvaticus], leopard frogs [R. pipiens or L. pipiens], and American toads [Bufo americanus or Anaxyrus americanus]). I exposed the communities to a factorial combination of environmentally relevant herbicide concentrations (0, 1, 2, or 3 mg acid equivalents [a.e.]/L of Roundup Original MAX) crossed with three predator-cue treatments (no predators, adult newts [Notophthalmus viridescens], or larval dragonflies [Anax junius]). Without predator cues, mortality rates from Roundup were consistent with past studies. Combined with cues from the most risky predator (i.e., dragonflies), Roundup became less lethal (in direct contrast to past laboratory studies). This reduction in mortality was likely caused by the herbicide stratifying in the water column and predator cues scaring the tadpoles down to the benthos where herbicide concentrations were lower. Even more striking was the discovery that Roundup induced morphological changes in the tadpoles. In wood frog and leopard frog tadpoles, Roundup induced relatively deeper tails in the same direction and of the same magnitude as the adaptive changes induced by dragonfly cues. To my knowledge, this is the first study to show that a pesticide can induce morphological changes in a vertebrate. Moreover, the data suggest that the herbicide might be activating the tadpoles' developmental pathways used for antipredator responses. Collectively, these discoveries suggest that the world's most widely applied herbicide may have much further-reaching effects on nontarget species than previous considered. PMID:22611860

Relyea, Rick A

2012-03-01

343

Preliminary data concerning the distribution of amphibian fauna in Suceava county (Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study focused upon an area in which the herpetofauna had previously been very poorly studied and aimed to identify the species of amphibians from the research area and to establish distribution areas. In the 54 investigated localities 16 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Pelobates fuscus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis, Rana ridibunda & Rana lessonae and 2 hybrids (Bombina bombina X Bombina variegata & Rana kl. esculanta have been identified. Of these, the Bombina hybrids have been identified for the first time in the studied region.

Alexandru STRUGARIU

2006-05-01

344

Contribution to knowledge of the distribution of herpetofauna in Tarc?u Mountains (Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the researched area we identified 12 amphibian species: Salamandra salamndra, Lissotritonvulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo,Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria and 9 reptilespecies: Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix,Zamenis longissimus, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. Within the region we identified speciesquoted (Cog?lniceanu et al. 2000, Ghiurc? et al. 2005, Gherghel et al. 2008, Iftime et al. 2008 to havethe lowest altitudinal limit of their spreading area at much higher altitudes. Most of the amphibian andreptilian species are not endangered in the researched area.

Daniel Ghiurc?

2009-12-01

345

Valge fungi uus tulemine / Kersti Pikk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Peeter Tambu projekteeritud valge "eestiaegne" funk eramu, kus avatud planeeringu asemel on paraja suurusega eraldi toad, esikohal ruumide otstarbekus ja ratsionaalsus. Arhitekt on kujundanud interjööri ja mööbli

Pikk, Kersti

2007-01-01

346

Notes on distribution and current status of herpetofauna in the northern area of Bra?ov County (Romania)  

OpenAIRE

In the northern area of Bra?ov County, the herpetofauna appears to be characteristic for a hilly and low-mountain zone and includes the following species: Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cristatus, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Pseudepidalea viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax kl. esculentus, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis, Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, Anguis fragilis colchicus...

Sos, Tibor

2007-01-01

347

Drug: D06750 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available D06750 Crude, Drug Toad venom (JP16) Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD:C17058], Cinobuf ... dicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for external ... use Drugs for external ... use D06750 Toad venom Crude ...

348

A Symbolic Finite-state approach for Automated Proving of Theorems in Combinatorial Game Theory  

CERN Document Server

We develop a finite-state automata approach, implemented in a Maple package {\\tt ToadsAndFrogs} available from our websites, for conjecturing, and then rigorously proving, values for large families of positions in Richard Guy's combinatorial game ``Toads and Frogs''. In particular, we prove a conjecture of Jeff Erickson.

Thanatipanonda, Thotsaporn ``Aek''

2007-01-01

349

Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima Taylor, 1942; Lithobates rexroadensis for Rana rexroadensis Taylor, 1942; Lithobates robustocondylus for Anchylorana robustocondyla Taylor, 1942; Ommatotriton roehrsi for Triturus roehrsi Herre, 1955; Pelophylax barani for Rana barani Rückert-Ülkumen, 1980; Pelophylax meriani for Rana meriani Meyer, 1853; Pelophylax pueyoi for Rana pueyoi Navás, 1922a; Pelophylax quellenbergi for Rana quellenbergi Navás, 1922; Philoria borealis for Kyarranus borealis Tyler, 1991; Pseudepidalea belogorica for Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993; Pseudepidalea plana for Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993; Pseudepidalea prisca for Bufo priscus Spinar, Klembara et Meszáros, 1993, and Pseudepidalea stranensis for Bufo stranensis Nemec, 1972. The names Geyeriellinae Brame, 1958, Palaeurodelidae Brame, 1958, Prosalamandridae Stefano, 1903, Lipelucidae Huene, 1956, Rana temporaria fossilis Stefanov, 1951, Salteniidae Kuhn, 1962, Vieraellidae Reig, 1961, and Voigtiellinae Brame, 1958 are nomenclaturally deemed unavailable. The family name based on Scapherpeton Cope, 1876 is Scapherpetidae and not Scapherpetonidae nor Scapherpetontidae.

Una revisión de anfibios extintos

Martín, C.

2012-06-01

350

Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

Luca Tringali

2010-07-01

351

[A comparative analysis of the action of zootoxins on the isolated heart].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative analysis of cardiotropic activity of toxins has been studied in experiments on isolated heart of the poisonous animals from different systematic groups living on the territory of the USSR: reptiles (the venom of cobra, Vipera lebetina, Ancistrodon blomhoffi), amphibian (the venom of Bufo, Bombina, salamander), arachnids (the venom of Apis, Scolopendra, scorpion). The specific cardiotropic activity of the scorpion and Bufo venom has been discovered. The mechanisms of the cardiostimulative activity of scorpion venom have been found to be due to the activation of cellular adrenoreactive structures, and the Bufo venom to the activation of the intracellular calcium. The prospects of zootoxins using in cardiology for development of cardiotonic drugs and modelling the pathologic states in blood circulation system is substantiated. PMID:1859858

Val'tseva, I A; Krylov, V N; Egorov, V V; Sheshina, N P

1991-01-01

352

Presidendi külalismaja avatakse turistidele märtsis / Kadri Paas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja proua Evelin Ilvese Ärma talu- ja puhkekompleks Erma Park Abja-Paluoja naabruses avatakse külalistele 2007. a. märtsis. Külaliste toad kannavad tuntud ajalooliste ühiskonna- ja kultuuritegelaste nimesid

Paas, Kadri, 1982-

2007-01-01

353

Predation of Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae by Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae in the Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

2010-06-01

354

Dynamic characterization of silicon nanowires using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer-based pump-probe scheme  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dynamic phase and amplitude all-optical responses of silicon nanowires are characterized using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based pump-probe scheme. Ultra-fast recovery is observed for moderate pump powers.

Ji, Hua; Cleary, C. S.

2012-01-01

355

78 FR 44586 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Cross Valley Transmission Line Habitat Conservation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...proposed for coverage under the draft HCP are the western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii), the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the little willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii brewsteri), and the spiny-sepaled button-celery...

2013-07-24

356

Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata  

OpenAIRE

The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a sk...

Bing Bai; Xiaojuan Hou; Lei Wang; Lilin Ge; Yu Luo; Chengbang Ma; Mei Zhou; Jinao Duan; Tianbao Chen; Chris Shaw

2014-01-01

357

The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report  

OpenAIRE

Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles), comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya), and rhacophorid treefrog...

Trainor, Colin R.; Richards, Stephen J.; Barbara Lester; Scott Heacox; Paul Freed; Jester Ceballos; Venancio Lopes Carvalho; Hinrich Kaiser; Caitlin Sanchez; Mark O’Shea

2011-01-01

358

Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs  

OpenAIRE

A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive chemical defense, these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from a variety of alkaloid-containing arthropods. The pumiliotoxins represent a ma...

Saporito, Ralph A.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Donnelly, Maureen A.; Edwards, Adam L.; Longino, John T.; Daly, John W.

2004-01-01

359

[Toxicity of drugs on nasal mucocilia and the method of its evaluation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of solutions or suspensions of eight drugs including analgin, paracetamol, propafenone hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, ephedrine hydrochloride, gentamycin sulfate, sodium deoxycholate and hydrocortisone on ciliary movement were evaluated with in vitro or in situ toad palate model and scanning electron microscope. In vitro toad palate model: 0.2 ml of test drug solution or suspension was applied to a piece of freshly dissected upper palate of toad. The mucocilia were examined with an optical microscope and the lasting time of ciliary movement was recorded after drug application. The upper palate was rinsed with physiological saline when the ciliary movement stopped. The lasting time of ciliary movement after rinsing was then recorded again. In situ palate model: 0.5 ml of test drug solution or suspension was applied to the upper palate of toad for 30 min, and rinsed with physiological saline. The palate was dissected out and the operation was carried out in a similar manner. The results showed that the in situ toad palate model is a satisfactory method for studying the ciliotoxicity of drugs. The in vitro toad palate model is unsuitable for suspension and gel. The results of the eight drugs revealed that ciliary movement is frequently affected by many drugs and, therefore, care must be taken in developing any nasal dosage form to ensure its least ciliotoxicity. PMID:8712011

Jiang, X G; Cui, J B; Fang, X L; Wei, Y; Xi, N Z

1995-11-01

360

Evidence for disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent discovery of a pathogenic fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) associated with declines in frogs in the American and Australian tropics, suggests that at least the proximate cause, may be known for many previously unexplained amphibian declines. We have monitored boreal toads in Colorado since 1991 at four sites using capture-recapture of adults and counts of egg masses to examine the dynamics of this metapopulation. Numbers of male toads declines in 1996 and 1999 with annual survival rate averaging 78% from 1991 to 1994, 45% in 1995 and 3% between 1998 and 1999. Numbers of egg masses also declines. An etiological diagnosis of chytridiomycosis consistent with infections by the genus Batrachochytrium was made in six wild adult toads. Characteristic histomorphological features (i.e. intracellular location, shape of thalli, presence of discharge tubes and rhizoids) of chytrid organisms, and host tissue response (acanthosis and hyperkeratosis) were observed in individual toads. These characteristics were indistinguishable from previously reported mortality events associated with chytrid fungus. We also observed epizootiological features consistent with mortality events associated with chytrid fungus: an increase in the ratio of female:male toads captured, and apparent spread of mortalities within the metapopulation and mortalities restricted to post metamorphic animals. Eleven years of population data suggest that this metapopulation of toads is in danger of extinction, pathological and epizootiological evidence indicates that B. dendrobatidis has played a proximate role in this process.

Muths, E.; Corn, P.S.; Pessier, A. P.; Green, D.E.

2003-01-01

361

Evidence of disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent discovery of a pathogenic fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) associated with declines of frogs in the American and Australian tropics, suggests that at least the proximate cause, may be known for many previously unexplained amphibian declines. We have monitored boreal toads in Colorado since 1991 at four sites using capturea??recapture of adults and counts of egg masses to examine the dynamics of this metapopulation. Numbers of male toads declined in 1996 and 1999 with annual survival rate averaging 78% from 1991 to 1994, 45% in 1995 and 3% between 1998 and 1999. Numbers of egg masses also declined. An etiological diagnosis of chytridiomycosis consistent with infections by the genus Batrachochytrium was made in six wild adult toads. Characteristic histomorphological features (i.e. intracellular location, shape of thalli, presence of discharge tubes and rhizoids) of chytrid organisms, and host tissue response (acanthosis and hyperkeratosis) were observed in individual toads. These characteristics were indistinguishable from previously reported mortality events associated with chytrid fungus. We also observed epizootiological features consistent with mortality events associated with chytrid fungus: an increase in the ratio of female:male toads captured, an apparent spread of mortalities within the metapopulation and mortalities restricted to post metamorphic animals. Eleven years of population data suggest that this metapopulation of toads is in danger of extinction, pathological and epizootiological evidence indicates that B. dendrobatidis has played a proximate role in this process

Muths, E.; Corn, P.S.; Pessier, A. P.; Green, D.E.

2003-01-01

362

Helminth community structure in the Argentinean bufonid Melanophryniscus klappenbachi: importance of habitat use and season.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the relative influence of terrestrial habits, season, and host body size on the species richness and abundance of helminth parasites in the toad Melanophryniscus klappenbachi, for which a greater abundance of nematode parasites was expected. A total of 90 toads were collected in the Chaco Province, Argentina. The helminth community found in infected toads included 17 taxa and was dominated particularly by larval parasites. Contrary to our expectations, nematode species showed lower values of infection parameters. Infected toads harbored a maximum of seven species, and the mean helminth richness was 3.16?±?1.66 species per infected toads. Season played a significant effect on determining the species richness and abundance of the parasite infracommunity. Similarly, the prevalence of infection of several helminth species (8/47%) varied greatly over time. Host body size was the main factor in determining the infrapopulation structure of helminth parasites. Species richness was significantly and negatively correlated with host body size. Strong associations were observed mainly between larvae of some species. The transmission strategies of parasites suggest that this bufonid acquires infections through direct contact with larval parasites from aquatic and terrestrial habitats and by ingestion of infective larvae. The characteristic of the host tegument, such as the presence of alkaloids, could significantly contribute to the low occurrence of infection by skin-penetrating nematodes. Results also showed that diets and mobility of the host and the local microhabitat conditions play an important role in parasitic infections of toads. PMID:25030118

Hamann, Monika I; Kehr, Arturo I; González, Cynthya E

2014-10-01

363

Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02610-1 [Dicty_cDB  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Contig-U02610-1 no gap 683 3 201958 201275 MINUS 3 3 U02610 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Show Con ... rom clone CH211-278P9. 50 0.11 1 ( AY635595 ) Bufo boreas ... clone BBR201 microsatellite sequence. 50 0.11 1 ( ...

364

Revisão do gênero Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) / Revision of the genus Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The genus Satipoella Lane, 1964 is revised and a new synonym is proposed, Icarai Galileo & Martins, 1998, with Satipoella. A new species, S. ochroma, is described from Amazonas, Brazil. New combination: Satipoella bufo (Thomson, 1864) from Icarai. The three species of Satipoella are illustrated and [...] keyed.

Carlos Eduardo de Alvarenga, Julio.

2003-06-01

365

Revisão do g?nero Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae Revision of the genus Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Satipoella Lane, 1964 is revised and a new synonym is proposed, Icarai Galileo & Martins, 1998, with Satipoella. A new species, S. ochroma, is described from Amazonas, Brazil. New combination: Satipoella bufo (Thomson, 1864 from Icarai. The three species of Satipoella are illustrated and keyed.

Carlos Eduardo de Alvarenga Julio

2003-06-01

366

Geographic variation in Incilius occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae), an endemic toad from Mexico, with a redescription of the species and delimitation of the type locality / Variación geográfica en Incilius occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae), un sapo endémico de México, con una redescripción de la especie y delimitación de la localidad tipo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisó la variación geográfica en la morfometría de las poblaciones que conforman la especie Incilius occidentalis, que se distribuye ampliamente en el noroeste y centro de México; se presenta además una revisión de la historia nomenclatural de esta especie. Para analizar la varia [...] ción morfométrica se definieron 33 poblaciones provenientes de más de 220 localidades, midiéndose diez variables morfométricas estandar y otras de morfología externa en ejemplares adultos. El análisis de componentes principales (ACP) muestra que la variación observada se concentra en la variable LHC, sin embargo, la prueba de Tukey-HSD para analizar diferencias interpoblacionales mostró que no existen poblaciones morfométricamente distinguibles dentro de esta especie. La forma y el tamaño del cuerpo son similares entre las poblaciones, lo que sugiere la idea de que la forma típica que define a los bufónidos puede confirmarse en esta especie. I. occidentalis se redescribe mediante la comparación de los 3 ejemplares tipo depositados en la Colección Antigua de la Universidad de Turín, Italia y más de 850 ejemplares depositados en diferentes colecciones herpetológicas. Se designan un lectotipo y 2 paralectotipos, y se define la distribución geográfica de esta especie, restringiendo la localidad tipo en la ciudad de Guanajuato y alrededores. Abstract in english A taxonomic revision of the populations referable to the wide ranging species Incilius occidentalis was conducted based on 10 morphometric variables and other external morphological traits. Thirty three populations were geographically defined from more than 220 locality records of the species. A bri [...] ef summary of the nomenclatural history of this species is presented and the external morphological variation is analyzed. Incilius occidentalis is here redescribed on the basis of comparisons with the 3 specimens housed at the Old Collection of the Torino Museum, and over 850 specimens held at several herpetological collections. Statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA) demonstrated that SVL concentrates the main part of the variance observed in these populations. No distinguishable populations were detected on the basis of morphometric differences using the Tukey HSD analysis. Body proportions are fairly similar between the 33 populations defined, suggesting the idea that the typical body shape of the bufonid genera is also perceived in this species. The species I. occidentalis is fully redescribed, 1 lectotype and 2 paralectotypes are designated. The geographic range of this species is accurately defined and the type locality is restricted to the City of Guanajuato, and surroundings, Mexico.

Georgina, Santos-Barrera.

367

A hybrid zone of two toad sister species, Rhinella atacamensis and R. arunco (Anura: Bufonidae), defined by a consistent altitudinal segregation in watersheds / Una zona de hibridación de dos especies hermanas de anuros, Rhinella atacamensis y R. arunco (Anura: Bufonidae), definida por una consistente segregación altitudinal en cuencas hidrográficas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Definir la extensión espacial de una zona de hibridación es esencial para entender su origen histórico e identificar los factores geográficos y/o ambientales que la delimitan. Rhinella atacamensis y R. arunco son dos especies hermanas que en conjunto habitan entre los 25 y 38° S a lo largo de Chile. [...] Sus límites de distribución coinciden aproximadamente a los 32° S, donde recientemente se reportó que hibridan en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica (estero Pupío). Aunque la evidencia genética sugiere que estas especies forman un enjambre híbrido, no se mezclan homogéneamente a lo largo de la cuenca sino que se segregan espacialmente: R. arunco se encuentra en la parte baja del estero, mientras que R. atacamensis se ubica en la parte alta. Una extensa exploración al norte y sur de los 32° S reveló otras instancias de hibridación donde se mantiene el mismo patrón de segregación espacial dentro de otras cuencas. En este estudio se describe esta zona de hibridación combinando secuencias mitocondriales y marcadores nucleares AFLP. En su parte norte, la zona conforma una estrecha franja que atraviesa varias cuencas extendiéndose más de 130 km en dirección noroeste-sureste, de manera que R. atacamensis se encuentra cada vez a mayor altura a medida que se avanza hacia el sur. Sin embargo, dos puntos ubicados el sur de esta franja muestran que la zona de hibridación es más extensa y compleja, y que probablemente se extiende por todo el borde de las cadenas de cerros que conforman la cuenca hidrográfica del río Aconcagua (32°30' - 33° S). Se plantea una explicación para el origen de esta zona de hibridación considerando antecedentes paleoclimáticos y orográficos y se discuten brevemente las implicancias taxonómicas de estos resultados. Abstract in english Delimiting the spatial extension of a hybrid zone is essential to understand its historical origin and to identify the geographical and/or environmental factors which delimit it. Rhinella atacamensis and R. arunco are two sister species which together inhabit Chile between 25° and 38° S. Their distr [...] ibution limits coincide at about 32° S, where recently it was reported that they hybridize in a small watershed (Pupío creek). Although the genetic evidence suggests that these two species form a hybrid swarm, they are not mixed homogeneously in the entire watershed, but rather are spatially segregated: R. arunco is found in the lower part of the creek and R. atacamensis in the higher part. An extensive exploration north and south of 32° S revealed other instances of hybridization, with the same pattern of spatial segregation within other watersheds. This study describes the hybrid zone combining mitochondrial sequences and nuclear AFLP markers. In the northern part, the hybrid zone is a narrow strip which crosses several watersheds and extends more than 130 km from NW-SE, so that R. atacamensis is found at higher altitudes towards the south. However, two points south of this strip show that the hybrid zone is more extensive and complex, and probably extends along the entire border of the mountain chains which form the watershed of the Aconcagua River (32°30' - 33° S). We propose an explanation for the origin of this hybrid zone considering paleoclimatic and orographic information, and briefly discuss the taxonomic implications of these results.

CLAUDIO, CORREA; MARCO A, MÉNDEZ; SERGIO, ARAYA; GABRIEL, LOBOS; R. EDUARDO, PALMA.

2013-06-01

368

Relationship between the genetic structure of the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) and the northern Chile landscape (21°- 24° S) Relación entre la estructura genética del sapo andino Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) y el paisaje del norte de Chile (21°- 24° S)  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed the relationship of landscape and environmental features on the genetic differentiation of Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834) in the Altiplano of Antofagasta (Chile). We performed three types of analyses at different spatial scales: (1) Considering all populations; (2) Grouping populations by watershed and by sub-watershed; and (3) Using the results of a spatial analysis of molecular variation (SAMOVA). Landscape features were incorporated using Geographic Information Systems, wi...

Gallardo, Carolina E.; Herna?ndez, He?ctor J.; Diniz-filho, Jose? A. F.; Eduardo Palma, R.; Me?ndez, Marco A.

2011-01-01

369

[Electrophoretic mobility and activity Na,K-ATPase of erytheocytes in rats under stress].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we study the relation between the electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes (EPME) and the activity of Na,K-ATPase of erythrocytes under the action of different types of stress factors (immobilization, hypoxia, radiation exposure), as well as the introduction of stress implementing agents (adrenaline, cortisol, bee and toad venom) rats. Activity of Na,K-ATPase and the change of EPME washed erythrocytes were examined through 15, 120 min and 24 hours after exposure. Found that at the initial stage (15 min after a stress-exposure) decrease of EPME associated with increased enzyme activity and further increase of EPME takes place on the background of the decrease of activity of Na,K-ATPase in all types of alterations, except the actions toad venom and cortisol. Toad venom and cortisol led to reduced activity of Na,K-ATPase and increase of EPME. PMID:25665408

Krylov, V N; Deriugina, A V; Konstantinova, A I

2014-11-01

370

7ª Contribuição ao estudo dos Flebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae: descrição dos machos de 24 novas espécies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The A. and his co-workers captured in trips in the hinterland of Brazil more tham 17.000 flebotomi from which 35 are new ones, 11 discribed by, him in previous papers. The A. found these insects in groups of species living in different habitats, some ones of them not yet known: ondoors, or outdoors attracted by light or animal baits, without Shannon’s trap, in great or small caves, in the jungle in tree’s holes, holes in stones, holes in the soil habited by animals like armadillos, pacas (Aguti paca, wild rats, cururú toad (Bufo sp.. He observed the life history of 13 species: Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz& Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus intermedius Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus avellari Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus aragãoi costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus lutzianus Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus limai fonseca, 1935, Flebotomus rickardi Costa Lima, 1936, Flebotomus dasipodogeton Castro, 1939, Flebotomus oswaldoi n. sp., Flebotomus villelai n. sp., Flebotomus triacanthus n. sp., Flebotomus longispinus n. sp. And flebotomus travassosi n. sp. He describes the male of 24 n. sp., explaining the differential diagnose of group or nearly allied species. He inclued F. rooti n. sp. And F. hirsutus n. sp. In the sub-genus Shannonomyia. The first one, very allied to F. davisi Root is different from it, for presenting in the dorsal side of the abdomen bristles and not scales and to have the median claspers longer than his inner appendage and F. hirsutus quite different from the others which show 3 spines on distal segment of the upper clasper and for being the only one who presents the bristles of inner appendage of median clasper longer than it. Only the females of F. amazonensis Root and f. chagasi Costa Lima, are known and then it is possible that they belong to one of the species of this sub-genus from whom only the male have been described. F. choti Floch & Abonnenc, captured also at Pará, F. triacanthus n. sp. F. trispinosus n. sp. And F. equatorialis n. sp. Are very related and to this group the A. proposes the same of Pressatia as sub-genus in honor to whom demonstrated the medical importance of the flebotomi, considering F. triacanthus as the type specie of this sub-genus. In this sub-genus the V papal joint is very long, longer than III + IV, the antennae with geniculated spines without posterior outgrowth. At the genitalia the basal segment of the upper clasper presents two types of bristles ou the inner face, arranged in tuft; the distal segment with 3 spines and 2 thin bristles something difficult to see one of them situated near the apical spine and the other on the base of tubercle where the median spine is articulated; the median clasper is unarmed and compressed; the inferior clasper is also unarmed and longer than de basal segment of the upper clasper; the pompeta is longer than the basal segment of the upper clasper. Following it is presented a key for the determination of the males of the four species of this sub-genus. F. micropygus n. sp., F. minasensis n. sp. e F. dandrophylus n. sp., f. shannoni, F. monticolus, F. pestanai, F. lanei and F. cayenensis constitute a group with many similars characters. F. micropygus is the only American species who present ? smaller than ? and for that reason and others is allied to. F. minuts and others related species, but presents two terminal spines on the distal segment of the upper clasper. F. micropygus and f. minasensis are quite different because they have very small genitalia, smaller than their heads. F. dendrophylus presents on the median clasper a naked area near the apex and for this and others characters is different from the others of the group. F. flaviscutellatus n. sp., F. oliverioi, F. intermedius and whithmani, are very allied but the first one can be very easily distinguished because it’s scutellum is light. Flebotomus barrettoi n. sp., F. coutinhoi n. sp., F. aragãoi, F. brasiliensis, F. lutzianus, F. texanus, F. pascalei, F. atroclavatus and F. tejeraae are very allied forming a natural group. The two last ones are not well known

O. Mangabeira Filho

1942-01-01

371

7ª Contribuição ao estudo dos Flebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae): descrição dos machos de 24 novas espécies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The A. and his co-workers captured in trips in the hinterland of Brazil more tham 17.000 flebotomi from which 35 are new ones, 11 discribed by, him in previous papers. The A. found these insects in groups of species living in different habitats, some ones of them not yet known: ondoors, or outdoors [...] attracted by light or animal baits, without Shannon’s trap, in great or small caves, in the jungle in tree’s holes, holes in stones, holes in the soil habited by animals like armadillos, pacas (Aguti paca), wild rats, cururú toad (Bufo sp.). He observed the life history of 13 species: Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz& Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus intermedius Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus avellari Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus aragãoi costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus lutzianus Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus limai fonseca, 1935, Flebotomus rickardi Costa Lima, 1936, Flebotomus dasipodogeton Castro, 1939, Flebotomus oswaldoi n. sp., Flebotomus villelai n. sp., Flebotomus triacanthus n. sp., Flebotomus longispinus n. sp. And flebotomus travassosi n. sp. He describes the male of 24 n. sp., explaining the differential diagnose of group or nearly allied species. He inclued F. rooti n. sp. And F. hirsutus n. sp. In the sub-genus Shannonomyia. The first one, very allied to F. davisi Root is different from it, for presenting in the dorsal side of the abdomen bristles and not scales and to have the median claspers longer than his inner appendage and F. hirsutus quite different from the others which show 3 spines on distal segment of the upper clasper and for being the only one who presents the bristles of inner appendage of median clasper longer than it. Only the females of F. amazonensis Root and f. chagasi Costa Lima, are known and then it is possible that they belong to one of the species of this sub-genus from whom only the male have been described. F. choti Floch & Abonnenc, captured also at Pará, F. triacanthus n. sp. F. trispinosus n. sp. And F. equatorialis n. sp. Are very related and to this group the A. proposes the same of Pressatia as sub-genus in honor to whom demonstrated the medical importance of the flebotomi, considering F. triacanthus as the type specie of this sub-genus. In this sub-genus the V papal joint is very long, longer than III + IV, the antennae with geniculated spines without posterior outgrowth. At the genitalia the basal segment of the upper clasper presents two types of bristles ou the inner face, arranged in tuft; the distal segment with 3 spines and 2 thin bristles something difficult to see one of them situated near the apical spine and the other on the base of tubercle where the median spine is articulated; the median clasper is unarmed and compressed; the inferior clasper is also unarmed and longer than de basal segment of the upper clasper; the pompeta is longer than the basal segment of the upper clasper. Following it is presented a key for the determination of the males of the four species of this sub-genus. F. micropygus n. sp., F. minasensis n. sp. e F. dandrophylus n. sp., f. shannoni, F. monticolus, F. pestanai, F. lanei and F. cayenensis constitute a group with many similars characters. F. micropygus is the only American species who present ? smaller than ? and for that reason and others is allied to. F. minuts and others related species, but presents two terminal spines on the distal segment of the upper clasper. F. micropygus and f. minasensis are quite different because they have very small genitalia, smaller than their heads. F. dendrophylus presents on the median clasper a naked area near the apex and for this and others characters is different from the others of the group. F. flaviscutellatus n. sp., F. oliverioi, F. intermedius and whithmani, are very allied but the first one can be very easily distinguished because it’s scutellum is light. Flebotomus barrettoi n. sp., F. coutinhoi n. sp., F. aragãoi, F. brasiliensis, F. lutzianus, F. texanus, F. pascalei, F. atroclavatus and F. t

O., Mangabeira Filho.

372

Chiggers recently infesting Spea spp., in Texas, USA, were Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, not Hannemania sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon re-examination of preserved larval chiggers collected from spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons and Spea multiplicata) in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA, and identified previously as Hannemania sp., we found them to be Eutrombicula alfreddugesi. A review of previous reports of Eutrombicula spp. chiggers on amphibian hosts provides context for current findings. All members of the genus Hannemania are specialized larval parasites of amphibians, whereas larval E. alfreddugesi are generalist parasites of a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrate hosts that infrequently includes amphibians. Spadefoot toads are previously undocumented hosts for E. alfreddugesi, and observed infestations were unusually prevalent and intense for this chigger on an amphibian host.

Mertins, James W.; Torrence, Shannon M.; Sterner, M.C.

2011-01-01

373

CRAYFISH PREDATION ON TADPOLES : A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIVE (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES AND AN ALIEN SPECIES (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the laboratory, the motivation and/or ability to prey on anuran larvae (Bufo bufo, Rana kl. esculenta and R. italica were compared between a native European (Austropotamobius pallipes and an alien North American crayfish species (Procambarus clarkii. Both were skilled predators of tadpoles, adopting a sit-and-wait strategy. However, because P. clarkii displayed lower latency times in the presence of one of the three amphibians (Rana kl. esculenta here tested, the hypothesis is raised that invasive crayfish are more opportunistic predators and possibly faster in switching to different prey than those species they are displacing. From a conservation perspective, these preliminary results further emphasise the importance of studies centred on the invasion-displacement dichotomy.

GHERARDI F.

2001-04-01

374

Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

Camillo Pignataro

2010-12-01

375

Saprolegnia diclina: another species responsible for the emergent disease 'Saprolegnia infections' in amphibians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many amphibians are known to suffer embryonic die-offs as a consequence of an emergent disease known as 'Saprolegnia infections'. Thus far, the only species of Saprolegnia shown to be involved in natural infections is Saprolegnia ferax. In this study, we have isolated and characterized another Saprolegnia species responsible for 'Saprolegnia infections' on embryos of Bufo calamita in mountainous areas of central Spain. The strain was identified as belonging to Saprolegnia diclina based on morphological, physiological and molecular characters (sequencing of the internal transcribed region of ribosomal DNA). Zoospores of the new strain were able to infect embryos of Bufo calamita, and the symptoms observed were the same as those observed in natural infections. The results presented emphasize the need to carry out isolations and characterizations of the species and/or strains involved in this emergent disease. This will be important in order to design strategies to prevent the impact and spread of species (or strains) pathogenic to amphibians. PMID:18177304

Fernández-Benéitez, María José; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel Eloy; Lizana, Miguel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2008-02-01

376

Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pond-breeding amphibians from the Pacific northwest, USA  

OpenAIRE

In static experiments, we studied the effects of nitrate and nitrite solutions on newly hatched larvae of five species of amphibians, namely Rana pretiosa, Rana aurora, Bufo boreas, Hyla regilla, and Ambystoma gracile. When nitrate or nitrite ions were added to the water, some larvae of some species reduced feeding activity, swam less vigorously, showed disequilibrium and paralysis, suffered abnormalities and edemas, and eventually died. The observed effects increased with...

Marco, Adolfo; Quilchano, Consuelo; Blaustein, Andrew R.

1999-01-01

377

Antifungal activity of aqueous extracts and of Berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla  

OpenAIRE

The in-vitro antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of Berberis heterophylla was evaluated, as well as the in vitro/in vivo antifungal activity of berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla. In addition acute toxicity on fish and toxicity of berberine to embryo-larval stages of Bufo arenarum were tested. Berberine displayed a moderate but significant antifungal activity against dermatophytes fungi. Thus, the in vivo/ in vitro antifungal activity of this compound, combined with their lower...

Freile, Mo?nica; Giannini, Fernando Angel; Sortino, Maximiliano; Zamora, Miguel; Jua?rez, Ame?rico; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo Daniel

2006-01-01

378

Helminths parasites of freshwater fishes from Pirassununga, SP, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Twelve species of parasitic helminths, seven trematodes, four nematodes and one acanthocephalan are reported from various hosts. Creptotrema lynchi, a parasite from Bufo marinus in Colombia, is described for the first time in fish and from Brazil, parasitizing two different species. A list of the host species, measurements and figures of most parasites are included with particular reference to the tegument of Bellumcorpus major recovered from a new host. The genus Zonocotyloides Padilha, 1978...

Kohn, A.; Fernandes, B. M. M.; Macedo, B.; Abramson, B.

1985-01-01

379

Diet of the colubrid snake, Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858 from Paraná State, Brazil, with field notes on anuran predation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dissection of 44 specimens of the colubrid snake Thamnodynastes strigatus (Serpentes: Colubridae provided data on food habits. Prey items include frogs (71.4% of the sample, rodents (14.3%, fishes (10.7%, and lizards (3.6%. The most of the anuran species recorded (Bufo sp., Leptodactylus sp., Physalaemus cuvieri and Scinax fuscovarius are ground dwellers or call at the water level. Field observations provided information on the feeding behavior.

BERNARDE P. S.

2000-01-01

380

Influence of developmental stage pn sensitivity to ammonium nitrate of aquatic stages of amphibians  

OpenAIRE

In static renewal experiments, we studied how developmental stage influences the effect of ammonium nitrate on embryonic and larval stages of anuran amphibians. The observed lethal effects caused by ammonium nitrate increased with both concentration and duration of exposure. Significant differences were observed in sensitivity to ammonium nitrate as a function of developmental stage in Discoglossus galganoi, Pelobates cultripes, and Bufo calamita. In D. galganoi and P...

Orti?z-santaliestra, Manuel E.; Marco, Adolfo; Ferna?ndez, Mari?a Jose?; Lizana, Miguel

2006-01-01

381

Kinetics of local anesthetic inhibition of neuronal sodium currents. pH and hydrophobicity dependence.  

OpenAIRE

This study assesses the importance of local anesthetic charge and hydrophobicity in determining the rates of binding to and dissociation from neuronal Na channels. Five amide-linked local anesthetics, paired either by similar pKa or hydrophobicity, were chosen for study: lidocaine, two tertiary amine lidocaine homologs, a neutral lidocaine homolog, and bupivacaine. Voltage-clamped nodes of Ranvier from the sciatic nerve of Bufo marinus were exposed to anesthetic externally, and use-dependent ...

Chernoff, D. M.; Strichartz, G. R.

1990-01-01

382

Contributions to an up-date of the Red List of wild species from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Part I. Amphibians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Up to the present in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBR there were recorded 11 native amphibian taxa (10 species and one hybrid. The first Red List of the wild species from DDBR was drafted in 1999 and printed in 2000. Based on the results of investigations carried out since 2000 and taking into account the developments related to criteria for conservation status of wild species (on world-wide level, on European continental level, on EU level and on national level, the present work provides details on the proposals to consider the following conservations status to amphibians occurring in the DDBR: Triturus dobrogicus (widely distributed, but not frequent species – Vulnerable; Triturus vulgaris (widely distributed, but not frequent species – Vulnerable; Bombina bombina (widely distributed, frequent species - Least Concern; Pelobates fuscus (widely distributed, relatively frequent species - Least Concern; Pelobates syriacus (a species distributed in the southern part of DDBR and at the limit of the continental plateau– Vulnerable; Bufo bufo (species occurring only in the proper Danube Delt and less adapted to regularely flooded wetlands with high water-level variations - Least Concern; Bufo viridis (widely distributed, frequent species, excepting the reed-dominated areas - Least Concern; Hyla arborea (widely distributed, relatively frequent species - Least Concern; Rana lessonae (species recorded only in the proper Danube Delt, but probably more frequent than is it known in the present - Least Concern; Rana ridibunda (widely distributed, frequent species - Least Concern and Rana kl. esculenta (widely distributed, frequent amphibian - Least Concern.

TÖRÖK Zsolt Csaba

2013-12-01

383

Contributions to knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of the herpetofauna of Dobrudja, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Dobrudja we encountered 10 species of amphibians (Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae, 16 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Testudo graeca, Ablepharus kitaibelli, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Eremias arguta, Coronella austriaca, Zamensis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Dolichophis caspius, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Vipera ammodytes and also Rana kl. esculenta populations. Some species of amphibians (Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus that were only previously known inform the lower regions of the Danube’s meadow and in the vicinity of the Black Sea, were recorded in the high areas of northern Dobrudja. Also here, all three forms of the green frogs’ complex documented for Romania have been encountered, but Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta are very rare, being found only in the north. The central sectors of Dobrudja are severely impacted by human activities, almost completely cleared as a result of agriculture and showed very low number of herpetofauna species as being present. The most important areas for the herpetofauna are the northern and south-western regions.

Horia V. BOGDAN

2006-12-01

384

Effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, the fauna of land nocturnal insects, and the karyotypes of amphibian species which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. ''Kilchunri'' population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2km distance from power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of X-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna of nocturnal land insects were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows; Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana migromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, and Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

385

Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

386

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-03-01

387

Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004 nmol/l and 0.09 nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007 nmol/l, and 0.025 nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models. PMID:25138046

Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

2014-11-01

388

Antigenic cross reactivity among the venoms and toxins from unrelated diverse sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous investigators have studied and reported the antigenic reactivity of venoms from the species of snakes belonging to a genus or a family. However, there is very little published data on the inter-family antigenic cross reactivity among the venoms of snakes and absolutely no data on venoms from other sources such as honey bee, scorpion and toad. This report describes the antigenic and immunological cross reactivity among the venoms of snakes from major families: Crotalidae, Elapidae, Viperidae, Hydrophiidae and venoms from honey bee, scorpion and toad. The homologous polyclonal antisera versus snake venoms showed high reactivity to the respective venoms and varying degree to other venoms revealing the inter-family antigenic cross-reactivity. Surprisingly, venoms from bee, scorpion and toad showed antigenic cross reactivity to snake venoms. Antisera against snake venoms reacted immunologically to venoms from bee and scorpion but toad venom reacted only to anti C. atrox venom. The immunological cross reactivity among singular toxins, cobratoxin, ricin A, botulinum A and cholera was studied by using respective polyclonal antibodies. Immunological high cross reactivity was observed between bee venom and anti ricin, similarly between anti botulinum and cobratoxin. Bee venom reacted immunologically to all anti-toxins. PMID:10728834

Lipps, B V; Khan, A A

2000-07-01

389

Animals and How They Live.  

Science.gov (United States)

This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on animals. The bulletin titles are as follows: Birds: Their Adaptations to Ways of Life; Our Friends the Hawks; Mysteries of Bird Migration; Bird Nests; Camouflage in the Animal World; Snakes; Turtles; Frogs and Toads;…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

390

Microelectronic neural bridge for signal regeneration and function rebuilding over two separate nerves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the feature of neural signals, a micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) has been designed. It consists of two electrode arrays for neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES), and a microelectronic circuit for signal amplifying, processing, and FES driving. The core of the system is realized in 0.5-{mu}m CMOS technology and used in animal experiments. A special experimental strategy has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. With the help of the MENB, the withdrawal reflex function of the left/right leg of one spinal toad has been rebuilt in the corresponding leg of another spinal toad. According to the coherence analysis between the source and regenerated neural signals, the controlled spinal toad's sciatic nerve signal is delayed by 0.72 ms in relation to the sciatic nerve signal of the source spinal toad and the cross-correlation function reaches a value of 0.73. This shows that the regenerated signal is correlated with the source sciatic signal significantly and the neural activities involved in reflex function have been regenerated. The experiment demonstrates that the MENB is useful in rebuilding the neural function between nerves of different bodies. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

Shen Xiaoyan; Wang Zhigong; Xie Shushan; Huang Zonghao [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lue Xiaoying, E-mail: zgwang@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2011-06-15

391

Microelectronic neural bridge for signal regeneration and function rebuilding over two separate nerves  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the feature of neural signals, a micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) has been designed. It consists of two electrode arrays for neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES), and a microelectronic circuit for signal amplifying, processing, and FES driving. The core of the system is realized in 0.5-?m CMOS technology and used in animal experiments. A special experimental strategy has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. With the help of the MENB, the withdrawal reflex function of the left/right leg of one spinal toad has been rebuilt in the corresponding leg of another spinal toad. According to the coherence analysis between the source and regenerated neural signals, the controlled spinal toad's sciatic nerve signal is delayed by 0.72 ms in relation to the sciatic nerve signal of the source spinal toad and the cross-correlation function reaches a value of 0.73. This shows that the regenerated signal is correlated with the source sciatic signal significantly and the neural activities involved in reflex function have been regenerated. The experiment demonstrates that the MENB is useful in rebuilding the neural function between nerves of different bodies.

Xiaoyan, Shen; Zhigong, Wang; Xiaoying, Lü; Shushan, Xie; Zonghao, Huang

2011-06-01

392

Microelectronic neural bridge for signal regeneration and function rebuilding over two separate nerves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the feature of neural signals, a micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) has been designed. It consists of two electrode arrays for neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES), and a microelectronic circuit for signal amplifying, processing, and FES driving. The core of the system is realized in 0.5-?m CMOS technology and used in animal experiments. A special experimental strategy has been designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. With the help of the MENB, the withdrawal reflex function of the left/right leg of one spinal toad has been rebuilt in the corresponding leg of another spinal toad. According to the coherence analysis between the source and regenerated neural signals, the controlled spinal toad's sciatic nerve signal is delayed by 0.72 ms in relation to the sciatic nerve signal of the source spinal toad and the cross-correlation function reaches a value of 0.73. This shows that the regenerated signal is correlated with the source sciatic signal significantly and the neural activities involved in reflex function have been regenerated. The experiment demonstrates that the MENB is useful in rebuilding the neural function between nerves of different bodies. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

393

The Somewhat Amusing World of Frogs  

Science.gov (United States)

This site gives information about frogs. Included are facts about where frogs can be found, their size, how they see, their diet, where they live, their anatomy, their colors, how they defend themselves, and how frogs and toads are different. Information about tadpoles, Gastric Brooding Frogs, Australian Bellfrogs, and Bathurstian Frogs can be found. Additional Web sites are included.